November 11th, 2015

Encyklopedia Polski niepodleglej, Konstantynowicz-Armand-Paszkowski: Mesjanizm, Prometeizm, Iluminaci - Tadeusz Grabianka i niepodleglosc Polski, 11 listopada 1918. Martynisci, Templariusze i Masoneria - walka o Rosje - Lenin, 1917.

Berezyna and Lubuszany - the estate of Poniatowski-Tyszkiewicz-Potocki branch - the Knights Templar of the FREEMASONRY.
Miezonka-Swolna-Moscow-St Petersburg and the family history of Paszkowski-Armand-Konstantynowicz.

Stirling Castle, King James VII of Scotland and II of England, and Jacobins in Scotland in the 18th century. Mayer Amschel Rothschild - the Illuminati, 1776. The Knights Templar in 1791 and The Order of Mark Master Masons, 1769.

On 25 May 2018, GDP (RODO) enters into force, in other words a new regulation of the EUROPEAN UNION regarding the protection of personal data. Below - conditions for processing specific categories of personal data in the general EU regulation.

The following data processing conditions for a specific category have been introduced:

1) processing is necessary to protect the vital interests of the data subject or another person [the author of this webpage], and the data subject is physically or legally incapable of giving consent;

2) processing is carried out as part of authorized activities [these websites are published in the State of California in the USA in 2003-2018, and their subject matter was registered at Yahoo in 2003] carried out with appropriate safeguards
through a non-profit subject with political goals, world views,
... provided that the processing concerns only ... persons maintaining permanent contacts with him in connection with his goals ...

3) the processing relates to personal data that are obviously made public by the data subject [the data from Internet from 2000 to 2018];

4) processing is necessary to establish, assert or defend claims ...;

5) processing is necessary for reasons related to major public interest [threat from Russian and Soviet intelligence and from the communist ideology] under EU law or the law of a Member State that is proportionate to the objective pursued, does not infringe the essence of the right to data protection
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processing is necessary for archival purposes in the public interest or for scientific or historical or statistical purposes and is subject to the conditions and safeguards laid down by EU law or law of a Member State
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This all paper is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold,  any public performances,  hired out, or   otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.  Warning:   this paper / all website  is sold for  private home use only.  

© All rights reserved. No part of all this work covered by copyright hereon may be reproduced in any form or by  any  means - graphic,  electronic, or mechanical - including photocopying,  recording, downloading,  uploading, taping, or storage in an information  retrieval system, without the  prior written permission of the copyright owner  - © author Bogdan Konstantynowicz

Bogdan Konstantynowicz, encyklopedia Polski Niepodleglej. The Russian conspiracy intelligence network - globalism and globalization.

Bogdan Konstantynowicz, the Independent Poland Encyclopedia.

Secret Societies. CONSPIRATORS, Illuminati, Templars, Freemasons, and the special supplement to the Paszkowski - Armand - Konstantynowicz family [Lenin; Trubecki; Kropotkin; Dzierzynski; Pilsudski] on November the 11th, 1918.

Encyklopedia Internetowa Polski Niepodleglej - Konstantynowicz Bogdan: Kiedrzynski, Psarski, Bleszynski, Soltan, Oginski, Mielzynski, Walewski, Radolinski, Sulimierski, Fiszer, Bninski.

Globalization and globalism - Donald Trump, John F. Kennedy, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Hillary Clinton, Angela Merkel, Bronislaw Komorowski - the Russian global intelligence network. Konstantynowicz Bogdan - Polish Internet Archive. Key note.

For the first time in the world in November 2015, more than 50 years after the death of Kennedy, I present connections between structures in Europe that I was researching, and the most important figures of American history, Thomas Jefferson b. 1743, and John Fitzgerald Kennedy born 1917, that is a group of German noble clans from Estonia and Polish families from the province of Minsk in Belarus, which led to the disintegration of Russia in 1917 and among other things, to independence of the Baltic states and Poland in 1918.

Now we come to US in 1961 - 1963:

The operation named the Bay of Pigs was launched in April 1961; the Cuban armed forces destroyed the invading force within three days;
this failed action has caused repercussions among the leaders of the CIA, and were dismissed in autumn 1961, among others, Director Allen Dulles, also CIA Deputy Director Charles Cabell, and Deputy Director for Plans Richard Mervin Bissell Jr.; on November 29th, 1961, the White House released about a resignation letter signed by Dulles.
Interesting note:
Work on the Apollo spacecraft stretched from 28 November 1961, when the prime contract for its development was let to North American Aviation, to 22 October 1968 when the last test flight took place.
Two years later, on November 29, 1963, President Lyndon Johnson appointed Dulles as one of seven commissioners of the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of the U.S. President John F. Kennedy. The appointment was later criticized, have noted that Kennedy had fired him;
on January 10, 1961 there was a publication of the 'New York Times' article under title: "The United States will help train forces against Castro in a secret air-land base in Guatemala"; the Cuban security apparatus knew of the invasion, thanks to their secret intelligence networks, and reports in the US and foreign newspapers. The Cuban government has been warned by two senior officers of the KGB, Osvaldo Cabrera Sánchez and "Aragon"; the first of whom died violently before and one after the invasion; on April 18, 1961 at the beach of Playa Larga came to the biggest battle of the invasion;
fighting finally ended on 21 April 1961;
and then President Kennedy referred the words to the American Newspaper Publishers Association at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City on April 27, 1961.
In his speech President Kennedy addresses his discontent with the press's news coverage before, and during, and after the Bay of Pigs incident, suggesting there is a need for "far greater public information" and "far greater official secrecy".

The Chrapowicki family - SWOLNA and MIEZONKA - Kennedy and BOUVIER

- I explain mistakes, which appeared in other sources; my brief explanation in Nov. 2017 -

Siemon Y. Khrapovitsky / Семён Яковлевич Храповицки / Chrapowicki (1752 - 1819), was a nobility marshal of the Yukhnovsky district
[Lieutenant Nikolai Sergeyevich Khrapovitsky / Khrapovitsky Nikolai Sergeevich / Храповицкий Николай Сергеевич died 1905.05.15 close to Cushima / Tsushima or in Port Arthur, China. He was the son of Sergei Yasonovich Khrapovitsky b. 1829, the husband of Alexandra Pavlovna Khrapovitsky, staff captain retired in 1879.
SERGEI Chrapowicki was the son of Jason S. Khrapovitsky / Ясон, and the grandson of named above Siemon Y. Khrapovitsky / Chrapowicki and Maria Lvovna Chernysheva.
Mentioned above NIKOLAJ Chrapowicki / Nikolay Chrapovytsky had a daughter Maya de Chrapovitsky's.
Count NIKOLAJ / Nicolas de Chrapovitsky Lieut. Col., born Sankt-Peterburg, Russia. NIKOLAJ / NIKOLAS Chrapowicki married to Margharita Taylor b. 07.02.1872, d. Los Angeles, 1942, with daughters: Olga de Chrapovitsky b. 1898 m. Edward R. Condon; and above
Maya de Chrapovitsky b. 1899 m. 1st Hugh Dudley Auchincloss Jr, 2nd Eldbridge Rand.

See John Fitzgerald KENNEDY, President of US, and the BOUVIER family - compare George de Mohrenschildt.

Named Olga de Chrapovitsky b. 1898, Saint Petersburg, d. 1991, Laguna Beach, CA].

Siemion Chrapowicki was the son of JAKOB Chrapowicki [see below].

Named JAKOB Chrapowicki was the son of DOMINIK CHRAPOWICKI / Dementij Chrapowicki who was a taskmaster. Named Dominik Chrapowicki born before 1700 [ca 1695], d. 1729, was the husband of Rozalia Rypińska.

Dominik Chrapowicki
[his branch come from KRYSTYNA Łowejko and JAN Chrapowicki, senior] was the father of
Eustachy Chrapowicki senior

[Eustachy Józef Chrapowicki, 1730-1791, senior, the judge in Polotsk, in
1765 the Swolna estate owner,
inf. in Starodub in 1765, 1775, married twice: in 1779, 2nd to Teresa Szczyt / Teresa Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1730-1778,

with a son
Józef Chrapowicki {junior}, 1750-1812, who married 2nd Pss Magdalena Oginska, b. ca 1750 / 1760 {her brother was Ignacy Oginski b. 1755, d. 1787, m. Jozefa}. Józef Chrapowicki junior, divorced with 1st wife Franciszka Hryniewiecka (she m. Woyniłłowicz).

JOZEF junior Chrapowicki + MAGDALENA's sons:

Antoni Chrapowicki, b. ca 1780 {Anthony, 1775-1851}, married Ewelina SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI, b. ca 1790 / ? 1800 {Ewelina Kamilla Ewa Swiatopelk-Mirska}.
Antoni Chrapowicki married twice, 1st to unknown Wolska b. 1790; 2nd to Ewelina.
Ewelina SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI was a daughter of Stanislaw Wojciech SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI (1756-1805), the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Writer, and Stanislawa Koszczyc.
Named Antoni Chrapowicki was the son of Józef Chrapowicki junior, 1750-1812, and Pss Magdalena Oginska b. ca 1750 / 1760; grandson of Eustachy Józef Chrapowicki 1730-1791 and Teresa Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1730-1778.

ANTONI Chrapowicki was the great-grandson of Dominik Chrapowicki of Somilisko, 1700-1729.

Michal Chrapowicki
{Michal Mikolaj Chrapowicki b. 1780 / Michał Chrapowicki, Marschall of Dzisna county, and Minsk Province, owner of Jasnogórki and Korolla in Zmudz, and Prozorok in the county of Dzisna, m. 1st Joanna Okuszkówna / Joanna Okuszko, with a son
Kazimierz Chrapowicki and a daughter. Named
Kazimierz Chrapowicki 1817-1881 married to Adela Ciechanowiecka 1823-1887. KAZIMIERZ's brother was Arkadiusz Chrapowicki / Arkady, m. to Stefania Radziwill.
Michał Chrapowicki with his second wife, Jozefa Korsak, had the son Arkadyusz married Stefania Julia Radziwiłł 1825-1896. STEFANIA RADZIWILL was the owner of MIEZONKA - see Dominik Konstantynowicz, his son Antoni Konstantynowicz, grandson Stanislaw Konstantynowicz + Anna Malkiewicz}.

Eustachy Chrapowicki, jr., b. 1790
{Eustachy Chrapowicki junior, b. 1790, m. in 1810 to Amelia Gorska 1793-1866, daughter of Stanisław August Gorski b. 1745 and Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1767-1796}.

EUSTACHY Chrapowicki senior married 1st to Balbina PAKOSZ / Pakoszówna
{sometimes we have the wrong information that EUSTACHY CHRAPOWICKI was the father of Piotr Celestyn Chrapowicki. Piotr Celestyn Chrapowicki, born ca 1780, the Russian top officer}.

The above EUSTACHY's senior CHRAPOWICKI, and Eustachy's junior line:

MARIA CHRAPOWICKA the wife to Karol Epstein b. ca 1890, that is Maria Chrapowicka born to Marian Antoni Andrzej Chrapowicki 1864 -1930 and Maria Jaksa-Dębicka 1863-1909. Marian Antoni Andrzej Chrapowicki was the son of Ignacy Antoni Chrapowicki b. 1817 in Witebsk, Vitebsk; d. 1893; grandson of Eustachy Chrapowicki / Chrapovickis junior b. circa 1790. Eustachy Chrapowicki junior was the son of named above Józef Chrapowicki 1750 - 1812 and Magdalena Ogińska b. 1760, daughter of Józef Ogiński and Apolonija WYHOWSKA - Oginskiene];

Jerzy Chrapowicki / Юрий (Георгий) Дементьевич Храповицкий;

Иван Дементьевич Храповицкий / Jan Chrapowicki

[JAN CHRAPOWICKI was the father of named above Piotr Celestyn Chrapowicki. Piotr Celestyn Chrapowicki, born ca 1780, the Russian top officer, was grandson of Dominik Chrapowicki of Somilisko];
Jan Chrapowicki, b. ca 1730, official in POLOCK.

Piotr Celestine Chrapowicki bought Sielut in 1805, served the Russian Army, m. ca 1800 to Helena Górecka b. ca 1790, with his son
Michał / MICHAL CHRAPOWICKI, Marshal of the province of Vitebsk {the Witebsk governorate Marshal}, who married to Countess Lidia Apraksin born 1820. Michal Chrapowicki, b. 1810, had 2 sons: Aleksander Chrapowicki m. unknown Teplow, and Dymitr Chrapowicki born ca 1840.

JAKOB CHRAPOWICKI / Jakov - Colonel of Smolensk (1741), and a judge of Smolensk (1780) [see KENNEDY and BOUVIER in US];

Józef Chrapowicki b. ca 1729 [senior], the son of Dominik Chrapowicki. Jozef senior had brother Eustachy Chrapowicki.
JOZEF Chrapowicki was Major General; the member of Smolensk, and the Polotsk Province to the election of King Stanisław August. In 1765, a judge of the Smolensk land. Józef Chrapowicki was the official in Mścisław in 1784; inf. of 1786, 1785, 1787, 1774 - owner of Dworzno. He married in 1791 to Helena Suffczynska, childless.

"... Hale Boggs sat on the Warren Commission, which concluded that President Kennedy was slain by a lone assassin. Later, in 1971 and '72, Boggs said that the Warren Report was false and that
J. Edgar Hoover's FBI not only helped cover up the JFK murder
but blackmailed Congress with massive wire-tapping and spying. He named
Warren Commission staff member Arlen Specter as a major cover-up artist. Congressman Boggs' plane disappeared on a flight to Alaska in 1972.
The press, the military, and the CIA publicly proclaimed the plane could not be located. Investigators later said that was a lie, that the plane had been found. On the plane were Nick Begich, a very popular Democratic Congressman, and Don Jonz, an aide to Mr. Boggs. All were killed.
The architects for the Bay of Pigs were Vice President Richard Nixon and CIA director Allen Dulles. JFK inherited the plan from the Eisenhower administration. Nixon lost the race for the presidency to JFK and Dulles was fired by JFK for the failure of the Bay of Pigs. Yet Dulles is appointed by president Johnson as a Warren Commission member to "investigate" JFK's murder. The proof for Bush's lie about his CIA past can be found in a document, declassified in 1988. It's a
memorandum of FBI director J Edgar Hoover to the State department, dated 29 November 1963. It describes a meeting, one day after JFK's murder, between FBI and CIA officials talking about the reaction of the Cuban exile community to the Kennedy Assassination. The last paragraph states that the "the substance of the foregoing information was orally furnished to us and George Bush of the Central Intelligence agency".
Here we have the name of George Bush mentioned as a CIA official in direct connection to the Kennedy assassination. When asked by journalists, he initially stated "It's not me, must be another Bush!" This was checked and found to be NOT true. When asked again, a spokesperson for Bush declined to comment any further.
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In 1976, George H.W. Bush was appointed CIA director by president and former Warren Commission member Gerald Ford at the exact time that newly erected investigative committees were probing the possible role of the CIA into the assassination plots to kill Fidel Castro, Martin Luther King and John F. Kennedy. Bush appoints his old friend from JM / Wave and the Bay of Pigs, Theodore Shackley, as his deputy director for Special Operations, the CIA's most important division.
During the preparations of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, pressure is applied to Texan
Bill Lord not to testify for the committee. Bill Lord was a fellow marine and roommate of Lee Harvey Oswald on a ship voyage to France. Lord expresses his concern in a letter to president Carter. He writes that Oswald was connected to the FBI and CIA and concludes that the CIA and the FBI are complicit in JFK's death and the coup d'etat that occurred on 11/22/1963. He also states that one of the Midland, TX politicians applying pressure to him, was Mr. George W. Bush junior.
This letter to President Carter was declassified some years ago. Here's a fragment:
"...One of the parties which has blitzed me with telephone calls trying to persuade me to tell them what I know about Oswald, is engaged in a very costly project which allows them to locate, interview, monitor, and influence every single available person who ever knew Lee Oswald - and this, just in advance of the new governmental investigation by the house select committee on Assassinations. I finally consented, not to grant an interview, but to allow the publication's representative to explain their project to me in person. After a lunch interview with this researcher, I was told that if I had refused even to meet with him, pressure was in the offing from two Midland men: Mr. Jim Allison, publisher of the ultra-conservative Reporter-Telegram, my employer (out of necessity, and for the moment!), and Mr. George Bush, Jr. ...".
George H.W. Bush failed to disclose his friendship with George De Mohrenschildt, a renowned oil geologist and Lee Harvey Oswald's best friend in Dallas. They knew each other since 1942, probably even longer, because in 1939 he went to work for Humble Oil, a company founded by Prescott Bush.
In 1977, when De Mohrenschildt is located by investigators of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, who want to interview him, he allegedly commits suicide the following day. The last person to interview him on the day he died, is Jay Edward Epstein, a writer / historian and a known apologist for the Warren Report since day one. Epstein married a CIA agent and is the biographer of former CIA-director James Jesus Angleton, presumably in charge of Oswald's "defection" to Russia. Interestingly, Epstein is also the "consultant" that was suddenly hired by NBC in 1995, when NBC was making a program for national TV on the confession of James E. Files. The program was promptly cancelled.
David Atlee Phillips was one of the planning CIA officials in the plot to kill JFK. He was a member of the Dallas Petroleum club, as was George Demohrenschildt / von Mohrenschildt, and George Bush. All three were CIA, and knew each other.
Yet time and again, during the Warren Commission, during the HSCA as a CIA director, and during the Assassinations Records Review Board as President, George Bush keeps his mouth shut about these liaisons, who were both CIA supervisors for Lee Harvey Oswald.
James Files, the confessed assassin of JFK, also says that
Sturgis and Bosch were in Dealey Plaza on November 22, 1963. Some researchers believe that Orlando Bosch was the unidentified dark complexed man on the curb of Dealey Plaza.
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Some quotes from studies on James Jesus Angleton (1917 - 1987):

James Jesus Angleton (1917 - 1987) was chief of CIA Counterintelligence from 1954 to 1975.
Angleton grew up mostly in Italy, where his father owned the National Cash Register subsidiary. He attended an English preparatory school before entering Yale in 1937. He entered Harvard Law School and then joined the Army in 1943.
Angleton was recruited into the Office of Strategic Services and first worked in the super-secret X-2 counterintelligence branch in London. In 1954, he became the head of the new Counterintelligence Staff.
"Among Mr. Petty's concerns was
Angleton's once-close relationship with Kim Philby, who rose to the highest levels of the British intelligence service before he was unmasked as a Soviet mole in the early 1960s.
... According to his unpublished memoir, Mr. Petty spent more than two years working secretly to investigate his supervisor. He gathered intricate details about Angleton's movements and close associates through the years, looking for - and finding, he thought -
evidence that Angleton could have collaborated with the Soviets.
... Mr. Petty admitted that it was a messy conclusion based largely on the circumstantial suggestion of guilt.
'It was not a clear-cut case,' he told David Martin for 'Wilderness of Mirrors,' Martin's 1980 book about the Cold War-era CIA. Whatever his misgivings, Mr. Petty reported concerns about Angleton to agency superiors in 1974. He delivered several drawers full of notes and documents supporting his view, then spent at least 26 hours over the course of a week explaining his work to a senior officer in tape-recorded interviews. The price of that move was Mr. Petty's job - he retired almost immediately - and his reputation.
His accusation against Angleton was dismissed in a CIA study,
and Mr. Petty remains one of the more controversial figures in the agency's history...".

Jefferson Morley on the new JFK files:

"... Did you consider the possibility that Angleton himself may have been the mole as Clare Petty and Douglas Valentine suspected ...
There were at least four internal CIA studies that look at the issue of the mole after Petty made his allegation (Cram, Goodpastur, Fischer, and Hart). None came to the conclusion that Angleton was not the mole, and all came to the conclusion that there was no mole during Angleton's tenure.
Petty's report has never been declassified so the details of his argument are unknown and impossible to judge. While Cleveland Cram's voluminous study of Angleton has not been made public, there is nothing in Cram's public comments to indicate that Cram saw evidence suggesting Angleton was the mole. Cram's personal papers on the subject were withdrawn from public view by the CIA when I began to research the issue. ...
In addition, I consulted the work of Christopher Andrew, semi-official historian of the British services and custodian of the Mitrokhin archive, the most complete collection of Soviet intelligence files available in the West. Andrew does not believe that Angleton was the mole. Nothing that has been published about the Mitrokhin archive supports the notion that Angleton was the mole. ..."

Angleton shaped CIA counterintelligence for 20 years from 1954 to 1974.

"... Angleton, some of them say, was a paranoid who effectively shut down Agency operations against the Soviet Union".

Tennent H. Bagley insists that Nosenko's first contact with CIA in 1962 was designed to conceal
the presence of Soviet penetration agents who had been operating in US intelligence since at least the late 1950s and that his reappearance barely two months after the JFK murder was a risky change in the operation.

Clare Edward Petty was born 1920, in Norman, Oklahoma. He was a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of Oklahoma. Clare Edward Petty investigation of Heinz Felfe caught the attention of James Jesus Angleton, the head of the CIA's counter-intelligence unit.
In 1966 Petty joined the Special Investigations Group (SIG) and was given the task by Angleton to find the Soviet mole that Anatoli Golitsin had suggested had penetrated the CIA. Angleton suggested that Petty should take a close look at David Edmund Murphy.
... Angleton's suspicions were increased by Murphy speaking fluent Russian and marrying a woman who had previously lived in the Soviet Union. Murphy had been accused of being a Soviet spy by one of his own officers, Peter Kapusta. Newton S. Miler, a member of SIG had investigated Murphy in the early 1960s.
Petty concluded that a phrase in a letter from Michal Goleniewski, the Polish intelligence officer who called himself Sniper ... the KGB had advance knowledge that could only have come from a mole in the CIA.
Angleton's mentor and friend, British intelligence officer Kim Philby, has been a longtime double agent for the Soviets.
As a result of this trauma, Angleton was about to become obsessed with searching for mole in the CIA itself, destroying the accomplishments and career of many agency officers.
Allegedly his long-term investigations led to the paralysis of the CIA, disrupted the team and introduced general distrust, which ended with no significant successes.

David Wise wrote:
"... Wise started a biography of Angleton ... on the search for 'Sasha' - the alleged Soviet mole inside the CIA. Wise drew on many of Martin's and Mangold's sources but also turned up new information from previously silent Agency officers and in formerly classified records, including about compensation provided to victims of the molehunt. Wise also revealed details about the penetration agent, who did not damage CIA nearly as much as Angleton feared or as the molehunt itself did - although he goes well beyond the facts to claim that the search 'shattered' the Agency. ...".
Angleton died in 1987.
In later articles, Epstein did become more skeptical of the Angleton-Golitsyn interpretation of Soviet foreign policy. Most recently, he noted that the observation of Aldrich Ames's KGB handler that Angleton's suspicions about a mole inside CIA 'has the exquisite irony of a stalker following his victim in order to tell him he is not being followed'...".
David C. Martin does not identify where he got much of his specific information.
Angleton initially cooperated with Martin but cut off contact when he learned that the author also was in touch with some of his critics. One of them was Clare Petty, an ex-CI Staff officer who had come to believe that Angleton was either a fraud or a KGB asset.
Five months before landing in Normandy, Angleton's first meeting with Kim Philby came to an end.
According to the historian Antony C. Brown "at the meeting Angleton had ambitions, and had no appointment. It was Philby who suggested he take up the job - counter-intelligence. ... It was Kim who taught Angleton the structure of secret service, explained to him how he was intercepted. ...
Kim [Philby] became a mentor to James and a teacher.
If that was the case, Angleton quickly became independent ... Kim was hired to work for the NKVD, and a few months later he became confident. ... At the beginning of April 1944, Angleton learned that Princess Maria Pignatelli, the wife of influential politician and conspirator ... crossed the border between Allied and German troops and paid a visit to several high-ranking Wehrmacht officers. According to Angleton's informant, the duchess was to inform the Nazis of the planned Allied offensive in Italy ... the Duchess was registered by OSS as their agent. ... double agents. ... Although the case came to light, and Poletti was shot by the British ... Angleton was about to use the Prince's connections. Immediately after the war he decided with Pignatelli create an organization fighting the Communist Party of Italy and supporting the right-wing forces of Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi. These actions were also supported by the British ... R5, its counterintelligence section also operating in Italy. Head of section in London was Kim Philby ...".
In September 1945, the Consul General of the USSR Konstanty Wolkow reported to the British consul in Istanbul, offering in exchange for asylum ... information about Soviet spying in Turkey and the Middle East. ... his information showed that the Foreign Office and the SIS counter-intelligence had three NKWD agents. ... Information ... was sent to the head of the SIS "C", and for the hearing of ...
Philby, head of the Soviet section of counterintelligence.
Kim was going to Istanbul for three weeks ...".
Even without the sensational New York Times front-page story by Seymour Hersh in December 1974 about CIA domestic operations that prompted Angleton's dismissal, it was more than time for him to go, as even his longtime defender Richard Helms came to admit.

Petty continued to search for the Soviet mole and eventually reached the conclusion that it was the man who had ordered the investigation, James Jesus Angleton, who had penetrated the CIA, and was in league with Anatoli Golitsin, who was not a genuine defector
... PETTY:
I began rethinking everything. If you turned the flip side it all made sense. Golitsin was sent to exploit Angleton. Then the next step, maybe not just an exploitation, and I had to extend it to Angleton. Golitsin might have been dispatched as the perfect man to manipulate Angleton ... Angleton was a mole, but he needed Golitsin to have a basis on which to act ... Golitsin was a support for things Angleton had wanted to do for years in terms of getting into foreign intelligence services. Golitsin's leads lent themselves to that. I concluded that logically Golitsin was the prime dispatched agent.
In 1971 Petty began "putting stuff on index cards, formulating my theory".
Petty later told David C. Martin: The case against Angleton was a great compilation of circumstantial material. It was not a clear-cut case. ...
Petty told James H. Critchfield, the CIA head of the Eastern European and Near East divisions about his theory.
As he later pointed out:
"I reviewed Angleton's entire career, going back through his relationships with Philby, his adherence to all of Golitsyn's wild theories, his false accusations against foreign services and the resulting damage to the liaison relationships, and finally his accusation against innocent Soviet Division officers."
As a result of his investigation, Petty concluded that there was an "80-85 percent probability" that Angleton was a Soviet mole.
Petty decided not to tell his boss, Jean M. Evans, about his investigation. "Petty worked in absolute secrecy, ... he was gathering information to accuse his own boss, James Angleton, as a Soviet spy.
By the spring of 1973, after toiling for some two years, Petty felt he could not develop his theory any further. He decided to retire."
Clare Edward Petty died in April, 2011. Mr. Petty joined the fledgling CIA in 1947. Within a few years, he played a key role in identifying and catching Heinz Felfe, one of the most successful Soviet agents of the Cold War.

Douglas Valentine (Author):
Valentine's research into CIA activities began when CIA Director William Colby gave him free access to interview CIA officials who had been involved in various aspects of the Phoenix program in South Vietnam. Angleton was key to understanding the CIA. Weiner hasn't detailed Angleton's relationship with the underworld through the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. ...
"Through Angleton's relationships with Italian royalty, Tibor Rosenbaum [Mossad agent], Charlie Siragusa [FBN agent], Hank Manfredi [FBN], and Mario Brod, he was certainly aware of Meyer Lansky's central role as the Mafia's banker in the Caribbean – where Lansky's mob associate from Las Vegas, Moe Dalitz, opened an account at Castle Bank - as well as in Mexico, where Angleton's friend, Winston M. Scott, was station chief, and certainly kept tabs on Lansky's associate, former Mexican president Miguel Aleman. As ever, Angleton and Lansky were the dark stars of the intelligence and financial aspects of international drug smuggling. Alan Block devotes some pages to this in his book, Masters of Paradise. ...
Angleton thought William Colby might be a mole.
Angleton exposed the divisions within the CIA after 1966, the Colby vs. Helms factions. He also represented the literary sensibility the CIA once had, where finding secrets was like teasing the meaning out of a poem. Now we have sledgehammer spies. ... Cord Meyer worked with Angleton and used people like labor leader Irving Brown and Jay Lovestone to travel around Europe in the early 1950s. Despite all the strum and drang about battling the Soviet Union, what the CIA was really trying to do was court Socialists away from Communists to form Social Democracy governments to counter the influence of the Soviet Union. Eventually that strategy worked. That was really what was going on behind the scenes.
... Angleton ran the CIA's narcotics operation, in league with the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, until 1971, when Helms put it under Tom Karamessines at operations; Karamessines was the former CIA Athens chief. I know for a fact that Angleton in the counterintelligence division of the CIA was in charge of its relations with law enforcement agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, which is one of the reasons organizationally that he ended up having relations with people like Charlie Siragusa, a high ranking official in the FBN. This is how Angleton enters into relationships with Corsican drug traffickers ...
Suzan Mazur: Speaking of affairs, Weiner's mention of Cord Meyer on the show had to do with Meyer's ex-wife (no name), who was one of JFK's lovers, being mysteriously murdered and Angleton turning up at her house to see if there was a diary. But as you illuminate in Strength of the Wolf, Mary Pinchot Meyer took LSD given to her by Timothy Leary and also distributed it to the Washington Establishment, possibly to JFK as well. ... You also say that Joseph Civello ran the heroin business in Dallas with John Ormento and the Magaddino family in Buffalo and that they were linked to Carlos Marcello, Santo Trafficante, Jr. and Jimmy Hoffa ... Jackie Kennedy in a kind of premonition of Dallas wrote in one of her letters to Clark Clifford that she was concerned about the 50 businessmen in Texas who said: 'Why should we do anything to help the Kennedys?'
... Valentine: First of all, I don't pretend to know who killed Kennedy. For all I know it could have been Lee Harvey Oswald. That chapter on JFK in my book is speculative... Jack Ruby went to Dallas in 1948 working for White and actually infiltrated Bugsy Siegel's Mafia drug connection with the Kuomintang in Mexico. As far as I know nobody was ever arrested. Bugsy Siegel was killed because he was getting a little out of control...".

James Angleton's supporters:

Frank Gardiner Wisner (1909 - 1965)
was head of Office of Strategic Services operations in southeastern Europe in 1944-1945.
He served as the 2nd Deputy Director of Plans in charge of the Directorate of Plans of the Central Intelligence Agency from August 23, 1951 to January 1, 1959.
He was also tapped for the Seven Society. The Seven Society is the most secretive of the University of Virginia's secret societies. Members [Edward Stettinius, Jr., secretary of state under Presidents Roosevelt and Truman] are only revealed after their death.
FRANK G. Wisner in Washington was associated with the 'Georgetown Set':
George Kennan, Dean Acheson, Richard Bissell, Walt Rostow, Eugene Rostow, Cord Meyer, James Angleton, William Averill Harriman, Felix Frankfurter, Allen W. Dulles and Paul Nitze. The Georgetown Ladies' Social Club included Mary Pinchot Meyer, Sally Reston, Polly Wisner, Cynthia Helms, Phyllis Nitze and Annie Bissell.
In 1948, the Office of Special Projects was unveiled as the renamed Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) with FRANK Wisner still in charge as Executive Director.
With James Angleton, Wisner ran Operation red sox.
JAMES ANGLETON was associated with Frank Wisner in Albania and Poland.
Frank Wisner worked closely with Kim Philby, the British agent who was a Soviet spy.
The FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, described the OPC as "Wisner's gang of weirdos" and had discovered that some of them had been active in left-wing politics in the 1930s. Hoover gave McCarthy inf. on an affair that Wisner had with Princess Caradja in Romania during the war; Caradja was a Soviet agent.

Princess Catherine Olympia Caradja born Ecaterina Olimpia Cretulescu in 1893, grew up in England and France, and lived
in Romania from 1908 to 1952, as "Angel of Ploieşti" in PLOESTI.
She resided in the U.S. since Dec. 1955, mainly in Comfort, in the Hill Country of Texas. In 1978 she befriended Ottomar Berbig, an antiques dealer in West Berlin.
FRANK WISNER was also involved in establishing the Lockheed U-2 spy plane program run by Richard M. Bissell, Jr.
On August 23, 1951, Frank Wisner succeeded Allen W. Dulles and became the 2nd Deputy Director of Plans; with
Richard Helms as his chief of operations.
This office had control of about 75% of the CIA budget.

Allen Dulles in September 1954 selected ANGLETON to be chief of a countrintelligence staff.

Angleton was greatly influenced by DONALD McLEAN and KIM PHILBY.

Donald Duart Maclean (1913 - 1983) was a British diplomat and member of the Cambridge Five who acted as spies for the Soviet Union.

Wisner's gang of weirdos: MEYER, BRADEN, and FARMER in CIA.

BRADEN, and FARMER left CIA in 1954.
Tom Braden ran the C.I.A.'s covert cultural division in the early 1950's. Mr. Braden goes on in the 1980's to become the leftist foil to Patrick Buchanan on the CNN program ''Crossfire.''

In 1951 Allen W. Dulles took Cord Meyer to join the CIA.

Named Thomas Braden / Thomas Wardell Braden (1917 - 2009) an CIA official, journalist; co-host of the CNN show Crossfire. 1941 - served the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS), with the OSS director William Donovan.
After the war, Braden met Robert Frost. Robert Lee Frost (1874 - 1963) was an American poet. His mother was a Scottish immigrant. He attended the Theta Delta Chi fraternity and then he moved to Washington, becoming part of a group of former OSS men: known as the Georgetown Set.

Richard Mervin Bissell Jr. was the son of Richard Bissell, the president of Hartford Fire Insurance. Two of his fellow pupils at Groton were Joseph Alsop and Tracy Barnes. Bissell worked closely with the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC), which had helped to organize guerrilla. 1947 Bissell was recruited by W. Averell Harriman.

The Georgetown Set was formed in 1945-1948 by a group of former Office of Strategic Services veterans:
Frank Wisner - the founder, George Kennan, Dean Acheson, Joseph Alsop, Stewart Alsop - the founder, Thomas Braden - a founder, Walt Rostow - a founder, Eugene Rostow, Charles Bohlen, Cord Meyer, James Angleton, William Averell Harriman, John McCloy, Felix Frankfurter, Allen W. Dulles, and Paul Nitze. The Georgetown Ladies' Social Club: Katharine Meyer Graham, Mary Pinchot Meyer, Antoinette Pinchot, Polly Wisner, Joan Braden, and Annie Bissell.

Bissell worked for the Ford Foundation but Frank Wisner took him to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Bissell in February 1962 left the Central Intelligence Agency and was replaced as head of the Directorate for Plans, by Richard Helms.
Braden joined the CIA and he was working closely with Allen Dulles and Frank Wisner, "believing that the cultural milieu of postwar Europe at the time was favorable toward left-wing views, and ... best served by supporting the Democratic left", by Wikipedia.
Braden's efforts were guided toward promoting left-wing elements in groups such as the AFL-CIO: Irving Brown, Jay Lovestone, a noted former communist follower.
Braden left the CIA in November 1954 and co-operated with his friend Nelson Rockefeller. Active in California Democratic politics, he served as president of the California State Board of Education.

Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (1908 - 1979) was an American businessman and politician. He served as the 41st Vice President of the United States from 1974 to 1977;
served as Assistant Secretary of State for American Republic Affairs for Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman.
Rockefeller was politically liberal and progressive.
He was the second son of John Davison Rockefeller Jr. and philanthropist Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. He had brother - John III. Their father, John Jr., was the only son of Standard Oil co-founder John Davison Rockefeller Sr. and Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman.
Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman Rockefeller (b. 1839) was an American abolitionist and philanthropist.
Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich Rockefeller (b. 1874) was an American socialite and philanthropist.

Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller in 1956 created the Special Studies Project, directed by Henry Kissinger and funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund.
Rockefeller "...outlawed job discrimination based on sex or age; appointed women to head the largest number of state agencies in state history; prohibited discrimination against women in education, employment, housing and credit applications".

Back to BRADEN who became a newspaper columnist with Kennedy's press secretary, Frank Mankiewicz.

Frank Fabian Mankiewicz II (b. 1924) was an American journalist and political adviser. The son of Sara Aaronson and screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz; his son Josh Mankiewicz is an NBC News correspondent.

Wife of named Thomas Wardell Braden - Joan Braden "...worked as coordinator of consumer affairs in the State Department, a position created for her in 1976 while her friend Henry Kissinger was secretary of state. Among her other close friends were former ambassador Averell Harriman and CIA Director Richard Helms".
After replacing Mankiewicz as the "voice from the left" on the syndicated radio show Confrontation, Tom Braden co-hosted the Buchanan-Braden Program; hosted the CNN program Crossfire.

Patrick Joseph Buchanan (b. 1938), co-hosted a radio show with liberal columnist Tom Braden; on NBC radio from 1978 to 1984; and CNN's Crossfire;
his partners included Braden, Michael Kinsley, Geraldine Ferraro, and Bill Press.
His father was of Irish, English, and Scottish ancestry, and his mother was of German descent.

Michael Kinsley (born 1951) is an American political journalist and commentator. Kinsley was born to a Jewish family; 1989 to 1995, Kinsley appeared on CNN's Crossfire.
In 2002 Kinsley married Patty Stonesifer, a top executive at Microsoft and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; on the MSNBC.

Thomas Braden, head of the International Organizations Division (IOD);
Frank Weisner, the Director, Office of Special Projects.

David Bruce, appointed by Dwight Eisenhower to investigate covert propaganda, stated that Mockingbird is responsible for over 50% of international politics over the last half of the 20th Century. Operation Mockingbird was an program of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that began in the early 1950s and attempted to manipulate news media; Deborah Davis wrote, that the
Operation Mockingbird was established by Frank Wisner, director of the Office of Policy Coordination; Wisner recruited Phil Graham from The Washington Post to run the project;
"By the early 1950s, Wisner 'owned' respected members of The New York Times, Newsweek, and CBS...".

In 1951, Allen Dulles enlisted Cord Meyer to the CIA. Meyer became Mockingbird's "principal operative."

Philip Leslie "Phil" Graham b. 1915, was a member of both Florida Blue Key and Sigma Alpha Epsilon (Florida Upsilon chapter) and was both a fraternity brother and roommate of the late Senator George A. Smathers.
In 1941 he was law clerk to United States Supreme Court under Justice Felix Frankfurter, who had been his professors at Harvard.

1940, he married Katharine Graham, the daughter of Eugene Meyer, the owner of The Washington Post.
Eugene Isaac Meyer b. 1875, to Marc Eugene Meyer and Harriet Newmark, both Alsatian Jews. In 1946, when Washington Post publisher Eugene Meyer was named the first president of the World Bank, he passed the position of publisher to Graham.

Thomas Braden, head of the of International Organizations Division (IOD), played an important role in Operation Mockingbird.

Cord Meyer -
Operation Mockingbird was, in the 1950s, organized by Cord Meyer and Allen W. Dulles, it was later led by Frank Wisner after Dulles became the head of the CIA.
It also worked to influence foreign media and political campaigns.

Cord Meyer Jr., b. 1920, was a US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) official. The son of a diplomat and grandson of a New York State Democratic chairman.
In about 1949, he began work with the CIA, until 1977.
He married Mary Pinchot in 1945; and she was mistress to President John F. Kennedy. Her 1964 murder remains unsolved.
His grandfather, also called Cord Meyer, was a property developer and a chairman of the New York State Democratic Committee. Junior was a member of the Scroll and Key society. Mary Eno Pinchot, was the second daughter of Amos Pinchot.
In 1951, Allen W. Dulles made contact with her husband.

Nicolae Ceausescu's strongest ally was Elena, his wife since December 23, 1947.

Let's compare the information contained in the book 'Shadows of War' by Mike Johnson - 2010, with reality:
Joe and GABRIELLA BALAS BARTON were as close as the CEAUSESCUS.

Joe Barton, a young man who joins the United States Foreign Service after graduation from Ohio University in 1938. In Washington, he meets Gabriella Balas, clerk in Romania's Washington Embassy. Gabriella was from PLOESTI. In 1938 she met JOE BARTON, Foreign SERVICE officer in Washington. And the two enjoy romance before Joe is posted to Singapore, which proves to be a very dangerous assignment. Dec. 1941 Gabriella back to Romania.
In Romania since 1941 Gabriella teamed with Princess CATHERINE CARADJA in Ploesti.
In 1945 Joe moved to Romania. Gabriella and her parents Cornel [died in 1960] and Elena, lived in Ploesti, where Joe married Gabriella Balas, now Mrs. Joseph Barton.
Gabriella BARTON in Washington befriended ALICE MANESCU [from TIMISOARA], from the Romanian embassy before 1939 in US; LAURA Ramaschi from Bucharesti, married English professor at the University of Bucharest, named STENTZ.
Gabriella BALAS BARTON was friend of Princess Catherine Olympia Caradja born Ecaterina Olimpia Cretulescu on January 28, 1893.
"... According to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, Princess Caradja had an affair during the war with Frank Wisner, who was working in Bucharest as chief of OSS operations in southeastern Europe. Claiming that Caradja was a Soviet agent, Hoover passed that information to Senator Joseph McCarthy...", by Wikipedia;
Frank Gardiner Wisner b. 1909, was head of Office of Strategic Services operations in southeastern Europe in 1944-1945; and served as the 2nd Deputy Director of Plans in charge of the Directorate of Plans of the Central Intelligence Agency from August 23, 1951 to January 1, 1959.

Among those attending Catherine's memorial service [1993 in Romania] were Gabriella Balas Barton and Jeff Wolfrom.
Catherine's youngest daughter, Alexandra, died in 1997, at 77.
Gabriella met Jeff Wolfrom and his American colleagues in Ploesti during second World War. Jeff Wolfrom was experiencing a strong sense of deja vu.

Above named Elena Ceausescu, née Lenuta Petrescu, b. 1916, was the wife of Nicolae Ceausescu, the Communist leader of the Socialist Republic of Romania. She was also the Deputy Prime Minister of Romania. She was born in Petresti commune. She moved along with her brother to Bucharest, where she worked as a laboratory assistant.
Author Mike Johnson wrote on real people, among the most compelling historical characters are a Romanian princess who was devoted to caring for orphans and Allied prisoners of war.
Gabriella BALAS BARTON visited Romania in 1966.

Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1912 - 1988)

"...was a high-ranking member of British intelligence who worked as a double agent before defecting to the Soviet Union in 1963. He served as both an INO NKVD and KGB operative. In 1963, Philby was revealed to be a member of the spy ring now known as the Cambridge Five
[he was the member of Cambridge University Socialist Society / CUSS. Closest friend of Maurice Dobb, who was a lecturer at Trinity College, and under his influence, "...Philby became convinced that the world was endangered by fascism, and that the only effective weapon in the fight against this evil was Marxism and the Comintern..."],
the other members of which were Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt and, possibly, John Cairncross".

His grandfather was Harry Montagu Philby (1864 - 1913), born to Henry Adams Philby and Mary Bridger.
H. Montague Philby was the secretary of the Passara Planters' Association

[tea in CEYLON - see my websites -
Naminacooly close to Badulla in the District of Passara, established in 1893: Deaker., Geo.kent, 1898 - 1899, Manager; Macfarlane, 1893, Manager; Owners: Estates Ld, Namunukula Tea in 1898 - 1899; Macfarlane, Messrs. in 1893. 50 km east to NUWARA ELIJA, and south-east to KANDY. 1867 - the first tea estate in Sri Lanka was established by scotsman James Taylor in Loolecondera Estate.

Namunukula = Naminacooly mountains, west to URY estate; west to Passara, Sri Lanka, about 5 km; and 5 km east to SPRING VALLY. Namunukula village: south to named SPRING VALLY and 13 km south-west to PASSARA; 20 km to north-west is situated BADULLA - the capital of the province of Uva, Ceylon is situated 54 m. S. E. of Kandy. There is a botanic garden; and the town is overshadowed by the Naminacooly Kande range of mountains.

Sir Anthony Oliphant's tea estate, the Oliphant Estate, situated in the hill country in Nuwara Eliya - 55 km south-east-south of Kandy, east of Colombo, 26 km east of Hatton, close to Lindula and Meepilimana - was the first estate to grow tea in Ceylon;
Anthony and his son Laurence are the first people to grow tea in Ceylon. Sir Anthony's son, Laurence Oliphant, went on become a Member of the House of Commons. Laurence Oliphant was the only child of Sir Anthony Oliphant (1793 - 1859), a member of the Scottish landed gentry. Laurence spent his early childhood in Colombo, and the Oliphant Estate in Nuwara Eliya. In 1848 - 1849, he was in Europe, 1851 to Nepal,
returned to Ceylon, travel in Russia at the Black Sea in 1853 (Odessa ?), next to 1861 Oliphant was secretary to Lord Elgin; visited the Circassian coast during the Crimean War. 1861 Oliphant was appointed First Secretary of the British Legation in Japan, a visit to Korea, where he discovered a Russian force;
met Alice le Strange, married in London, 1872.
In 1879, Oliphant left for Palestine, where he promoted Jewish settlement for Jewish suffering in Eastern Europe. This was the first wave of Jewish settlement by Zionists in 1882 in the Galilee. Oliphant settled in Haifa, and on Mount Carmel.

The Worms Brothers estates:
Keenakelle in Badulla {Keenakelle Group including Keenakelle (13 km north-west to BADULLA), Keenagashena (17 km north-west to BADULLA) and Serendib},
Meddecombra in Dimbulla,
Thotulagalla in Haputale, Condegalla and
Labookelle in Ramboda, the Norwood in Dikoya.
There was Delta estate, adjoining Rothschild,
James Glenie, Captain Harry Bird's Black Forest and F. R. Sabonadiere, the founder of Sabonadiere & Company in Colombo.
Loolecondera situated in the Hewaheta district, of G. D. B. Harrison, W. M. Leake, and James Joseph Mackenzie in 1841. James Taylor referred as the father of tea planting in Ceylon at the Peradeniya gardens from about 1865. The Government sent Arthur Morice, an experienced coffee planter to Assam to learn the art of tea cultivation. In 1875, James Taylor had planted 100 acres in tea in Loolecondera in Hewaheta lower, Jenkins on Hope in Hewaheta upper.
The estates opened up in the Nuwara Eliya district:
L. A. Rossiter in 1875 owned 203 acres; Fairyland, Hazelwood, Oliphant, Alston Scott & Company. He also owned Florence in Yakdessa. Other plantations were Pedro owned by F. Bayley and Tullibody owned by G. Armitage, both under the supervision of E. A. Watson.
Above the ALSTONS, SCOTT & CO. was founded in 1848 by J. B. Alston and Alex Scott who were joined in 1853 by George Alston. BORRON, A. G. K. - Archibald Glen Kidson Borron was a coffee planter at Crystal Hill at Matale. The fourth son of William Geddes Borron, J. P., of Scafield Tower, Ardrosan, Scotland; A. G. K. Borron died in Ceylon in 1872.
CAREY, STRACHAN & CO. established in 1869 under the name of Carey and Strachan, the partners being L. St. George Carey and Charles Strachan. In 1896, a company was formed in London, and develop certain tea estates, tea factory as the Galaha Factory.
CEYLON COMPANY LTD. in 1863 of G. and M. B. Worms in Colombo (1842-1862). The Ceylon establishment was managed by J. Mercer (Mercier ?) and C. B. Smith.
In 1883 the Company owned St. Sebastion Mills for Coffee and Grandpass for Tea. CEYLON PLANTATION CO. under the auspices of the Ceylon Plantation Company by George Wall in Ceylon in 1846. The office of the company was in Kandy and George Wall took up his residence at Haramby / Aramba House.
COLOMBO COMMERCIAL CO., THE - in London and Ceylon by John Burn, an engineer, who was born in Aberdeen, Scotland; since 1848 in coffee planting and in 1876 tea.
The Worms brothers, cousins of the Rothschild family.
Baron Solomon Benedict De Worms, b. 1801, d. 1882, and his brothers Maurice and Gabriel purchased a large estate at Pussellawa, the Rothschild Estate in 1841. The brothers established the Eastern Produce and Estates Co Ltd, and G. and M. B. Worms; at the Condegalla Estate, near Ramboda Pass they planted the first tea trees with derived from China.
Sir Emerson Tennant, Colonial Secretary 1845 - 1850 visited their estate at Pussellawa.
Above mentioned Sir James Emerson - Tennent, 1st Baronet b. 1804 in Rockvale, County of Down, an Irish politician and traveller, was the third son of William Emerson, a merchant of Belfast and Sarah daughter of William Arbuthnot of Rockville / Rockvale, County of Down; James Emerson Tennent, 1st Baronet married Letitia, only daughter of William Tennent, a banker and wealthy merchant at Belfast, who died in 1832. James Emerson Tennent entered parliament in 1832 for Belfast],

"...conveying the Association's thanks for Ferguson's support for the extension of the road from Naminacooly
{JOHN Ferguson, in Ceylon in 1893; close to Hakgala - 7 km south to NUWARA ELIJA, and Oodapusilawa}
to Passara, 1895...".

Passara Planters' Association: Mr. George Kent Deaker, planting politician, chairman Passara Planters' Association, 1896-97, died 1924; ca 1907, Mr. Bisset is the hon. sec. of the Passara Planters' Association, and is a member of the Badulla Club.

Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby was born at Ambala in the Punjab Province of British India.
He was the son of Dora Johnston and HARRY St John Philby
[born at St John's (hospital ?), Badulla, Ceylon - the second son of Harry Montagu],
who convert to Islam in 1930, a member of the Indian Civil Service
[deputy of the Governor ! after 1908; the closest friend of lieutenant Bernard Montgomery],
a civil servant in Mesopotamia and advisor to King Ibn Sa'ud of Saudi Arabia. Named
Harry St John Bridger Philby (1885 - 1960) / Jack Philby / Sheikh Abdullah, was also colonial office intelligence officer; "the first Socialist to join the Indian Civil Service" in Lahore in the Punjab in 1908. In later years St. John Philby was interned as an fascist and potential enemy of Britain
[compare Hugh Angleton, an executive of the National Cash Register Company, since 1931 in Milan, very impressed with Benito Mussolini, ultra-conservative, a sympathizer with Fascist officials].

Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby in 1933 acted as a courier between Vienna and Prague, delivered money to refugees from the Nazis [compare the parents of Zbigniew Brzezinski]. In Vienna Philby met Litzi Friedmann / Alice Kohlmann, Austrian Communist of Hungarian Jewish origins [compare origin of George SOROS]. A friend of Friedmann's in London, Edith Tudor Hart, a Soviet agent, "...first approached Philby about the possibility of working for Soviet intelligence" in 1934. Litzi Friedmann was "almost certainly the person who recruited him to the Soviet cause." Theodore Maly / Man, Hungarian, and Anatoly Gorsky / Kap, of the OGPU in London, a German known as Reif / Mar, also co-operated with Philby. In February 1937, Philby came to Seville, Spain, but in 1938, Walter Krivitsky / Samuel Ginsberg, a former GRU officer in Paris, published an account of two Soviet intelligence agents had penetrated the British Foreign Office and a third Soviet intelligence agent had worked as a journalist for a British newspaper during the civil war in Spain.
Hester Marsden-Smedley introduced Kim Philby to Marjorie Maxse of the War Office.
Philby was appointed as an instructor of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) in 1940 - in the Secret Intelligence Service known as MI6, the British intelligence service - with the support of his then influential father, who had sponsored him at MI6 Major General Stewart Menzies.
Ivan Chichayev / Vadim, re-established contact with Kim Philby.
Kim Philby met James Jesus Angleton, a US counter-intelligence officer working with SIS in London, Section V.
Angleton "...became suspicious of Philby when he failed to pass on information relating to a British agent executed by the Gestapo in Germany. It later emerged that the agent - known as Schmidt - had also worked as an informant for the Rote Kapelle organisation, which sent information to both London and Moscow".
Acc. to 'spartacus-educational': "...On 28th December, 1943, James Jesus Angleton, arrived in London to work for the Italian section of X-2 C.I.
Soon after arriving in England he met Kim Philby, who was head of MI6's Iberian section. It was the start of a long friendship:
"Once I met Philby, the world of intelligence that had once interested me consumed me. He had taken on the Nazis and Fascists head-on and penetrated their operations in Spain and Germany. His sophistication and experience appealed to us ... Kim taught me a great deal." Phillip Knightley, the author of Philby: KGB Masterspy (1988), has pointed out:
"Philby was one of Angleton's instructors, his prime tutor in counter-intelligence; Angleton came to look upon him as an elder-brother figure."
Angleton impressed his senior officers and within six months he was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant and was appointed as chief of the Italian Desk for the European Theater of Operations. A colleague, John Raymond Baine, later remembered him as a well-respected officer...".

In September 1949, Philby arrived in the United States, as First Secretary to the British Embassy and as chief British intelligence representative in Washington. 1952, Philby was working as a journalist, in 1954 a diplomatic newsletter.
In October 1955, Philby was officially cleared by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan.
"...On the evening of 23rd January 1963, Kim Philby vanished from Beirut, ..." either on board a ship or escaped through Syria, to Soviet Armenia. On 1 July 1963, Philby's flight to Moscow was officially confirmed.

Baliszewski and Tadeusz Kisielewski point out the opportunity the Soviets had at Gibraltar. "... At about the same time that Sikorski's plane was left unguarded at the Gibraltar airfield, a Soviet plane was parked nearby; it carried Soviet ambassador Ivan Maisky, giving the Soviets an officially confirmed presence at the site of the accident".
Philby was in charge of security for the Gibraltar area at that time.

"...Müller knew Harold Kim Philby before World War II and he renewed their contacts when Philby was sent to Washington as a British intelligence officer to cooperate with the FBI and CIA. In his journal, under the date of January 8, 1950, Heinrich Müller noted the conversation he had with Philby regarding what happened on Gibraltar on July 4, 1943. ... In Philby's opinion, Stalin wanted General Sikorski's death.
As the chief of the British counterespionage for the Iberian Peninsula, Philby could easily find out the date of Sikorski's visit to Gibraltar on his way from the Near East to London. In his version of events, the Soviets arranged for Maisky, their ambassador to London, to fly back via Gibraltar, and to be there at the same time as General Sikorski. Philby believed that Sikorski was dangerous for Stalin. He told the former chief of the Gestapo that Maisky's passenger list included two professional assassins.
As Müller recalls, the British, except for Philby's treasonable activities, had no direct connection with the murder of Sikorski.
According to Philby, Churchill had been tipped off that this would happen, but he was so frightened about the possible rupture with Stalin over the death of Polish officers that he said nothing by way of warning.
... On March 31, 1941, in a conversation with the Czechoslovakian legate to the Soviet Union, Zdenek Fierlinger, Maisky stated that he can guarantee that General Sikorski will never enter Warsaw again..." - by Józef Kazimierz Kubit with translation by Kasia Miszta.

Copyright by
Stalin's accusers claim that Gen Sikorski's plane was left unguarded on the runway at Gibraltar, and could easily have been sabotaged. They also point out that on the day of the crash, July 4, 1943, a plane carrying the Soviet ambassador Ivan Maisky and a small retinue of Soviet troops parked next to the doomed Polish leader's aircraft. Allegations of a plot by the Soviet Union, determined not to let Polish nationalism get in the way of communist expansion after the war, have been further fuelled by the presence on Gibraltar of Kim Philby - he was in charge of British intelligence operations in the territory from 1941 to 1944. ...
Claims that a Polish government office in London received a telephone warning of Sikorski's death in Gibraltar weeks before it happened, the fact that the British spy Kim Philby had been in Gibraltar, and the lack of bodies have all fuelled conspiracy theories.
Kim Philby prior to that functioned as instructor specializing in sabotage behind enemy lines [an instructor with the Special Operations Executive in 1940]; then he was the head of the British Secret Intelligence Service's counterintelligence for the Iberian Peninsula from 1941 to 1944.

Copyright on October 27, 2017 by Carl Schreck, a senior correspondent for RFE/RL.:

"... The declassified document - dated November 23, 1963 - states that according to an intercepted phone call in Mexico City, Oswald was at the Soviet Embassy on September 28, 1963 [and "...the American had been there the previous day" ?!].
... The CIA document states that Oswald called the Soviet Embassy on October 1, 1963, "identifying himself by name and speaking broken Russian, stating" that he'd spoken to Kostikov "and asking the guard who answered the phone whether there was 'anything new concerning the telegram to Washington'." ...
the links between Kostikov, who was serving as vice consul at the embassy as Oswald tried in vain to get a Soviet visa there in September 1963, and the KGB's "assassination" department appear to be far from definitively established, according to previously classified documents now available to the public.
... Valery Kostikov, was identified by the CIA [on November 23rd, 1963] a day after Kennedy's assassination [in Dallas on November 22, 1963] as a KGB officer in an operation allegedly being run by the Soviet spy agency's 13th Department "responsible for sabotage and assassination."
... Oswald's contacts with Kostikov were previously known [before 2017]

... But their interactions at the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City nonetheless grabbed headlines in both Russian and Western media following the October 26 [2017], release of nearly 3,000 records on Kennedy's killing.

... memo to the CIA's director in September 1964, FBI head J. Edgar Hoover said his agency's files "do not contain any information to fully support" the CIA's assessment that Kostikov worked for the KGB's 13th Department.
... Hoover's memo also cited a letter the FBI received from the CIA's counterintelligence chief [J. ANGLETON] five months before Kennedy's killing stating that the CIA "could locate no information in your files to indicate Kostikov was a representative" of the KGB's assassinations department.

... The CIA said in early 1964 that Oswald's contact with Kostikov and other KGB officers stationed under diplomatic cover in Mexico City "was nothing more than a grim coincidence." ...

[Valery Vladimirovich Kostikov was born in 1933, died in 2002, served in Spain, Mexico and Cuba; and again in Mexico City in the Soviet Embassy]. ...

Kostikov's appearance matched the description an "FBI-controlled double agent" gave of a Soviet intelligence officer he met in Mexico, the CIA memo says. That agent's Soviet handler in the United States was Oleg Brykin of the KGB's 13th Department, according to the CIA background memo.

... October 26, 2017, Litman states that Kostikov was a captain in the KGB's 13th Department, which was responsible for assassinations, calling the Soviet officer a "trained 'neutralizer'." ...".

News on October 28, 2017:

1. FBI informant claimed Dallas police officer was real assassin;
According to an April 1964 note, an informant claimed to the FBI that slain Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit was the real gunman behind Kennedy's assassination. The informant also told the FBI that a week before the assassination, Tippit met with a third party - possibly gunman Lee Harvey Oswald - at Jack Ruby's nightclub.
JFK files have revealed that Lee Harvey Oswald and his killer Jack Ruby / Jacob Rubenstein met in the weeks before Kennedy was assassinated. The pair were seen together at Florida's Key West airport in 1963
and were overheard speaking in code about 'Big Bird', according to the documents of the airport manager George Faraldo. Oswald and nightclub owner Ruby were apparently both part of a large group of 'mostly young' people heading to Cuba. Mr Faraldo told the FBI that Ruby and Oswald were dressed casually in a sport shirts and trousers. The airport manager added that Ruby 'spent most of the time not mingling with the group but standing against the doorway that led from the waiting area to the rear plane boarding area'.

2. Hoover said the public must believe Oswald acted alone:
'The thing I am concerned about, and so is [Deputy Attorney General Nicholas] Katzenbach, is having something issued so we can convince the public that Oswald is the real assassin', Hoover wrote in a November 1963 memo.

3. Oswald spoke to a KGB agent in the department responsible for assassinations:
A memo from Nov. 23, 1963, reveals that Oswald secretly met with Russian spies at the Soviet Embassy in MEXICO CITY, less than two months before the assassination.
He met with Valeriy Kostikov, a KGB agent the FBI said worked for the agency's 13th Department, which was 'responsible for sabotage and assassination', on Sept 28, 1963.

Below Jefferson Morley on the new JFK files wrote down on 04 November 2017:

"... The document, a CIA cable dated October 8, 1963, has been partially released before but the slugline of the cable, LCIMPROVE, has now been declassified. ... According to previously released JFK files, LCIMPROVE was the agency's code name for 'counter-espionage involving Soviet intelligence services worldwide'. That was the undisputed domain of counterintelligence chief James Jesus Angleton, the subject of my new book. ...
The October 8, 1963, cable, written by Mexico City station chief Winston Scott, concerned contacts between an American named Lee Oswald and a Soviet consular official named Valery Kostikov. The LCIMPROVE slugline is strong evidence that Angleton was notified about Oswald's contact with Kostikov, a presumed KGB officer. Scott and Angleton had been friends since World War II. A JFK file released last week showed that some CIA officials suspected Kostikov might work for KGB's 13th Department, which was reputedly responsible for political assassinations. ... The story of Oswald's contact with Kostikov is not new.
The Mary Ferrell Foundation has a good primer on Kostikov. ... Jim Angleton and Win Scott, CIA friends...
Oswald returned to Texas after his visit to Mexico City. As I recently reported for the Daily Beast,
a senior FBI agent reported Oswald's return to the Dallas-Fort Worth area to Angleton's office on November 15, 1963.
The Daily Beast story showed that Angleton knew, or should have known, Oswald was in Dallas. Now we know that Angleton also knew Oswald had been in contact with a KGB officer who some said was a KGB assassin. After receiving the October 8 cable, Angleton could have asked the FBI to locate and interview Oswald to explain his contacts with Kostikov. The FBI located him but Angleton is not known to have taken any action. Seven day later, President Kennedy was dead, allegedly shot dead by Oswald. ... In 1978, the House Select Committee on Assassinations re-opened the investigation of JFK's death. As the HSCA investigators began to review CIA records, they asked the agency to supply a list of codenames found in the documents. One of the code names they asked for was LCIMPROVE. In the CIA's response, the agency gave the definition. ...".

4. According to an FBI memo on the Soviet reaction to Kennedy’s death, Soviet spies believed President Lyndon B. Johnson was behind the assassination plot.

According to a Nov. 26, 1963, memo from CIA Deputy Director James Angelton, the British newspaper the Cambridge News received a tip that a reporter 'should call the American Embassy in London for some big news, and then hung up'. According to Britain's MI5 intelligence service, the newspaper received the call 25 minutes before Kennedy was killed.
The reporter, who MI5 noted was 'sound and loyal', said he'd never received a call of that kind before.
Anna Savva, a reporter at the News, told the Associated Press the paper has no record of the tip being taken.
Above acc. to ''.

April the 28th, 1961 we read on the 'JFK Tells of Red Menace',
"President Kennedy told the nations newspaper publishers Thursday night that
no formally declared war ever posed as great a threat to American security as
does the rampant worldwide menace of communism.
In view of this deadly challenge, he urged newspapers across the land to re-examine their obligations in the light of global danger and, in presenting the news, to heed the duty of self-restraint.
Kennedy ... speaking at the annual Waldorf-Astoria dinner of the Bureau of Advertising of the American Newspaper Publishers Association, suggested there is a need for greater public information, and at the same time a need for greater official secrecy...".

On April 28, 1961, President Kennedy explained what is meant by the term:
"The Communist conspiracy".

We read The Address in Chicago at a Dinner of the Democratic Party of Cook County on April 28, 1961:
"Mayor Daley, Governor Kerner, Senator Douglas, Congressman Dawson, Chairman Cullerton ... ladies and gentlemen: ... We live in a hazardous and dangerous time. ... Now our great responsibility is to be the chief defender of freedom, in this time of maximum danger. Only the United States has the power and the resources and the determination. We have committed ourselves to the defense of dozens of countries stretched around the globe who look to us for independence, who look to us for the defense of their freedom. We are prepared to meet our obligations, but we can only defend the freedom of those who are determined to be free themselves. ... The Russians and the Chinese, containing within their borders nearly a billion people, totally mobilized for the advance of the Communist system, operating from narrow, interior lines of communication, pressuring on Southeast Asia with the masses of the Chinese armies potentially ready to move-of the Russians who hold great power potentially in the Middle East and Western Europe ...
There is no easy answer to the dilemmas that we face. Our great ally is the fact that people do desire to be free, that people will sacrifice everything in their desire to maintain their independence.
And as the true nature of the Communist conspiracy becomes better known around the globe, when people come to realize - as they surely will - that the Communist advance does not represent a means of liberation but represents a final enslavement,
then I believe that they will rally to the cause to which we have given our support and our commitment".

Mentioned above Bissell moved after 1949 to Washington, where he associated with a group of journalists and politicians: Frank Wisner, George Kennan, Dean Acheson, Desmond FitzGerald, Joseph Alsop, Stewart Alsop, Tracy Barnes, Walt Rostow, Eugene Rostow, Cord Meyer, James Angleton, W. Averell Harriman, John McCloy, Felix Frankfurter, Allen W. Dulles, and Paul Nitze. In September 1960, Bissell and Allen W. Dulles, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency, initiated talks with Johnny Roselli and Sam Giancana. Later, with Carlos Marcello, Santo Trafficante, Jr. and Meyer Lansky became involved in plot against Castro.

Meyer Lansky, original name Maier Suchowljansky born in Grodno, or Meier Suchowlanski, moved to the United States through the port of Odessa.

Bissell became head of the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) in 1962. IDA was a Pentagon think tank set up to evaluate weapons systems. After Bissell was Richard McGarrah Helms who served as the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from June 1966 to February 1973. Helms began intelligence work with the Office of Strategic Services.

At we have the speech of President John F. Kennedy; that is an Address before the American Newspaper Publishers Association, on April 27, 1961 at Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York City.
"Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen: I appreciate very much your generous invitation to be here tonight. ... I want to talk about our common responsibilities in the face of a common danger. The events of recent weeks may have helped to illuminate that challenge for some; but the dimensions of its threat have loomed large on the horizon for many years. ...
The very word "secrecy" is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings. We decided long ago that the dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweighed the dangers which are cited to justify it. Even today, there is little value in opposing the threat of a closed society by imitating its arbitrary restrictions. Even today, there is little value in insuring the survival of our nation if our traditions do not survive with it. And there is very grave danger that an announced need for increased security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of official censorship and concealment. That I do not intend to permit to the extent that it is in my control. And no official of my Administration, whether his rank is high or low, civilian or military, should interpret my words here tonight as an excuse to censor the news, to stifle dissent, to cover up our mistakes or to withhold from the press and the public the facts they deserve to know. ...
Today no war has been declared - and however fierce the struggle may be, it may never be declared in the traditional fashion. Our way of life is under attack. Those who make themselves our enemy are advancing around the globe. The survival of our friends is in danger. And yet no war has been declared, no borders have been crossed by marching troops, no missiles have been fired.

If the press is awaiting a declaration of war before it imposes the self-discipline of combat conditions, then I can only say that no war ever posed a greater threat to our security. If you are awaiting a finding of "clear and present danger," then I can only say that the danger has never been more clear and its presence has never been more imminent. It requires a change in outlook, a change in tactics, a change in missions - by the government, by the people, by every businessman or labor leader, and by every newspaper.
For we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence - on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day.
It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations.
Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined.
Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed.
It conducts the Cold War, in short, with a war-time discipline no democracy would ever hope or wish to match.
Nevertheless, every democracy recognizes the necessary restraints of national security - and the question remains whether those restraints need to be more strictly observed if we are to oppose this kind of attack as well as outright invasion. ...".

By Liz McNeil and Tierney McAfee on September 25, 2017:
"...She met John F. Kennedy at a prep school dance and in the early 1960s, began an affair with the president that lasted until the time of his assassination.
One year later, on Oct. 12, 1964, Mary Pinchot Meyer was shot dead while taking an afternoon walk on a Georgetown towpath in Washington, D.C., at age 43.
... there have been theories that Pinchot Meyer's death may have been linked to her affair with JFK. Says Burleigh: 'The theory is that she had to die because she knew too much.' 'Her murder just ten days after the Warren Commission report was released makes a lot of people suspicious that she had to be silenced,'
Burleigh notes, adding:
'She lived in a world of secrets ... the secrets of spies running complicated international plots, trying to control a dangerous world at the dawn of the nuclear age.'

Adding to the mystery, in the hours after Pinchot Meyer's death, chief of CIA counterintelligence James Jesus Angleton broke into her artist studio (which was attached to her brother-in-law Ben Bradlee's house) to find her diary. ... Pinchot Meyer, daughter of Amos Pinchot, a wealthy Progressive lawyer, and Ruth Pickering Pinchot, a writer and activist, 'was a true American aristocrat, the beautiful daughter,' says Burleigh. 'Mary was raised on Park Avenue ... educated at the finest schools, a debutante, basically an American princess.'
'She met JFK at a prep school dance,' says Burleigh, the national politics correspondent for Newsweek. 'They were teens. He supposedly cut in on her date.' After graduating from Vassar, Pinchot Meyer went on to marry Cord Meyer, a high-ranking CIA official, in 1945. ... 'Her name first appears on the White House logs in October 1962,' she says. 'She was by his side ... She was often signed in when Jackie was away...'...".

By Wikipedia: "Mary Eno Pinchot Meyer (October 14, 1920 - October 12, 1964) was an American painter who lived in Washington D.C. At the time of her death, her work was considered part of the Washington Color School and was selected for the Pan American Union Art Exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art in Buenos Aires. She was married to Central Intelligence Agency official Cord Meyer from 1945-1958, and she was linked romantically to the late President John F. Kennedy after her marriage to Meyer. ...".
Her parents - copyright by
Ruth Pinchot (Pickering) b. 1893 in Elmira, Chemung County, NY, USA; d. 1984; daughter of George Pickering and Rebecca Iredell Pickering. Wife of Amos Richards Eno Pinchot. Mother of Mary Pinchot Meyer; Antoinette Bradlee; and Gifford Pinchot.
Above Rebecca Iredell Pickering (Thomas) b. 1857, daughter of Nathan Spencer Thomas and Hannah Ann Thomas.

And now we look at
Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt / George Sergius de Mohrenschildt / Георгий Сергеевич де Мореншильд / Jerzy Sergiusz,
who studied at the Institute of Higher Commercial Studies, the University of Liege and the University of Texas at Austin. He was petroleum geologist.
He became
friends with Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President John F. Kennedy.
George De Mohrenschildt met Oswald after his return from the Soviet Union.
"...While in Atsugi, Japan, Oswald studied the Russian language ... He studied by himself a great deal in late 1958 and early 1959 after he was transferred from Japan to California. ... When he reached the Soviet Union in October of the same year he could barely speak the language. During the period in Moscow while he was awaiting decision on his application for citizenship, his diary records that he practiced Russian 8 hours a day. After he was sent to Minsk in early January 1960 he took lessons... Marina Oswald said that by the time she met him in March 1961 he spoke the language well enough ... Oswald resided in the city of Minsk from January 1960 until June 1962...".

George de Mohrenschildt (Pole-German from Estonia, Belarus and Poland) knew perfectly Jacqueline Kennedy's family practically since childhood. During the Second World War he was followed by the FBI as a German agent, and in the 50s and 60s of the 20th century he maintained close contacts with the Bush family, including future head of the CIA, George H. W. Bush (41st President of the United States in 1989 - 1993; see 1989 in Poland);
one piece of Kennedy death's evidence was an amateur film made by Abraham Zapruder (1905-1970), a Polish-Jewish immigrant from Volhynia, city Kowel / Kovel in Tsarist Russia, who owned a small company, the Jennifer Juniors, Inc., located in front of the Depot handbooks in Dallas (see Lee Oswald position on 22nd November, 1963, who was ex Minsk of Belarus citizen).
Abraham Zapruder was an American clothing manufacturer who witnessed the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. He received only four years of formal education in Russia. In 1920 (see: von Mohrenschildt moved to Poland in 1922), his family emigrated to the United States, settling in Brooklyn, New York.
George de Mohrenschildt was friend of the Oswalds; Lee Oswald on November 24, 1963 had to participate in a press conference, and then would be taken to the local jail. At 11.21 Oswald was escorted by policemen.
Surprisingly, Jack Ruby / Jacek Leon Rubenstein (son of the orthodox Jews from POLAND - Sokolow Podlaski), owner of the nightclub, jumped and shoted Oswald who was being led through the Dallas Police Headquarters toward an armored car.
Zapruder himself and approx. 60 peoples claimed that at least one shot fell down at front of the limousine, but their testimonies were ignored by the Warren committees. Zapruder's film showed three or four shots within 8.3 seconds.
Jim Garrison (1921-1992), the district attorney of New Orleans for the period 1962-1973, discovered evidence of conspiracy (but we have data about letters on 12 Nov. 1963 to James Webb and to John McCone, Willim Colby and James Angleton; need to be check!); Garrison arrested the New Orleans businessman - Clay Shaw. A key witness was Perry Russo, twenty-five insurance agent from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Russo said that David Ferrie, Shaw, and Lee Oswald discussed the assassination of Kennedy. In 1993, the television photographs showed Oswald and Ferrie at picture of CAP cadets - Civil Air Patrol; on July 17, 1979 after more than two years of work, the new commission published its report; concluded Oswald was the assassin, but most likely the assassins were two; concluded that fell four shots, but failed to identify the second shooter.
The Commission also said that there was a plot to assassinate Kennedy; in 1984 the Commission report was completed and published.
The authors also draw attention to the fact that on June 4, 1963 the Regulation No. 11110 of limiting the competence of the Federal Reserve (Fed) was published, including takeover by the federal government the right to issue money based on values ​​for gold parity. In fact, the Federal Reserve is a private bank managed by federal authorities, created in 1913. Its functions include, among others supervision of banks, issue of money, and maintain a strong system of payments.

GEORGE DE MOHRENSCHILDT who was born in Mozyr / Mozyrz, and escaped with family to Poland, in 1939 worked for Humble Oil in Houston, Texas. 1941 his cousin Baron Maydell offered de Mohrenschildt job making documentary movies. Met Lilia Pardo Larin through "King of Bananas" of Brazil, Dr. Paulo Machado, and went to live with her in Mexico 9 months; invested in sugar company. In 1942 he met Dorothy Pierson in Palm Beach, and married her in 1943. 1944 moved to Texas, applied at Colorado School of Mines, Rice Institute and University of Texas. Worked in Venezuela. 1946 returned to the United States. Went to work for Rangely Field Committee in Colorado; met Phyllis Washington during vacation in New York. 1947 went to Haiti
Washington's step-daughter, Fifi / Phyllis married von George / Jurij / Yuri de Mohrenschildt on July 11, 1948 or in 1947. In 1949 he divorced from Phyllis Washington. Washington was descended to the brothers of first President George Washington. This would have been on both his mother and father's side of the family. S. W. Washington worked for the State Department from 1926 to 1954; Washington had been assigned to CIA from the Foreign Service in September 1950. Samuel Walter Washington father-in-law to George de Mohrenschildt, was in charge of more than 250 CIA agents between 1950-53, but George was Lee Harvey Oswald's closest friend. Mr. Washington worked with Allen Dulles, Frank Wisner, Robert P. Joyce, J. Caldwell King and other top CIA officials.
George then married Wynne Sharples. 1952 terminated partnership with Ed Hooker, returned to New York. Formed Walden Oil Co. with wife's uncle, Col. Edward J. Walz. Traveled to Nigeria, France, Mexico on oil exploration, also Ghana, Togo, Cuba, in Yugoslavia for International Cooperation Administration and Yugoslav Government. Met Jeanne Le Gon in Dallas. Visited Poland for 10 days. Visited Dominican Embassy in Washington; 1959 or 1960 moved to Mexico City for Texans Eastern Corp. and encountered Mikoyan. Early 1962 he went to Haiti; returned to Luisiana, began geology consulting work in Dallas. Summer 1962 told by George Bouhe of Oswald; went with Colonel Orlov to visit Oswalds; introduced him to Samuel Ballen in December 1962 or January 1963. Oct. 1962 George visited Elena Hall while Marina was living with her. March 1963 went to Haiti; Dominican Republic. Easter 1963 visited Oswalds at Neely Street address; May 1963 left Dallas for Haiti - June 1963. April 1964 went to Dominican Republic from Haiti. Acc. to MS. SURELL BRADY.
After Second World War George de Mohrenschildt advanced within State Department, CIA and governmental circles. George H. W. Bush knew George de Mohrenschildt since 1942. Allen Dulles knew de Mohrenschildt's brother in 1953. George knew Jackie Kennedy and her mother Janet Bouvier in 1938, also knew Mrs. Kennedy's dress designer Oleg Cassini and his brother Igor. George was business partners with Mohamed Al Fayed in 1964. Fayed had an affair with Alexandra de Mohrenschildt and James Angleton of the CIA was interested in this.

See more: Bruce Campbell Adamson's book.
In 1964, a CIA report states, "...(George's daughter) Alexandra was being monitored by CIA's James Jesus Angleton because she was having an affair with Mohammed al Fayed shortly after JFK assassination". James Jesus Angleton b. 1917, was chief of the Central Intelligence Agency's Counterintelligence Staff from 1954 to 1975 as 'Associate Deputy Director of Operations for Counterintelligence'. Under his signature is that of CIA asset, Jane Roman. Roman was CIA agent who record shows was charged with monitoring movements of Lee Harvey Oswald for two months preceding assassination. George DEMOHRENSCHILDT / DE MOHRENSCHILDT "was business partners with Mohamed Al Fayed in 1964. Fayed had an affair with Alexandra de Mohrenschildt...". George DE MOHRENSCHILDT and Mohammad Abdel Fayed were in contact in Haiti, and Mohammad Abdel Fayed was suspected of having been a member of Egyptian intelligence in 1953 in Saudi Arabia, in Haiti in June 1964 while official guest of Haitian Government. "...Alexandra deMohrenschildt Gibson, daughter of George deMohrenschildt, while visiting her father in Haiti in December 1964 without her husband, ... was dating Mohammed Fayed. Fayad purchased Harrods in London in early 1980s. Fayed's son, Dodi, was killed in an automobile accident in Paris on August 31, 1997 that also killed English Princess Dianna. GIBSON, DONALD and ALEXANDRA DEMOHRENSCHILDT were planning to leave Wingdale, NY and move to Florida. Daughter of George deMohrenschildt "...married to Gary Taylor in Nov. 1959, divorced in April 1963 following birth of son, Curtis Taylor on Feb. 10, 1962. Married to Donald Gibson by 1963. Friend of William Sprott, Attorney ... in 1977. In 1993, owns boutique ... In 1994, ... moved to Tubac, AZ ... In 2001, Alexandra and Giorgio Miola ... moved to Green Valley, AZ".

In 1953 future Warren Commissioner Allen Dulles was working with the father-in-law of George de Mohrenschildt in the Guatemala Coup. Three days after Allen Dulles took over as CIA Director in February of 1953 he was writing to Dimitri Mohrenschildt - the brother of Lee Harvey Oswald's pal, George de Mohrenschildt.

Russian diplomat in the US, Ferdinand Nikolai Alexander von Mohrenschildt, b. 1885 in Haiba, Kernu Parish, Harju County, Estonia, d. March 4, 1919 in New York. Burial at Sleepy Hollow, Westchester County, New York. He was son of Thomas Ferdinand or Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt and Mary / Marie von Mohrenschildt daughter of Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt and Marie Luise von Bremen. Above Ferdinand's wife was Nona Hazelhurst McAdoo b. 1893, daughter of William Gibbs McAdoo, U.S. Senator and Secretary of the Treasury and Sarah Hazelhurst Houston. Above Thomas Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. 1833 in Haiba, Hageri kihelkond, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland. He was son of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth. Above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland. He was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie. Above Gustava Stephanie Gräfin von Douglas b. 1758 in Reval (Tallinn). She was daughter of Robert Wilhelm Douglas and Margarethe Juliane von Knorring. Above Robert Wilhelm Douglas (on the Douglas in Estonia, ITALY and Scotland see my domain) b. 1724 Tallinn - died in 1778 in Järvamaa was son of Gustaf Otto Douglas and Helena von Schlippenbach.

In 1920, Ferdinand's (von Mohrenschildt) nephew Dimitri von Mohrenschildt, the older brother of George, arrived in the United States and entered Yale University. His admission was likely smoothed by the connections of the Harriman family; Dimitri von Mohrenschildt after graduating from Yale, was offered a position teaching the exclusive Loomis School near Hartford, Connecticut, where John D. Rockefeller III was a student.

There, Dimitri became friendly with Roland and Winifred Betty Cartwright Holhan Hooker; Dimitri served the Office of Strategic Services, later cofounding Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. In 1941, Dimitri also founded a magazine, the Russian Review, and later became a professor at Dartmouth. Dimitri in the summer of 1936 traveled to Europe, followed a week later by Betty Hooker.
The relationship between Bush and Hooker lasted for three decades, until 1967, when Hooker died. 1937, Betty Hooker and Dimitri von Mohrenschildt married. By then, Dimitri had been hired by Henry Luce as a stringer for Time magazine. Meanwhile, Dimitri's younger brother, George, had been living with their family in Wilno; in May 1938, George arrived from Europe to US and lived with his brother and new sister-in-law in their Park Avenue apartment.

Future Warren Commissioner, CIA Director Allen Dulles' knew George de Mohrenschildt's brother Dimitri. He wrote to Dimitri three days after he took over the office as CIA Director in Feb. 1953.

Allen Dulles' uncle Robert Lansing and de Mohrenschildt's grandfather-by-marriage, William Gibbs McAdoo co-founded the Secret Service together during the Woodrow Wilson administration.

in 1964 Allen Dulles interrogated the de Mohrenschildts' for more than 250 pages during The Warren Commission Report and Dulles did not think the public should know about his ties to de Mohrenschildt; Allen Dulles dated Mary Bancroft who was the best friend of Michael Paine's mother, Ruth Forbes Paine. It was Michael who put the Oswalds' up in his home; his wife found him a job. George H. W. Bush did not disclose that he knew Oswald's closest friend, George de Mohrenschildt, since 1942.

Adamson was the first to publish letters betweeen the de Mohrenschildts to President Kennedy, Jacqueline Kennedy, Vice-President Lyndon Baines Johnson, CIA Directors Allen Dulles and George H. W. Bush.

Since 1953 future Warren Commisioner Allen Dulles had been working with de Mohrenschildt's brother and his father-in-law.

DEATH of George de Mohrenschildt:

At Image CE-133A, "sent by Oswald (as a first generation copy) to his friend George de Mohrenschildt in April 1963, dated and signed by Oswald on the back of the photo, named Oswald holds a Carcano rifle in one hand. Furthermore he holds two Marxist newspapers in the other hand: The Worker, which followed closely a Moscow party line (and up to being pro-Stalinist until the death of Stalin), and The Militant, a Trotskyist newspaper which followed an anti-Stalinist and anti-Moscow line".
On March 16, 1977, Mohrenschildt returned to the United States,
and on March 29, Mohrenschildt gave an interview to author Edward Jay Epstein,
and said:
"... in 1962, Dallas CIA operative J. Walton Moore and one of Moore's associates had handed him the address of Lee Harvey Oswald in nearby Fort Worth and then suggested that Mohrenschildt might like to meet him. Some help from the U.S. Embassy in Haiti would be greatly appreciated by him, he suggested to Moore...".
"On the same day as the Epstein interview, Mohrenschildt received a business card from Gaeton Fonzi, an investigator for the House Select Committee on Assassinations, telling him that he would like to see him. ... That afternoon, Mohrenschildt was found dead from a self-inflicted shotgun wound to the head in a house where he was staying in Manalapan, Florida. The coroner's verdict was suicide".
"...In the book Killing Kennedy (2012), reporter Bill O'Reilly claimed he had been knocking at George de Mohrenschild's front door when he heard a shotgun blast that marked the suicide. This claim, however, has since been proven false. A contemporaneously made phone call recording between O'Reilly and Fonzi confirms the inaccuracy of O'Reilly's claim".

Gaeton Fonzi / Gaetano Fonzi (1935 - 2012) was an American investigative journalist, "... was hired as a researcher in 1975 by the Church Committee and by the House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations in 1977, and in 1993 published a book on the subject...". In 1975, he was hired by Senator Richard Schweiker as a researcher for the Church Committee into the activities of US intelligence agencies.

On March 29, 1977, George de Mohrenschildt was visiting a family friend in Manalapan, Florida.
Copyright by NEWSWEEK:
Bill O'Reilly visited Manalapan, Florida, where George de Mohrenschildt "and his 33-year-old daughter Alexandra were staying as guests. During the interview on March 29, de Mohrenschildt asked me to get him a photograph from his Dallas lawyer to confirm part of his story. Then, at around 1 p.m., we broke for an hour for lunch. De Mohrenschildt drove back to Manalapan. As the reporter knocked on the door of de Mohrenschildt's daughter's home, he heard the shotgun blast that marked the suicide of the Russian, assuring that his relationship with Lee Harvey Oswald would never be fully understood. By the way, that reporter's name is Bill O'Reilly. ... Less than two hours later, de Mohrenschildt was found shot to death on the second floor of the Tilton home. The West Palm Beach deputy sheriff arrived at my hotel and questioned me and my research assistant, Nancy Lanoue, who had been taking notes during the de Mohrenschildt interview. We both were then taken to the county courthouse, where I was interviewed by state's attorney David Bludworth. The next day, two FBI agents questioned me ... But de Mohrenschildt was not at his daughter's home (158 Villa Longine in Mexico City); he was at Tilton's home in Florida. Another minor problem is O'Reilly's claim to have been an ear-witness to the death. In the 2013 version of his book for younger readers, he wrote: "As I knocked on the door, I heard a shotgun blast. He had killed himself." According to the police report, however, no one inside or outside the house heard the shot (which was fired in the second-floor hallway outside Nancy Tilton's bedroom). A maid, Anna Vitsula / WISTULA {who ?}, said she had been in Mrs. Tilton's room a few minutes earlier to turn on an external recorder to tape a television show, but did not hear a shot. Five other people on the staff also said they didn't hear the report of the shotgun. When I asked Bludworth why no one in the house heard the shot, he said it was probably because the blast was partly absorbed by the body, the carpet and the furnishings. In any case, because no one heard a shot, the body was not discovered for some 15 minutes after the shooting...".
On April 1, 1977, Jeanne de Mohrenschildt gave the House Select Committee on Assassinations a print of a photograph showing Lee Harvey Oswald standing in his Dallas backyard holding two newspapers and a rifle ... -
a photograph taken by Oswald's wife Marina. On the back was written 'To my friend George from Lee Oswald', and the date '5/IV/63' (5 April 1963). ... along with the words 'Copyright Geo de M', and a Russian phrase translated as 'Hunter of fascists, ha-ha-ha!' ...
Mohrenschildt wrote in his manuscript ... that he had missed Oswald's photograph in packing for the move to Haiti in May, 1963, and this was why he had not mentioned it to the Warren Commission.
"According to Mohrenschildt, the photograph was not found among his stored papers until he and his wife found it in February 1967. When analyzed by the HSCA in 1977, this photo turned out to be a first generation print of the backyard photo already known to the Warren Commission as "CE-133A" and which had probably been taken on March 31, 1963".
Copyright by WIKIPEDIA:
"On April 2, 1977, Willem Oltmans told the House Select Committee on Assassinations that Mohrenschildt had implicated himself in the conspiracy to kill President Kennedy. ... Oltmans testified for three hours behind closed doors and told the committee that Mohrenschildt had told him he had discussed the assassination of Kennedy with Oswald from A to Z. 'De Mohrenschildt told me that Oswald acted at his (De Mohrenschildt's) instructions and that he knew Oswald was going to kill Kennedy,' Oltmans said.

Willem Oltmans / Willem Leonard Oltmans (1925 - 2004) was a Dutch investigative journalist;
by Wikipedia:
"... in 1963, Oltmans interviewed the mother of accused assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, Marguerite. Further investigation led him to Oswald's acquaintance George de Mohrenschildt. In 1977 De Mohrenschildt agreed to disclose information to Oltmans, but disappeared from their meeting place and was found dead in Florida a few weeks later. ...
On March 29, 1977, De Mohrenschildt was found dead ...
L. Richardson Preyer of the House Select Committee on Assassinations investigating the assassination of Kennedy stated that De Mohrenschildt was "crucial witness, based on the new information that he had".
A few days later, Oltmans told the HSCA that George de Mohrenschildt had implicated himself in the conspiracy to kill President Kennedy. And Pat S. Russell, who was De Mohrenschildt's attorney said "I definitely feel there was a conspiracy and that definitely was the opinion of George."
Oltmans ... told the committee that De Mohrenschildt told him he had discussed the assassination of Kennedy with Lee Harvey Oswald from A to Z. De Mohrenschildt told me that Oswald acted at his (De Mohrenschildt's) instructions and that he knew Oswald was going to kill Kennedy, Oltmans said.
Although Oltmans had given information to the Committee shortly before, De Mohrenschildt's death had released Oltmans from his promise not to divulge certain information.
Oltmans revealed that De Mohrenschildt, whom he had known for ten years, had told him that there had been a conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy and that he had played a role in the conspiracy. De Mohrenschildt said that CIA and FBI personnel were involved as well...".

... On July 6, 1978, Joseph Dryer told the House Select Committee on Assassinations that he and Mohrenschildt were associated with a woman named Jacqueline Lancelot.
Dryer's relationship with Lancelot included passing messages for her to people in the United States whom Dryer assumed were connected in some way to the CIA. Dryer said in the interview that Lancelot told him shortly after the Kennedy assassination that a substantial sum of money, $200,000 or $250,000, had been deposited in Mohrenschildt's account. Dryer said that Mohrenschildt had claimed he came to Haiti to scout for oil, but Dryer stated that "I could never figure out what he did."
Dryer expressed the belief that Mohrenschildt had "some intelligence connection".
... Congressional researcher Gaeton Fonzi noted that in late 1963 "several large deposits popped up in de Mohrenschildt's Haitian bank account including one for two hundred thousand dollars from a Bahamian bank". ...

In a 1976 CIA internal memo regarding Mohrenschildt, Director George H. W. Bush stated: "At one time he had / or spent plenty of money."

Brief on J. Walton Moore:

James Walton Moore, employed by the FBI since April 1940, begins service in the U.S. Navy on 6 January 1945. He was in Tsingtao China in 1948; the same time Robert Emmett Johnson was there. Although James Walton Moore's employment is listed as being "FBI Washington DC" from January 1942 to January 1945, his residence is listed as being "San Francisco, Calif." from 1942 to 1945. J. Walton Moore died on the 18th of June, 2006. In 1963 J. Walton Moore was employed by the Central Intelligence Agency in Dallas, Tex., in the Domestic Contacts Division. According to Moore's CIA personnel file, he was assigned to the Domestic Contacts Division in 1948.

"... In an Agency memorandum dated April 13, 1977, contained in George de Mohrenschildt's CIA file, Moore set forth facts to counter a claim which had been recently made by WFAA-TV in Dallas that Lee Harvey Oswald was employed by the CIA and that Moore knew Oswald. In that memo, Moore is quoted as saying that according to his records the last time he talked to George de Mohrenschildt was in the fall of 1961. ... Moore said that he had no recollection of any conversation with de Mohrenschildt: First, in the spring of 1958 to discuss the mutual interest the two couples had in mainland China: and then in the fall of 1961 when the de Mohrenschildts showed films of their Latin American walking trip".

By Richard Booth on 3 Sep 1997:
"...According to DeM, Dallas CIA official J. Walton Moore first mentioned Oswald to him in late 1961 - when Oswald was still in Minsk. According to Richard Case Nagell and DeM himself, Demohrenshildt "debriefed" Oswald for the CIA. From August 1962 to October 1963, Richard Nagell was intermittently employed as an informant and / or investigator for the CIA. In April of 1963, Nagell conducted an inquiry concerning the marital status of Marina Oswald and her reported desire to return to the USSR. During July, August and September Nagell conducted an inquiry into the activities of Lee Harvey Oswald, and the allegation that he had established a Fair Play for Cuba Committee in New Orleans. Former CIA finance officer James Wilcott testified to the House Select Comittee on Assassinations in 1977 that "he learned that Oswald was paid by the CIA while still stationed at Atsugi."

Wikipedia said:
Mohrenschildt testified to the Warren Commission in 1964 that he had met the Oswalds through George Bouhe. When he asked 'Do you think it is safe for us to help Oswald', Bouhe said he had checked with the FBI. Mohrenschildt also stated that he believed he had discussed Oswald with Max Clark, whom he believed was connected with the FBI, and with J. Walton Moore, whom Mohrenschildt described as "a Government man - either FBI or Central Intelligence", and who had debriefed Mohrenschildt several times following his travels abroad, starting in 1957. ... When interviewed in 1978 by the House Select Committee on Assassinations, J. Walton Moore said that he had no recollection of any conversation with Mohrenschildt concerning Oswald. ... According to Mohrenschildt, J. Walton Moore flatly denied that the CIA was involved in any way.

By Ralph Lopez Nov 8, 2013 in Politics:
"...On March 29, De Mohrenschildt granted an interview to author Edward Jay Epstein, during which he claimed that in 1962, Dallas CIA operative J. Walton Moore had given him the go-ahead to meet Oswald. "I would never have contacted Oswald in a million years if Moore had not sanctioned it," de Mohrenschildt said. On the same day as the interview, De Mohrenschildt was contacted by the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA.) That afternoon, he was found dead from a shotgun blast to the head. The verdict was suicide. Rep. Richardson Preyer, a member of the HSCA, said De Mohrenschildt was a "crucial witness."...".

"...It has long been known that, before his death, Oswald's "best friend" George DeMohrenschildt admitted that local CIA man J. Walton Moore had suggested that George strike up an acquaintance with Oswald. In corroboration for Marina's statement above are the released documents showing that Ruth Paine's sister worked for the CIA, and her father was an informant to it. Another case is Priscilla Johnson, the reporter who interviewed Oswald in Moscow and later wrote 'Marina and Lee'. Documents show that she applied for a job at the CIA, but was turned down, but was also viewed as a potential "witting asset" for the Agency. If Lee Oswald was not a U.S. intelligence agent, he was certainly surrounded by them. ...",
by Rex Bradford in November 2001.

Michael Ralph Paine,
born in 1928, engineer, he was an acquaintance of the President's purported assassin Lee Harvey Oswald. His wife, Ruth Hyde Paine, housed Lee's estranged wife, Marina Oswald. Lee Harvey Oswald stored the rifle that he used to assassinate U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Ruth Paine's garage. In 1959 Michael Paine got a job with Bell Helicopter in Fort Worth, and the Paines moved into a house in the suburb of Irving - Michael Paine's step-father, Arthur M. Young, invented the Bell Helicopter.
As liberals in Dallas, the Paines were isolated.
His wife - Ruth Paine had been studying Russian since 1957, participated in the East-West Contact Committee
{The American Committee for East-West Accord is the name of two related organizations - 1974 / 1977, founding members included George F. Kennan, Stephen F. Cohen, Jerome Wiesner, and Theodore Hesburgh. "... that "common sense" should determine U.S. trade policy with the USSR, specifically, that the U.S. should avoid economic boycotts and sanctions against the Soviet Union as such measures rarely worked. Instead, it argued, expanding American-Soviet trade would help advance the cause of détente..."};
sponsored visits by three Soviets to the US. In 1963 she signed up to teach a summer class in Russian at St. Mark's School in Dallas.
Ruth Paine met the Oswalds through her interest in Russian, in Everett Glover home
[the testimony of Everett D. Clover was taken on March 24, 1964, in the office of the U.S. attorney, in Dallas, Tex., by Mr. Albert E. Jenner, Jr.: "... June 2, 1955, I took a position with Socony Mobil Oil Co. ...
I met Marina first at the home of George De Mohrenschildt. ... I am not able to say when she (Marina) came to the De Mohrenschildts. Marina came to the De Mohrenschildts several times. ... Oswald had gone to Russia to live and had become a citizen.
... I have started to study Russian in connection with scientific work, because it is very valuable to be able to speak Russian, and I have always wanted to learn to speak Russian, but somehow I never got to do this..."],
on February 22, 1963 because he thought she would be interested in meeting people who spoke Russian. The party was arranged by Oswald's friend, 51-year-old Russian émigré George de Mohrenschildt, petroleum geologist with intelligence connections. The Paines and Oswalds spent much time together after the party. Ruth befriended Marina.
Ruth Paine drove Marina Oswald to New Orleans when the Oswalds moved there in May 1963 and back to Dallas when they moved again in September 1963. Marina and Lee's child, June, moved in with Ruth Paine the suburb of Irving, Texas while Lee stayed in a boarding house under the name O. H. Lee. "...Marina helped with the housework and Ruth's Russian studies while Lee visited on weekends. By this time Michael and Ruth had separated, ... Michael was a frequent visitor. At the suggestion of a neighbor, Ruth Paine told Lee Oswald about a job opportunity at the Texas School Book Depository".
Lee Harvey Oswald stayed at the Paine home with Marina and his children unannounced on Thursday night, November 21, 1963. "...When Oswald left for work on the morning of November 22, he brought a large package that he had kept in the Paine's garage with him to work at the Texas School Book Depository".

Now brief explanation:
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
is a nonpartisan nonprofit organization whose defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties ... It works through litigation and lobbying. ... Current positions of the ACLU include: ... supporting same-sex marriage and the right of LGBT people to adopt; supporting birth control and abortion rights; eliminating discrimination against women, minorities, and LGBT people... The ACLU consists of two separate organizations: the American Civil Liberties Union, and the ACLU Foundation.
The ACLU was founded in 1920 by Helen Keller, Roger Baldwin, Crystal Eastman, Walter Nelles, Morris Ernst, Albert DeSilver, Arthur Garfield Hays, Jane Addams, Felix Frankfurter, and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, "...and its focus was on freedom of speech, primarily for anti-war protesters".
Many of the ACLU's cases involved the defense of Communist party members and Jehovah's Witnesses.
Felix Frankfurter (1882 - 1965) was an lawyer, who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
He became a friend and adviser of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Frankfurter was born into a Jewish family in 1882, in Vienna, Austria; son of Leopold Frankfurter, a merchant, and Emma Winter; uncle, Solomon Frankfurter, was head librarian at the Vienna University Library;
Frankfurter's forebears had been rabbis for generations.

At margin:
Józef Hieronim Retinger (17 April 1888 – 12 June 1960) was a Polish political adviser.
Since 1906 in Paris, among his new friends was the Marquis de Castellane, and an artists from Left Bank cafes; 1908 docteur of Sorbonne, next Univ. of Munich, Florence ca 1907?, 1908 met masonry in London, 1911 Cracow under procection of Count Zamoyski and the Godebski family, and again in 1911 or 1912 to London, 1912 return to Cracow, married Otylia Zubrzycka; sometimes to Paris and again London where Józef Hieronim Retinger opened a bureau of the Supreme National Council; met with Joseph Conrad, 1914 ? and next he fled to Spain and met L. N. Morones and P. E. Calles,
moved in 1917 to Mexico; Józef Hieronim Retinger travelled to USA and met Felix Frankfurter and Sir Edward Bedington-Behrens. Felix Frankfurter b. 1882, in Vienna and immigrated to New York, Harvard Law School, friend and adviser of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1939; was born into a Jewish family of Leopold Frankfurter, a merchant;
Felix Frankfurter worked for Tenement House Department of New York City, friend with Walter Lippmann and Horace Kallen; an editor of the Harvard Law Review; law firm of Hornblower, Byrne, Miller & Potter in 1906, assistant to Henry Stimson, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York; law officer of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, used a donation from the financier Jacob Schiff to create a position; was appointed Judge Advocate General, supervising military courts-martial for the War Department; he was encouraged by Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis to become more
involved in Zionism. In 1918, he participated in the founding conference of the American Jewish Congress in Philadelphia; 1919, Frankfurter served as a Zionist delegate to the Paris Peace Conference.
Roosevelt nominated Frankfurter to the Supreme Court in 1939 (to 1962).

During 1st World War and after Józef Hieronim Retinger met in England with Stafford Cripps, Winston Churchill, Marshall Horatio Herbert Lord Kitchener.
In Paris since 1906: with Georges Clemenceau, Paul Valery, Andre Gide, Maurice Ravel; in 1916 in Paris met with Arthur Capel, 1924 to Edmund Dene Morel in London. In 1917 Józef Hieronim Retinger traveled to Mexico, where he became an unofficial political adviser to union organizer Luis Morones and President Plutarco Elías Calles. Later, during World War II, he advised the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile, General Władysław Sikorski.
After 1930 Józef Hieronim Retinger co-operated with Sikorski, Korfanty, Kot, Popiel, Witos and Paderewski.

Helen Adams Keller (1880 - 1968) was an American political activist; "...a member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage, labor rights, socialism, antimilitarism...".

Back to PAINE:
Michael Ralph Paine b. 1928;
his mother was
Ruth Forbes Young, financial backer of International Peace Academy;
"... a founder of the International Peace Academy in 1970. She also co-founded Berkeley's Institute for the Study of Consciousness with her third husband, Arthur M. Young. ... the daughter of Ralph Emerson Forbes and Elise Cabot. She was a great-granddaughter of Ralph Waldo Emerson and a niece of William Cameron Forbes (Governor-General of the Philippines 1908 - 1913). ... Forbes married architect Lyman Paine in the mid-1920s...".

The International Peace Institute / IPI / the International Peace Academy,
policy development institution; chairman of the Board of Directors:
Rita Hauser, born of Jewish parents;
Hauser was the daughter of Nathan and Frieda (Litt) Abrams / Rita Eleanor (Abrams).
Vice Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer: Mortimer Benjamin Zuckerman, owner, Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the New York Daily News newspaper
and U. S. News and World Report magazine; Mortimer Benjamin "Mort" Zuckerman born in 1937, in Montreal, Canada, the son of Esther and Abraham Zuckerman;
family was Jewish, and his grandfather was an Orthodox rabbi.

Back to Michael Ralph Paine:
Paine worked at Bartol Research Foundation in Swarthmore; then worked for his mother's third husband Arthur M. Young, making helicopter models in Pennsylvania. In 1958, Paine became employed at Bell Helicopter through Young;
"...on February 22, 1963, Ruth Paine attended a party ... at the home of Everett Glover, who knew Ruth spoke Russian and thought she would be interested in meeting a couple he knew, Marina and Lee Harvey Oswald. ... Michael met the Oswalds for the first time on April 2, 1963. when he picked up Lee, Marina, and their baby daughter, June at their apartment at 214 West Neely Street in Dallas so that they could join with him in the small meet and greet dinner Mrs. Paine had cooked for them ... Lee Harvey Oswald rented a room in Dallas but stored some of his possessions in Paine's garage, including a supposed rifle wrapped in a blanket which Paine thought to be camping equipment. Paine's wife helped Oswald get a job at the Texas School Book Depository. ... In 1964, Paine testified that he was a member of [named above] the American Civil Liberties Union".

We look now at the genealogy
CARL MAGNUS Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803, Yoggis / Jogisoo near KEILA
(see HACKER or Hakker family next of kin to the ARMANDS and PASZKOWSKI - Konstantynowicz)
- 8 km east-south (or in Padis / Padise), he died in 1862, Revel, the owner of Jogisoo / Yoggisa and Pallu ca 6 km south of above named Jogisoo, in Estonia (Yoggis / Jogisoo / Yoggisa / Jöggis).
Chief of District. Baronial title in 1855.
His wife was Katharina Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt / MORENSHILD / Katharina Augusta Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1811 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland that is Kreuz Hof, died in 1855, Revel, the daughter of Berend von Mohrenschildt, owner of Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald and Eleanor Juliana Elisabeth von Rosenthal.
That is Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth Rosenthal daughter of Gustav Heinrich von Wetter-Rosenthal.
Above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), died 1861 in Kreuzhof; he was father of
Katharina Augusta Elisabeth;
Alexander Behrend Heinrich von Mohrenschildt;
Maria Katharina Juliane;
Karl Gustav Konstantin von Mohrenschildt;
Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt;
Elisabeth (Lilly) Auguste; Emilie; Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt; Alexandrine Nathalie Karoline, and
(Karl) Reinhold von Mohrenschildt.
Mentioned above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt was son of
Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt, 1748 - 1817 who was son of
Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt b. 1718 and Marie von Ramm;
come from Hans Heinrich von Mohrenschildt from Tallinn.

CARL MAGNUS Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 was a cousin of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau, husband of Princess Kudasheva Kitty b. 1811, granddaughter of Field Marshal Kutuzov.
The second Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein.

Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 was son of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm; father of Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau; Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau; Reinhold Berend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau and Karl Julius Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau;
brother of Emilie Caroline Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Gertrude Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1806.
Mentioned above Katharina Augusta Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1811, was daughter of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth.

Mentioned above
Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau married Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm; Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777 and died in 1847 in Jöggis (Jogisoo);
he was son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau 1734 - 1801 in Jöggis / Jogisoo;
the grandson of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1709 - 1752 in Reval;
great-grandson of Friedrich Jakob Pilar von Pilchau 1675 - 1710,
who was son of Nikolaus Georg Pilar von Pilchau.

Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in St Petersburg, d. 1922, was daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Katharina Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau / Kitty Ekaterina Nikolajevna.
Maria was wife of Leonid Nikolaevich Horvath; she was mother of Dmitri Horvath (was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov);
sister of Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau, Elisabeth Shuvalov, Theodor / Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau. All above acc. to Peter Trefilov on July 25, 2009, under copyright by
Katharina Kitty / Ekaterina Nikolajevna / Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau nee Koudaschew, b. 1811, daughter of Danilovitch Kudashev; she was wife of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Hermann Napoleon von Hoyningen-Huene; was mother of above Maria Pilar von Pilchau; Nikolai; Elisabeth Lizine Shuvalova, Theodor Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau.

Above Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of Ottilie Gustava von Lüder, Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau, acc. to: Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina.

Above Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 was son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

Above named Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 (Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau died in 1801 in Jöggis), was father of

Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761;

Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau;

Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau;
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and

Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau;

Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769.

His wife was Maria Becu with her children:

Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and

a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802.

Magnus Fabian's closest next of kin: Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein; фон Людер / Luder who died 1857.

Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 was brother of Dorothea Charlotta Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau.
Acc. to Peter Trefilov and Bernard von Schulmann.

Mentioned above Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 was son of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm;
he was brother of Emilie Caroline Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Gertrude Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1806. Above named Emilia CAROLINA ELIZABETH b. 1804, Ladis - died in 1891, she was State-lady in Katarinenhale.
Gertrude Elizabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1806, married in 1829, Jogisoo, to Berend von Mohrenschildt d. 1861 owner of Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland that is Krayskhofa;
his daughter from his first marriage married to the brother of his wife.
Berend Robert / Behrend von Mohrenschildt, b. on July 3, 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), died on January 9, 1861 in Kreuzhof (Risti); he was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie; husband of Margaretha Ulrika Juliane von Mohrenschildt; Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt and above named Gertrude Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt;
he was father of Katharina Augusta Elisabeth; Alexander Behrend Heinrich von Mohrenschildt; Maria Katharina Juliane; Karl Gustav Konstantin von Mohrenschildt; Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt; Elisabeth (Lilly) Auguste; Emilie; Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt; Alexandrine Nathalie Karoline von Mohrenschildt and (Karl) Reinhold von Mohrenschildt.
Copyright by Peter Trefilov at

George De Mohrenschildt's spouses:
Dorothy Pierson / Pherson ? m. 1942 - 1944, Phyllis Washington, Wynne Sharples and Jeanne LeGon.

De Mohrenschildt was born Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt in MOZYRZ / Mozyr (see Bulhak family and Ipohorski) in Belarus, in 1911.
He had an older brother, Dimitri / Dymitr.
His father was Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt;
his mother, Alexandra / Aleksandra Zopalsky / ALEKSANDRA ZAPOLSKA, of Polish descent.
Sergey von Mohrenschildt was a Marshal of Nobility of the Minsk Province 1913 - 1917 (see Karol Hutten - Czapski and Duflon & Konstantynowicz in Minsk), and an Actual Civil Councilor; 1920, Sergy von Mohrenschildt was arrested by the Bolsheviks;
while awaiting transport to Veliky Ustyug, Sergey became ill. The Soviet government released Sergey, his wife and De Mohrenschildt then fled to Poland;
De Mohrenschildt's older brother Dimitri was awaiting execution but was later released in a prisoner exchange in Poland;
Alexandra died ca 1922 in Poland.
De Mohrenschildt lived in Wilno (here the Konstantynowiczs), Jerzy was graduated from the Wilno gymnasium in 1929 and later graduated from Polish Cavalry Academy in 1931.
Then he completed a dissertation on the economic influence of the U.S. on Latin America; in Liege in Belgium in 1938. Jerzy / George de Mohrenschildt moved to the United States in 1938; changed his surname to de Mohrenschildt;
he was working for German intelligence?
He was hired by the Shumaker company in New York City, which also employed Pierre Fraiss - the French intelligence spy. He lived together with his older brother Dimitri von Mohrenschildt on Long Island, New York -
Dimitri was the founder of the CIA's Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty;
Dimitri died in 2002.
De Mohrenschildt became acquainted with the Bouvier family, including young Jacqueline Bouvier, future wife of John F. Kennedy, and he became a friend of Jacqueline's aunt Edith Bouvier Beale.
He helped raise money for the Polish resistance after ca 1940.
George Sergius de Mohrenschildt b. 1911, d. 1977, befriended Lee Harvey Oswald in the summer of 1962 and maintained that friendship until Oswald's death, two days after the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy.
After Kennedy was assassinated, De Mohrenschildt testified before the Warren Commission in April 1964. In 1976, the CIA requested that the FBI locate De Mohrenschildt, because he had "attempted to get in touch with the CIA Director."
In 1976, De Mohrenschildt had written a letter to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, George H. W. Bush, asking for his assistance. He was acquainted with the Bush family; George H. W. Bush had roomed with De Mohrenschildt's nephew, Edward G. Hooker, at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts.
His father was a marshal of nobility in Minsk Province, and he served as director of the Nobel interests in Russia.
A descendant of the de Mohrenschildt family, Baron Hilienfelt, was a Baltic Swede, fought in the American Army of Independence.
An uncle, Ferdinand de Mohrenschildt, was First Secretary of the last Russian Embassy in Washington under the Tsar government.
De Mohrenschildt's brother, Dimitri von Mohrenschildt, emigrated to the United States and became a professor at Dartmouth University.
De Mohrenschildt's father was jailed by the Communist regime in 1920, but a friends of the government intervened to secure his release. He was jailed again in 1921 and was banished to Siberia for life. Sergius von Mohrenschildt escaped with his family to Poland.
His family regained (1922 / 1924 ?) an estate had held in Russia near the Polish border (close to Minsk ?). It was money from that estate that George do Mohrenschildt brought to the United States in 1938 when he started his first business interest.
I wrote above his father was Sergiusz / Sergei / Sergis Alexander Von Mohrenschildt, mother was Alexandra Zopalsky.
His father and uncle, ran the Branobel Oil Company in Baku (see Duflon and Konstantynowicz in Petersburg). In 1918 De Mohrenschildt lived in Minsk (from Baku ?). In 1944 George De Mohrenschildt told the FBI that Sergius Von Mohrenschildt was a Vice President of the Nobel Oil Company in Russia with holdings in Poland and Russia prior to and during World War I;
his father continued in the oil business until the confiscation of these holdings in 1918 / 1920.
By Tommy Wilkens:
Baron George De Mohrenschildt born 1911 in Mozyr, comes from the Baltic Germans. His father was Baron Sergius Alexander Von Mohrenschildt;
1918 De Mohrenschildt lived in Minsk, probably in St. Petersburg, or Moscow; 1922 Sergius was released from Soviet prison due to health problems ?!;
1929 George DeMohrenschildt volunteered for the Polish Army and attended a Polish military academy in Grudziadz; 1931 George / Jurij was graduated from the Polish military academy with rank of sergeant; then in Liege, and returned to Poland to take part in military summer maneuvrs.
The de Mohrenschildts were major players in the global oil business since the beginning of the twentieth century, and their paths crossed with the Rockefellers; George de Mohrenschildt’s uncle and father ran the Swedish Nobel Brothers Oil Company's operations in Baku;
1915, the Russian government dispatched a second uncle of George de Mohrenschildt, the young diplomat Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt, to Washington to plead for American intervention in the war (see Koziell POKLEWSKI);
1917, Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt's mission was a success;
he was often in the company of Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, of the family then befriending Prescott Bush and about to hire Prescott's future father-in-law, George Herbert Walker.
Ferdinand married the step-granddaughter of President Woodrow Wilson.
Emanuel Nobel sold half of the Baku holdings to Standard Oil of New Jersey, with John D. Rockefeller Jr. personally authorizing the payment of $11.5 million (see more at my webpages).

The genealogy of Alexandra Zapolski is very important and any traces lead to Mozyr, to the family Zapolski Downar / Downar-Zapolski.
This case must be deeply research.
In the Minsk county in 1791 we have 2 persons Downar, in the parishes: Uzda and Iwieniec.
Mitrofan Downar – Zapolski b. 1867, in Rzeczyca, in the Minsk government, died in 1934; son of Wiktor Zapolski Downar b. 1827; Mitrofan was historian, professor in 1902. He studied in Baranovichi village, then in Plovdiv in Bulgaria,
in Rzeczyca in ca 1877,
Minsk in 1878,
the gymnasium in Mozyrz / MOZYR in ca 1878 - 1885,
gymnasium in KIEV since 1885 to 1888. In 1918 in Minsk served the Belarusian People's Republic founded on March 25, 1918 in Minsk and replaced by a Communist government on January 5, 1919. He worked in BAKU. In 1925 - 1926 in Minsk again.
His father was collegiate secretary, and chief clerk of the district gendarmerie in MOZYR / MOZYRZ (and RZECZYCA ?).
By the nineteenth century Dovnar-Zapolsky family lost the status of the middle gentry, nevertheless, the Russian Senate in 1843, enrolled to the nobility clans, the family of Mitrofan Viktorovich, of the Minsk province as the ancient hereditary nobility. It has managed in 1802 to the great-grandfather of Mitrofan, that is Antoni Zapolski Downar born ca 1775, with his sons: among others youngest MARCIN Zapolski who was born in ca 1800.
Marcin was the father of Wiktor Zapolski b. 1827 in Rzeczyca;
Wiktor was appointed in Rechitsa district as court clerk in ca 1850; the Rechitsa district was the biggest in Minsk province.
He married a local noblewoman Alexandra Stanislavovna Lindaher (Lindauer ?), the Orthodox faith, and in this marriage were born five children, among whom was Mitrofan b. 1867 in Rechitsa / Rzeczyca. Soon, the family split up, the mother with the younger daughters moved to Bulgaria in ca 1875, to the eldest son Peter, b. ca 1852, who was served the Bulgarian military.
Mitrofan was living only with father after 1876, who was able to rise to the positions of the Rechitsa Gendarmerie (ca 1877).
In Mozyr 1878 - 1885.
Maybe here Aleksandra Zapolska / Zapolska Downar was born 1879 as daughter of Wiktor Zapolski Downar, b. 1827 in Rzeczyca;
we remember in 1911 in Mozyr was born Jurij / George von Mohrenschildt, because his father was here a teacher.
Mitrofan moved in 1885 to Kiev but his father was living in Mozyr.

The Mohrenschilt / Mohrenschildt - the Baltic-German noble family.
They were living in Estonia:
in Nurme, Seidla, Sipoo, Jogisoo, Hatu, Valingu, Cross, Kumna, Haiba, Laitse, Vacation, Leebiku, Kurisoo.
There were eight Estonian families with the name von Mohrenschildt. These families owned 12 estates.
Hatu is a village in Padise Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia. The property belonged to the Baltic German families of Mohrenschildt and Ramm. The last owner before the Estonian Declaration of Independence was Fridolf Gustav-Adolf von Ramm.

Berend Otto Johann Baron von Maydell, 1793-1870, married 2nd time to Leontine von Mohrenschildt who was the aunt of George von Mohrenschildt.
Above Leontine Ernestine Ulrike von Mohrenschildt (from Lehhet / Lehetu, the Nissi vald, Harjumaa, Estland) born in 1812 in Kegel = Keila, Harjumaa, Estonia, died in 1890 in Reval, was daughter of
Friedrich von Mohrenschildt from Pachel and Henriette von Koskull from Kegel / KEILA
(see Dunkel family next of kin Konstantynowicz).

Above named Pahkla (Pachel) - knight manor in Hageri Parish, Harjumaa County, 24 km south-east of SAKU (see at maps of Keila-Saue-Saku).

Mentioned above Friedrich Johann von Mohrenschildt b. 1785 and died in 1854 in Reval (Tallinn), was son of
Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Douglas!
Friedrich Johann von Mohrenschildt was brother of Berend Wilhelm von Mohrenschildt; Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt; Margarethe Juliane, and Ottilie Helene Beata.

Remember that Jurij or George von Mohrenschildt (the friend of Lee OSWALD) was grandson of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt b. 1831,
and great-grandson of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt 1787 - 1834;
great-great-grandson of Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Gfin. Douglas (see about the DOUGLAS family in Italy, Scotland and Estonia at my webpages).

Mentioned above Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt, 1756 - 1820 in Reval, was son of Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt and Marie von Ramm; husband of Ottilie Helene Douglas
(see: Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt b. 1748, son of Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt and Marie von Ramm).
Above Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt, 1718 - 1789 in Reval, was son of Berend Johann von Mohrenschildt who died in 1732 in Kurkse, Padise Parish, Harju County, Estonia; grandson of Hans Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and great-grandson of Bernhard Koch von Mohrenschildt and Christina von Lohn.

Brother of above George was
Dmitri von Mohrenschildt born in the HLUSK / GLUSK region, near Bobruisk in 1902 - died in 2002, a professor at Stanford University, one of the founders of the CIA Radio Free Europe.
Dmitri was a prominent Russian historian and former Hoover fellow, died on 9 June 2002 in India.
Dmitri studied ca 1912 to 1916 at the Minsk college, then in Sevastopol. Dmitri received his early education in the Naval Cadet School. In 1918 lived again in German-occupied Minsk.
But after the German withdrawal in December 1918, Dimitri and his father were soon arrested, and Dimitri spent nearly a year in prisons in Minsk and Smolensk. After he was finally released in late 1919, his parents arranged for him to travel to Poland as a hostage in exchange for someone; he worked as a merchant seaman; then at Yale University in 1922. Graduating in 1926; 1936 Columbia University. He taught Russian history at Dartmouth College from 1942 to 1947; 1971 von Mohrenschildt published a materials on the Russian Revolution; in 1976 von Mohrenschildt left for India, where he settled in the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in Pondicherry.

West of the Berezyna river, and close to Bobruisk / Bobrujsk stronghold were living in the 19th century the Bulhak, Konstantynowicz, Szostak, Dzierzynski, Tatur, Czajkowski families:
The parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz
(grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich):
Константинович Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county.
They were living in Gorochovka / Gorochovo, south-west of Bobrujsk / Bobruisk, ca 20 km, close to Fortuny: north-west of Gorochovka, and south of Glusha, close to Gorochovka, Rimovcy, Spornoje; east-south-east of Simonovichi (see: Bulhak family).

Glusha, Glusza, at half way from Bobruisk to Simonovichi, west of above Bobruisk / Bobrujsk; ca 28 km north-east-north of Glusk / Hlusk, and south-east of Osipovichi / Osipowicze.
Snustik / Снустик - east of Pukhavichy and Maryina Gorka, and west of Gradzyanka, and south-east of Turin / Turyn (Bulhak family) in the Igumen / Ihumen county / Игумен.

Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas and Aldona, the house Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898; married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska. The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.
In above named Zawołoczyce was the Bernardine filial chapel, like in Chromce (near Bobruisk).

Zawołoczyce that is Заволочицы, Zavalochycy, Zavolochicy, Zavolochitsy close to Simanavichi; west of Glusha, ca 38 km west of Bobruisk / Bobruisk.
Glusha, Glusza, at half way from Bobruisk to Simonovichi, west of above Bobruisk / Bobrujsk; ca 28 km north-east-north of Glusk / Hlusk, and south-east of Osipovichi / Osipowicze.

Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833 died 1902, + Maria Billewicz has 12 children, among others
Helena Piłsudski b. 1864 d. 1917, Zofia Kadenac b. 1865 + Bolesław Kadenac,
Bronisław Piłsudski,
Józef Piłsudski,
Adam Piłsudski / Адам Гинятович Косьчеша Пилсудский b. 1869,
Kazimierz Piłsudski,
Maria Juchniewiczowa / Juchniewicz b. 1873 + Cezary Juchniewicz.

In 1887, Peter / P. L. Wittgenstein died; he was the son of Lev Petrovich Wittgenstein;
Peter L. Wittgenstein b. 1831, Vilna Province, Lieutenant-General, a military agent in France, the Russian-Turkish war, one of the richest landowners of the Russian Empire.
Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county, lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk. This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh.
Above Lew / Prince Lev Wittgenstein / Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn b. June 7, 1799, the eldest son of Field Marshal Count Peter Xristianovich Wittgenstein / Piotr Christianovich Wittgenstein and Antoinette Stanislavovna Snarskii / Antuanetta Snarski / Antuaneta Snarska.
He was married twice:
1. 1828 to Princess Stefania nee Radziwill, daughter of above Dominik Radziwill and Theophile Morawska;
with two children:
Maria or Antoinette Carolina - Stefania, and Peter / Peter Dominic Ludwig 1832-1887, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General.
2. Princess Leonilla Baryatinskaya Ivanovna.
Stefania Wittgenstein b. Paris 1809, d. 1832, nee Radziwill - father Dominik Radziwill b. 1786, d. 1813; mother Teofila Morawska. Stefania was owner about 12000 km˛ that is 1 mln ha in Belarus (Miezonka...) and Lithuania.
The Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county,
lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk.
This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh.

The Zbieranowski family was living in Лясковичи / Ляскавічы / Liaskavichi / Laskowicze, ca 28 km south-east of Prusy, close to Albinsk, Choromcy, Zabolotse, south of Glusk / Mogilev Province, Belarus; south of Dokol; south of Simanavichi, where was a property of Bulhak (Dzierzynska Aldona, Jerzy Bulhak).
Zawoloczyce is located south-east of Simonovichi, ca 2 km, and west of Glusha, north of Liaskavichi ca 45 km.
The Bulhak family:
Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk.
1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi;
1890, the estate Bluza / Блужа-Городно close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family, west of Lapichi, south-east of Marina-Gorka;
Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесничи of the Копыльского р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937.
Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи, south-east of Osipovichi, close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo;
Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937.
Kamionka or Matseevich from Lipovskii in 1861 and Мацевичи / Matsevichi of Bulhak in 1867 - Mateevichi, south of Ugodino, near by Kamienka / Kamionka; west of Talka, and south of Marina Gorka;
Булгак Борис Николаевич b. 1907 in Macevichi / Мацевичи. Матевичи / Мацевичи / Matewitschi / Maciejewicze i.e. Macevicy (inf. about location above), and Zuki, Budzilowka and Kondratowicze.
Budzilowka / Будзиловка in the Беломльская волость / Bielomlskaja volost;
Zabrodok / Забродок and Beresniewka / Бересневка belonged to the Bulhak family / Булгак.
Wincenty BULHAK, son of Stanisław Wincenty Michał Bulhak, 1807-09 office in Mozyr district. His wife Dubrawska / Dabrowska; relatives of Emanuel Bułhak.

Acc. to 'Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften', Görlitz 1930 -
Theodor Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. Reval in 1805 m. 2nd to Pauline Wilhelmine Rehbinder b. 1818. Pauline Wilhelmine Rehbinder b. 1818 in Wastemois, d. 1905 in Reval (Tallinn), daughter of Gustav Wilhelm von Rehbinder and Charlotte Margarethe Helene von Lantingshausen; mother of Theodor Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt (b. 1841 in Wredenhagen / Maidla mois, Haggers / Hageri, Harrien / Harjumaa) and Roman Viktor von Mohrenschildt; sister of Woldemar von Rehbinder; Emilie Charlotte and Elisabeth Betty Auguste von Rehbinder b. 1824 in Sarrakus, Livland.
Baron George De Mohrenschildt, a Russian, an Estonian by birth, a Baltic German by last name, a Swedish-Scottish by origin, and a Pole according to his passport. George / Jurij / Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt April 17, 1911 in Mozyr / Mozyrz in the Minsk government - was the son of Sjergei / Siergiej b. 1870.

Siergei's son (+ Aleksandra Zapolski / Gapolski m. in 1901) was also
Dmitri b. March 1902 in the Hlusk district, the Minsk gevernment
- that is Dimitri Sergius Von Mohrenschildt, 1902-2002.
Hlusk / Глуск / Glussk in Moghilev Region, Belarus, ca 50 km south-west of Bobrujsk / Bobruisk at way to Liaskovichi of the Zbieranowskis; see Konstantynowicz, Dzierzynski and Bulhak (Aldona Dzierzynska was living here!) in this area.

Acc. to the Russian source:
George De Mohrenschildt / Morenshild, stated, that was born in 1911 in Mozyr, but his next of kin thought he was born in Georgia, maybe born in 1914. His family comes from a Swedish family (and from Scotland !), but was of the Greek Catholic religion. His father served the Nobel family in Baku, but also worked on oil development in Romania; after 1939 George promoted in the Polish resistance to the rank of lieutenant colonel and spent most of the war in London as a liaison officer. He arrived in America in 1938, but, according to him, in 1939, returned to Poland to serve the army, but in the same year, returned to America. In the US, takes part in various operations; maybe for the French intelligence service of De Gaulle, who fought with the Germans, but also for Marshal Petain; he became known for his contacts with many German agents. But the war years he spent as a neutral film producer in Mexico, in 1944, changed his name, returned to the United States, less than a year receive a diploma of the petroleum engineer;
1957 he spent several months in Yugoslavia after verification by the State Department; 1958 he went on a long journey through Africa: Togo, Ghana, Dahomey; and back out through Poland. He was in Czechoslovakia. In 1959, he and his wife traveled to Mexico, and met Anastas Mikoyan. In 1960, the couple De Mohrenschildt gone for almost a year to the Central or South America.

Acc. to a book 'PRL in Dallas...', about the assassination of President Kennedy, above named George De Mohrenschildt, who as George von Mohrenschildt, first came to the United States, as a Polish citizen (to ca 1952), just before World War II, was the best friend of Lee Oswald.
George edited films about the Polish underground, with the cooperation of the Polish embassy in Washington. However, British intelligence warned about his possible cooperation with Germany;
his father Sergei Von Mohrenschildt, was anti-communist, and ca 1940 decreed German nationality and, he left Vilnius to Germany.
George questioned by Mr. Jenner, on behalf of the Warren Commission, related his biography: a cavalry school in Poland, and doctorate studies in Belgium and three marriages with the daughters of millionaires.
Mr Pacepa and Antoni J. Wrega of Warsaw, cites other sources.
According to Ion Mihai Pacepa, De Mohrenschildt was the so-called "officer support" to Oswald; Consul Valery Vladimirovich Kostikow / Kostin from the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Mexico City was the officer in charge of the case to Oswald,
who on 28 September and 1 October met Oswald in Mexico;
Kostikow was an employee of the Department of the KGB for homicide and sabotage.
Interesting that President Kennedy received from Golitsyn ("Martel"), a KGB officer who defected to the United States, information on the Soviet spies located among others in France, and in Italy. Total about 200 spies in the structures of NATO countries. Spring 1962, John F. Kennedy handed over to the President of France, Charles de Gauelle, data about Soviet infiltration in France. The Report of the Warren Commission showed several so-called "Polish traces". An example of a certain professor, James Dombrowski, with Polish origin, the most prominent activist of the Communist Party of the United States in the South. Especially, however, the figure of George De Mohrenschildt, to at least 1952 a Polish citizen. Media reports about the special role played in 1962 - 1963 by marriage of De Mohrenschildt: George and Jeanne, to Lee Harvey and Marina Oswald, lasted approx. 8 months, from the middle of summer 1962.
George's father was a teacher in high school in Mozyrz, and later vice-president of the oil company, owned by Alfred Nobel in Baku; he was also the Marshal of the nobility in the province of Minsk, and after the outbreak of the revolution Nov. 1917 even deputy minister of agriculture of the Soviet Belarus (1919). In 1922 Sergei von Mohrenschildt found himself in exile in Vilnius, where he was director of the Russian emigre school.
George / Yurij graduated in Polish school in Vilnius in 1929, then studied at one and half year military officers' school of Cavalry in Grudziadz, who graduated as sergeant - candidate for lieutenant in 1931. After he went - with a Polish passport - to study at the School of Commerce in Antwerp, with a doctorate on the natural resources of Latin America at the University of Liege, Belgium. In 1938, with 10 thousands dollars, De Mohrenschildt arrived to the United States. He lived for several months in the apartments of the daughter of the Queen of Yugoslavia, Madame de Lipovatz, trying various businesses after the outbreak of war in 1939. Cooperated with the Polish Consul in New York, Sylwin Jerzy Strakacz, previously confidential secretary of Ignacy Paderewski. Acted together with his cousin, Baron Konstantin von Maydell, apparently an officer of the Abwehr.
Married 4th time in 1958 to 1975, to the fashion designer Jeanne Legon, born as Evgenija Fomenko, Russian from Charbin, northern China, ex wife of Sergei Bogojawlienski;
in 1960, couple of De Mohrenschildt set off on a hike, over 3 thousand miles away, as interpreter all, from the Mexican border with Texas, to the Panama Canal;
in Mexico, they faced with a very important Bolshevik head, Anastazy Mikoyan, the old Bolshevik guard, brother of the constructor of MIG.
In June 1963 George was in Haiti; along with Jeanne, in Haiti are looking for oil and there finds the tragedy in Dallas. George had numerous contacts with Poles: Rey family, meets in Caracas, Venezuela with the then Polish Deputy Minister of Science, chemist, prof. Osman Achmatowicz. Also he corresponds with Mr. Domanska in Warsaw, probably before the war famous Miss Achmatowicz; and with Strumillo from Paris;
but in Port-au-Prince, the Haitian capital, he known the head of the Commercial Counsellor's Office (subordinate to the Polish Embassy in Mexico), attache Wlodzimierz Galicki and Kazimierz Sałaciński.
On 9 August 1964 George and Jeanne De Mohrenschildt met with Wlodzimierz Galicki, and Wojciech STAWINSKI, a Polish national who arrived in Haiti for the first time, by plane on the same day. Stawiński was a member of the "Universal", Polish state-owned commercial organization. Stawiński left the Venezuela to Quito.
29 March 1977, on the eve of a testify before the Commission of the Chamber of Representatives, George De Mohrenschildt shot himself in the throat, leaving a letter in defense of Oswald.

We need check:
In 1915, the Russian government dispatched a second uncle of George de Mohrenschildt, the young diplomat Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt, to Washington to plead for American intervention in the war (see Koziell POKLEWSKI); 1917, Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt's mission was a success; he was often in the company of Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, of the family then befriending Prescott Bush and about to hire Prescott's future father-in-law, George Herbert Walker. Ferdinand married the step-granddaughter of President Woodrow Wilson.

Von Mohrenschildt Ferdinand was son of Karl Johann Ferdinand Mohrenschildt b. 1841. That is Ferdinand Theodor b. in 1870 in Reval, d. Dec. 1918, Reval, m. 1904 in Reval to Irma Sophie Broszewicz / Broschewitz b. 1881 daughter of Johann (JAN BROSZEWICZ) and Amalie (Amalie Girard of Goa canton ?).

Above named Ferdinand's children:
Olga Marie b. 1906 in Reval; Brigitte Dorothea b. 1908 Reval; Ursula Alice b. Nov. 1913 in Reval. See: Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften, © BSB München.

Sjergei / Siergiej b. 1870 married to Aleksandra Zapolski / Gapolski / ZAPOLSKA in 1901.

Siergei's son was Dmitri b. March 1902 in the Hlusk district, the Minsk gevernment - that is Dimitri Sergius Von Mohrenschildt, 1902-2002.
Sergei b. 1870 was son of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt b. 1831 - d. 1904, and L. Nikonov. Heinrich was son of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Luise Wilhelmine Anna Alexandra von Doerper.
Heinrich's children: Wladimir; Nikolai; Siergei / Sergei; Konstantin b. 1858; Aleksander; and Peter.
Heinrich was brother of Julie Friederike Ulrike; Ottilie Alexandra von Tobiesen; Helene Ottilie Mathilde; Peter Ludwig Hugo von Mohrenschildt; Olga Wilhelmine Lisette Auguste; Oskar Johann von Mohrenschildt; Emilie Nathalie Elisabeth; Eduard Fromhold Gustav von Mohrenschildt and Nikolaus Ewald Konstantin von Mohrenschildt.

Brief note on Artuzow - Frautchi:
In the history of intelligence services Artuzov Arthur Frauchi was headed counterintelligence, foreign intelligence and military intelligence.
He was born 1891 in the village Ustinovo, Kashin County, Tver province
(Dubbelt or Dubelt family in Kuvshinovo, Tver region = Russia, Tver Oblast, Kuvshinovo, close to Puzakovo; ca 120 km west of Tver),
his father Christian Frautschi was a master cheesemaker in the estate of the landowner Likhachev. Frauchi father remained a Swiss citizen;
mother, Augusta Avgustovna Didrikil, Latvian descent, taught him French and German, and then he taught himself English.
Family of Christian Frautschi, came from Switzerland to Russia in 1881 and settled in the estate of landowner Popov, Apashkovo, Tver province, where his older brother Paul / Peter Frautschi, arrived in this region 1879, next in Yurino estate, manor Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putjatino, the village Davydkovo / Davydovo, 17 km north-west of Kashin, and north-east of Tver.
Cheesemaker was working in the estate Mykolaivk, and Christian Frautschi married Augusta Didrikil, Didrikil family was of mixed origin, the Latvian and Estonian, her grandfather was a Scot; after the wedding, the young family settled in the estate at Kashin County, Tver province.
The ancestors of the Frautschi family were Italians, but they settled in that part of the country, where lived natives of Germany, village in the mountains - Gstaad, about an hour away by car from Bern and ca 2 km only from Saanen; ca 30 km east of Villeneuve; here were always Frautschi, all generation were cheesemaker; spoke a strange dialect of German; Christian Frautschi, went to Russia from this village;
Christian's Petrovich daughter Nina came home in Gstaad during the holidays at summer of 1912.
House was unhurt now, the house is so empty since 1912.
Elisee Reclus and Piotr Kropotkin were living in Clarens, Montreux.
L'Abbaye - Breguet.
Abetel in Riex, Lausanne.
Morges - Duflon.
Demontet - in Villette in the Vaud province. Cully is near to Riex. Villette or Lavaux close to Lutry and Cully.
Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel and La Chaux-de-Fonds is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuchâtel. Also St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne, Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, Tavannes, north of Neuchatel.
Villeneuve is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located ca 30 km east-south of Lausanne;
Duflon family gone from Nimes 1584, Lutry 1852, Neuchatel, in Paris 1801 - 1877 Louis Duflon. Duflon in 1906 in d'Ardon, south-east of Villeneuve. Also in La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km. The DUFLON family 1745 - 1815 was living in Riex of the Vaud province / Vaud canton, Switzerland / Suisse.
M. Wilczek from Lausanne, and Michael Dobrovolsky / Michail / Michal Dobrowolski 1903 - 1907 in Lausanne.
Jean Rey / Jean-Alexandre REY b. 1861 in Lausanne / Lauzanne, Switzerland. His first wife Marie Sautter b. 1870, daughter of Louis Sautter - founder of LEMONNIER - HARLE and Co. with Paul LEMONNIER.
Diserens or Dizeren among other things, it were the villages and towns:
CLARENS located east from Lausanne, also Villette, Cully and Riex. Villette or Lavaux is located close to Lutry and Cully.
Shortly before the First World War Kedrov graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Lausanne.
At margin - we know about Anna Frauchi, b. 1716 in Koppigen, Bern district, Switzerland, died in 1756, Switzerland, married 1774 in Jegenstorf, Bern, Switzerland.
Didrikil Maria Gieorgievna, born 1872, in the Armed Forces of South Russia and evacuated at the end of January 1920 from Novorossiysk on the ship 'Hannover'.
Somebody of the Frauchi / Frautchi in Rapperswil-Jona, close to Zurich; Turbach ca 5 km east of Saanen.
Johann Jakob Frautschi / Jacob Jacques Frautschi in 1842, used passport to travel from Switzerland between Canton Berne and Paris, living in Gessenai (Saanen/Gessenay or Saanen, east of Montreux ca 28 km, close to Versoix, near by Rougemont; and now in Schonried close to Saanen; east of Villeneuve), aged 44 years, who was native of Gesseney, who wanted to return to France, married 1843 to Elise Perrin, aged 34 years.
Marie Elise Perin / Perrin was born 28 May 1814, and was baptised in 1815 in the parish of Briel (Biel / Bienne, ca 35 km north-east of Neuchatel).

Note at margin - acc. to
"George H. W. Bush failed to disclose his friendship with George De Mohrenschildt, a renowned oil geologist and Lee Harvey Oswald's best friend in Dallas. They knew each other since 1942, probably even longer, because in 1939 he went to work for Humble Oil, a company founded by Prescott Bush. In 1977, when De Mohrenschildt is located by investigators of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, who want to interview him, he allegedly commits suicide the following day. The last person to interview him on the day he died, is Jay Edward Epstein, a writer - historian and a known apologist for the Warren Report since day one. Epstein married a CIA agent and is the biographer of former CIA-director James Jesus Angleton, presumably in charge of Oswald's "defection" to Russia. Interestingly, Epstein is also the "consultant" that was suddenly hired by NBC in 1995, when NBC was making a program for national TV on the confession of James E. Files".

Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt / George Sergius de Mohrenschildt was son of Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt, who had brothers:
1. Konstantin son of Alexander, collegiate counselor, the Chairman of the Board of the shipbuilding company and a mechanical plant in St. Petersburg. Member of the Board and Managing Director of the mining and oil industry in Ferghana.
2. Morenshild Vladimir son of above Alexandr / Aleksander De Mohrenschildt, was born in 1854. Midshipman - 1876. The senior officer of the battleship "Vice Admiral Popov" (1896). Senior Officer of "Terets" (1896 - 1897) and the battleship "George" (1897-1899). The commander of "Ingul" (1899) and mine cruiser "Griden" (1901-1902), "Zaporozhets" (1902-1903). The mayor of Sevastopol (1906). Orthodox; one son (1906).
Sergey von Mohrenschildt was a Marshal of Nobility of the Minsk Province 1913 - 1917 and served as director of the Nobel interests in Russia.
Konstantin also ran the Branobel Oil Company in Baku. In 1918 De Mohrenschildt lived in Minsk (from Baku ?).
The Baku department of BRANOBEL, the Control Department:
R. E. Nobel, Ulner K. K., Ternudd G. A., Bergrot E. I., Nikolaev R. N., Garsoev I. G., Eklund G. P., Morenshild K. A.,
Lessner A. G. who was in 1916 the Director of the Board;
Nobel G. L. (Gustaf Oscar Ludvig);
Lamberg A. B.
About above Nobel G. L.:
Nobel L. L. (descendant of Ludvig and Edla Nobel), Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel, 1874 - 1935, hereditary honorable citizen, Director of the Company 'Gear-Tsitroen' (Citroen) and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and a machine factory of Company 'Ludvig Nobel'.
Descendants of Immanuel Nobel, the younger b. 1801 and Andriette Ahlsell:
Robert Nobel b. 1829, Alfred Nobel b. 1833 - the inventor of dynamite, instituted the Nobel Prizes, Emil Oskar Nobel and Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831 - is buried in the Smolensky Lutheran Cemetery in St. Petersburg.
Descendants of Ludvig and Mina Nobel:
Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 d. 1932 (Branobel's second president and being interested in the encryption business correspondence, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin and Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel were an investors of the AB Cryptograph Company, in the production cipher machines developed Arvid Damm, like a rotary machine Electrocryptograph B-1),
Carl Nobel b. 1862;
and descendants of Ludvig and Edla Nobel:
Esther Wilhelmina Olsen-Nobel,
Ludvig Alfred (Lullu) Nobel b. 1874 (Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company),
Ingrid Hildegard Nobel-Ahlqvist b. 1879,
Marta Helena Nobel-Oleinikoff b. 1881,
Rolf Nobel,
Emil Waldemar Ludvig Nobel and
last above mentioned Gustaf Oscar Ludvig.
Next of kin to the Armands and the Konstantynowiczs was Pampel Eduard 1884 - 1952, Germany, began his career in Russia at Lessner factory in St. Petersburg 1911, then entered the factory Becker in Revel; he worked at the aerodynamic laboratory of the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute 1917, shipbuilding division Putilov factory. Plant Becker was in Revel that is Revel Shipyard BECKER & Co. / Joint Stock Company 'metallurgical, mechanical and shipbuilding plants Becker & Co.' in Reval / Tallinn. During the First World War, it had to be evacuated to Novorossiysk, where it is located on the site of a small factory Muller, Lampe & Co., after which he ever lost shipbuilding specialization. The factory made machine-gun and artillery tower installation of armored trains.
The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company co-operated with the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank. According to V. S. Solomko at this St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank was a joint-stock commercial bank, opened in 1869, cooperating especially closely with the St. Petersburg International Bank by taking part "in the military industrial group to build submarines for the Baltic Navy.
The group included Lessner's Plant and Nobel's Plant in St. Petersburg, which played a leading role in the group, as well as Fenix, Atlas, and Gatchinsky Ironworks".
Guchkov Alexander Ivanovich b. 1862, political and public figure, banker and businessman, was Director of Moscow Discount Bank. In 1907 and 1915, he was elected Member of State Assembly representing Industry and Trade, heading a defence Commission 1907-10. In St Petersburg, he was a member of St Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank's board. From 1915, he was Chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee and a member of Special Meeting for defence. At the end of 1916, he designed plans for dynastic coup.
Emmanuel Nobel / Immanuel the younger b. 1801 died 1872, the inventor of underwater mines. In 1842 - 1859 he lived in St. Petersburg, where he founded a mechanical plant. Robert E. Nobel (1829 - 1896) was born in Sweden but his mother came to St. Petersburg and since 1850 he has worked at the factory of his father, after worked for many years in companies that founded together with his brothers:
Alfred Bernhard Nobel b. 1833, founder of the Nobel Prizes - in Russia became acquainted with the works of Zinin and V. F. Petrushevskii / Pietruszewski in chemical engineering nitroglycerin.
Ludvig Nobel b. 1831 died 1888, member of the Russian Technical Society, in St. Petersburg acted for 'Ludwig Nobel' / 'Russian diesel', in 1876 he founded with brothers
Robert and
Alfred and
with his sons:
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and
Oil Industry Company / Branobel / Tovarichtchestvo Nephtanavo Proisvodtsva Bratiev Nobel in Baku.
He moved with his mother Andriette and brothers Robert and Alfred to St Petersburg in 1842 where his father Immanuel had set up a factory. He bought his own smaller factory that he called the 'Machine-Building Factory Ludvig Nobel'. There, he made cannons, gun carriages, underwater mines and artillery missiles, machine tools, hydraulic presses.
Together with Russian Major General Peter A. Bilderling and his brother, he built up a model factory in Izhevsk in the Urals.
Ludvig and his son
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, visited Baku in 1876. In 1879, the 'Naftaproduktionsaktiebolaget Bröderna Nobel', shortened to Branobel, was formed in St. Petersburg.
Above Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831, was an engineer, m. 1st. time in 1858 to Mina Ahlsell and 2nd time in 1871.
Ludvig ran the company with his sons Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and Carl.
His first and illegitimate child, Hjalmar Crusell, was head of a laboratory and the closest person in St Petersburg.
Most of the people in the managerial staff were Swedes, but was also a man from Norway, Hans Olsen who came to Kronstadt to work in 1880 and met Ludvig Nobel's sons,
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and
Carl, in the Russian capital.
Above Major General Peter A. Bilderling and his brother:
Marie Dolivo Dobrovolsky / MARIA Doliwa Dobrowolska, 1820 - 1887 was mother of above Peter I von Bilderling + Sophie von Westmann von Bilderling.
He was father of Peter II von Bilderling + Marie Rjewsky / RAJEWSKA.
The baron Peter I von Bilderling (born in Saint-Petersburg in 1844) died in Zapolie near Luga in 1900, was the Russian Imperial Army Engineering Officer. Founder with Robert Nobel in Tsaritsin refinery and creation with Ludwig Nobel of the Branobel's Baku petroleum company.
He was the brother of baron Alexander von Bilderling, the general.
Peter von Bilderling was born in Courland, became Orthodox family. His father Alexandre Otto Hermann Grigorievitch von Bilderling was lieutenant general in the engineering. His grandfather, Georges Sigismond von Bilterlings, (1767-1829).
Co-operated with Ludwig Nobel, Alfred Nobel, Robert Nobel, I. J. Zabelsky / ZABIELSKI, Alexander von Bilderling, Fritz Blumberg, Michel Beliamin, A. S. Sundgren, Benno Wunderlich.
De Mohrenschildt's family managed Nobel Oil (Branobel Oil) in Baku, whose legal representative was John McCloy.
McCloy was a consultant to I. G. Farben and was on the Warren Commission as well. Both McCloy and Gen. William F. Draper, Jr. opposed the de-Nazification of of Germany according to Christopher Simpson in Splendid Blond Beast.

In 1961 George de Mohrenschildt was invited to lunch by J. Walton Moore. According to Edward Jay Epstein, during the meeting Moore told de Mohrenschildt about Lee Harvey Oswald living in Minsk.

In May 1920, the Nobel family sold almost half of Branobel's shares.
The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, or Branobel, was an oil company set up by Ludvig Nobel and Baron Peter von Bilderling, mainly in Baku, Azerbaijan but also in Cheleken, Turkmenistan.
At the head of the partnership stood the Board, based in St. Petersburg. From 1879 to 1888 L. Nobel was Chairman, and after his death, this post was taken by his son Emmanuel.
The post of Director of the Board held:
I. O. Olzen / OLSEN, K. V. Hagelin, M. M. Belyamin, G. P. Eklund, E. K. Grube.

Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin b. 1892, was a Swedish businessman and inventor of encryption machines. Born of Swedish parents in Azerbaijan;
father Karl Wilhelm Hagelin worked for Ludvig and Emanuel / Emmanuel Nobel in Baku
(Karl Hagelin was closest advisor for Emmanuel, because Wilhelm Hagelin, his father, had been employed by Ludvig Nobel as a manager of the St. Petersburg factory; 1899, Karl Hagelin was called back to St. Petersburg, like Emmanuel's closest technical advisor),
and next was an investor in the Arvid Gerhard Damm's company - Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, established to sell rotor machines, acc. to Wikipedia.
See: Smith, Francis O. J., The Secret Corresponding Vocabulary..., ed. in Portland; Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System..., ed. in 1948; Damm Arvid G., Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, ed. 1922;
Boris C. W. Hagelin became first a director and later the owner of the Cryptograph Company, next the Cryptographe Technik and then the Crypto A. G. in the 1960s.
Several genealogical family connections between families Rehbinder and Gernet, and Arensburg, Saku and Lehola in this configuration:
on 6 March 1865 between the Lord Captain Alezander Gernet / Alexander Gernet
(Alexander August von Gernet 1786 - 1865, born and died in Lehhola / Lehola; his wife died in Lehola - Natalie Praskowia Rehbinder 1796 - 1862)
- as owner of the property in the Harri / Harrifchen or
(Harju County or Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, it is situated in northern Estonia, on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland)
Harjumaa county, Keila parish, close to Lehola - and the farmer Tönnis Elling concluded agreement on the sold on 20 April 1865. And agreement between Gernet and the farmer Karel Keippar on the site Wanna Iürri, as owner of the property in the Harri / Harrifchen close to Lehola.
Captain Alexander von Gernet and the farmer Hans Limberg on the site Old (?) concluded decreed, as owner of the property in the Harrifchen / Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, close to Lehola.
The Baltic German historian Axel von Gernet (1865-1920), or Konrad Axel von Gernet from Sallentack (Salutaguse / 2 km east of Kohila, 19 km south-east of Saku), Raplamaa, Estland, died 1920 in St. Petersburg.
Kohila, Estonia is located ca 17 km south of Saku! Konrad Axel von Gernet was from Sallentack (Salutaguse / 2 km east of Kohila).
Alexander Gustav Konstantin von Benckendorff, from Jendel, b. 1846 in Warrang (Varangu - north of Rakvere ca 18 km), Väike-Maarja vald. Died 1910 in above Jendel (Jäneda - ca 65 km east of Saku).
Some inf. on the Pilchau family:
Karl Gustav Pilar von Pilchau 1751 - 1802 born in Wait (Vaida), Rae vald, Harjumaa, Estland and died 1802 in Weissenstein (Paide), Järvamaa, Estland.
His wife Johanna Christine Charlotte Pilar von Pilchau nee von Patkul 1751 - 1828; above Weissenstein (Paide), Järvamaa, ca 75 km south-east of Saku.
Siim Hacker b. 1817; his sons: Constantin Johann Hacker b. 1859 d. on February 28, 1926 in Keila - Keila town is 5 km north-east of Lehola, Harju County, and Keila is west of Saku; Gustav Hacker b. 1854 Hiiumaa - island, west of Haapsalu, died on September 28, 1917 in Tallinn, Harjumaa (his daughter Olga-Pauline Hacker b. 1876 d. 1877).
Pilar von Pilchau:
the first the Narva commendant Wenzel Pilar von Pilchau (1606–1675); lived in Livland / Liivimaa and Estonia; Pilar von Pilchau were owners of Vaida / Wait, Oru / Orrenhof, Meremoisa / Merremois, Raasiku / Rasik, Kääsla / Käsal, Lehtse / Lechts, Karjaküla / Karjaküll close to Saue and Saku, Vardi, Valgu, Palivere south-west of Lehola / Palvere / Pallfer and Halinga / Hallick, Uulu, Lelle, Alt-Salis, Audru / Audern, Arrohof, Haeska / Hasik close to Haapsalu (see Dunkel).
Pilar von Pilchau owners of:
Vaida is a small borough in Rae Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. It's located about 21 km southeast of Tallinn.
Orrenhof, south of Parnu, is a place with a very small population in the region of Parnumaa, Estonia.
Merremois / Meremoisa - 10 km north-west of Karjakula, and 15 km from Keila. Raasiku, south-east of Tallinn, 23 km. Rasik to von Sivers in 1843.
Palifer - Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau (1761-1819), was owner of Palifer, Orks, Pall, Käsal.
Orks = Polumyza Orks, Laanemaa, south of Haeska. Kütke (Kütke) close to Märjamaa, south of Saku.
Lechts, outh-west of Rakvere.
Schloss Felks owner Baron de Maydell.
Karjaküll - Vana-Karjaküla / Alt-Karjaküll, Karjaküla is a small borough in Keila Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia.

A note on the Gernet family from Estland / Estonia:
Natalie Praskowia Rehbinder b. 1796 died 1862, her father Peter Woldemar Rehbinder b. 1757 d. 1823;
her husband Alexander August von Gernet b. 1786 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia and died on October 5, 1865 in Lehhola.
Lehola is a settlement in Keila Parish, Harju County in northwestern Estonia, 15 km south-west of Harku, and 18 km west of Saku.
His father Carl Gustav von Gernet b. 1747 died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia.
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army -
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801 in Jogisoo.
Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. 1767 in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu).
He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.
Jogisoo (Jogisuu) ca 3 km south-west of Kullamaa, south-east-east of Haapsalu, Läänemaa county. But we know about different Jöggis, ca 5 and 1/2 km south from Saue, and south-west of Saku, also ca 7 km south-east of Keila and east of Lehola.

Walter Erich von Mohrenschildt b. 1910, died on July 1, 1934 in Berlin, the Sturmabteilung (SA) of the NSDAP. Son of Walter Konstantin von Mohrenschildt b. 1879 in Haiba, Hageri kihelkond, Harjumaa, Estonia; grandson of Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. 1833 in Haiba, Estland;
great-grandson of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1806 in Jöggis (Jogisoo), Saue vald, Harjumaa, Estland.
She was daughter of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm.

More about Estonia, Saue, Keila, Lehola, Tallinn:
Kreuzhof / Risti, the Padise vald, Harjumaa - ca 30 km south-west of KEILA.
Von Mohrenshildt family - genealogical and historical database
A brief explanation on the De Mohrenschildt family from Estonia / Estland:

De Mohrenschildt / Мореншильд, Фёдор Борисович 1st, served the Guards Finland Regiment in 1823; staff captain - 1830, in 1841 lived in Estonia.

The brothers:
1. Sergei son of Alexandr De Mohrenschildt / фон Мореншильд Сергей Александрович, the court counselor, a district chief of the Slutsk district of the Minsk province in 1903.
2. Konstantin / фон Мореншильд Константин Александрович, collegiate counselor, the Chairman of the Board of the shipbuilding company and a mechanical plant in St. Petersburg. Member of the Board and Managing Director of the mining and oil industry in Ferghana.
3. Morenshild Vladimir son of above Alexandr / Aleksander De Mohrenschildt, was born in 1854. Midshipman - 1876. The senior officer of the battleship "Vice Admiral Popov" (1896). Senior Officer of "Terets" (1896 - 1897) and the battleship "George" (1897-1899). The commander of "Ingul" (1899) and mine cruiser "Griden" (1901-1902), "Zaporozhets" (1902-1903). The mayor of Sevastopol (1906). Orthodox; one son (1906).

We back to Kennedy:
In January 1963 Kennedy proposed to Congress to enforce the law, reducing incentives to oil companies. Implementation of this measure would cut the income of the Texas oilmen, which also referred to Count George de Morenshild / George S. De Mohrenschildt; his real name is George S. Morenshild. He was born on April 17, 1911 in Belarus. Many researchers believe that he had already worked for several networks of intelligence; in 1941 he was arrested in Arkansas as a German spy. But it took only three years, and in 1944 Count George Morenshild becomes famous Texas oil businessman. In 1949, he finally gets US citizenship; as a specialist in the oil, he travels around the world.
At early 60-ies in Dallas, he met with Oswald's family;

Oswald's wife was Marina Oswald Prusakova from Belarus.

Aunt and Uncle of Marina met in Berlin. Ilija Prusakow, the uncle of Marina OSWALD lived in Minsk,
he was Colonel of the Interior Ministry in the 60's in the Soviet Union and has allowed his niece to communicate with the American.
Lee Harvey Oswald b. October 1939, in New Orleans; his wife was Marina Nikolayevna Oswald-Porter, born July 17, 1941; daughter of Nikolay PRUSAKOW b. ca 1900.
He was living in Dryssa ca 1950 / 1960. His brother was Ilija born ca 1900.
FATHER OF ABOVE BOTH was Vasilij PRUSAKOW / Vasily Prusakov born 1854, architect in Wilno since the end of 1888; he arrived from St. Petersburg to Vilna on assignment by the Ministry of Justice; acted in 1899 - 1909, with
Aleksy Krasowski, Michal PROZOR, Tadeusz Rostworowski, Julian Januszewski, Feliks Jasinski, August Klain.
Prussakov (Prusakov) Vasiliy Agafonovich b. 1854, studied at Academy of Arts since 1871, on mechanics and technology, 1876 he graduated; Prusakov Agafon born ca 1820 / 1830.


Maria Filaretovna Prussakova, Marija Prussakova (? - 28.02.1985) from the family of F. F. Prussakov. She graduated from the Reval City Gymnasium in 1925. Died in Tallinn. Brothers: Ivan Prussakov and Fedor / FEODOR / Theodore Prussakov (died 12.09.1979); sisters: Tatiana Murnikov, and Vera Domashkin.
Marina Nikolayevna Oswald Porter was the widow of Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin. Porter was born Marina Nikolayevna Prusakov in Molotovsk / Severodvinsk, in the Arkhangelsk Oblast. In the spring of 1961, Lee Oswald met Marina Prusakova at a dance in Minsk, Belarus, USSR. Six weeks later, they were married at the home.
Marina Oswald was born on July 17, 1941. She lived with her mother and stepfather until 1957 when she moved to Minsk. Marina Prusakov was the wife of Lee Harvey Oswald since 30.04.1961 - to 24.11.1963, with daughter June Lee b. 1962.
Then, in 1965, in a Texas town Fate, she married Kenneth Jess Porter. North-east to DALLAS. She had a son. Porter was a twice-divorced, was in jail. Lee Harvey Oswald, born 18 October 1939 - New Orleans, LA, son of Robert Edward Lee Oswald 1896-1939 and Marguerite Frances Claverie 1907-1981.

George S. Morenshild b. 1911 in Belarus, becomes famous Texas oil businessman. At early 60-ies in Dallas, he met with Oswald's family; Oswald's wife was Marina Oswald Prusakova / Prussakov Marina, from Belarus. Aunt and Uncle of Marina met in Berlin. Ilija Prusakow, the uncle of Marina OSWALD lived in Minsk, he was Colonel of the Interior Ministry in the 60's in the Soviet Union and has allowed his niece to communicate with the American. Marina Nikolayevna Oswald-Porter, born July 17, 1941 was the daughter of Nikolay PRUSAKOW b. ca 1900. He was living in Dryssa ca 1950 / 1960. His brother was Ilija born ca 1900. FATHER OF ABOVE BOTH was Vasilij PRUSAKOW / Vasily Prusakov born 1854, architect in Wilno since the end of 1888; he arrived from St. Petersburg to Vilna on assignment by the Ministry of Justice; acted in 1899 - 1909, with
Aleksy Krasowski,
Michal PROZOR [compare OSWIEJA north to DRYSSA],
Tadeusz Rostworowski,
Julian Januszewski [Hilary Raduszkiewicz, engineer and architect, co-operated with Julian Januszewski in WILNO],
Feliks Jasinski,
August Klain.

Prussakov (Prusakov) Vasiliy Agafonovich b. 1854, studied at Academy of Arts since 1871, on mechanics and technology, 1876 he graduated; Prusakov Agafon born ca 1820 / 1830.

Stefan Juliusz Walewski married to Justyna Pomian Dziembowska b. 1755 or 1758, she died in Olszyna, daughter of Wojciech and Antonina Januszewski, 1 voto Filip Jakub Zapolski, her children:
A. Stefan Kajetan Franciszek born 1784 in Ostrzeszów,
B. Ludwika Gertruda Joanna / Gertruda Walewski, b. 1785, Olszyna, lived in Sulmierzyce in 1831.
August Ludwik Bécu owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816, and he has two daughters: Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Slowacki, and Hersylia Januszewski 1808- 1872.
Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872, m. Teofil Januszewski, brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Slowacki.
Teofil Januszewski, was brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Slowacki.
August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Slowacki, when Juliusz Slowacki aged 8. August Ludwik Becu was sent in 1803 - 1804 from (Russia) the Vilna University to Scotland (UK). Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830: his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801.
Prussakov (Prusakov) Vasiliy Agafonovich b. 1854.
We know on:
Prussakov Afanasi.
Prussakov Agafon born 1911, repressioned after 1940 in Estonia [maybe grandson of Prusakov Agafon born ca 1820 / 1830].
Prussakov Aleksander born in 1921, lived next in Estonia.
In the first Estonian Republic, the Tallinn Old Believer Society of the Pomorians of the nuptial concord was officially registered in 1924 (Tallinn Old Believer Society, 11. 07. 1924, Nr. 547). Until 1930, the community general meetings in TALLINN were held in private apartments. Then the first chairman of the community Filaret Filaretovich Prussakov put at community's disposal the apartment in Tekhnika Street, 12.
Mustvee, Jőgevamaa, east of Estonia, on Peipus Lake.
Named Filaret Prussakov, b. 1879 in Mustvee, d. in Tallinn, 1944; son of Feodor Prussakov, husband of Evdokija Landsberg - Prussakova.
Father of Maria Domaškina died in TALLINN; Ivan Prussakov;
Veera Lamberg wife of Boris Lamberg born in GATCZYNA / Gatšina, close to PETERSBURG,
son of Karp / Karl LAMBERG from Tori vald and his wife TOHVER;
Tatjana Murnikova and Feodor Prussakov. Copyright by Karin Lamberg.
Tori vald - 25 km north-east to PARNU / Parnawa.

And now a note about
the genealogy of Count George de Morenshild / George S. De Mohrenschildt:

Karl Reinhold von Mohrenschildt born 1831 in Estonia, d. 1905 in Wolfsberg, Kärnten, Österreich; was son of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth; husband of Katharina Elmerice and father of Behrend Reinhold Alexander von Mohrenschildt.

Above Gertrude Elisabeth nee Pilar von Pilchau, born 1806 in Jöggis / Jogisoo, the Saue vald, Harjumaa, Estonia - d. 1847 (see Dunkel and Krauze). She was daughter of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau (see Becu, Dzierzynski and Pilsudski) and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm. She was sister of Karl Pilar von Pilchau and Emilie Caroline Elisabeth.

Above Berend Robert / Behrend von Mohrenschildt, b. 1786 in Kreuzhof / Risti, the Padise vald, Harjumaa, died in 1861 in Kreuzhof.
He was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie (see below !).
Husband of Margaretha Ulrika Juliane; Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth; and Gertrude Elisabeth. Father of Elisabeth (Lilly) Auguste 1825 - 1916 wife of Karl Platon Oskar von Baumgarten.

And we back to mentioned above Juri or George Sergius de Mohrenschildt 1911 - 1977, son of Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt (see above about фон Мореншильд Сергей Александрович) and Alexandra Gapolski / Zapolska; husband of Wynne Sharples; Phyllis Washington; Eugenia Jeanne Fomenko LeGon, and Dorothy Pierson; brother of Dimitri von Mohrenschildt
- inf. under copyright by Timo Antero Westerlund at in 2014.

George De Mohrenschildt's father was Von Mohrenschildt Sergej Aleksandrovic, born 9.4.1870; mother of Sergej: Nikonova Ljubov. The wedding day of Sergej on 29.4.1901 / 12.5. 1901; Sergej's wife was Alexandra Zapolska born 13.5.1879 / 25.5.1879; occupation: the County marshal in Mozyrz / Mozir in 1911; County marshal in Minsk in 1914 - 1915 or 1913 to 1917; description: Minsk office in 1911.

Above Alexandra Gapolski (Aleksandra Zapolska) b. 1879.

Above Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt b. 1870, son of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt and Ljubow Nikanorowna (Nikonova Ljubov); brother of Wladimir von Mohrenschildt; Nikolai von Mohrenschildt and Konstantin von Mohrenschildt.
Above Ljubow Nikanorowna Lukin (Nikonova Ljubov), 1840 - 1902. Above Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt, 1831 - 1904 was son of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Luise Wilhelmine Anna Alexandra von Doerper.
Above Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt, b. 1787, died in 1834, was son of Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Gfin. Douglas.
Above Ottilie Helene Douglas born 1756 in Reval (Tallinn), d. 1797. She was sister of above Gustava nee Douglas that is Gustava Stephanie von Mohrenschildt. She was daughter of Robert Wilhelm Douglas Count and Margarethe Juliane von Knorring.
Above Robert Wilhelm Douglas, 1724 in Tallinn, d. 1778 in Järvamaa. He was son of Gustaf Otto Douglas that is Gustav Otto Gf. Douglas-Skenninge, b. 1687 in Stockholm.

Part of von Mohrenschildt family moved home to Österreich:
Reinhold von Mohrenschildt b. 1915 in Krumpendorf am Wörthersee, Kärnten / Carinthia, Austria, was son of Erich Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt; grandson of Karl Reinhold von Mohrenschildt b. 1831;
great-grandson of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1806 in Jöggis / Jogisoo, Saue vald, Harjumaa, daughter of mentioned above Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau.
Above Berend Robert / Behrend von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti); son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt;
Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt b. 1748, son of Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt and Marie von Ramm; above Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt b. 1718 in Reval (Tallinn) was son of Berend Johann who died in 1732 in Kurkse, the Padise Parish, Harju County, Estonia.

The DOUGLAS family from SCOTLAND:

Stjärnorp Castle / Stiernorp, in the southern province of Östergötland, Sweden, was built by the Douglas family, in 1655 - 1662 owned by Field Marshal Robert Douglas, Count of Skenninge (1611 - 1662). Robert Douglas b. 1611 in Standingstone Estate, by Traprain Law, East Lothian, Scotland; his father, Patrick Douglas, was the second son of William Douglas of Whittinghame. ROBERT Douglas in 1654 was created a count. In 1658-1661 the military governor of Estonia and Livonia. His daughter married an Oxenstierna. The remaining son, Gustaf, was first of the Swedish-born noble line of Douglas.

His grandson, Count Gustav Otto Douglas, was captured by the Russians during the Battle of Poltava, entered Russian service, and in 1717 was the Governor General of Finland. Count Gustaf / Gustav Otto Douglas b. 1687, Stockholm, died in Reval, was father of Robert Wilhelm Graf Douglas b. 1724 in Tallinn, d. in Järvamaa, and grandfather of
Ottilie Helene;
Juliane Luise;
Gustava Stephanie von Mohrenschildt,
and Peter.
Above Ottilie Helene b. 1756 in Reval (Tallinn), was wife of Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt. She was mother of Berend Wilhelm von Mohrenschildt.
Above Gustava Stephanie von Mohrenschildt Gräfin von Douglas b. 1758 in Reval (Tallinn), was wife of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and mother of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt; sister of Ottilie Helene.
Above Berend Robert / Behrend von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland. Father of Katharina Augusta Elisabeth; Behrend / Boris; Lilly Auguste; and among others
Thomas Ferdinand or Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt - see below!

Famous Juri / George Sergius de Mohrenschildt 1911 - 1977, son of Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt and Alexandra Zapolski. Above Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt b. 1870, was son of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt and Ljubow Nikanorowna / NIKONOV; above Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt b. 1831 was son of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Luise Wilhelmine Anna Alexandra von Doerper.
Above Gustav Reinhold 1787 - 1834 was son of Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Douglas - see above!

Russian diplomat in the US, Ferdinand Nikolai Alexander von Mohrenschildt, b. 1885 in Haiba, Kernu Parish, Harju County, Estonia, d. March 4, 1919 in New York. Burial at Sleepy Hollow, Westchester County, New York.
He was son of Thomas Ferdinand or Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt and Mary / Marie von Mohrenschildt daughter of Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt and Marie Luise von Bremen. Above Ferdinand's wife was Nona Hazelhurst McAdoo b. 1893, daughter of William Gibbs McAdoo, U.S. Senator and Secretary of the Treasury and Sarah Hazelhurst Houston.
Above Thomas Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. 1833 in Haiba, Hageri kihelkond, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland. He was son of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth.
Above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland.
He was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie. Above Gustava Stephanie Gräfin von Douglas b. 1758 in Reval (Tallinn) - see above!
She was daughter of Robert Wilhelm Douglas and Margarethe Juliane von Knorring.
Above Robert Wilhelm Douglas (above on the Douglas in Estonia and Scotland; see my domain about the Douglas family in Italy) b. 1724 Tallinn - died in 1778 in Järvamaa was son of Gustaf Otto Douglas and Helena von Schlippenbach.

And now let's see how my genealogical research began, and not only those - in 1987 - and how it connects to the Artusov / Артур Христианович Артузов / Фраучи and Vernadsky! This short preface to my domain was formed 19 and on 20th April 2015, but its extensive fragments are also to read in the so-called 'Part 2 - Intelligence...'. So I invite you to read how somebody can create an history image omitting the historical facts...

On the on 2013-11-08 appeared the text of the eminent political thinker Waldemar Kuczynski [but two years later in November 2015...], who accurately
summed up the years 1944 - 2013 / 2015, and in them the key to solving many puzzles - of General Czeslaw Kiszczak network and the Smolensk airplane crash 2010 -
to put it more clearly:
Jaroslaw Kaczynski "...led a country that he openly denied, even he hated this country.
Just as he hated people and political structures standing at back of this country.
And, unfortunately, there is no reason to think that this attitude is changing something.
Outline of the nation composed of two tribes can be seen in Poland since a very, very long time. But that common ground linking these tribes melts, and two tribes are more and more alien and hostile, results from the rejection of the current state by one of their.
The rejection [of the current state founded in 1944 by aliens against Poles] by the political and cultural conglomerate ... with a no small part of the clergy, with many circles of opinion leaders and the great faction of the nation.
This part of the Poland is in the attack, the rest [of the Polish citizens] defended himself, or does not care about this. The attacker sing 'The free homeland deign us back Our Lord', defending [of the Polish citizens] sing 'free country, bless the Lord'. The same song is split into two camps of the cold civil war at the moment. Were it not for the fact that we are in NATO and the European Union, in the two structures which a gravity stabilizes the base of the political order in our place, it would have been a time of great 'outcry over the Vistula'. Today it seems that there is no possibility of reducing the tears on two snarling at each other tribes, that our policy must be violent, with war rhetoric and roll from the electoral battle to battle. It can take a very long time ... Everything in Poland is to discuss. ... Even whether the Third Republic lasts a quarter of a century, should be replaced by some other. ... Both parties must sing the same version of 'God Save Poland'...".

The Special services of the Polish State are completely responsible for the death of my father and his brother (and his wife); any Wojciech - their neighbor - involvement in this affair unfortunately died a year after that, as I have begun track down his.

These people hated Poles, Poland and my family, and me personally; and they also hate now, no matter what country they come from. Their obsession of hate my family is dangerous and lasts several decades.
People of these structures always broke Constitutions, because they consider ourselves higher and better than some Poles there. Such attitude is racism. Extremely anti-democratic and opposed to Polish democratic and libertarian traditions.

"...The Trust's young mastermind, A. H. Artuzov / Артур Христианович Артузов (Фраучи), in his thirties at the peak of the operation, was a cousin of Potapov. Originally named Renucci or Fraucci, Artuzov is said by most sources to have returned to Russia from Genoa only on the eve of the Revolution, while the Soviets' fictionalized biography of Artuzov acknowledges that he was of Italo-Swiss ancestry. When Potapov was the Trust's emissary to Western Europe in the 1920s, he supposedly fooled the Russian aristocrats abroad into believing he was the representative of an anti-Bolshevik underground. Yet, as emigre chronicler of the Trust S. L. Voitsekhovsky had to admit, it was incomprehensible, how his contemporaries, his former superiors and colleagues, could have believed in the sincerity of his monarchical views. ... The Trust of the spies and provocateurs, as the above shows, turns out to be a microcosm of a much bigger East­West complex, whose strategic outlook was best stated by the infamous Toynbee in 1974. ... Cheka chief Dzerzhinsky wore another hat, as chairman of the Supreme Council for the National Economy, which allowed him to deal directly with the Western members of this larger Trust...".
Copyright of above quotation:
EIR Volume 15, Number 3, January 15, 1988; © 1988 EIR News Service Inc., All Rights Reserved. A Fresh Look at the February Revolution. New KGB skirts history lessons... by Aleln and Rachel Douglas.
"John Dziak leads the IASC's work on technology security, strategic denial and deception and countermeasures. He has served over three decades as a senior intelligence officer and an executive in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and in the Defense Intelligence Agency, with long experience in weapons proliferation intelligence, counterintelligence, strategic intelligence, global countermeasures and intelligence education. He is the author of the award-winning, Chekisty: A History of the KGB (1987), numerous other books, articles, and monographs, the most recent of: which is The Military Relationship Between China and Russia, 1995-2002 (2002), and is currently preparing a book on counterintelligence. Dr. Dziak is fluent in Russian. Dr. Dziak is co-founder and President of Dziak Group, Inc., a consulting firm in the fields of technology transfer, intelligence, counterintelligence and security, and national security affairs with clients in industry and the Intelligence Community. Dr. Dziak is an Adjunct Professor at the National Defense Intelligence College".

The Dziak family came from Slovakia:
Ortutova in 1921, George Dziak to Cleveland, OH; Maria Dziak (Zavidny) of Lipova; in Lipova in 1901 Andrew Dziak to Marblehead, OH; Ortutova, Slovensko, east of Bardejov. Helen Dziak 1854-03-10 of Lipova; Stefan Dziak; Dziak, John 1866-02-17 of Ortutova; Peter Dziak; Dziak, John 1888-08-09 of Sasova / Šašova; see: Charles Dziak b. ca 1900 / 1906. His wife Susan Dziak (nee Madansky). Lipova, Ortutova and Sasova are located east of Bardejov, northern Slovakia. Dr. John J. Dziak is co-founder and President of Dziak Group, Inc., a consulting firm in the fields of technology transfer, intelligence, counterintelligence and security, and national security affairs with clients in industry and the Intelligence Community in USA. Please remember about: John W. Dziak, Sr, of Lorain, died 2014 in Lorain; he was born in 1927 in Lorain; John served with the US Army from 1945-1947; worked for the Illuminating Company; member of the American Slovak Club, First Catholic Slovak Union; his wife Frances nee Keplar; children Robert, Barbara (Dennis) Goza of Cheboygan, Beverly (William) Allsop of Vermilion, Joan, John (Kathy) Dziak, Jr of Lorain, and so on; from Slovakia!

"... A. H. Artuzov, in his thirties at the peak of the operation, was a cousin of Potapov. Originally named Renucci or Fraucci, Artuzov is said by most sources to have it returned Russia from Genoa only on the eve of the Revolution, while the Soviet's fictionalized biography of Artuzov acknowledges that he was of Italo - Swiss ancestry. When Potapov was the Trust's emissary is Western Europe in the 1920s, he supposedly the Russian aristocrats fooled into believing abroad he was the representative of an anti-Bolshevik underground".
In this quotation, however, is a mistake (see below my explanations).
Characteristic that appeared to it in the years 1987 and 1988.
Recently in 1987, I started by solving puzzles and political genealogy around my Konstantynowicz family in Poland and Russia.
In the first period October 1987 - September 1989 I recognized the immediate environment of our family Konstantynowicz, maybe 200 people; unfortunately it 'coincided' with the sudden death of my father on November 3, 1987; buried 09 November 1987.
And at the same time: in the villa at the Zawrat Street in Warsaw, General Czeslaw Kiszczak meets Lech Walesa [+ Bishop Jerzy Dabrowski] dated 31-08-1988, 15-09-1988; in Magdalenka near Warsaw with Kiszczak were meetings on 27-01-1989 and 02-03-1989, 07-03-1989 and 29-03-1989.
Not counting other important my family events on 28 October 1987 and 1 November 1987 - and finally, on November 2, 1987 I attempted to obtain from my father (died 03rd Nov.) the most important data about our family.

In principle, all these people (October 1987 - September 1989) were associated with the Warsaw special services (Spartakusa Rd No 43 / 45; and Krokusowa Rd 57 + 59), mainly with counter-intelligence of the security services

(by the way, like in the whole period 1972
{B. Grabowski - 1968; Adam Adamkiewicz and A. Krych - 1972; J. Janowski - 1973; K. Wojcieszek - 1973; P. Dmochowski - 1974; J. Hempel - 1975; J. Matysiak - 1977; S. Broniarz - 1978. The General Zbigniew Nowek from Bydgoszcz {General Nowek - his professional career in 1990 started with the aid of the head of the Ministry of Interior, Andrzej Milczanowski} and Torun [in 2005 to 2008 head of the Foreign Intelligence Agency, in 2010 deputy chief of the National Security Agency], close to [then Colonel] Adam Ostoja-Owsiany a head in 2006 of the Internal Security Agency in Lodz [close to Moczulski (b. 1930) / Robert Reimer-Berman / Robert Berman, who was in London Dec. 1986/January 1987 to Edward Raczynski, and to Bush in US], then a head of personnel department of the Foreign Intelligence Agency - with Colonel Brunon Czabok [cyber threat information security and ex-Deputy Director of the Office of Information Security and Computer Security] a head in KATOWICE}
- 2017

[along with the Lodz civil counterintelligence Captain Krzysztof Tomczyk b. ca 1952 + Andrzej Kolczynski, a counterintelligence Captain of the civilian prosecutor's office, and Monika Bogucka Sedzicka born 1976 {then The Department of National Telecommunications Security} with a line to Jaworska Halina, nee Wodkiewicz b. 1923 in Leszno village close to (see: Woroniecki, Lelewel and ROMAN family) Przasnysz
(an activity since June 1955 around the Kiedrzynski and Rogaczewski family and relatives, coming from Wola Pszczolecka village - here the period: before the seventies of the nineteenth century, 1915 to 1918 and later - and Jedlno)
+ Rozan by Narew river {with the next network 2006-2014 reaching to the town Rozan and Geremek
{Bronislaw Geremek, 1954 and 1955 went to the USA on a scholarship of the Smithsonian Institution}
- and in 2005 up to connection Geremek-L. Moczulski} - the Chodecz {since 1983} - Brzesc Kujawski {2012-2013, Maciej Igor Wojtczak + Radoslaw S. studied in Wloclawek} -
Wloclawek (maybe here is network of "ALIEN"; with an area of Radziejow;
and interesting connection to Popowo near Tluchowo - Popowo is situated ca 28 km east of Wloclawek)
- Torun - Tczew [Burnicki] - Gdansk [Pisz Andrzej] - Wabrzezno {since 2005} -
Olecko {b. Suwalki in ca 1988, 2015 - 2016, with Gąski, Możne, Wężewo, Kowale Oleckie} - Jan Ddl, b. 1996/7 (Ełk; Pisanica, east of Ełk at way to Augustów; Bournemouth; Milewo, 20 km north-west of Augustow; mainly ethnic minorities from the Bialystok provice) -

and on 18th April 2017, a network of Senegal / Jamaica / Bronx [195 cm tall; Wimborne Rd 135 + 89 + 133 + Kingston Rd 67
{sample: 17.45-18.01, 10th September 2018, el mamadou - he is very thin with a small head and very black face hidden under the hood - aggressive provocateur [16 September 2017 in Maple Convenience Store - he is about 24 years old. On 11th Oct. and 23rd October 2017, very active at Commercial Rd, Exeter Rd, Holdenhurst Rd, Undercliff Dr and the Square] of the Polish illegal foreign counterintelligence network. On a "spy mission" on Nov. 11, 2017 around Chaddesley Glen, Shore Rd and Haven Rd, with WN54VLO. And his provocation again - with the expressive effect of drugs - on and around the Bus Station on July 12, 2018, 22.30 - check his mobile 20.00-23.00. With the next African observer on Stourwood Ave on July 13, 2018. And another Senegalese action, el mamadou mld wadiste, inhabitant no. 135; this time on July 18, 2018 at 22.55 / 22.59 / 23.04; check the chat on his mobile phone. He watched my house pretend waiting for buses. It is interesting that he was changed by a resident of Oman - an Arab of the type black, low, with a beard, about 25 years old: 23.31. You will check and his phone numbers around 23.15-23.40 on July 18, 2018. Are they potential thieves?}
+ X458 OPS + HJ16 FDN; PJ13 AHU + Kingston Rd 79 + 59] + full cooperation with:
AD05FRZ, HG10FTK, LD03ZBX [Nov 2017 + Gypsies / Romani people / Roma from Romania, mainly in Ploesti and Timisoara + Nguekokh, in Thies district / county, Senegal

{a Polish mine - Szczecin-Police plant - in Tivaouane, in Senegal - 33 km north-east of THIES. And Nguékhokh - source of instigators - 45 km south of THIES. Both towns are the same COUNTY: Tivaouane or Tivawan / Tiwaawan, is a city located in the Thies Region of Senegal + BT54 BKA + Durley Chine Rd, Kensington Lodge [13 May 2018]}

+ Mandeville, Jamaica + now we have another provocateur, skinny, 17 years old, black hair; he calls 'fuckin Pole'; on December the 1st, 2017, police had to intervene [and similer on 01 March 2018]; has facilities at Garland Rd 146 {on action around me on 6 September 2018, 11.50-12.50, near ASDA} + a plot - action on 10th April 2018, 20.15-22.40, with: Sadowska E. of Sterte Rd, boys of Garland 146, wadiste (modou) of Senegal];

R. Sadowski; Rochelle Thompson; + Radoslaw Majewski, Pruszków + E. Wilczewska + Rybnik + Clacton Pier + Rózan; + Sosnierz {main brain action against me; friend of above wadiste (modou) + No 129 - see Winterbourne Rd in 2007/2008 + HG53 VLK + YK04 ECV}; and Garland Rd No 43 {semitic nose; 190 cm height; about 28 years old; black hair... - the duplicate of the No. 135
[on 26th May 2018: LGBT and Senegalese refugees in conjunction with Arabic double, BD56NRV, KV10HVS + YB65AWO; EX16CNC - July 2018];
lovers of hashish + Polish, 30 years aged, 190 cm, at the Sterte Rd 80 (+ AD54 HPE, Gypsy line + HG67 TWK - and on 11th and 12th March, 2018, together with the Police / Szczecin network: Sosnierz; Robert Bubis - the Opoczno network; el mamadou mld wadiste (modou) [IFAN - Cheikh Anta Diop - Nguékokh, Thies, Senegal]; Sterte Rd 80 - 11/16th March, 2018). And it was only one step to the 30 Tregonwell Rd., on 18 Nov. 2017, and Somerville Rd / West Hill Road; and in 2016 to 26 W Hill Rd} -
Szczecin / Police
[number 137.
{This house was bought on April 06, 2017. This purchase was preceded by letters from the former area of the Soviet Union, on March 30th, 2017, and from Rep. South Africa and Paris in January-February 2017. This building in October 2017 is still empty and still renovated (08 October 2017). The information board indicates that it is still available for purchase on October the 10th, 2017. In the attic is a secret hideout but to 27th October 2017 - as of October 15, 2017, it is already known that House 137 was taken over by a small rental company; the head of this company is a well-known local politician, involved in the "Women in Business" movement - "...Designed by local business women for women in business across ... and beyond..." - please compare the goals of the LEAN Foundation /, managed by the SANDBERG family in the US - that is, women in the workplace and organization of work in small teams. The Sandberg family is supervised by the Samuelson family of Suwalki, ie Summers with a roots from Romania, and both families are very politically close to the Brzezinski family - see my pages on globalisation and Zbigniew Brzezinski.

+ jumped to No 100 on 20th Oct 2017. New - the Russian-Uzbek-Estonian woman [formerly contacts with Wabrzezno from around 2012] aged 45 bef. 16 September 218 at number 102 [close to No 100].
Note: for many years Soros was not involved in politics, but in 2003, Soros said that the removal of Bush from the US President's chair was "the main task of his life" ... To accomplish this, Soros (along with the other person) donated $ 5 million to [compare Move on !], a Democratic party organization. MoveOn is the largest independent, progressive, digitally-connected organizing group in the United States since 1998; endorsing election Barack Obama and taking down the Confederate flag from the state house grounds in South Carolina on 10th July 2017. MoveOn is made up of two organizations: Civic Action, and the Political Action, running powerful progressive advocacy campaigns. In 2007, MoveOn was a co-founder of Avaaz. The MoveOn Petitions campaigning platform competes with, Avaaz and PetitionOnline. In response to Donald Trump during the 2016 presidential election, a group of over 100 celebrities launched the "United Against Hate" campaign hosted by with Shonda Rhimes, Kerry Washington, Julianne Moore, Macklemore, and Neil Patrick Harris. One person who aided in the internationalization of the MoveOn Model is's former advocacy director, Ben Brandzel in 2007. Major contributors to during the 2004 election included financier George Soros [George Soros, Billionaire Supporter Of Hillary Clinton; on 17th Oct 2017, George Soros, has given $18 billion to his Open Society Foundations] and Peter B. Lewis. Above Shonda Rhimes - Shonda Lynn Rhimes (born in 1970) is an American television producer, and author, her father, who holds an MBA, was the chief information officer at the University of Southern California until 2013. Mentioned founded in the year 1998 by Wes Boyd and Joan Blades, from California - Wes Boyd (b. ca 1960) is an American businessman. In 1987, he and his wife Joan Blades were the co-founders of Berkeley Systems, a San Francisco Bay area software company. It made money early on by performing contract work for the National Institutes of Health; Blades also later co-founded with Kristin Rowe-Finkbeiner in 2006. Joan Blades (b. ca. 1956 in Berkeley, California) is an American businesswoman and progressive political activist. In 2006, Blades and Kristin Rowe-Finkbeiner co-authored The Motherhood Manifesto. Kristin Rowe-Finkbeiner (born in 1969) is an American speaker, radio host, co-founder and the executive director / CEO of and board president of the MomsRising Education Fund. Rowe-Finkbeiner has spoken on women's issues, and SXSW, the National Press Club, the Aspen Institute, the White House Forum on Citizen-Based Innovators (2012), the White House Summit on Working Families (2014), and Center for American Progress, The National Democratic Convention, Democracy Fest, the League of Women Voters National Conference}.
Actual legal address: 2 Denmark Rd]
+ in 2013: "Our mission is to empower women to achieve their ambitions." - - "...Lean In Circles are small groups who meet regularly to learn and grow together, and they’re changing lives." "Lean In.Org is an initiative of the Sheryl Sandberg & Dave Goldberg Family Foundation, which also runs OptionB.Org, and is recognized by the IRS as tax-exempt private operating foundation ... LeanIn.Org receives all of the profits of Lean In: Women, Work & the Will to Lead by Sheryl Sandberg. She has also made additional donations to LeanIn.Org to cover its operating budget"
- Przybranowo / Wloclawek [house 98; moved home at No 92] with again Michalow / Suwalki [92; with Garland Rd 2; + Tatnam Rd 15-17] + (b. 1981) Rozan
+ MARCIN, on 21 March 2005 - 19 August 2017, an active counter-intelligence agent at St Swithun's Rd
Zgierz {2005/2006 and again since October 2015 with international support from his "brethren" (BH11 - a net before September 2018: Athletic Club, Cath Kidston + E6 PRH) - sample only: + Andrew Gill + James Toth. By the way, it is a pity that the local counterintelligence employs mentally challenged and degenerated physically enthusiasts of the chemical drugs, reinforcing psychopathic behavior. The exploitation of ordinary racism and xenophobia among uneducated people has the opposite effect, in 27 August 2018} and + Kingston Rd 61 [28 August 2018, 21.25] + Seliot Cl + Declan, Reece, Tracy
[well, on September 14, 2018, James did not take drugs, but started on September 15, 2018, a gypsy named Darren, a very clever man around 38 years old] + Danmark Rd 74 - branch

- parallel with the mysterious quarter of residential houses in Lodz, between the streets: Rybna Rd, Zachodnia Rd., Limanowskiego Rd., Lutomierska Rd - in the years 1983-1987, 2005, 2015-2017

[sometimes practically only from among ethnic minorities: 2015 from Mokotow in Warsaw; 1982/1988 from Opoczno - Natkanski Z.
{compare: Wiktoria nee Kiedrzynska, m. Adam Rogujski owner of Wola Murowana, 9 km south of Opoczno - inf. in 1781 and 1782. But we know also on Wola Murowana close to Sitkówka-Nowiny.

I remember about Z. NATKANSKI of OPOCZNO and Ossa, and an instigator Bubis on 12th December 2017.

Miedzna Murowana [Wola] - see Kiedrzynski - is around 7 km north to ZARNOW. Ossa - 7 km north-east to ZARNOW (remember also on CHELSTY - 5 km south to ZARNOW + Lis / Białaczow + Wlodarczyk / Konskie); 3 km south to Miedzna Murowana - see Kiedrzynski ! Compare Natkanski: Mroczków Duży - 13 km west to MARIOWKA of Kiedrzynski and Berman - Moczulski Robert / Leszek! (remember on Nadole close to Zarnów and Ossa - 2 km; 5 km north-east to ZARNOW)};

Suwalki, Wroclaw - Michalak E. - in 1985 and 2008...

and from Western Europe {"Bogdan - they were very easy to get along in your case", a man named Przemyslaw of Zgierz says in spring 2006 to me; he was the bartender from the Piotrkowska street in 2004};
in 2015 first of all centres of special services from Gdansk, and Lodz + Zgierz, etc.].

Above highly dangerous, aggressive network of a pseudo Counterintelligence nature dependent on the Russians, led by national minority, currently is in a state of underground conspiracy [2016-2017].
The creator of this special services network since 1972 was General Kiszczak, the head of military intelligence, former communist prime minister and the head of the secret police. The funeral of Czeslaw Kiszczak was in November 2015 and his wife said:
"God will pay you for all the harm, which ungrateful, unworthy Pole has done to you. A wrong words fall somewhere there out, hateful to you - of the people full of evil, hypocritical ... Your heroic deeds will be exposed."

President Donald Trump commented:

"...We must work together to confront forces, whether they come inside or out, from the south or the east, that threaten over time to undermine these values and to erase the bonds of culture, faith and tradition that make us who we are.
If left unchecked, these forces will undermine our courage, sap our spirit and weaken our will to defend ourselves and our societies. ...",

"...It's a global power structure that is responsible for the economic decisions that have robbed our working class, stripped our country of its wealth, and put that money into the pockets of a handful of large corporations and political entities. ...
This is not just conspiracy but reality, and you and I know it.
The establishment and their media enablers wield control over this nation through means that are well-known.
Anyone who challenges their control is deemed a sexist, a racist, a xenophobe and morally deformed.
They will attack you, they will slander you, they will seek to destroy your career and reputation.
And they will lie, lie and lie even more. ...".

President Kennedy explained:

"...And as the true nature of the Communist conspiracy becomes better known around the globe, when people come to realize - as they surely will - that the Communist advance does not represent a means of liberation but represents a final enslavement, then I believe that they will rally to the cause to which we have given our support and our commitment"

"...For we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence - on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day.
It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations. Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined. Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed. ...".

The true opinions are below:

"... The dark forces of secret societies have permeated our history ... The main areas of these conquests are the economy, religion, education, and politics. These societies usually practice odd rituals ...
It seems their reach is never ending,
when you've been marked an enemy and we've seen many who have tried expose these forces lose their lives, in the process.
... the dark and shrouded history of these demonic forces and exposes their true history and agendas.
Were the Illuminati behind the former Soviet Union and their secret service KGB?

The OPOCZNO district and the communist-Russian anti-Polish underground:

Russian intelligence conducts activities in 1945, 1977-1988, 2017-2018 from this County, in parallel with activities from Suwalki, Opoczno - ZARNOW [22 km south to Opoczno], and from Wloclawek - Brzesc Kujawski - Chocen [1983-2005 and 2013-2015 + Przasnysz - Rozan in July 1955 - 2018].

At the same time, the Russian military intelligence has been carrying out activities from Ploiesti, Bucharest, Timisoara from Romania, in 2005-2018.
Compare also on:
Summers was born in New Haven, in 1954, into a Jewish family, the son of two economists, Robert Summers (who changed the family surname from Samuelson) and Anita Summers (of Romanian-Jewish ancestry), who are both professors at the University of Pennsylvania.
The WHITE underground movement before the 1863 JANUARY UPRISING:

There is a mass various circles among Polish in St. Petersburg, Kiev and Warsaw. The origins of these coincidentally occurred on the date of arrival in Poland (1860) of one of the secretaries to Jakob / JACOB Cremieux

[JAKOB was the son of Saul Haim Cremieux / Crémieu, who was the son of Mardochée Crémieux and Esther; SAUL was a husband of Sarah Carcassone],

who was at the time organizing the Alliance Israelite Universelle.

This courier was a French lawyer and journalist, Armand Lévy (1827 - 1891), an anti-clericalist, a freemason, a socialist; he was "born in a Roman Catholic family, but with a Jewish grand-father, he was passionate about the Jewish cause. He fought alongside his illustrious friends, such as Adam Mickiewicz [Mickiewicz's stay on the Bosporus], Ion Bratianu and Camillo Cavour, for the independence of Poland and Romania, and for the unification of Italy"
by Wikipedia; he propagated the social upheaval in Russia.

The wealthy financiers and the Jewish merchants were associated with the White party funded by Leopold Kronenberg. This resulted the Jews not immediately commencing the January Uprising in 1863.

Dow Ber / Berush Meisels, 1798 in Szczekociny, d. 1878 in Warsaw, Rabbi (Cracow, then Warsaw), in 1856, Meisels moved in Warsaw, with the support of activists and supporters of the assimilation Jewish movement. He called on Polish Jews to join the Poles in the struggle for liberation. Many prominent representatives of the assimilated Jewish bourgeoisie, such as Leopold Kronenberg and Herman Epstein, undertook united efforts to reconcile Jewish and Polish interests in matters of religion, culture or economy. These attempts ended in a fiasco with the fall of the January Insurrection in 1863.

Karol Majewski, secretary of Leopold Kronenberg, was among the first of them. He was a very influential personality in conspiratorial circles; in 1860, Majewski had the most influence among the students.

Maksymilian Unszlicht, a member of the academic committee (consisting of three persons), was also attended by Edward Jurgens, the son of a Jewess, who ran all the youth circles and associations that was set up in Warsaw.

Named Karol Konstanty Majewski (born in Denkowo close to Opatow in 1833 roku, d. 1897), a chairman of the National Government of the January Uprising 1863. He came from a family with the Jewish roots; his brother was Wladyslaw Majewski [see below] - the Commissioner of National Government in 1863 and second brother - lawyer, Wincenty Majewski (1807-1888); a student at the Academy of Medicine and Surgery in Warsaw in 1860; he was the organizer of the Academic Committee. In 1862 he became a member of the White Country Rural Directorate. Arrested, in 1866 sent to Siberia, returned in 1880.

James Angleton's supporters [CIA]:

Frank Gardiner Wisner (1909 - 1965)
was head of Office of Strategic Services operations in southeastern Europe in 1944-1945. He served as the 2nd Deputy Director of Plans in charge of the Directorate of Plans of the Central Intelligence Agency from August 23, 1951 to January 1, 1959.
He was also tapped for the Seven Society. The Seven Society is the most secretive of the University of Virginia's secret societies. Members [Edward Stettinius, Jr., secretary of state under Presidents Roosevelt and Truman] are only revealed after their death. FRANK G. Wisner in Washington was associated with the 'Georgetown Set':
George Kennan, Dean Acheson, Richard Bissell, Walt Rostow, Eugene Rostow, Cord Meyer, James Angleton, William Averill Harriman, Felix Frankfurter, Allen W. Dulles and Paul Nitze. The Georgetown Ladies' Social Club included Mary Pinchot Meyer, Sally Reston, Polly Wisner, Cynthia Helms, Phyllis Nitze and Annie Bissell.

In 1948, the Office of Special Projects was unveiled as the renamed Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) with FRANK Wisner still in charge as Executive Director.
With James Angleton, Wisner ran Operation red sox.
JAMES ANGLETON was associated with Frank Wisner in Albania and Poland.
Frank Wisner worked closely with Kim Philby, the British agent who was a Soviet spy.

The FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, described the OPC as "Wisner's gang of weirdos" and had discovered that some of them had been active in left-wing politics in the 1930s. Hoover gave McCarthy inf. on an affair that Wisner had with Princess Caradja in Romania during the war; Caradja was a Soviet agent.

Princess Catherine Olympia Caradja born Ecaterina Olimpia Cretulescu in 1893, grew up in England and France, and lived in Romania from 1908 to 1952, as "Angel of Ploieşti" in PLOESTI.
She resided in the U.S. since Dec. 1955, mainly in Comfort, in the Hill Country of Texas. In 1978 she befriended Ottomar Berbig, an antiques dealer in West Berlin.

FRANK WISNER was also involved in establishing the Lockheed U-2 spy plane program run by Richard M. Bissell, Jr. On August 23, 1951, Frank Wisner succeeded Allen W. Dulles and became the 2nd Deputy Director of Plans; with
Richard Helms as his chief of operations.
This office had control of about 75% of the CIA budget.

Allen Dulles in September 1954 selected ANGLETON to be chief of a countrintelligence staff.

Angleton was greatly influenced by DONALD McLEAN and KIM PHILBY.

Donald Duart Maclean (1913 - 1983) was a British diplomat and member of the Cambridge Five who acted as spies for the Soviet Union.

We back to the OPOCZNO county:

Next to PRZYSUCHA [5 km south to MARIOWKA; compare: RUSINOW - 6 km north to MARIOWKA !] acted guerrilla sabotage group [the communist gang] with a spies working for military intelligence of the Soviet Union in 1942-1945.

This communist band under the command of Izrael Lew Ajzenman carried out murder in DRZEWICA [east to OPOCZNO] in January 1943 [the first communist attack on the town of August 1942].

Izrael Ajzenman / Julian Ajzenman / Julek Ajsenman acted since 1946 as Julian Kaniewski (b. 1913 or in 1914 in Radom).

Israel Lion Ajzenman was a robber eg. in Wolanów [east to PRZYSUCHA; ex-Wola Kowalska, Wola Świętej Doroty] in 1936.
During the war in September 1939, Izrael Lew Ajzenman got out of the prison in Radom and began organizing a revolutionary committee in Radom, hoping that the Red Army would soon take over the city - west to WISLA.

Izrael Lew Ajzenman attacked Drzewica [north to Wywoz and Gielniow; and 14 km north-west to MARIOWKA - see MOCZULSKI in Winter / Spring 1945 and the Kiedrzynski estate], during which seven people were murdered - the director of the local knife factory "Gerlach", August Kobylański.

Note on the KOBYLAŃSKI family:
Kazimierz Kobylański - "Engineer", "Jerzy", "Markowski", born in 1892 in Warsaw, Polish mechanical engineer, entrepreneur; Son of Samuel and Maria Łabędzki. He graduated in Lviv.
Maria Magdalena Kobylańska (Łabędzka) b. 1868 in Warsaw, d. 1959 in Rusinów, the Przysucha County, the daughter of Cyprian Soter Łabecki and Konstancja; wife of Samuel Hipolit Kobylański; the mother of Tadeusz Wiktor Kobylański; Kazimierz Juliusz Kobylański and Anna Rakowiecka.
August Kobylański b. 1821, d. 1880 in Warsaw; married EMILIA GERLACH 1830-1856.
August Kobylański, b. ca 1880, killed in January 1943

[he has death certificate in Drzewica - as August Ferdynand Kobylański born on July 7, 1891 - d. January 20, 1943 in Drzewica. Son of Bronisław Kobylański, b. 1854

{Bronislaw's father - August Samuel Kobylański b. 1821 in Lewiczyn, 8 km north-west to Mława, died in 1880 in Drzewica. Grandfather was - Filip Kobylański b. ca 1790 + Ewa Zaborowska},

and Maria Kobylańska {nee Kreyszoff}.

August Kobylański was the husband of Pfeffer. Father of Bogna Kobylańska
{+ Jan Czerski - come from Stężyca, the Kozienice County and of Borki, the Radzyń Podlaski County}. ;
Brother of Maria Jadwiga Kobylańska-Bauerfeind];

August Kobylański m. ca 1910 to Maria Pfeffer, with a daughter
Maria Kobylańska, 1910-1990 + Adam Stanisław Ryszard Mieczkowski

[he was the son of Władysław Mieczkowski b. 1877 in Nieciszew - d. 1959 in Barzkowice; lawyer, banker, political activist, member of the GERMAN parliament in 1907].
KOBYLAŃSKI Franciszek, b. ca 1750/1755, died in 1844, the owner of Dąbrówka, married Salomea Psarska b. ca 1766 [see Kiedrzynski],
with children:
A. Karol;
Faustyn Józef Franciszek Kobylanski, b. 1784 in Mikorzyn [close to Domanin; 10 km north to Kępno; at half way from Kępno to Doruchów], m. Prakseda Krąkowska from Mokrsko - 9 km south-west to WIELUN, with children:
a) Wincenty Kobylanski, b. 1830 in Mikorzyn, d. 1903 in Wygiełzów {2nd} - 5 km west to MARZENIN, the owner of Dąbrówka,
buried in Marzenin - north to SEDZIEJOWICE;
b) Salomea m. Józef Zaborowski;
c) Jan Kanty Idzi, b. 1825, the owner of Bieniec - 17 km south-east to WIELUN, and Mikorzyn [close to TORZENIEC].

A note to the ZABOROWSKI family:

Les Freres Anglais et Français Réunis was founded in 1807 in Poznan, subsidiaries of the French Grand Orient, and consisted of numerous military and civilian dignitaries and prominent citizens; the champion for a long time was general Wincenty Axamitowski. On January 1, 1808, the "Brothers of the United France and Poles" camp was established in Poznan.
Colonel Stanislaw Mycielski,
Józef Poninski,
Aleksander Zychlinski,
Augustyn Zaborowski,
Bernard Rose,
Count Kacper Skarbek,
Wiktor Szoldrski,
General Henryk Dabrowski,
General Amilkar Kosinski,
Count Aleksander Bninski.

The beginning of 1820 in Poznan - national Freemasonry:

Sczaniecki, Count Wiktor Szoldrski, Gajewski, Czapski, Pawlikowski, Morawski, Jarochowski, Karol Stablewski, Klaudiusz Sczaniecki, brothers Bojanowski,
[Augustyn ?] Zaborowski,
Radomski, Stanislaw Chlapowski, Skórzewski, three brothers Mielzynski, two Potworowski, Tytus Dzialynski, Józef Krzyzanowski, Garstkiewicz, Monkowski, Bukowiecki,
Alojzy Zaborowski,
General Pradzynski also in Warsaw [compare: Wilkowo Polskie and Wola Wiazowa !].
Kunegunda Madalinska born before 1809 in Orpiszewek, m. in 1835 in Restarzew, to Grzegorz Chrzanowski b. ca 1784 [his 2nd wife], son of Zofia Tymienicki.
Inf. on 1st wife of named GRZEGORZ:
Jakub Hiacynt Madalinski b. 1775 [he was the brother of Józef Wawrzyniec Kajetan Madalinski b. 1774, Captain], m. Honorata Psarska daughter of Jan Kanty Psarski;
with children:
a) Anna b. 1797, m. in 1821 to Józef Julian Walewski son of Andrzej WALEWSKI and Antonina Czartkowska, owner of Wola Balucka; she m. 2nd to (??) Jan Kanty Psarski, owner of Wielgie,
b) Eliza MADALINSKA, 1800-29 [1st wife of Grzegorz], m. Grzegorz Chrzanowski

[his son ? - in 1864, Bobrowniki bought Julian Józef Chrzanowski ex-owner of Olszowa close to Kepno; then Walerian Chrzanowski (1834 -1891) - his son. Compare: in 1795 Nicolas CHOPIN was a home tutor to the children of Ewa Laczynska nee Zaborowska, widow of Maciej Laczynski, remarried with Józef Chrzanowski],

c) Pulcheria Anna Magdalena b. 1795 in Parcice,

d) Ludwik Józef Augustyn Madalinski b. ca 1803, d. 1854, landowner of Koscielec and Madalinow, m. in 1829 in Restarzew, to Pelagia Krystyna Józefa Wegierska b. ca 1810, daughter of Petronela nee Psarska;
with son
Stanislaw MADALINSKI, b. ca 1835, lived Iwanowice, m. in 1857 in Biala, to Felicja Malgorzata Sylwestra Szeliga Potocka, b. ca 1838 in Stypuly.

Gluchów close to Kaweczyn and TOKARY;
to the Galczynski family in the 18th cent. - 1783; Tomasz Galczynski died in 1786; but in 1785, Rzymsko and Gluchów were sold by Cyprian Galczynski to hands of Franciszek Ostrowski official in Sieradz. Then to
Wezyk; Pstrokonski and Cielecki.
In the 19th cent. to Zaborowski.

Piotr Pawel Jan Maleszewski 1767 - 1828
(see more details at my webpages) 1801 became interested in the problems of the Black Sea. Wrote down the memorial to the French government, published in 1802 in French and German newspapers showed the benefits of trade with France, Ukraine;
received support for his plans from Bonaparte. In September 1802 arrived in Warsaw, and in November
he was elected an member of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Sciences (see above mentioned Sołtyk Stanislaw) with mathematics Ignacy Zaborowski.

Member of the company 'Trzecieski, Horodyski et comp.', founded in Odessa for the development of the Black Sea trade. 1803 arrived in Odessa, where he investigated the conditions for trade with France. However, a break of diplomatic relations between France and Russia in 1803 make impossible for these targets. Back to France.

We back to
Izrael Lew Ajzenman - in Autumn 1944 he started cooperation with the Soviet intelligence landing group 'Nitra' as its "political and field leader".
In 1945, Izrael Lew Ajzenman became an officer of the security Service in Końskie [see also a communist underground in 2015/2018 around me].
In 1946, Izrael Lew Ajzenman co-operated with Józef Różański / Jacek Różański / Józef Goldberg, and with Józef Czaplicki / Izydor Kurc of LODZ [Kurc was friendly with Roman Romkowski / Nasiek (Natan) Grinszpan-Kikiel / Natan Grünsapau-Kikiel / Grinszpan Menasze].

Mentioned above Józef Różański / Jacek Różański / Józef Goldberg b. 1907 in Warsaw,
"...was born in Warsaw to a Jewish family, as a son of a Zionist activist and editor Abraham Goldberg (1880-1933) and his wife Anna (Chana - died 1927). He had two older siblings: his sister Julia (Judyta, died 1943) and brother Beniamin, later known as Jerzy Borejsza (1905-1952)". In 1925, he began studies at the Faculty of Law of the University of Warsaw, which he graduated in 1929. In both school and academic documents he gave the Moses' religion. Probably during his studies he started cooperation with the soviet Intelligence - NKVD, his cooperation is beyond doubt.
"... He went abroad, including to Palestine and Paris, where in 1937 he participated in the Universe Jewish Congress and made numerous contacts in circles dealing with issues of Jewish emigration to Palestine ..."
[compare: When the Oliphant family left Ceylon, the estate sold to Sir Harry Dias. Sir Anthony Oliphant's tea estate, the Oliphant Estate, was situated in the hill country in Nuwara Eliya - 55 km south-east-south of Kandy, east of Colombo, 26 km east of Hatton, close to Lindula and Meepilimana - was the first estate to grow tea in Ceylon; Anthony [see below !] and his son Laurence junior are the first people to grow tea in Ceylon. Sir Anthony's son, above Laurence Oliphant, went on become a Member of the House of Commons. Laurence Oliphant was the only child of Sir Anthony Oliphant (1793 - 1859), a member of the Scottish landed gentry. Laurence spent his early childhood in Colombo, and the Oliphant Estate in Nuwara Eliya. In 1848 - 1849, he was in Europe, 1851 to Nepal, returned to Ceylon, travel in Russia at the Black Sea in 1853 (Odessa ?), then to 1861 Oliphant was secretary to Lord Elgin; visited the Circassian coast during the Crimean War. 1861 Oliphant was appointed the First Secretary of the British Legation in Japan, a visit to Korea, where he discovered a Russian force; met Alice le Strange, married in London, 1872. In 1879, Oliphant left for Palestine, where he promoted Jewish settlement for Jewish suffering in Eastern Europe. This was the first wave of Jewish settlement by Zionists in 1882 in the Galilee. Oliphant settled in Haifa, and on Mount Carmel. In 1888, in the United States married to Rosamond, a granddaughter of Robert Owen].
In 1947 ROZANSKI became a colonel and director of the Investigation Department due to the fact that he did all at the behest of Boleslaw Bierut
[Bolesław Biernacki = Bierut - 1925 until May 1926 was in Moscow at party courses under the pseudonym Jan Iwaniuk; in Moscow, he was trained in the principles of conspiracy, intelligence and sabotage work],
and Ivan Sierov
[state security officer of the USSR in the rank of army general; head of the KGB (1954-1958), head of the Central Intelligence Directorate (military intelligence, 1958-1963)].

The Department of Investigation - director Colonel Jozef ROZANSKI - under Minister Stanislaw Radkiewicz
[Stanisław Radkiewicz in 1923 illegally entered the USSR, to brother Antoni, who served in the Red Army. The Polish Bureau of the Communist Party of Belarus directed him to Moscow to study in the Polish section of the Communist University of National Minorities of the West - in 1924 he graduated. In 1925 he was illegally sent to Poland. He had a special favors of Józef Stalin, along with Jakub Berman, to liquidate the remaining organizational units of the Polish Communists. 1945 - acted near Roman Romkowski / Nasiek (Natan) Grinszpan-Kikiel / Natan Grünsapau - Kikiel].

Adam Teofil Humer, actually Adam Umer with Jewish origin - from September 1, 1951, Deputy Director of the Department of Investigation of the Ministry of Public Security.
Released on December 31, 1954.
Adam had two more sisters: Wanda Feldman [b. 1919 in CAMDEN, USA + Józef Feldman b. 1913; the son of Leon (Lewek) Feldman and Ita (Jula) Sakiel]
and Henryka Umer - also communist activists.

A. Humer - after the cremation of the body, the urn with ashes was transported to Israel by his sister Wanda, the wife of a Jewish official; their brother Edward Umer - and his daughter Magda is the artist. Magda Umer was brought up as an atheist. Her father Edward Umer was an officer of the Security Service.


On September 25, 1985, the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Poland, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski met with DAVID Rockefeller;
at around 11.30, in the New York City, on 52nd Street in Manhattan.
Ronald Reagan administration has identified Wojciech Jaruzelski as one of the greatest enemies of democracy in the world. General Wojciech Jaruzelski, the Communist Prime Minister of the "Polish Government"
formally arrived in New York only to deliver a speech at the XL Session of the UN General Assembly.
In 1973, David Rockefeller founded the Tripartite Commission, headed by ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI, one of the most influential political and economic organizations in the world.
And it was the world's financial, political and media elite - former Presidents of the United States, Prime Ministers of Japan, media executives or entrepreneurs like Akio Mority, founder of Sony. Rockefeller was the chairman of Standard Oil (since 1999 ExxonMobil) and Chevron.
The only witnesses of this debate were two people: David Rockefeller's secretary-general, Patricia Smalley, and a Polish translator at the rank of deputy head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Jerzy Sokalski. The conversation between the two men took 105 minutes.
Then Jaruzelski and DAVID Rockefeller went to lunch at Room 72, where they were waiting: former US National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, Nobel Peace Prize winner Norman Borlaug, US Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger, Vice-president Chase Manhattan Bank representing the Rockefeller Foundation, and Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs Stefan Olszowski, also was Colonel Wieslaw Górnicki, Józef Czyrek and Zdzislaw Ludwiczak, Chargé d'affaires.
In a statement on this meeting Brzezinski emphasized: "The General personally makes a very good impression. Of all the communist leaders I spoke to, he represented the highest level of personal intelligence, ... One or two during our discussion he used demagogic arguments, but most of it was cool, based on facts ...".

... In September 1993 SOROS succeeded over the Bank of England. "...He was certain that the bank would have to take the pound that came under pressure out of the European exchange mechanism and devalue it. ... GEORGE Soros speculates on the world's financial markets via his secret off-shore company Quantum Fund NV, a private Investment fund ... registered in the tax haven of the Netherlands Antilles in the Caribbean. ...
Among the members of the board of the Quantum Fund is Richard Katz. He is at the same time head of the Rothschilds Italia S.p.A. in Milan and is also on the board of the commercial bank N. M. Rothschild & Sons in London. Another member of the board is Nils O. Taube. ... On the board of Quantum we also find Edgar D. de Piccioto, head of the Geneva private bank CBI-TDB Union Bancaire Privee, ... Isidoro Albertini, head of the Milan stockbroking company Albertini & Co., Beat Notz of the private bank Banque Worms at Geneva, Albertl Foglia, head of the Banca del Ceresio at Lugano.
... Soros is personally responsible for the chaos the 'shock therapy' caused in Eastern Europe after 1989. He foisted ludicrous draconian measures upon the weak governments there, which enabled him to buy up resources in wide parts of Eastern Europe ...
SOROS is a partner in the London investment group St. James' Place Capital which counts Lord Rothschild among its main partners.
1988 - permission to register the Soros Foundation in Poland. The Soros Foundation continues to work on behalf of the so-open society. It all started with meeting Soros with Jaruzelski and Rakowski in 1988. In May 1988, SOROS came to Poland, met with General Wojciech Jaruzelski and Prime Minister Mieczysław Rakowski, presented his plan of radical transformation of the planned economy system to the free market, and opened the Warsaw Foundation Stefan Batory.
On 23 December 1988, the Communist government and the Politburo of the United Workers' Party, decided to introduce a capitalist system in its classical orthodox form in Poland with the Commercial statute book of 1934.

... 'Financial Times' published on June 22, 1989, stories by Edward Mortimer, John Lloyd, Peter Riddell and Lionel Barber, and informed about the approval by the Communist government of Mieczysław Rakowski and by the "Solidarity" of the plan by Georg Soros, a New York-based finance strategist. This plan, later called "shock therapy". The approval of this plan by the representatives of the then communist government and the Advisors with the late Professor Bronisław Geremek, it was astonishing in itself.
Copyright by

"... In 1991, the author of this plan, G. Soros, published a book in which he discussed in detail his role in the Polish transformation, beginning with the founding of his Batory Foundation in Poland in 1988 and the meeting with General Wojciech Jaruzelski, and presenting the idea of ​​shock therapy to the late Communist Prime Minister M. Rakowski (G. Soros, Underwriting Democracy, The Free Press, New York 1991). I have prepared a broad economic program covering the three components: monetary stabilization, structural change and debt restructuring - writes G. Soros. - I proposed a kind of macroeconomic exchange of debt for shares of Polish companies. ... I joined my efforts with prof. Sachs of Harvard University, whose activity I sponsored by the Stefan Batory Foundation. I also worked closely with prof. Stanisław Gomułka, an advisor to Leszek Balcerowicz. ... In addition to the key acceptance by the Solidarity triumvirate, like J. Sachs calls Adam Michnik, Jacek Kuroń and Bronislaw Geremek, and then the acceptance of Lech Wałęsa - the pathetic material and political discrediting of the new "Solidarity" - was decided in August 1989 with the designation for the role of the new Prime Minister T. Mazowiecki ...".
The wives of Balcerowicz and Święcicki are the sisters and daughters of Eugeniusz Szyr. SZYR in 1937-1939 was a soldier of the International Brigades in Spain. He served there as a political commissar / the commissioner of all demobilization camps at the end of 1938. In June 1939, he joined the Temporary Center of the Polish Communist Party.

At the end of 1989, Soros organized a secret meeting between the Communist regime of Rakowski with the leaders of the then illegal opposition union organization Solidarnosc. The plan he presented to both sides was as follows: The Communists should let the opposition Solidarnosc take over the government to win the confidence of the people. ... Then Soros would get his rich international business friends to come to Poland and buy up the now privatized state companies. The most recent example is the huge steel company Huta Warsawa / the Milan company Lucchini.
To instigate his plan Soros used a young friend, the Polish-Jewish economic advisor Jeffrey Sachs.
Soros set up another one of his many foundations, the Stefan Batory Foundation.
In Soros' own words he has worked or still works with the main advisor of Lech Walesa - Bronislaw Geremek, with General Jaruzelski, Professor Trzeciakowski, a secret advisor to the new Polish minister for finance and economy Leszek Balcerowicz.
Through his foundation he could approach the most important opinion makers in the media, like Adam Michnik.
Soros led a delegation to Russia, where he had been collaborating with Raissa Gorbachev since the 80s, to set up a further Soros foundation, The Cultural Initiative Foundation. After a failed attempt with Gorbachev 1988 to 1991 he changed over to the circles around Yeltsin.
Under the Soros plan, Igor Gajdar and the Yeltsin government shortened subsidies to industry and agriculture drastically, despite all of economy being a state economy.

By Wikipedia:
"...Soros was born in Budapest, to a non-observant Jewish family. His mother, Elizabeth (also known as Erzsébet), came from a family that owned a thriving silk shop.
His father, Tivadar, (also known as Teodoro) was a lawyer ... and after World War I ... he escaped from Russia and rejoined his family in Budapest.
... Soros later said that he grew up in a Jewish home and that his parents were cautious with their religious roots. In 1936, his father changed the family name from Schwartz ("black" in German) to Soros (a successor in Hungarian or will soar in Esperanto). ... in March 1944 when Nazi Germany occupied Hungary ... Jewish children were barred from attending school by the Nazis, Soros and the other schoolchildren were made to report to the Jewish Council, which had been established during the occupation. ... I was told to go to the Jewish Council. And there I was given these small slips of paper ... It said report to the rabbinical seminary at 9 am ... And I was given this list of names. I took this piece of paper to my father. He instantly recognized it. This was a list of Hungarian Jewish lawyers. He said, "You deliver the slips of paper and tell the people that if they report they will be deported." Soros did not return to that job and went into hiding the next day. Later that year, at age 14, Soros lived with and posed as the godson of an employee of the Hungarian Ministry of Agriculture. The official was at one point ordered to inventory the remaining contents of the estate of a wealthy Jewish family that had fled the country; rather than leave Soros alone in the city, the official brought him along. ... 1945, Soros survived the Battle of Budapest, in which Soviet and German forces fought house to house through the city.
In 1947 Soros emigrated to England... In 1954 Soros began his financial career at the merchant bank Singer & Friedlander of London.
... In 1956 Soros moved to New York city, where he worked as an arbitrage trader for F. M. Mayer (1956 - 59). ... From 1963 to 1973, Soros's experience as a vice president at Arnhold and S. Bleichroeder resulted in little enthusiasm for the job; ... In 1969 Soros set up the Double Eagle hedge fund with $4m of investors' capital including $250,000 of his own money. It was based in Curaçao, Dutch Antilles. ...".

George Soros at the turn of the 80s and 90s in Poland supported the reforms that have contributed to the consolidation of the post-communist structures. The financier came to Poland already on May 8, 1988; Soros met, among others, with gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, and the Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski.
But actually the Stefan Batory Foundation was established earlier - Soros established the Stefan Batory Foundation on the 5 November 1987 in New York and legalized in the General New York Consulate of the People's Polish Republic.

George Soros in the US, is known primarily as a critic of George Bush and the supporter of Barack Obama.
Matthew Vadum [Friday Oct 21, 2011] noted the Soros linkage.
"...Radical anti-American billionaire George Soros is a major backer of a left-wing group that is funneling money to the Occupy Wall Street movement. The nonprofit organization at the receiving end of Soros' largesse, Alliance for Global Justice, is managing donations benefiting the communists, socialists, anarchists and hippies now occupying Zuccotti Park in lower Manhattan...".
[August 2017] "George Soros is a major funder of Alliance for Global Justice, a radical left-wing group that collected donations on behalf of the Occupy Wall Street movement", Vadum told The Daily Signal, adding:
Alliance for Global Justice is now functioning as a fiscal sponsor for a group called Refuse Fascism that is heavily involved in the Disrupt J20 effort. A fiscal sponsor accepts donations on behalf of unincorporated or small groups and charges a modest administrative fee so that donors can deduct the donations from their taxes.
The Department of Homeland Security has finally declared Soros-funded far-left group Antifa a domestic terrorist organization.
On the DHS website [2017], the so-called "anti-fascist" group is described as a "subset anarchist movement" who focus on issues "involving racism, sexism and anti-semitism", by inciting violence across the United States. DHS reports: Self-described Antifa groups have been established across the United States and in several major cities, including New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, and San Francisco. A majority of New Jersey-based anarchist groups are affiliated with the Antifa movement and are opposed to "fascism," racism, and law enforcement. Antifa groups coordinate regionally and have participated in protests in New York City and Philadelphia. There are three loosely organized chapters in New Jersey, known as the North Jersey Antifa, the South Jersey Antifa, and the HubCity Antifa New Brunswick (Middlesex County). In December 2016, a group known as the Antifascist Action-Nebraska engaged in a doxing campaign against a prominent member of American Vanguard, a white supremacist organization. The Department of Homeland Security in New Jersey has officially listed Antifa as a domestic terrorist organization after a rash of violent attacks by the group targeting supporters of Donald Trump.
And at the same time the fight about money and influences lasted also on another front. "In June 1988, the European Council meeting in Hanover, Germany, set up the Committee for the Study of Economic and Monetary Union, chaired by the then President of the Commission, Jacques Delors, and including all EC central bank governors. Their unanimous report, submitted in April 1989, defined the monetary union objective as a complete liberalisation of capital movements, full integration of financial markets, irreversible convertibility of currencies, irrevocable fixing of exchange rates, and the possible replacement of national currencies with a single currency...",

In the same 1988 in Soviet Union:
Mikhail Maratovich Fridman born in 1964 in Lviv, Ukraine [Lwow], is a Russian entrepreneur and business executive [Russian and Israeli citizenship], in 1988 he co-founded Alfa-Group. In 1990 he co-founded Alfa-Bank. 2001, Fridman became a member of the Council for Entrepreneurship at the Government of the Russian Federation; a Russian representative on the international advisory board of the Council of Foreign Relations in the United States; a philanthropist: founded both the Russian Jewish Congress, the Genesis Prize, and the Genesis Philanthropy Group, supporting Jewish communities; by Wikipedia: "...he makes large contributions to the work of the European Jewish Fund, a non-profit organization aimed at developing European Jewry and promoting tolerance and reconciliation on the continent. He has also donated to the Nativ program, ... Fridman along with Stan Polovets and Alexander Knaster, Pyotr Aven, and German Khan founded the Genesis Philanthropy Group ... He also joined the Initiative Group of the Babi Yar Holocaust Memorial Center, which also included his long-term colleague German Khan".
Professor Witold Kieżun wrote:
"On May 8, 1988, George Soros arrived to Poland. ... Then, [Jeffrey David Sachs] Jeffrey Sax, funded by George Soros, a young Harvard professor, arrived to Poland. ... he develops a program, which is now called the Balcerowicz program, but this is not the Balcerowicz program...", by Jeffrey David Sachs born in 1954, "is an American economist and director of The Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor...". In Poland advised on how to convert to a market economy, not on whether to be free-market like the US or social democratic like Scandinavia. Sachs worked in Poland intensive from April 1989 to end-1991.

"Kaupthing Singer & Friedlander was a financial services provider offering corporate and investment banking services to small and medium-sized companies, as well as wealth management services for high-net-worth individuals. Primary areas of activity were treasury, investment management, capital markets services, asset finance, and private banking. The company was created in August 2006 by the merger of Singer & Friedlander Plc and Icelandic Kaupthing Bank. The UK government put the company into administration in October 2008 in response to the failure of its parent as a result of the financial crisis of 2007 - 08.".
1907: Julius Singer founds London brokerage. 1920: The company is incorporated as Singer & Friedlander. 1957: The company is listed on the London stock exchange. 1963: Regional expansion occurs; a Birmingham office is opened. 1971: Singer & Friedlander (Isle of Man) Ltd. is launched. 1987: Singer & Friedlander becomes an independent bank. 1991: Collins Stewart is acquired.
1994: Carnegie Group (Sweden) is acquired. 1998: The company exits from capital markets operations. 2000: The company spins off Collins Stewart. 2001: Carnegie Group is listed on the Swedish stock exchange.
Carnegie Investment Bank AB is a Swedish financial services group with activities in securities brokerage, investment banking, asset management and private banking. In the wake of the economic crisis of 2008 Carnegie Investment Bank AB was nationalized on November 10, 2008. Carnegie was established as a trading company in 1803 when David Carnegie, Sr., a Scotsman, founded D. Carnegie & Co AB in Gothenburg. The management of the company was later succeeded by Carnegie's nephew, David Carnegie Jr., who later returned to Scotland, leaving the company, which by then had considerable interests in brewing and sugar production, in the hands of Oscar Ekman. David Carnegie, Sr. (8 February 1772, Montrose, Angus – 10 January 1837) was a Scottish entrepreneur who founded D. Carnegie & Co. in Gothenburg, Sweden, today known as Carnegie Investment Bank.

Note to Boris Johnson:
BORIS Johnson has described himself as a "one-man melting pot" - with a combination of Muslims, Jews, and Christians as great- grandparents. His ancestrors:
Charlotte Johnson Wahl (née Fawcett) is the daughter of James Fawcett, and his wife Frances Beatrice Lowe. Her maternal grandparents, who were American, were palaeographer Elias Avery Lowe and translator Helen Tracy Lowe-Porter. Elias was an Eastern European Jewish immigrant to the U.S, while Helen was from Pennsylvania. Elias Avery Lowe (1879 - 1969), born to a Russian Jewish family as Elias Avery Loew - he known Ludwig Traube (1861 - 1907) a paleographer, the son of a middle-class Jewish family. Elias Avery Lowe (Loew) b. 1879, was son of SARAH Ragoler / Sarah Gussy Loew (born Ragoler). Above Elias Avery Lowe, 1879 - 1969. Elias Avery Lowe [name changed 1918 from LOEW] was born on month day 15 Oct. 1879 in Kalwaria / Calvaria, Lithuania now, to Charles H. LOEW / Karol Loew / ? Lowe and Sarah Ragoler L.; immigrated 1891; to USA; 1900 naturalized as US; married Helen Tracy PORTER in 1911; study at CCNY 1894-1897; A. B. Cornell, 1902; ASCSR 1908-1910; Halle 1902-1903; Munich PhD 1907; Oxford 1920; D. Litt. Oxford 1936; North Carolina 1946; D. Litt. Nat. U. of IRELAND !! Oxford 1913-1927; reader 1927 - 1948; Cambridge 1914; he was working for the CARNEGIE INST. Washington - see SOROS - 1911-1953; died 1969 in Bad Nauheim Germany.
Kalvarija / KALWARIA is situated NORTH-east of SUWALKI ! In 1920 to Lithuania.
City 42 km from Suwalki, 17 km from Marijampole, on the road from Warsaw to Kaunas. Because of the large number of Jews living here, it was called Jewish Calvary; Samogitian bishop Jerzy Tyszkiewicz (d. 1656), built a Calvary on the model of Jerusalem. In 1715 a wooden church was founded by Prince Korybut Wiśniowiecki. Since 1766 the county of KALWARIA Suwalska / Calvary belonged to Michael [Kazimierz ?] Ogiński, governor of Vilnius, later "Grand Hetman of Lithuania". In 1795, in the third partition of Poland, Kalwaria was seized by Russia. In 1880, Kalwaria / Calvary had 8.5 thousand residents, including 75% of Jews. After the First World War, in Oct. 1920, Calvary was in independent Lithuania, close to the Polish border.

George Soros's genealogy:

Tivadar Soros / Teodoro Svarc / Theodor Schwarz, 1894 - 1968, a Hungarian lawyer, author; the father of George Soros, and engineer Paul Soros.

T. Soros fought in World War I and spent years, 1915-1919, in a prison camp in Siberia before escaping. During the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, he and his wife escaped to the United States. The family changed its name in 1936 from Schwartz to Soros.

Paul Soros / Soros Pál b. 1926, engineer, inventor, businessman; his father was Schwartz Tivadar, a lawyer and author, and Erzsébet Szucs, the daughter of the owner of a fabric store. His father had been captured by the Russians during World War I and held in a detention camp in Siberia since 1915.

Tivadar Soros, in 1944 fled to safe houses to nearly a year, until Soviet forces invaded the country. Soviets believed that Paul Soros was a wanted SS officer and arrested him. Paul Soros emigrated to the United States in 1948. Theodor Schwartz / Tivadar Soros born in 1894 - Hungary, died in 1968; son of Moritz Schwartz and Bertha Mayer. Married to Erzsebet Elisabeth Szucz daughter of Mor Szucz with Paul Soros, 1926-2013, married in 1951 to Daisy M. Schlenger with Peter Soros married to Flora Fraser.

George Soros b. 1930 married in 1960 to Annaliese Witschak with Robert Daniel Soros married to Melissa Robin Schiff. George Soros married to Susan Weber with Alexander G. Soros b. 1985. George Soros married to Tamiko Bolton.

Above Bertha Mayer born - Romania. Moritz Schwartz, born - Hungary, son of Meinhard Schwartz and Esther Sternberg. Mentioned above Esther Sternberg born - Romania. Above Meinhard Schwartz born - Hungary, son of Josef Schwartz 1808-1888. Named Josef Schwartz born in 1808 - Hungary, d. in 1882 or in 1888 - Hungary.

Named Josef Schwarz b. circa 1808, in Tešedíkovo, Slovakia; d. 1882 in Mezotúr, Hungary. Husband of Maria Gams, ca 1818 in Apostag, Hungary; d. 1882 in Mezotúr, Hungary. Tešedíkovo (Hungarian: Pered) is a village and municipality in Šala District, in the Nitra Region of south-west Slovakia, east to Bratyslawa.

Named Theodor Schwartz / Teodoro Ívarc in 1922, founded, with amongst others Kalocsay, Literatura Mondo. 1923 - public "Siberian ... Forest"; here inf. on Orochen - also in the Amur valley a body of Siberian Evenki-speaking people were called Orochen by the Manchus. Siberia 1915. Khabarovsk ca 1917, in July 1918, taken by Japan expedition;
Summer 1919 - Ksenyevka / Ksieniewka rail station, settlement in the Mogochinsky District of the Trans-Baikal Region of Russia. Ksenyevskaya railway station belonged to the Trans-Baikal Railway.
Escaped to north from, KSENIEVKA / Ksenyevka - to Olekma river - Olokma / Olekma, in Czyta district; the Olyokma River is a tributary of the Lena in eastern Siberia. To the west is the Vitim River, to the south the Shilka River and Amur River.
Then to west to the VITIM river, but next Theodor Schwartz / Teodoro Ívarc came to MOSCOW?
Summer 1919, in Russian POW camp in Moscow - soviet camp ?
And next step to LINZ, August 1921. 1921 back to Hungary; one time he traveled to Soviet Union, and 2 times to US.

The first 3,000 American troops disembarked in Vladivostok between August 15 and August 21, 1918 and they were assigned guard duty along of the railway between Vladivostok and Nikolsk-Ussuriski in the north. In the summer of 1918 onwards, the Japanese army took control over Transbaikalia. By November 1918, the Japanese occupied all ports and major towns in the Russian Maritime Provinces and Siberia east of the city of Chita. On 7 December 1918, Kolczak reached an agreement with French general JANIN, visiting of Chita. In the summer of 1919, the White regime in OMSK, Siberia collapsed. The Japanese refused to proceed west of Lake Baikal in 1918/1919. US Army back home from Vladivostok on 1 April 1920; the Japanese army in August 1920 withdrew from Zabajkale / Transbaikal - Jakucja, and the Amur area. Polish troops controlled the railway from Nowonikolajewsk - Aczynsk, Krasnojarsk to Klukwiennaja and they fought in Dec. 1919 close to Tutalskaja, Litwinowo and city Tajga. In January 1920, near to Klukwiennaja (120 km east to Krasnojarsk). Tajga is situated at half way from TOMSK to KEMEROWO.

So, Soros run away from Whites [Ksen'yevka is a rail station, south to Itaka] and escaped the White counter-revolutionaries maybe to the Bolsheviks, first north to the OLYOKMA RIVER, and then west to Lena river and VITIM. Towards the river VITIM around June 1919; this suggests that the Lake Baikal has been avoided from the north - these areas, to Baikal controlled the Japanese; because in August 1919 he was in Moscow, so it is not known how he bypass the area occupied by counter-revolutionary troops - by Ust-Ilimsk?

All Allied forces were evacuated by JUNE 1920, apart from the Japanese who stayed until 1922. The last American soldiers left Siberia on April 1, 1920.

George SOROS escaped to St Moritz in Swiss 1947.

The Suwalki - Sandberg - Summers - Samuelson - Romania network with a line to POLICE

{+ SZCZECIN-GLEBOKIE and Szczecin-POGODNO. The area of the Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz Rd - Mickiewicz Rd, and the Jagiellonska Rd.:
my military service in the 5 Kolobrzeski Regiment; at this point you should pay attention to the major Polish Army, Jozef Flis, born in 1949 in Majdan, in the Wojsławice municipality, the Lublin prov., then General of the Polish Armed Forces; 1977, he was sent to study at the Academy of M. Frunze in Moscow. Next to the Academy of the General Staff of the USSR in Moscow (1988-1990); after graduating from the Military Academy of the General Staff of the USSR in 1990, he assumed the position of Deputy Chief of Operations and Strategic Affairs of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces. "... in the Military District Prosecutor's Office in Warsaw is preparing the charges against the generals. According to investigators, ... generals: Boguslaw Pacek, former head of the Military Police; Zbigniew Zalewski, former head of the Land Forces; ... Jozef Flis, former commander of the Academy of National Defense; ..." - wrote on 29 October, 2007. Gen. Boguslaw Pacek is considered a close associate of Bronislaw Komorowski, in 2012. The updates: Colonel Jozef Flis in the years 1988 - 1990 was a student of the Military Academy of General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces. Commanders of the Academy: General Grigorij Sałmanow until August 1989; Gen. Igor Rodionov until 1992. Colonel Jozef Flis, after graduating from the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces in 1990, became deputy head of the Management Board for Operations and Strategic Affairs of the General Staff of the Polish Army! Colonel Jozef Flis in 1994 promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. Jozef Flis in 1994-1996 was rector-commandant. The Executive Board [Board for Operations] of the General Staff of the Polish Army was created on November 15, 1951. Since 1990 the head of this board was Leszek Chyła. From the middle of 1991 to 1992 the head of the Board was Edward Pietrzyk. In 1992 this Executive Board [Management Board for Operations] was renamed to the Executive Board of the Polish Army that is the 1st Executive Board for Operations and Strategic AFFAIRS of the General Staff of the Polish Army. Then the deputies of General Szumski were the General Jozef FLIS and General Czeslaw PIETAS. General Jozef FLIS was deputy head of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces for Command systems and Trainings in 1997-1999. Jozef Flis - first deputy chief of the General Staff of the Polish Army from 1999 to 2002 {head, General SZUMSKI / Shumski until 2000}. Flis in 2002 nominated to the 4 stars general. On March 12, 1999: Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary join NATO}:

Note on the "American head", as said Trump:

Larry Summers - Lawrence Henry "Larry" Summers is an American economist who is President Emeritus and Charles W. Eliot University Professor of Harvard University. Summers became a professor of economics at Harvard University in 1983. He left Harvard in 1991, working as the Chief Economist at the World Bank from 1991 to 1993. In 1993, Summers was appointed Undersecretary for International Affairs of the United States Department of the Treasury under the Clinton Administration. In 1995, he was promoted to Deputy Secretary of the Treasury under his mentor Robert Rubin [under copyright by Wikipedia]. After his departure from Harvard, Summers worked as a managing partner at the hedge fund D. E. Shaw & Co., and as a freelance speaker at other financial institutions, including Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, Citigroup, Merrill Lynch and Lehman Brothers.

Summers was born in New Haven, in 1954, into a Jewish family, the son of two economists, Robert Summers (who changed the family surname from Samuelson) and Anita Summers (of Romanian-Jewish ancestry), who are both professors at the University of Pennsylvania.

Anita Arrow Summers have a brother Kenneth Arrow. Kenneth Joseph Arrow, Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1972, born in 1921 in New York. Son of Harry Arrow and Lilian Arrow. Brother of Anita Summers (Arrow). Kenneth Joseph Arrow was born to parents of Romanian Jewish origins. Anita Arrow Summers have a brother-in-law Paul Samuelson.

Above Lilian Arrow b. estimated 1890 ?? in Romania. Above Harry Arrow b. in Romania.

Above mentioned Paul Anthony Samuelson b. in 1915, died 2009, an American economist. President Bill Clinton commended Samuelson for his "fundamental contributions to economic science" for over 60 years. He served as an advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, and was a consultant to the United States Treasury, the Bureau of the Budget and the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Samuelson was born in Gary, Indiana, to Frank Samuelson, a pharmacist, and Ella Lipton. His family was "mobile Jewish immigrants from Poland who had prospered considerably in World War I, because Gary was a brand new steel town...".

Mentioned Lawrence "Larry" Henry Summers / Larry Summers, was the son of Robert "Bob" (Samuelson) Summers. Above Robert Summers (Samuelson) / Bob Summers, 1922 - 2012, was the son of Frank Samuelson [Franc ??] and Ella (Lypski) Samuelson / Elzbieta Lipska?; Robert was the brother of Harold Samuelson and Paul Samuelson, Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, 1970.

Note on the SAMUELSON family come from the OLECKO-SUWALKI area:

Paul Anthony Samuelson was born on May 15, 1915, in Gary, Indiana. His parents were Frank Samuelson, a pharmacist, and Ella Lipton / LYPSKI Samuelson.

Ella Lipton and the Samuelsons immigrated to the USA in 1908 to build a pharmacy business in Gary, Indiana. Frank's older brother Herman also emigrated from Poland [the Suwalki area].

Samuelson come from RACZIK, Poland, then of the Prussian Empire to 1945 [Raczki Wielkie, north-east of Olecko, Prussia to 1945, and 1 km west of ex-Russian border; Nowe Raczki ca 6 km east of Olecko, and 2 km west to the ex-Russian border].

Robert Summers (June 22, 1922 - April 17, 2012) was a U.S. economist and professor, University of Pennsylvania, where he taught from 1960. He was the son of above named Frank Samuelson and Ella (Lypski) Samuelson.

Anna (Glotstein) Lypski was a wife of Mayer Lypski and mother of Sophia Lypski born in 1892 in Suwalki, Poland. Above Mayer Lypski / Meir Lypski, was also born in 1840 in Suwalki, [Russia in the 19th cent.; see Borys Johnson genealogy - Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson PC MP (born in 1964) / Boris Johnson, is a British politician, and journalist. He has been Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since July 2016; Johnson's mother, Charlotte Johnson Wahl nee Fawcett, was the granddaughter of Americans Elias Avery Lowe, of Russian Jewish descent. Johnson's great-grandparents come from an area north of SUWALKI and émigré to Mexico] Russia to 1918 / Poland, died in 1923. He was the son of Mordechai Nissan Lypski.

Ella Samuelson (Lypski) / Ella Lypski, was the daughter of above Mayer Lypski and mentioned Anna (Glotstein) Lypski. Ella was the wife of named Frank Samuelson [Frank Samuelson, 1886-1939, had married ELLA LIPTON = Ella Lipton / LYPSKI Samuelson], and she was the mother of Harold Samuelson; Paul Samuelson, Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, 1970 and Robert "Bob" (Samuelson) Summers.

Paul Samuelson's grandfather - Leo Samuelson - and his grandmother JENNIE Epstein, were part of a Jewish community that saw waves of immigrants come to the USA in the latter half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th cent.

Their son, Frank Samuelson, 1886-1939, had married ELLA LIPTON and they immigrated to the USA in 1908 to GARY, Indiana [before the Great War]. Frank's older brother Herman also emigrated from Poland and started up a furrier business in the area, along with Frank's other brother Charles.

Sheryl Sandberg was named in the Time 100 in 2012, an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world according to Time magazine. "... Ms. Sandberg’s personal wealth is reported to be in the region of $400 million, thanks to her stock holdings in Facebook as well as other companies. ... Sheryl Sandberg was born in Washington, D.C, ... Ms. Sandberg graduated Harvard College ... being awarded the highly prestigious John H. Williams Prize for the top graduating student in her subject. While studying at Harvard, Ms. Sandberg first got to know Larry Summers who was teaching at the college. After graduation Summers asked Sheryl to join him as his research assistant at the World Bank reporting on important health projects funded by the bank in India. Sheryl was to remain at the World Bank for around twelve months during 1993, before enrolling at the Harvard Business School ...

Sheryl Sandberg began her professional career as a management consultant for McKinsey & Company, before the meeting her professional association with Larry Summers, by then United States Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of President Bill Clinton.

From 1996 to 2001, Sandberg held the role of Summer's Chief of Staff, playing a major part in the Treasury's mission of forgiving debt in the developing world. Ms. Sandberg left the Treasury to join Google Inc. in 2001, remaining there until early 2008, when she was appointed by Facebook to become their COO. Sheryl Sandberg is a key figure in the Facebook management team...".

Sylwia Barthel de Weydenthal / Sylwia de Weydenthal was the precursor of Lean In Poland, an organization initiated by Sheryl Sandberg (COO of Facebook). On the the Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead is a 2013 book written by Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook. Anecdotes are given in which Judith Rodin questions why highly talented women choose to leave careers and become homemakers and Gayle Tzemach Lemmon gives her opinion.

Above Judith Rodin born Judith Seitz in 1944 is a philanthropist. Rodin was born Jewish in Philadelphia, PA. She was the daughter of Morris and Sally Seitz. Rodin became president of the Rockefeller Foundation in March, 2005.

Sheryl Kara Sandberg born 1969, is an American technology executive, activist, and author. She is the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook and founder of / the Lean In Foundation.

Sandberg was born in 1969 in Washington, D.C. to a Jewish family, the daughter of Adele (née Einhorn) and Joel Sandberg. Sandberg's family was active in helping Soviet Jews make aliyah to Israel during the refusenik era [in Russia]. Her mother ADELE was also an English teacher who co-founded Ear Peace-Save Your Hearing, a nonprofit that teaches teens how to prevent hearing loss, with a Restaurant Noise Survey:

"... The decibel levels in the arena were so loud that she and her husband began putting tissues in their ears in an attempt to muffle the noise. (They later used earplugs after learning that tissues do not provide adequate protection.) Adele was especially concerned when she saw how many young people, even babies, were being exposed to sound levels that could permanently damage their hearing".

ADELE Sandberg - Ear Peace-Save Your Hearing, a nonprofit that teaches teens how to prevent hearing loss, with a Restaurant Noise Survey - 2740 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, FL 33020 - MIAMI; see: Stephen F. Mandel and Miriam Zadek, is director of social work at the Hearing and Speech Agency of Metropolitan Baltimore [a daughter of Mrs. Hyman I. Scharfman of West Palm Beach, Fla. - north of MIAMI - see the Addo Food Group factory in UK - Pork Farms Group has been rebranded as Addo Food Group].

"Aliyah to Israel during the refusenik era" - Refusenik was an unofficial term for individuals, typically but not exclusively Soviet Jews, who were denied permission to emigrate by the authorities of the former Soviet Union and other countries of the Eastern bloc [by Wikipedia]. The coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s, led to major changes, and most refuseniks were allowed to emigrate. The family of Sheryl Kara Sandberg helped to them; she is an American technology executive, activist, and author.

She is the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook and founder of / the Lean In Foundation.

Sheryl Kara Sandberg born 1969, is an American technology executive, activist, and author. Widow of David Bruce Goldberg - son of Mel Goldberg. Sheryl Sandberg has set her goal early. "... From changing the stereotype of gender in the professional world because she doesn't believe that gender is the thing that can hold anyone back, she tries to change how people see gender and women, and treat them equal".

Leszek Moczulski / Robert Leszek Moczulski, born in 1930, the Polish journalist, politician, historian. Leszek Moczulski states that in the 1950s, he made contact with people from the pre-war Pilsudski movement, to create Conspiratorial "Independence" (including General Roman Abraham). After the intervention of British parliamentarians in Warsaw, Leszek Moczulski got a passport. In the first half of 1987 was in Britain, France, USA and Canada. He met, among others with US Vice President George Bush. "The Washington Post" printed his article.

Krzysztof Jakub Król, born October 5, 1963 in Warsaw, is a Polish politician and journalist, 2011-2015 Social Advisor of the President of the Republic of Poland. He is husband of the stepdaughter of Leszek Moczulski - Elżbieta Król. In 1997-2004 he created the "Intermedia" computer add-on; the Polish Chamber of Information Technology and Telecommunications. He assumed the position of deputy director of the communications department of Prokom Software, founded by Ryszard Krauze. He is also an adviser to Asseco Poland.

On June 29, 2011 became the social counselor of President Bronislaw Komorowski, until August 5, 2015. In 2016-2017 sat on the board of the Committee of Defense of Democracy.

Above Asseco Poland today is the result of a merger between Asseco Poland (formerly COMP Rzeszów), Softbank, Prokom Software and ABG. COMP Rzeszów, founded by Adam Góral (current President of Asseco Poland) in 1991, at the beginning of his activity he produced software for cooperative banks, later expanded into banking and finance, insurance, public administration and industry.

Adam Góral, born 1955 in Rzeszów, is the President of Asseco Poland S.A. After returning from the United States, in 1988 he and his brother set up a company called "Jazcoop".

He opened the local branch of the Warsaw "Comp Ltd." in 1991, which then transformed into COMP Rzeszów S.A. In 2004, the company changed its name to Asseco Poland SA after taking over the Slovakian high technology company "Asset Soft AS".

We back to my "genealogical" search:

Along with a very interesting association to the network structure with Jaroslaw Slota born near Chodecz and Malgorzata Zieleniewska - directly related to PM Leszek Miller (2001 - 2004).
Since 2005 with cooperation of Slovakia and Romania [PLOESTI];
at present in 2015 even the structure derived from the famous Humer alias Umer from Tomaszów Lubelski - Gliwice / Zory / Katowice {+ Tyszowce, Tomaszow Lubelski, Zamosc}, with connection to ... Katowice and Gliwice [B. Wilczek {+ Tomaszow Lubelski}] ... Korçë {Menkulas} in Albania, Thessaloniki, Tbilisi...]);

the locations of these people in society in 1988 clearly suggested further direction of my historical research.

Note to above data on Tomaszow Lubelski + Chelm Lubelski:
Teofil Adam Humer / Adam Umer b. 1917 in Camden; son of Odilia and Vincent (Wincenty was killed by the Polish Underground State on May 31, 1946; this action performed by a group led by Jan Leonowicz); in September 1939 the Humer / Umer family organized anti-Polish uprising in Tomaszow Lubelski, Łaszczów, Tyszowce, Zamosc, Szczebrzeszyn, Hrubieszow; in 1944, organized the structure of the Soviet police in Tomaszów Lubelski together with Alexander Żebruń, who in 1939 belonged to the Communist Party of Western Ukraine. Żebruń had helpers: Umer Vincent and his sons - Adam, and Edward. They prepared proscription lists of Poles in 1939 and 1944; the brothers Adam and Edward Umer found in Tomaszów Lubelski "secret police". Adam Humer was in 1939 a member of the Communist Youth Union of Western Ukraine. Adam Umer, later known as Humer quickly promoted, in the early 50s was deputy director of the Investigation Department of the Ministry of Public Security.
Vincent Umer, in 1946 was the deputy chairman of the District Council in Tomaszow Lubelski;
Teofil Adam Humer / Adam Umer was dismissed from his post of the Ministry of Public Security on March 31, 1955, but later, though formally he was outside the resort, in fact he advised the authorities of the Security service as a specialist of the Polish national movement. Polish underground has issued a death sentence on him.

Note to above named SANDBERG:

Vladimir Putin & Hillary Clinton - Common financial interests - Vladimir Putin's political mentor, Anatoly Chubais, is Chairman of Putin's favored funding front - Rusnano (Russian Nanotechnology Corporation). Bill and Hillary's closest advisor, John Podesta, has been associated with various Dutch companies in which Podesta and Chubais have been directors and in which Rusnano invested $35 million. If this weren't close enough, one of the investors with Rusnano is the Wyss Foundation that made an up to $5 million donation to The Clinton Foundation.

"... Chubais helped lead the disastrous Russian privatization voucher program in the early 1990's pressed by then World Bank chief economist, Larry Summers. Summers later served alongside Podesta in the Clinton and Obama White Houses. Summers' aids in the Russian privatization debacle were Sheryl K. Sandberg and Yuri Milner, who were later placed in charge of global email and social networking via Gmail,, Facebook and VKontakte. In short, this small group has taken over the Internet by exploiting state powers using the social networking invention stolen from Columbus innovator Leader Technologies as well as core Internet inventions by others...".
More: '', October 2016.

Sylwia Barthel de Weydenthal / Sylwia de Weydenthal
was the precursor of Lean In Poland, an organization initiated by Sheryl Sandberg (COO of Facebook). On the the Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead is a 2013 book written by Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook.

Anecdotes are given in which Judith Rodin questions why highly talented women choose to leave careers and become homemakers and Gayle Tzemach Lemmon gives her opinion.
Above Judith Rodin born Judith Seitz in 1944 is a philanthropist. Rodin was born Jewish in Philadelphia, PA. She was the daughter of Morris and Sally Seitz. Rodin became president of the Rockefeller Foundation in March, 2005.

Sheryl Kara Sandberg born 1969, is an American technology executive, activist, and author. She is the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook and founder of / the Lean In Foundation.
Sandberg was born in 1969 in Washington, D.C. to a Jewish family, the daughter of Adele (née Einhorn) and Joel Sandberg. Sandberg's family was active in helping Soviet Jews make aliyah to Israel during the refusenik era [in Russia]. Her mother ADELE was also an English teacher who co-founded Ear Peace-Save Your Hearing, a nonprofit that teaches teens how to prevent hearing loss, with a Restaurant Noise Survey:
"... The decibel levels in the arena were so loud that she and her husband began putting tissues in their ears in an attempt to muffle the noise. (They later used earplugs after learning that tissues do not provide adequate protection.) Adele was especially concerned when she saw how many young people, even babies, were being exposed to sound levels that could permanently damage their hearing".
ADELE Sandberg - Ear Peace-Save Your Hearing, a nonprofit that teaches teens how to prevent hearing loss, with a Restaurant Noise Survey - 2740 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, FL 33020 - MIAMI; see: Stephen F. Mandel and Miriam Zadek, is director of social work at the Hearing and Speech Agency of Metropolitan Baltimore [a daughter of Mrs. Hyman I. Scharfman of West Palm Beach, Fla. - north of MIAMI - see the Addo Food Group factory in UK - Pork Farms Group has been rebranded as Addo Food Group].

"Aliyah to Israel during the refusenik era" - Refusenik was an unofficial term for individuals, typically but not exclusively Soviet Jews, who were denied permission to emigrate by the authorities of the former Soviet Union and other countries of the Eastern bloc [by Wikipedia]. The coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s, led to major changes, and most refuseniks were allowed to emigrate. The family of Sheryl Kara Sandberg helped to them; she is an American technology executive, activist, and author.
She is the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook and founder of / the Lean In Foundation.

Sheryl Kara Sandberg born 1969, is an American technology executive, activist, and author. Widow of David Bruce Goldberg - son of Mel Goldberg. Sheryl Sandberg has set her goal early. "... From changing the stereotype of gender in the professional world because she doesn't believe that gender is the thing that can hold anyone back, she tries to change how people see gender and women, and treat them equal".

We back to Moczulski:

The distillery of spirits in Wola Wiazowa belonged to Pradzynski, but the village was still owned by Walewski.

It is this and not another the Pradzynski family - relatives of the Kiedrzynskis. Pradzynski from Wilkowo Polskie was married to Kiedrzynski - the Kiedrzynski family in Wilkowo Polskie are descendants of Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720.

WILCZKOW belonged to Pstrokonski.

Franciszek Ksawery Pstrokonski, b. in 1715 - died ca 1783, owner of WILCZKOW, m. Agnieszka Nieniewska d. 1776; he was the brother of Marianna, and Wiktoria PSTROKONSKA {born ca 1715/1720} - she was married Marcin Kiedrzynski {b. ca 1715/1720}, son of Jakub Kiedrzynski senior, and Ewa Gomolinska / GOMULINSKA.

Jakub's Kiedrzynski - junior - brother was Izydor Kiedrzynski. Jakub's nephew was Gabriel Kiedrzynski [January 1833 with nicknames].

MOKIEJEWSKI also had several distilleries of spirits, also near to Przysucha - Opoczno. The part of Mokiejowski / Mokiejewski's property, ie Smogorzow and Mariówka, was transferred to the Kiedrzynski family - it is the same family of MARCIN Kiedrzynski from WILCZKOW [see Andrzej Kiedrzynski from Wilczkow and his son Jakub Kiedrzynski - WILCZKOW, WILKOWO POLSKIE, Kalisz] and WILKOWO POLSKIE.

Henryk Kiedrzynski, and his sons were heirs of Smogorzow and Mariowka. This is the same family from Wilczkow. See my information about Bedziechow close to WILCZKOW.

In the village of Mariowka / Mariowka Opoczynska during the second world war the Leszek Moczulski / Lech / Robert Moczulski-Berman or Robert Reimer-Berman family survived the anguish; Berman was educated here in Spring - Summer of 1945. See the fate of Leszek Moczulski after 1977 [a visit to Bush in 1987 in US].

In 1848 the Wola Wiezowa / Wola Wiazowa, and Deby Wolskie farm in the Wola Wiezowa parish, were owned by Ksawery Konstanty Walewski / Xawery Konstanty Walewski.

Here were living three brothers Mieczyslaw Walewski, Ignacy, and Alexander Walewski - sons of Romuald Walewski, with mother Bronislawa Walewska born Cieslinska, widow.
Guardian of the children was Konstanty Walewski owner of Rzasawa in the Czestochowa district.
In 1847 there was a court case between Ksawery Konstanty Walewski, and Marcela born Walewska, wife of Ludwik Walewski, versus above Bronislawa Walewska. This property Wola Wiazowa was divided between children of mentioned Romuald Walewski, and others the Walewskis.
Father's of STANISLAW Walewski was Franciszek Walewski junior [Ksawery Franciszek Walewski, official in Ostrzeszów, 1739-1796 - he was the son of Franciszek Walewski, senior, official in Rozprza, b. 1710 - died in 1745 in RUSIEC + Teodora Walewska b. ca 1710] with unknown wife
[Franciszek Walewski, junior, m. 1st in 1784, in the Kobyla Góra parish, in Myslniew, to Konstancja Psarska, the daughter of Fryderyk Jakub Psarski; the 2nd to unknown {see son Stanislaw Walewski}; 3rd to Teresa Niemojowska b. ca 1730].

Mentioned Stanislaw Walewski, 1779-1830.

Romuald Blazej Wincenty Walewski was the son of named above Stanislaw Walewski and Zuzanna BRODZKA / Brocka; Romuald was born 1813 in the Rusiec parish in Wola Wiazowa.
Romuald Blazej Wincenty Walewski, 1813-1847, m. Bronislawa Cieslinska, b. 1822.

Mieczyslaw Walewski b. 1839, Ignacy Walewski b. 1842, and Alexander Walewski born 1844 in Kolonia Luslawice, east to Czestochowa - south-east to MSTOW, d. 1907,
all were sons of named Romuald Walewski and Bronislawa Walewska born Cieslinska.
Alexander's son was Aleksander Bronislaw Walewski, 1887-1946; daughter was Deaodata.

Named above village Mariówka is the main center of activity of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Blessed Virgin Mary founded in 1878 by Father Honorat Kozminski. Mariowka - is situated 5 km north-west to PRZYSUCHA, the east to OPOCZNO.
The Congregation of the Sisters of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1903 bought MARIOWKA from the hands of Henryk Kiedrzynski, land owner from SMOGORZOW.
Smogorzow belonged to Wasowicz until 1871, then to hands of Franciszek Krassowski and his wife Natalia Zajtekajn Krassowska. In 1896 son of named Franciszek and Natalia, that is junior Franciszek Krassowski, all Smogorzow donated for a arrear to hands of Jekow Klajner from Przysucha. Named Franciszek Krassowski, junior, married baroness Ludwika Reysha / REYSHE.
From named JAKOW KLAJNER, all estate Smogorzów, Adam Mokiejowski bought in 1897.
See next Adam MOKIEJEWSKI born in 1900, married to Janine ZYLINSKA b. 1910 with son Jean-Paul Adam MOKIEJEWSKI.
In Rzucow mentioned Adam Mokiejewski founded a school in 1901.
Wola Kuraszowa - 12 km south-east to PRZYSUCHA. Manor in Rzucow to Adam Mokiejewski. Jean-Pierre Mocky (born 6 July 1933) is the pseudonym of Jean-Paul Adam Mokiejewski, a French film director.

RZUCOW - the manor was built in 1864, when Rzucow was bought by Adam Mokiejewski. Then to Witold Mokiejewski / Mokiejowski. Witolda died in 1940; next to his wife Wanda to 1948.

1903 - Smogorzow was bought by Henryk KIEDRZYNSKI and his wife Wanda Lucja Bogumila Geneli / Wanda Geneliek of Kiedrzwica. HENRYK Kiedrzynski / Ostoja-Kiedrzynski Henryk was a judge for 28 years. He died in 1929 or 1927.
Smogorzów took Ludomir Kiedrzynski and Stefan KIEDRZYNSKI [they had a brother Witold Henryk Kiedrzynski, born 1895].
Named Wanda Lucja Bogumila Geneli b. ca 1870, her mother 1831-1893; Wanda married in Warsaw in 1885, to LEON KIEDRZYNSKI, that is Leon Henryk Kiedrzynski or named Henryk KIEDRZYNSKI - Ostoja, born in 1859 in Grzymaczew [the estate Grzymaczew - Wojkow, close to WRZACA, 9 km south to BLASZKI; 25 km west to Sieradz].
His father born in 1840 - Kalisz, died 1859 - Grzymaczew, married to woman b. 1830.
His grandfather born 1806. Maybe born in 1806 in Staw, in the Kalisz county, married a wife b. 1810; his borother 1813-1869.
His great-grandfather Franciszek Kiedrzynski b. 1772 May or ca 1770. Franciszek Kiedrzynski married in Staw or Staw Kaliski, 9 km north-west to BLASZKI, in 1804. Staw - 25 km south to BEDZIECHOW of Kiedrzynski. Franciszek Kiedrzynski was son of Pawel Kiedrzynski and Dorota Kiedrzynska born Karlinska in 1740.
Pawel was born in 1739 / 1740. Franciszek had 3 siblings: Klemens Kiedrzynski. Franciszek married Marianna Grygowska b. 1770, with son Aleksander Kiedrzynski.
PAWEL had a brother Florian Kiedrzynski; they were sons of Marcin Kiedrzynski b. ca 1715/1720 - died in 1788, mother Wiktoria Pstrokonska / Wiktoria Poraj Pstrokonska [b. 1715/1720] of WILCZKOW.
His great-great-grandfather PAWEL Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1739 / 1740 - d. in MEKA in 3 September 1809.
Meka - 5 km east to Sieradz.

Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798].
Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family. Józef MADALINSKI, b. 1774, died after 1809, Captain in 1809, m. Julianna nee Bogdanska, 1st voto JAKUB Kiedrzynski; she d. in Orpiszew / Orpiszewko / ORPISZEWEK in 1809 (Orpiszewko was owned by the Kiedrzynskis); with daughter Kunegunda born before 1809 in Orpiszewek, m. in 1835 in Restarzew, to Grzegorz Chrzanowski b. ca 1784, son of Zofia Tymienicki.
Jozef Madalinski was son of Kajetan Madalinski, 1740-1784 and Dorota Kiedrzynska 1740 or 1750 - 1784.
Jakub Kiedrzynski was born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798. His two wives: Brygida Bardzka [in 1767]; and Julianna nee Bogdanska [ca 1788].

JAKUB'S brother was Kasper Kiedrzynski !
MICHAL Arcichowski or Arciechowski Michal, b. ca 1717, inf. 1748, died in Chodziez [northern Grand Poland and close to ex-Prussian border !], in 1771. Before 1747 he was married to Antonine (Agnieszka ?) Golinska, d. before 1779, with son Anastazy, and daughters: Marianna in 1779 m. to Kasper Kiedrzynski / KACPER KIEDRZYNSKI [see family of Izydor Kiedrzynski !]; Nepomucena in 1778 m. Zygmunt Grudzinski; Michalina; Karolina in 1779 was unmarried.
Arciechowski Józef Wojciech, b. in Milicz in 1785, Captain of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, landowner of Dziewoklucz in 1815, owned Margonin in 1817, m. in 1813 to Dominika Gembicka, daughter of Ignacy and Cecylia Kurdwanowska, divorced as Jaworowicz, b. ca 1784, with son Jan, b. in Margonin in 1821, and with daughter
Monika, b. ca 1814, married in 1838 to Apolinary Kiedrzynski;
Eufemia, b. ca 1818 and died in 1820 in Margonin.
Margonin - 14 km east of above CHODZIEZ.

They were relatives of Marcin Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1715/1720, and they come from Jakob / Jakub Kiedrzynski senior b. ca 1675 - owner of Dymki in the Lututow parish since 1698, inf. 1709 Wielun. Dymki and Lututow - Dymki estate of the Kiedrzynskis is situated 5 km east of Lututow, in the Wieruszow county.

Mentioned above Grzymaczew and Wojków, 9 km to BLASZKI, 2 km south to WRZACA.

STAW KALISKI and STAW - 9 km north-west to BLASZKI, 25 km south-west to GLUCHOW; south to Bedziechow.

Compare -
when Andrzej Kiedrzynski junior was died before / in 1855, his estates and properties - Suliszewice [5 km north-west of BLASZKI; 4 km to STAW KALISKI], and Mikolajewszczyna, with Suliszewice Jarki, and Koldów [west of Kalinowa - see below], were divided between heirs in 1856 in Kalisz.
Suliszewice and Koldów are situated close to Blaszki; Suliszewice, 2 km west of Koldow; Koldow is west of Kalinowa, and north of Blaszki.

The managers in Grzymaczew: Jan Wolanski in 1818 and Roman Kuninski, 1840.

Mentioned Marcin Kiedrzynski b. ca 1715/1720. Wiktoria Pstrokonska [b. ca 1715/1720 !], married Marcin Kiedrzynski; Marcin Kiedrzynski was the son of Jakub Kiedrzynski - senior - and Ewa Gomolinska / GOMULINSKA.

Named Florian / Floryan Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1730 / 1740, owner of Noskowo - inf. 1776, 16 km east of Koszkowo and 27 km east of Kunowo. The same Florian Kiedrzynski b. ca 1730 (1740 ?), married in 1759, his wife was living 1730-1786. His son Leon Kiedrzynski b. ca 1760. His uncle was Kazimierz Kiedrzynski m. Katarzyna Swierczkowska. Above Florian Kiedrzynski's father was Marcin Kiedrzynski b. ca 1715/1720 - died in 1788, mother Wiktoria Pstrokonska / Wiktoria Poraj Pstrokonska [b. 1715/1720];
brothers of FLORIAN:
Jan Antoni Maciej Kiedrzynski 1738 - d. ?;
Stanislaw Kiedrzynski ? - 1774 [married Marjanna nee Zamoyska; he was the writer of the customs chamber in WSCHOWA];
Pawel Kiedrzynski born ca 1739 / 1740;
Józef Kiedrzynski born 1745 [his son - Franciszek Placyd Kiedrzynski born 1812, to Tekla Kiedrzynska born Kossewska; Tekla was born ca 1780. Franciszek had 3 sisters: Józefa Eleonora Kiedrzynska. Franciszek married Emilia Nadolska, born 1822, with 8 children: Julian Franciszek Kiedrzynski, Jozefa Kazimiera Duplicka];
sister Bona [b. ca 1745 ?] from KARSY; Karsy - 13 km north-east to BIEGANIN, north-west to KALISZ.
Acc. to Dworzaczek:
in 1771 Kajetan Lipnicki, son of Gabriel LIPNICKI and Marianna Bojanowska, m. Bona Kiedrzynska, daughter of Marcin KIEDRZYNSKI and Wiktoria Pstrokonska.

Note to Ignacy Kiedrzynski / Ignacy Kiedrzynski
[b. ca 1730; acc. to my research he was the brother of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720. Andrzej Kiedrzynski was the landowner of Biegacino in 1760, that is Bieganin / Bieganino ca 23 km west of Kalisz and 16 km south of Orpiszewko; married Franciszka Jackowska]:
In 1764 in Wielgomlyny, Ignacy Kiedrzynski of Malowana Wola (5 km east of DMENIN; 9 km north-west of WOLKA BANKOWA; 5 km north of Kobiele Wielkie) married Zofia nee Zablocka 1 voto Swiecicka (widow, a woman who has lost her husband by death).

Marcin Kiedrzynski was the next of kin of above Ignacy Kiedrzynski b. ca 1730 and to above mentioned Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720. Marcin and Kazimierz Kiedrzynski were the brothers.

Franciszek Kiedrzynski b. 1772, m. Marianna b. 1785, with daughter Anna b. 1808 in Brzezno; and son Jan Nepomucen Kiedrzynski b. 1813 in Brzezno, d. 1869 in Peczniew; and daughter Lucja Wasinska b. 1809, died in Dec. 1885 in Radoszewice in the Siemkowice parish, south-west to RUSIEC, west to CHORZEW.

Peczniew - south to PIEKARY; east to WILCZKOW, north-west to PRUSINOWICE.
KOTLOW, inf. on a marriage in 1818 - Julianna / Juljanna Kiedrzynska, Mss of Kotlow, b. ca 1800; Kotlów - 18 km north of OSTRZESZOW.

1844, Gorzyczki:
Józef Debinski of Sieroszewice, b. ca 1820/1821, son of Wojciech and Konstancja Kiedrzynski [b. ca 1795 ?], married to Zuzanna widow from Gorzyczki, b. ca 1806, daughter of Jan and Agnieszka Lawicki. Gorzyczki - the Koscian county, close to Czempin. At half way from KOSCIAN to SREM; north-east of LESZNO. GORZYCZKI - ca 1830 owner Edward Potworowski; Golembin (Stary Golebin), owner Melchior Szoldrski [see WILKOWO POLSKIE].
Compare: Kiedrzynski, Jakub, died on 4 February 1798. His wife Brygida Bardzka - marriage in 1767, died in 1786. They had 3 daughters:
Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska b. in 1770;
Franciszka BAJKOWSKA b. ca 1768; and
Petronela Kiedrzynska
{Wilkowo Polskie: it was an estate of Kazimierz Radomicki, next of Andrzej Szoldrski. In Wilkowo Polskie in 1818, November, Józef Jakub Wronski - the Judge and public notary in Miedzyrzecz, born in 1769, son of Jan WRONSKI, the owner of Golanice [near to Jezierzyce Koscielne and Krzycko Male], and Urszula Goczkowska - married Katarzyna Pradzynska, born in 1793, the daughter of Jan Pradzynski - died before 1818 - and his wife Petronella / Petronela Kiedrzynska, b. ca 1767/1769}.
And son Franciszek Kiedrzynski b. ca 1770, married to Kreska of the Baranow parish. Franciszek was brother of Franciszka - daughter of Jakub junior, she m. in 1785 / 1791 to Michal Bajkowski.
Jakub Kiedrzynski / Jakób, born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798, had son Józef Kiedrzynski - inf. in the Kingdom of Poland in 1837. His brother was Kasper Kiedrzynski !
GRZYMACZEWO - Grzymaczew, 9 km south-west to BLASZKI, north-east to GRABOW by Prosna.
1837, Józef Wstowski and Alexander Schmidt, co-owners of Grzymaczew, and Wloczyn in the Sieradz county.

Inf. in Kalisz in 1836 - after childless death of Jan Kiedrzynski in 1832, ex-owner of Dziadkowice, in the Szadek county, 6 km south-east to SZADEK, north of Zdunska Wola.

We back to MARIOWKA:
1910-12 - the Tsarists were conducting searches in Mariowka to detect the chapel and the "secret monastery". Mariówka has become a well-known educational center in 1928.
The outbreak of World War II broke the activity of these schools. School buildings were occupied by the German army and despite the difficult neighborhood with Germans, sisters took care of wounded Polish soldiers. During the war, the sisters also organized secret primary and secondary education. Mariówka - after March 1945, started a Private Coeducational General Gymnasium, then Private Coeducational General High School.

RZUCOW: 14 km south-east to Przysucha.
1762 - owned by Franciszek Leszczynski; 1837, Wojciech Krigar bought it from Eleonora Leszczynski-Swietoslawska;
1852 - Lukasz Mokiejewski was living in Warsaw.
1852 Adam Jan Mokiejewski was born;
1859 - Lukasz Mokiejewski built an alcohol distillery plant, in Warsaw; 1853 in Rzucow Andrzej KRIGAR is owner. Andrzej Krigar opens match factory. 1879, Adam Mokiejewski son of Lukasz, married Helena Julia Genelich, daughter of Albin. Genelich bought Rzucow.
1882 - Opening of Adam Mokiejewski distillery branch, in Lodz; Ca 1884, Adam Mokiejewski bought Rzuców;
1887, Witold Mokiejewski was born. 1893 in Rzucow Wilhelmina Geneli nee Papka, was died.
1895 Adam Mokiejewski m. 2nd Maria Geneli, sister of Helena.

Born Jean-Paul Adam Mokiejewski in 1933 to a Polish Jewish family in Nice.

Kiedrzynski - Pradzynski line:

This is the Kiedzynski family line from Wola Wiazowa in the 19th cent. [in the 2nd half of the 20th cent. it's the author's family], affinity with the Pradzynski home, also in Wilkowo Polskie under the Prussian border in the 18th-19th centuries, and near to KALISZ in the 18th century, close to OPOCZNO in the 20th century, and in Wola Pszczolecka [compare: Sulimierski from LUBIEC {guerrilla of 1833}, Soltyk {note on 1831 November Uprising}, Walewski from Jedlno and Wieruszow, Kalinowski-Oginski- Ronne-Trubecki branch + Mielzynski-Bninski-Fiszer line of CHOBIENICE-KROTOSZYN-Gorzdy/Gargzdai].

Strong political ties connected them with {Freemasonry and the fight for independent Poland - Kosciuszko-Fiszer-General Franciszek Paszkowski + Armand-Konstantynowicz-Japaridze in Moscow + Duflon-Breguet} the independence conspiracy linked to Erasmus Mycielski / ERAZM Mycielski, Ignacy Pradzynski, Kalasanty Szaniawski, and thus indirectly with General Fraciszek Paszkowski [+ Horodyski, Maleszewski, Venture, Breguet, Neyman and the TEMPLARS], General Tadeusz Kosciuszko [see Jefferson and Illuminati movement], and through the family of BREZA to General Stanislaw Fiszer and his wife Fiszer - Kwilecka.

We look at first on Raymond REMBIELINSKI:

Rajmund Hiacynt Rembielinski, in 1820, the Sejm Marshal in the Kingdom of Poland (September 1774-12, February 1841).

Rajmund Rembielinski (1774/1775-1841) was a Polish political activist, and landowner. Rajmund Rembielinski born in Warsaw, d. in Lomza, president of the Department of Bialystok in Lomza in 1808, in Plock, president of the Masovia Province and MP, the owner among others of Jedwabne and Krosniewice; freemason.
In December 1813 in Plock, in Rembielinski home was staying Aleksander Ist, and again in May 1825.
Jedwabne - city in the Podlasie province, in the Lomza county, in 1736, the owner of the village was Antoni Rostkowski. In 1777, Stanislaw Rembielinski, the cabinet secretary of King Stanislaw August, became the new owner of Jedwabne. At the end of the 18th century, cloth factories were established in Jedwabne. 1795, the city was under Prussian rule, then in 1807 it was the Warsaw Duchy, which in 1815 was transformed into the Kingdom of Poland.
Rajmund Hiacynt Rembielinski the owner of Krosniewice, Jedwabne and Mezenin, was married in 1797 to Agnieszka Helena Opacka. Marriage after twenty years ended with a divorce.
On 8 September 1816 Rembielinski was appointed chairman of the Masovia Province. As a result of the divorce contract, Rembielinski received in the dowry Krosniewice and Mezenin. In 1819 he married Antonina Weltz. She died in 1868 - Poznan, buried in Kazimierz close to Szamotuly.
Antonina Rembielinska nee Weltz, born ca 1800, had 2 sons of the 1st marriage: Eugeniusz Rembielinski and Aleksander. She moved home to the Great Poland in 1841, and married Wincenty Skarzynski. She died in Poznan.
Aleksander - the owner of Krosniewice, and Eugeniusz - was staying in Augsburg.

Named Kazmierz near to Szamotuly, is situated close to Radzyny and Komorowo, Bytyn, Mrowino.

In the summer of 1820, Rajmund Rembielinski was presented to the Administrative Board, his economic plan; in 1821, the Government Commission on Internal Affairs and the Police entrusted Rembielinski with creating cloth settlements in Zgierz, Przedecz close to IZBICA KUJAWSKA, Lodz, Dabie, Gostynin, Leczyca, Gabin, Rawa, Brda and Skierniewice. In 1818 he was a deputy to the Parliament of the Biebrza county,
in 1820 - Marshal of the Parliament and state councilor.

The fate of OPACKI family [see above about Agnieszka Helena Opacka] after the partitions is unknown.
Gabriel Rafal Chryzanty Opacki in 1771 received from his father: Mezenin, Rutki (located in 1760), parts of the villages of Ozar and Ozarka in the Lomza county, Gielczyn south to LOMZA, parts of the villages of Brzostowo-Siestrzanka and Rutkowskie; mansion in Praga; Krosniewice in the province of Leczyca.

Gabriel Rafal Chryzanty Opacki the great-great-grandson of Wojciech Opacki, the only son of Stanislaw - patriot, social activist, manager and entrepreneur; Opacki Gabriel Rafal Chryzanty (1741 or 1742-1806), official of Wiski, general major in 1794. Born in Mezinin in a parish of Rutki (close to Lomza), the son of Stanislaw (died 1784), a deputy to the Parlaiment, and his first wife, Konstancja Pelkowska / Pelka ?
In 1759 under the protection of Jan Klemens Branicki, served captain in the army; close to Izabela Poniatowski, sister of King Stanislaw August; 1769 he became a royal chamberlain; managed Bialystok estate;
he had one daughter Agnieszka Helena Konstancja, a well-educated woman who married Rajmund Rembielinski and the estate passed into the hands of the Rembielinski family.
Then it was sold by Eugeniusz Rembielinski to the Jewish hands.

Mezenin - a village in the Zambrow county, close to Rutki.

Krosniewice - a city in the Kutno county, 15 km west of Kutno; 1775 the owner Karol Saryusz Gomolinski receives from King Stanislaw August Poniatowski a privilege for Krosniewice;
1793, the city was occupied by Prussia, later in the Congress Kingdom. Here is the Rembielinski palace and park, and a monument to Prince Józef Poniatowski in 1814; 39 km south-east is IZBICA KUJAWSKA.
Karol Sariusz Gomolinski, 1696-1784 was the son of
Jan GOMOLINSKI and Bielicka.
Karol Sariusz Gomolinski d. 1784 in Krosniewice, a Polish judge, a chamberlain; married ca 1730, Helena Pokrzywnicka, with children:
1. Józefata Gomolinska 1738-1823 + Wladyslaw Skarbek, 2nd to Szymon Dzierzbicki;
2. Franciszka Kunegunda Gertruda Gomolinska;
3. Ignacy Gomolinski, MP, official in Rzeczyca , 1740-1793;
4. Marianna Saryusz-Gomolinska b. ca 1740 - died in 1800, m. Count Chryzanty Gabriel Rafal Opacki MP, Count in 1797, 1741-1806,
with daughter Agnieszka Helena Opacka 1777-1863, m. Rajmund Hiacynt Rembielinski 1775-1841, 2nd to Józef Bechon.
5. Katarzyna Barbara Sariusz-Gomolinska b. 1742.


Gostyczyna - close to Nowe Skalmierzyce, 3 km to the Prosna river; 10/13 km south of KALISZ and ca 30 km north of BOBROWNIKI by the Prosna river.
Ksawery Pstrokonski / Pstrokonski Franciszek Ksawery 1715 - ca 1783 [his mother Konstancja ZAREMBA died in 1753], m. Agnieszka Nieniewska d. 1776, with 2 daughters: Marianna Pstrokonska, and Wiktoria PSTROKONSKA married Marcin Kiedrzynski, son of Jakub Kiedrzynski and Ewa Gomolinska or Anna Gomolinska [born ca 1680/1700 ?].

Kiedrzynski, Jakub junior, died on 4 Feb. 1798, buried in KALISZ.

Jakub Kiedrzynski - Ostoja, SENIOR, b. 1668, died in 1729.

Interesting reading:
GOMOLINSKI / Gomulinski, JERZY b. ca 1620 ?; m. Anna Lis Starzenska, the daughter of Wojciech, with sons:
1. Marcin Gomolinski, b. ca 1640/1650, inf. 1670 owner of Lubca, Kuznica Lubiecka and part of Wola Pszczólecka; and

2. Mikolaj Gomolinski, died ca 1699, owner of Krzeslów, Kurów, Wypychów, m. Zofia Drozdowska, the daughter of Andrzej Stefan; with Stefan, Marcin, Katarzyna Jelowiecki.

Maybe Ewa Kiedrzynska b. ca 1700, was the daughter of named above Marcin or Mikolaj Gomolinski.

The GLUCHÓW parish and Kiedrzynski:
close to TUREK, to TOKARY and MILEJOW; south-west to DOBRA.

1658 - the godparents: Jan Kazimierz Czynski Colonel, and Teofila Gomolinska.

Jan. 1736 in Wilczków, Antoni Pawel Sebastian Pstrokonski was born, the son of Maciej Pstrokonski and Konstancja Zareba; godparents: Franciszek Potocki of Mikulice, and Bona Zareba of Przespolew.

1738, May in Wilczków, Jan Antoni Maciej Kiedrzynski was born, the son of Marcin Kiedrzynski and Wiktoria Pstrokonska; godparents: Maciej Pstrokonski of Wilczkow, and Bona Zareba of Przespolew.

1738, July, Gluchów, here was born Jakub Wawrzyniec Michal Kiedrzynski
[acc. to me JAKUB Kiedrzynski, junior, then official in KALISZ, was the brother of IZYDOR KIEDRZYNSKI of JEDLNO]
son of Andrzej Kiedrzenski / Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowska, with godparents: Marcin Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Kiedrzynska-Jackowska, of Wilczkow.

1740, January in Gluchow, was born Kacper Maciej son of named above Andrzej Kiedrzenski [Kasper Kiedrzynski son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski] and Franciszka Jackowski; godparents: Tomasz Galczynski the owner of Gluchow, and Konstancja Pstrokonska of Wilczkow.

1741 in Wilczków, Dorota Apolonia Papieski was born; godparents: Andrzej Kiedrzenski of Gluchow, and Katarzyna Papieska of Wilczkow.

In Gluchów, 1741, Marianna, the daughter of named Andrzej Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowskich; godparents: Stanislaw Papieski of Wilczkow and young Jackowska of Gluchow.

1742 in Wilczków, Stanislaw Papieski junior was born.

1743, bpt. of Dorota Apolonia Kiedrzynska, the daughter of above Andrzej Kiedrzenski and Franciszka Kiedrzynska; the godparents: Mikolaj Napruszewski and his wife Anna.

1747 in Wilczków, godfather Walenty Galczynski and Franciszka Skrzetuska of Wilczkow.

In KALISZ, buried in Church of St. Family:
Gomolinski, Józef, in 1788.
Gorzenski, Jan, in 1692.
Kiedrzynska, Brygilla, on 16 Jan. 1786.
Kiedrzynski, Jakub, junior, died on 4 Feb. 1798.
Kierski, Józef, in 1737.
Kierzynska, Anna, 1728.
Kierzynska, Kostancya in 1744.
Kierzynski, Jan, 1744.

On above junior, Jakub Kiedrzynski:

Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of mentioned above Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798].
Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.

Brygida Bardzka married 1st to Owidiusz Wierusz Walknowski, before 1761, 2nd to Jakub Kiedrzynski junior, in 1767.
Her father
Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770, mother Helena Teresa Kozminska, 1706-1792.
Her brothers:
Augustyn z Wrzesni Bardzki died in 1793, and Rafal Tadeusz Jan Bardzki, 1739-1758.
Her children:
Franciszek Wierusz Walknowski b. 1769 or before, and Teresa Wierusz Walknowska;
and with JAKUB Kiedrzynski:
Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska b. 1770,
and Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.

Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski

{see on Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, close to OBORNIKI and MUROWANA GOSLINA. Died in 1817; the son of Antoni Pradzynski and Marianna Czaplicka / Marianna Bardzka.
Nepomucena Pradzynska had a sister and brother:
famous hero Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski,
Sylwia Pradzynska 1791-1862 m. Jakub Jan Krasicki insurgent of 1831, Colonel, 1785-1848;
and Wincenty Józef PRADZYNSKI, 1795-1858 [the landowner of WOLA WIAZOWA], m. Salomea Mierzynska.
Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
above Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847

[note: Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association].

PETRONELA Kiedrzynska m. in 1791 to MELCHIOR Pradzynski who was born in Mrowino, the Greater Poland Province in 1753 and died in 1797.

Melchior Pradzynski was the son of Antoni Pradzynski b. 1710, and Marianna Czaplicka.
Melchior's brother was named Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, who was the father of famous Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - commander-in-chief of the Polish Army.

Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. 1797/1798, of Wesola / WIESIOLKA, and Tyczyn, official in SZADEK, m. mentioned Nepomucena Pradzynska b. ca 1790 - it was her second marriage ca 1825}

with the son Andrzej Pradzynski 1794-1872
{born in KOWALEW / Kowalewo close to Pleszew, and 5 km east to ORPISZEWEK; close to Lutynia, Fabianow and KOTLIN. Died in 1872 in Zerkowo / ZERKOW close to Nowe Miasto by the WARTA river, and north to Jarocin, north-west to PLESZEW}.

ANDRZEJ Pradzynski married 1st Apolonia Szulc
{with son Józef Antoni Pradzynski b. 1832, married to Maria Barbara Leokadia Drzenska in 1867 / 1868 in Szemborowo close to Wrzesnia}
and 2nd with unknown, with son Maksymilian Pradzynski.

Above Józef Antoni Pradzynski b. 1832 in Lubochnia close to Tomaszow Mazowiecki, had children:
1. Jan + Maria Bochynska;
2. Waclaw + Kornelia Preibisz 1870-1918;
3. Stefan;
4. Jadwiga Pradzynska;
5. Andrzej 1872-1938 + Józefa Jaraczewska.
6. Aleksander.


Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. 1797/1798, of Wesola / WIESIOLKA, and Tyczyn, official in SZADEK, m. Nepomucena Pradzynska b. ca 1790 - it was her second marriage ca 1825.
W. Maciej Sulimierski / Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski, the owner of the Wiesiolka village and the owner of ZIELENCICE, where he lived and the future godfather of Filip SULIMIERSKI [December 22, 1843 / Jan. 1844], was pardoned in the Russian court after 1834 although he was arrested for the guerrilla.
Nepomucena Pradzynska had a sister and brother:
famous hero Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski,
Sylwia Pradzynska 1791-1862 m. Jakub Jan Krasicki insurgent of 1831, Colonel, 1785-1848;
and Wincenty Józef PRADZYNSKI, 1795-1858 [the landowner of WOLA WIAZOWA], m. Salomea Mierzynska.

Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA]
and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847 [note: Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association].

Nepomucena Pradzynska married 1st to Antoni Moszczenski, ca 1810 to ca 1825, son of Aleksander Ezechiel Moszczenski official in Brzesc Kujawski [!], 1759-1846, and Marianna Radziminska.
Nepomucena's children:
Teodor 1812-1831; Ignacy 1813-1880; Aleksander 1819-1829; Antoni Stefan Tadeusz 1822-1829.

Mentioned above Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, close to OBORNIKI and MUROWANA GOSLINA. Died in 1817; the son of Antoni Pradzynski and Marianna Czaplicka / Marianna Bardzka !
Husband of Marcjanna Marianna BRONIKOWSKA;
father of
Nepomucena Moszczenska Sulimierska;

Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski

Free Poles Association / Free Lechytes - a secret patriotic organization in 1819-1823 in the Kingdom of Poland;
founded in November 1819 in Warsaw by Tadeusz Krepowiecki, Wiktor Heltman and Ludwik Piatkiewicz; among the members were Ignacy Pradzynski, Seweryn Goszczynski, Maurycy Mochnacki, Stanislaw Jachowicz, Józef Kozlowski and Ksawery Bronikowski - all about 40 members.
They fought on full unification of the Polish lands and the independence of the state; called for fight with the Russian invaders, prepare papers and readings. Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association. He was member of the Patriotic Society. When Alexander I went to the congress of the Holy Alliance to Opava (in early 1821 moved to Ljubljana), he to sign an agreement to intervene in the event of a revolution.
Arrived from Warsaw in 1821, Ignacy Pradzynski put forward the project of independence of the Great Poland's branch of the National Freemasonry. They were renamed the Union of Scytheman, 1820-1826.
In 1819, the Association of Free Poles with Wiktor Heltman was created. See below on IGNACY Pradzynski];

Wincenty Józef Pradzynski
Sylwia Zuzanna Krasicka.

Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, was the brother of Józefina Gertruda Pradzynska; Melchior Jan Pradzynski !; Antonina Joanna Malgorzata; and Ludwika Klara Róza Modliborska; inf. by Leszek Mila.

Note on Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski:

He was born on July 20, 1792 in Sanniki, died on August 4, 1850 on the island of Heligoland / Helgoland; division general of the Army of the Kingdom of Poland, commander-in-chief of the November Uprising. 1793, the village Sanniki was in the Prussian partition. From 1807 Sanniki belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw, and from 1815 to the Kingdom of Poland in the Russian Partition.
Maybe he was born on July 18 in Poznan - as Pradzynski himself stated in his files;
He grew up in a very patriotic atmosphere - his father fought in 1794 in a partisan unit commanded by Jan Henryk Dabrowski.
Ignacy Pradzynski was sent to Dresden;
returned to his homeland in November 1807, volunteered for the 11th Infantry Regiment of the Warsaw Duchy, was stationed in Poznan in 1806

{Count Stanislaw Mielzynski on 24 Nov. 1806, was appointed colonel of the Napoleonic army and began to organize the 3rd Infantry Regiment; Col. Stanislaw Mielzynski was stationed in Pawlowice; in August 1807 in Poznan under Colonel Mielzynski. The 3rd Infantry Regiment / the Legia of Poznan received the number 11th and was part of the 3rd Infantry Division, of General J. H. Dabrowski.
Stanislaw Kostka Andrzej Jakub Mielzynski born in 1778, Rabin, died 1826, Pawlowice, Count, Freemason, Brigadier General of the Polish Army.
Stanislaw was the son of Maksymilian Antoni (1738-1799), and Konstancja Czapska;
Stanislaw Mielzynski in 1810 - General;
in 1815, he moved to his estates in Pawlowice [see the Merkel family], Kakolewo, Poniec, Smogulec, Golancz, under the Prussian partition.
There he was very active as a freemason, especially in lodges supporting the conspiratorial struggle for independence and the unification of Poland, such as the Poznan lodge - the Scytheman Union / Scythemen, which Mielzynski was leading, or in a secret Masonic organization created by Valerian Lukasinski.
In 1800, Mielzynski married the Honorata Zaremba and he had son Leon and three daughters:
Laura (Eleonora) married Józef Napoleon Czapski with the son famous
Bogdan Hutten-Czapski
- compare the Polish independence conspiracy in Belarus};

Gdansk until 1809; in 1814 in LOMZA.

Named above Sanniki in the Gostyn county, here in 1828 was Fryderyk Chopin [compare his visit in Scotland], at half way from Plock to Sochaczew, 13 km west to ILOW.
On April 20, 1815, Ignacy Pradzynski in Warsaw was promoted to the rank of lieutenant and assigned to quartermaster services.
In 1819, Ignacy Pradzynski associated himself with the Polish independence conspiracy -
first in the Union of True Poles / 'LECHICI' in 1819,
then in the Union of SCYTHEMAN / Scythemen / 'Kosynierzy' in 1820,
and finally with the Polish Patriotic Society.

In 1826, when officers belonging to the conspiracy were arrested, Pradzynski was also taken prisoner. He was married in 1825 and was living in Augustów [?] - Emilia Rutkowska of Chelmica [Chelmica Duza 13 km north to WLOCLAWEK] and Miedzechów b. 1808,
had Helena (1826-1854), painter, m. Stanislaw Herniczek, and Sylwia (1831-1862), writer.

In April 1821 in Warsaw, Polish conspirators conducted talks in which participate:

Lukasinski - 1819 National Freemasonry,
Colonel Kozakowski - acted in LWOW,
Colonel Pradzynski [in June 1820 in Poznan with General Uminski],
Szczaniecki of the Great Poland 1819-1820,
General Uminski from the Poznan Duchy, National Freemasonry, Kosciuszko supporter,
Colonel Dobrogojski,
Cichowski - the Tax official,
Sobanski from VOLHYNIA,
Teodor Morawski - magazine publisher of 'Orzel Bialy',
Aleksander Oborski

[Colonel, acted in Wilno together with
Jozef Gruzewski and Stanislaw GRUZEWSKI,
Stanislaw SOLTAN

{Eliasz Piottuch-Kublicki was son of Jerzy Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicze, officer in Livland, b. 1710 + Rozalia Korsak-Udzielska 1735 -1789. Eliasz Piottuch-Kublicki of Livland / Inflanty, born ca 1730, married in ca 1775 to Augusta Soltan b. ca 1750 or 1760
[daughter of Stanisław Sołtan 1698 - 1758, and Helena Römer; the granddaughter of Samuel Sołtan 1654 - 1735; and great-granddaughter of Hieronim Władysław Sołtan],
1. Elżbieta Piottuch-Kublicka b. 1780, m. Benedykt Wawrzecki of Brasław, b. ca 1760, 2nd to Krütz;
2. Józef Piottuch-Kublicki of Zawilie, m. Karolina Sołtan.

Half sister of above named Stanisław Sołtan 1698 - 1758 was Teodora Sołtan 1700 - 1774 + Jerzy Stanisław Sapieha, with daughter Krystyna Róża Massalska b. 1724.

Brother of above Augusta Sołtan / Soltan / Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1750 or 1760, was Stanisław Soltan / Stanislovas Soltanas, born in 1756 in Berdyczów, died 1836 in Jelgava, now Latvia; CONSPIRATOR, he was son of Stanisław Sołtan and Helena Römer;
husband of Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł b. 1751 and 2nd to Konstancija Taplockytė / Konstancja Toplicka.

Stanisław Soltan / Stanislovas Soltanas, b. 1756, was father of
Adam Leon Ludwik Sołtan, CONSPIRATOR;
Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka (Karolina b. ca 1790, wife of Józef Piottuch-Kublicki);
Helena Sołtan;
Anna Sołtan;
Stanisław Sołtan junior; and
Helena Eysmont.

Stanisław Soltan / Stanislovas Soltanas, b. 1756, was half brother of Juozas Weyssenhoff; Ksawery Weyssenhoff; Mykolas Jonas Veisenhofas and Jan Weyssenhoff, acc. to
Above Adam Leon Ludwik Sołtan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznań, husband of Idalia b. 1801, daughter of Aleksander Michał Pociej, CONSPIRATOR},

Stanislaw Mikulicz,
Teofil Mikulicz,
Stefan Mackiewicz,
Stanislaw Mackiewicz,


[Karol Prozor b. 1759, died in 1841 in Chojniki, west to DNIEPR, and MOZYRZ; in the 18th century in the Owrucz county, the Kiev province.
Chojniki - the manor of Józef PROZOR and Karol Prozor.
Prozor Józef (1723-1788), MP, voivode of Vitebsk. Born in Bobcin in Zmudz / Samaites, a son of Stanislaw PROZOR (died around 1756), official in Kaunas, and his first wife, Róza Siruc. JOZEF was married three times. The first wife was Felicjanna Szczyt (died after 1764), daughter of Józef SZCZYTT, official in Mscislaw; the second - Aleksandra Zaranek (died in Dudzicze in 1771), the wedding on September 7, 1767; third Maria Chalecka 1st voto Adam Szujski (c. 1751-1826). JOZEF from the first marriage had two daughters: Petronela Karenga, and Maria (died 1833), the wife of Ignacy Bykowski, the royal chamberlain;
and three sons:
Antoni PROZOR and
Ignacy PROZOR / Ignacy Kajetan Prozor + ANIELA OSKIERKA.
From the second marriage JOZEF had daughters: Róza (died on June 22, 1834), married in 1785 to Stanislaw Jelski;
and Barbara PROZOR, married to Franciszek Bukaty and 2nd to Ksawery Lipski.
JOZEF PROZOR studied in Królewiec, 1734-6 (Stanislaw Leszczynski was then residing there), and 1737 he was educated at the Knight's Academy in Lunéville, which he left in 1741.

Franciszek Bukaty (born in August 1747, died on June 15, 1797) - Polish diplomat, royal chamberlain, freemason; chargé d'affaires of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1775 -1777 and 1788-1789, envoy-minister of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1777, Minister Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Poland in the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1787 and in 1793-1795. Married to Barbara Prozor, and she had Sierhiejewicze in a dowry.

Aniela Oskierka, 1770-1804, married Ignacy Kajetan Prozor b. ca 1770 [see OSWIEJA and Malkiewicz. Ignacy Kajetan Prozor was General major of the Kowno county],
Kornela Prozor Rokicka, 1800-1835;
Henryk Prozor;
Maurycy Prozor 1st senior 1801-1886 + Anna Chlopicka b. ca 1810. Maurycy Prozor senior was born in Rothley-Temple, Leicestershire, died in 1886. PROZOR Maurycy was the commander of the Kowno Uprising.

ANIELA's had brothers Dominik Oskierka b. ca 1770 + Salomea Gizycka; and Rafal Michal Oskierka, 1761-1818.
They were children of Jan Mikolaj Oskierka 1735-1796 - see the plot of KOSCIUSZKO and PROZOR - married in 1761 to Barbara Rokicka.

Named Rothley Temple / Rothley Preceptory / Rowth-Ley, was a preceptory in the village of Rothley, Leicestershire, England, associated with both the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller. The chapel was constructed by the Knights Templar],

Count Aleksander POCIEJ

[Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, married Idalia Pociej b. 1801
{Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839},
the daughter of named above Aleksander Michal Pociej.
Leonard Pociej 1727 - 1774 - who was son of Aleksander Pociej senior {more below} and Teresa Brzostowska - was the brother of Anna Tyszkiewicz; Karolina Radziwill and Ludwik Pociej.
Leonard had son - Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846). Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was the husband of Anna Korzeniowska; he was the father of Teodor Pociej and named Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839 married Soltan.
Above Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was son of Maria Aleksandra Radziwill POCIEJ, b. 1753; his grandfather was Wojciech Albrycht Radziwill 1717-1762.
Aleksander Pociej senior, 1698 - 1770, was son of Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej. Above Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej 1666 - 1728, was son of Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina.
Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej was brother of Ludwik Konstanty Pociej.

Above Ludwik Konstanty Pociej b. 1664, d. 30 January 1730, in 1709 commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian army, his parents: Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina Oginska.
Ludwik Konstanty was father of Ludwika Marianna Pociej (b. ca 1715) who married to Franciszek Borzecki (ca 1693 - 1739) with daughter
Justyna KALINOWSKA Borzecka (m. Ignacy Kalinowski born ca 1720 died 1782).
Her son was count Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.
Justyna nee Borzecka b. ca 1735 (1710 it's error). Above named Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski was born 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760 with children:

1. Jozef Kalinowski / Osip Kalinowski, the general of Polish Army, b. after 1780, died 1825 - his wife Emilia Potocka born 1790
{Marianna Elżbieta Uvarova nee Lubomirska, ca 1766 - d. 1810, was daughter of Kasper Lubomirski and Barbara Ponińska; she was the wife of Protazy Antoni Potocki; Count Valerian Zubov, and Федор Петрович Уваров / Uvarov; she was the mother of above Emilia Kalinowska},
2. Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 and
3. Justyna Kalinowska married Russocka b. 1790 d. 1876.
Above Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 had son Wladyslaw Kalinowski.

Children of mentioned count Jozef Kalinowski:
1. Seweryna b. 1814 d. 1852,
2. Jozefina Kalinowska married Oginska, born 1816 and died 1844;
3. Olga born 1822, died 7 April 1899 in Retow;
4. probably M. Kalinowska (Maria Kalinowska Trubecka) married Troubetzkoy / Trubecki was sister of above Seweryna, Jozefina and Olga, but this data need to be check, of course (see the Konstantynowiczs in Estonia)!

Above countess Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki.
I wrote above that the grandfather of Olga, Jozefina and Seweryna {and Maria Trubecka} was Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.
The grandson of named above Seweryna nee Kalinowska was Mikolaj Plautin, b. 1868 who married to Maria Michajlowna Rajewska 1872 - 30 December 1942.
Her mother: Marija Grigorievna nee Gagarin - her sister Anastazja Grigorievna nee Gagarin b. 1853 died 1876 married to
Piotr Michajlovich Orlov Denisov born 1852 who was son of Michail Vasilievich Orlov Denisov born 1823, who was brother of Nadiezda married Katenin.

Grandfather of above Marija nee Rajewskaja was Mikolaj Mikolajevich Rajevskij Younger / RAJEWSKI MIKOLAJ from the Kiev government, Moscow and St Petersburg; b. 14 September 1801; and the second grandfather of above Maria nee Rajewska was Grigorij Grigorievich Gagarin b. 1810 d. 1893],

Ignacy ZAWISZA of Kowno,

Duke Konstanty Radziwill of Nowogrodek

[After the death of prince Maciej Radziwill in 1800, Poloneczka was inherited by his son, Konstanty Mikolaj Radziwill (1793-1869), by his mother Elzbieta Chodkiewicz Radziwill. In 1815, Konstanty Radziwill married Maria Grabowska, who died in 1826. 2nd marriage to Celestyna Sulistrowska. Konstatnty m. 3rd to Adela Karnicka.
Konstanty Mikolaj Radziwill was, among others, a member of the Vilnius Education Commission (1820), chamberlain of the tsarist court (1832), marshal of the nobility of the Nowogródek Province (1832-1835), a correspondent member of the Imperator Russian Geographical Society.
During this period he became friends with Wladyslaw Syrokomla.
Prince Konstanty Mikolaj Radziwill / Constantine was the leader of a secret patriotic association operating in Lithuania, which led to his arrest. He made contact with the decembrists, and met in Vilnius in 1823 several times with Aleksander Bestuzew.
His son Maciej Józef Radziwill (1842-1907) after returning from exile in Russia, married Jadwiga Krasinska in 1867 (1843-1913), heiress of the property Zegrze near Warsaw],

Nowomiejski in Wilno,


[Above Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, husband of Idalia POCIEJ, b. 1801, daughter of Aleksander Michal Pociej;
Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 was father of Aleksander Stanislaw August Soltan and Maria Anna Sierakowska. Above Aleksander Stanislaw August Soltan 1821 - 1853, was father of Stefania Ludwika de Virion.

Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan was the brother of Karolina SOLTAN Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1790 + Józef Piottuch-Kublicki b. ca 1780.

Mikolaj Faustyn Radziwll was the father of Stanislaw Radziwill 1722 - 1787, who had the daughter Franciszka Teofila Soltan b. circa 1751 and her son was above mentioned Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan - the Polish conspirator.

Oktawia Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1810, married 1st to Józef Szumski b. ca 1780 / 1800 [maybe the brother of IGNACY SZUMSKI / Ignatius Shumsky b. ca 1800, of Chobienice], and she was married second to Dominik Konstantynowicz of MIEZONKA.
Her sister Emilia Piottuch- Kublicka b. 1803 + Wincenty Smokowski.
Józef Szumski b. ca 1780 / 1800, supposedly lost a large landed estate. He never left the home without the box of dueling pistols. He known Duke Wittgenstein; that is Ludwik Adolf Fryderyk Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn (1799-1866) who in 1828 married Stefania Radziwill, daughter of Dominik Radziwill.
OKTAWIA was the daughter of Józef Piottuch-Kublicki b. ca 1780 - official in Zawilie, b. 1780 - and Karolina Soltan b. ca 1780/1790;
above mentioned Józef Piottuch-Kublicki of Zawilie, had a sister:
Elzbieta Piottuch-Kublicka b. 1780, m. Benedykt Wawrzecki of Braslaw, b. ca 1760, 2nd to Krütz.

JOZEF was the son of Eliasz Piottuch-Kublicki of Livland / Inflanty, born ca 1730, married in ca 1775 to Augusta Soltan b. ca 1750 or 1760.

AUGUSTA Soltan Kublicka come from:
daughter of Stanislaw Soltan senior, 1698 - 1758, and Helena Römer;
the granddaughter of Samuel Soltan 1654 - 1735; and
great-granddaughter of Hieronim Wladyslaw Soltan.

Eliasz Piottuch-Kublicki was son of Jerzy Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicze, officer in Livland, b. 1710 + Rozalia Korsak-Udzielska 1735- 1789.

Half sister of above named Stanislaw Soltan, senior, 1698 - 1758 was Teodora Soltan 1700 - 1774 + Jerzy Stanislaw Sapieha, with daughter Krystyna Róza Massalska b. 1724.

Brother of above Augusta Soltan / Soltan / Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1750 or 1760, was Stanislaw Soltan / Stanislovas Soltanas, junior, born in 1756 in Berdyczów, died 1836 in Jelgava, now Latvia; he was son of Stanislaw Soltan SENIOR, and Helena Römer;
Stanislaw SOLTAN junior was the husband of Franciszka Teofila Radziwill b. 1751
and 2nd to Konstancija Taplockyte / Konstancja Toplicka.
Stanislaw Soltan / Stanislovas Soltanas, junior, b. 1756, was half brother of Juozas Weyssenhoff; Ksawery Weyssenhoff; Mykolas Jonas Veisenhofas and Jan Weyssenhoff, acc. to

KAROLINA Soltan Piottuch Kublicka was the daughter of Stanislaw Soltan junior, 1756-1836 and Franciszka Teofila Radziwill at Nieswiez b. ca 1751, daughter of Stanislaw Radziwill 1722 - 1787, who was son of Mikolaj Faustyn Radziwill 1688 - 1746.

Oktawia's siblings:
1. Anna Benislawska
(born Piottuch-Kublicki in 1809, d. 1885 + Józef Benislawski, 1790-1852, with: Leon Benislawski 1846-1935, Jan 1847- 1899, Stanislaw, Konstanty, Adolf, Edward, Ludwik Benislawski, Helena Benislawska b. before 1852);

2. Walentyna Soltan
(born Piottuch-Kublicka, b. ca 1800 / 1810 + Wladyslaw Józef Soltan b. 1795, died in 1843, son of Benedykt b. 1770 and Józefa Benislawska.
Walentyna's daughter was Oktawia Soltan, 1830 - 15.8.1871 in Kazan + in 1849 to Wladyslaw Hieronim Samuel Soltan, 1824 - 1900, the January Uprising 1863);

3. Stanislaw Piottuch-Kublicki born 1804;

4. above Oktawia Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1810 + Józef Szumski b. ca 1780 / 1800 + 2nd to Dominik Konstantynowicz;

5. Emilia Piottuch-Kublicka b. 1803 + Wincenty Smokowski 1797 - 1876, son of Michal Smokowski and Konstancja Mickiewicz;

6. Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki + Ida Oginska b. ca 1820 / 1813 / 1810.
Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki born 1810 + Ida Oginska had the son Karol Piottuch Kublicki b. ca 1850 (+ Zofia Eysymont, 1840 / 1848 - died 1926, daughter of Oktawiusz EYSYMONT, and Helena Soltan)],


{Jozef Chodzko / Joseph CHODZKO 1723-1782, and Konstancja BUJNICKA had children:
Ludwik Tadeusz Chodzko / Louis Thadee CHODZKO, 1769-1843, married to Waleria DEDERKO with son
Leonard CHODZKO, 1800-1871 who married to Olympe MALESZEWSKI / Olimpia Maleszewska

[Jeanne VENTURE de PARADIS 1774 - 1813 married to
a. 1st to Ludwik / Louis MALESZEWSKI / PIOTR Maleszewski, with children
Klementyna nee Maleszewska / Clementine MALESZEWSKI married to de LAQUEILLE, and
Olimpia Maleszewska / Olympe MALESZEWSKI married to Leonard CHODZKO b. 1800 - died in 1871;

b. m. 2nd in 1810, Paris to Antoine Louis BREGUET 1776 - 1858 with children:
A. Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889 with children:
Louise BREGUET 1847-1930,
Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882,
Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877;
B. Louise Charlotte Clémentine BREGUET 1810 - 1887 married to Dr LIONNET.

Jeanne Françoise Félicité Garran de Coulon, was 2nd wife of PIOTR MALESZEWSKI / Pierre Jean Maleszewski, resident at rue du Pont de Lodi.
Jeanne Maleszewska nee Garran de Coulon, was daughter of Jean-Philippe Garran / Jean-Philippe Garran de Coulon / Jean Philippe GARRAN DE COULON who was b. April 10, 1749 or 29/04/1749 (born in Saint-Maixent on 19 April 1748), died on 10/12/1816 in PARIS - FRANCE (or 19-11-1816 / December 19, 1816); he was a French politician, was born in HAUTE-SAÔNE - FRANCE; Secretary of Henrion de Pansey in Paris; lawyer in 1789; member of the legislative in 1791; member of the Institute. Jean Philippe Garran de Coulon, lawyer in Paris. Jean Philippe Garran de Coulon took part in the agitation preceding the meeting of the States General and was elected alternate member of the Third Estate of Paris. Member of the first and the second Paris Commune, he directed the Research Committee - the police, and presented the insurrection on 14 July 1789 as the member of conspiracy. Maleszewski Piotr known J. P. Garran de Coulon, who had daughters: 1. Jeanne Françoise Félicité GARRAN de COULON; 2. Félicité-Françoise GARRAN DE COULON.

Garran-Coulon, member of the Comite des Recherches was writing 'Report on the troubles of Santo Domingo'; Garran-Coulon, the left- leaning deputy wrote the report, noted on Oge affair in Saint-Domingue. "...BORD appears to have gratuitously added Garran's name to a passage from the 'Proces-verbal des Electeurs' which described a group of unnamed Electors angrily denouncing Flesselles. ...".
B. M. Shapiro wrote:
"Eager to demonstrate that all of the violent eruptions of summer 1789 were parts of a carefully orchestrated Masonic plot and equally eager to connect the Comite des Recherches to this plot, Gustave Bord was trying to persuade his readers that GARRAN, the author of the Comite's published brief against those servants of the Monarchy who had escaped the July violence, was
a 'point man' in a well-planned effort to eliminate a host of top royal officials.
For, having helped dispose of Flesselles and Berthier, Garran's next assignment, in Bord's eyes, was to engineer the judical assassination of BESENVAL:
'At each event, he launches the word or phrase which compromises the man in the hot seat... Garran de Coulon was certainly partly responsible for the assassinations of the Prevot des Marchands and the Intendant de Paris, and now he is given the task of rendering a legal opinion on the question of whether those in authority in JULY (1789) were guilty'.
By adding his 'evidence' linking Garran to the Flesselles and Berthier assassinations to his extravagant vision of the Comite des Recherches as 'the model for all these revolutionary committes which, in a few months, will put the executioner to work on a full-time basis', BORD was able construct the following equation: July Massacres = Comite des Recherches = Terror. ...". ];

see below - Sulkowski and on the Venture of Paradise, the Breguet family and Duflon - Konstantynowicz Company!
above Jan CHODZKO 1776-1851 m. Klara KORSAK, d. 1852, with son
Alexandre CHODZKO 1802-1891.

Jan Chodzko / Jan Borejko Chodźko (1776 in Wilno, died 1851 - Minsk), was the father of
1. Jozef Chodzko / Joseph (see below), the Russian general, surveyor and geographer
[Joseph Chodzko / Józef Boreyko Chodźko or Khodzko / Ходзько Иосиф Иванович, born 1800 in Krzywicze, ex-the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, died in 1881 in Tiflis / Tbilisi, a General-topographer and Polish geographer. He stayed in Paris in 1843, where he met Adam Mickiewicz and his three brothers: Alexandre, Michel and Stanislas, and his cousin Leonard - all Polish nationalists];
2. Alexander / Aleksander Borejko Chodźko (1804 in Krzywicze, died 1891 in Noisy-le-Sec), poet, orientalist and Slavist, a professor at the College of France
[Aleksander was arrested in 1830/1831 and taken to St. Petersburg where he met the father, then above Alexandre Chodzko / Aleksander Borejko Chodźko was deported also in Siberia. Next he was the Russian consul in Persia, then professor of Slavic literature at the College de France, well-known author who married to Helena Jundziłł, daughter of Victor, with her sons, Victor Chodzko m. Mary Baldassari];
3. Stanislas, chemist; and
4. Michal Chodźko, Polish poet.

Jan CHODZKO 1776-1851 (see below), the son of above Józef Chodzko and Konstancyia Bujnicki, married to Clara Korsak -
Jan was the President of the Civil Minsk Chamber, and the School Inspektor of the Province of Vilnius and Minsk; died in 1851, buried in Zasław.
Jan Borejko Chodźko born 1776 in Wilno was the Chairman of Minsk Supreme Court; Chairman of the University of Wilno; awarded the Order of St. Vladimir; chamberlain of the Wilno district. He prevented the Russians burning of MINSK, before evacuating of the town. Considering Napoleon as the liberator of Poland, as a good patriot, he slept Russian vigilance and introduced the Marshal Davoust in stores of food and ammunition - Napoleon heard the news; after the retreat of the French, he had to flee Poland but he returned thanks to the amnesty of the Emperor Alexander.
He was the founder of two Masonic lodges, one in Vilnius and one in Minsk. He was the top member of a patriotic secret society before and after the uprising of 29 November 1830, and
he was arrested and taken to St. Petersburg where he met in prison his son Alexander who was also arrested, it was the last time that they saw themselves. Jan was sentenced to 5 years in prison and deported to Russia. His eldest son Alexandre Chodzko / Aleksander Borejko Chodźko was deported also in Siberia.
Jan could not return to his homeland but died in 1851 in Minsk},


[Józef Billewicz (died 1850) - marshal of the Rosienie county. The son of Mateusz Billewicz and Anna Eugenia Lopacinska. Ruthenian civilian-military commissar of the Duchy of Samogitia (1790), deputy to the Grodno Parliament (1793), president of the border court of the Ruszcza county (1795).
On August 15, 1812, elected as the deputy to the General Confederation of the Kingdom of Poland, later he became the marshal of the nobility in the County Rosienie.
Master of the "Palemon" Masonic Lodge (1820-21) and honorary member of Vilnius lodges: "Perfect Unity" and "Good Shepherd".
In May 1821, he was admitted to the Patriotic Society during the meeting in Vilnius.
He married Anna Szemiot, with two daughters: Urszula + Ludwik Pilsudski; and Kunegunda + Ezekiel Staniewicz.
After his death, the Billewicze estate (today's Biliunai village) passed into the hands of the Pilsudski family.

ALEKSANDER BILEWICZ of the Rosienie county married Anna Romer with 4 sons:
1. Tadeusz Billewicz, senior, b. ca 1728, died in 1788; in 1783 - the Mscislau province
{TADEUSZ had daughter Helena Wazgird (Morykoni) and also he had son ADAM / Adomas Bilevicius, b. ca 1750, who was father of Kazimierz Tomasz; and Kaspar Bilewicz, and so on.
Above KASPAR - Kasparas Bilevicius, b. ca 1782, d. 1840, had son
Antoni Billewicz or Tadeusz b. ca 1815, + Helena Michalowska b. 1820, with:
Pranas Bilevicius;
Maria Pilsudska / Maria Billewicz (1842 - 1884; born 1842 in Adomava) + Józef Wincenty Pilsudski
(1833 - 1902. Note:
Antoni Bulhak b. 1898, married to Wanda Bulhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and Maria Juchniewicz nee Pilsudska, b. 1873, d. 1921 - her parents: named above Maria Pilsudska nee Billewicz + Józef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833.

MARIA JUCHNIEWICZ had the brother - Józef Klemens Pilsudski b. 1867);
Wiktor Billewicz and
Zofia Zubow b. ca 1860.
Above ZOFIA: Zofia Zubow nee Billewicz, was born circa 1860, married Wlodzimierz Zubow before 1887, with son Wlodzimierz Zubow b. 1887 Szawle [Šiauliai / Šiaule north of Raseiniai] - d. 1959 in Kowno},

2. Jerzy BILEWICZ, studied in Królewiec, known German, then in Nieswiez {Jerzy Bilewicz was the Judge of ROSIENIE in 1765};

3. Teodor Billewicz + Kozuchowska of Kalisz;

4. Mateusz Bilewicz also lived in Smorgonie and NIESWIEZ;
Mateusz + Lopacinska had sons:
Józef, MP in 1793 {Józef Billewicz (died 1850) - marshal of the Rosienie county; the member of the Patriotic Society};
Tadeusz junior.
Mateusz Bilewicz was the official in Rosienie, MP],

Gruzewski of SZAWLE,
lawyer Kulczycki of Wilno,

{Tomasz Zan, Promienisty, 1796 in Miasata, in the Minsk province, d. 1855 in KAKOWCZYN / Kochaczyn. Son of Karol Zan and Katarzyna. Husband of Brygida Świętorzecka b. 1825; her brothers - Fortunat Świętorzecki, Mieczysław Świętorzecki and MICHAL of Malinowszczyzna. Her sister Wanda Świętorzecka (Dederko).
She was the daughter of Stanisław Świętorzecki.
Witold Pilecki had summer holidays in Hawrylkowo in the SIENNO county. Hawrylkowo belonged to his grandmother Wanda Majewska married Lucjan Osiecimski, d. in Hawrylkowo / Gawrylkowo before 1908 after work in Pietrozawodzk. Lucjan Jan Osiecimski + Wanda Helena Majewska.
Gawrylkowo was situated close to the Doliwo Dobrowolski estates and near to KACHATSHYN / Kakowczyn owned by Tomasz Zan with wife BRYGIDA SWIETORZECKA; Kakowczyn + Szyrkowszczyzna owned by Brygida Zan at the beginning of the 20th cent.;
Kakowczyn that is Kakoucyna / Kakoutschyna / Kokovcino, north to Smolany - south to Bieleniewo / Bielenieva, 7 km; south-west to Bogushev station; in the SIENNO county.
In the Kakoucyna / Kakoutschyna / Kokovcino / Kakchinsky volost / district, the Sienno county, the Mogilev governorate - was situated named Hawrylkowo / Gawrylkowo of OSIEMCIMSKI - Gavrilkovo, farm, close to Germanovo, Kuliki, Doganovka.

Kazimierz Dederko / Dederka of the Oszmiany county in 1783 and 1788, died in 1800 in Oborek; married Wiktorja Kamienska with 5 children,
the daughter Waleria Chodzko / Walerja nee Dederko m. Ludwik Chodzko;
sons Barnaba and Józef without children,
son Roch Dederko lieutenant of Napoleon period, owner of Obórka / Oborek, m. to Wanda Swietorzecka, he d. 1856;
they had 2 sons: Kazimierz owner of Obórka, Soter Dederko owner of Puzele.

Puzele and Bludów belonged to Michal Oginski 1793 and 1794.

In Oborek in 1800 was born Leonard Chodzko, son of daughter of Kazimierz Dederko - Walerja, and Ludwik Chodzko; author, 'Historja domu Rawitów Ostrowskich';
in Oborek in 1847-1850 lived Tomasz Zan with wife in 1846, Brygida Swietorzecka, sister of Wanda Swietorzecka who married to Roch Dederko.
Oborki / Aborak / Oborek - manor of Dederko ca 2 km east of Połoczany - south-west of Molodeczno, 6 km south-east of Jachimowszczyna of Swietorzecki.
Malinowszczyzna was a part of Lebedevo / Lebiedziew, bought from Dominik Radziwill by Jakób Swietorzecki;
his son Stanislaw Swietorzecki, m. cousin Swietorzecka, daughter of landlord of Konstantow, Boratycze, in the Mohylew government, 1827; Stanislaw was owner of Malinowszczyzna;
Michal Swietorzecki, son of above Stanislaw; married to Stengelmajer, 2nd to Marja Jasiewicz of Uzblocie and Józefpola in the Oszmiany county; Malinowszczyzna had two plants; Michal Swietorzecki d. 1891, had two sons Boleslaw and Waclaw.
Justyna Stanislawowa Swietorzecka build home in Malinowszczyzna at the Tomasz Zan time},


attorney Szreder,

Jordan of CRACOW / Ludwik Jordan ?,



Colonel Krzyzanowski in Warsaw

[The Special Committee in 1825 qualified to judge eight of its members, recruited from the Polish Kingdom:
Captain Franciszek Majewski was born in KASKI - 11 km north-east of Guzow of the Oginskis, near Sochaczew;
Colonel Seweryn Krzyzanowski / Severin / Seweryn Krzyzanowski b. 1787 in Parchamówka in the Skwir county / Skwira
{Seweryn Krzyżanowski (1787 in Parchamówka in Ukraine, died in 1839 in Tobolsk), Lieutenant Colonel of the Polish Army, leader of the Patriotic Society. In 1808 he joined the army of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1809-1811 in Spain, like MAJEWSKI [see below !]. He was a Freemason. He belonged to the lodge Shield North};

Wojciech Grzymala,
Stanislaw Soltyk

{Stanislaw Soltyk b. 1752, d. 1833, senator of the Polish Kingdom, the Speaker of the Parliament of the Duchy of Warsaw; in 1779 he was the caretaker of the Masonic lodge of the Three helmets, and in 1811/1812 he was a member of the lodge Temple of Isis [see Wankowicz].
Józef Soltyk in 1787 stayed in Kurozweki at the cousin's [of his father Maciej] home, and here welcomed King Stanislaus Augustus PONIATOWSKI [see Walewski in Volhynia].
Member of Parliament of the Cracow province in 1790 - Stanislaw Soltyk b. 1752, d. 1833 - was one of the most active in the preparation of the Constitution in 1791.
In 1794, on a secret mission from Kosciuszko to the Viennese court, interned by the Austrians [see above on PASZKOWSKI and FISZER]; 1795 in exile, he played a leading role, and was one of the first initiators of the Italian's legions, was imprisoned several times by the Prussians and the Austrians;
and Stanislaw Soltyk in 1802 was (along with Tadeusz Czacki) the initiator of the Commercial Association, for export of grain through the Black Sea [see HORODYSKI, Szaniawski].
The president of the Central Committee of the Patriotic Society. 1826-1829, a state prisoner, chaired the 1829 conspiracy;
after the outbreak of the November Uprising, Stanislaw Soltyk b. 1752, d. 1833 was honored as the patriarch of the struggle for freedom},

priest Konstanty Dembek, Stanislaw Zablocki, Andrzej Plichta and Roman Zaluski],

Downarowicz of Bialystok in 1822,

Duke Antoni Jablonowski.

Secret societies were called to life in 1821:
The Patriotic Society and
the Scytheman Association / SCYTHEMEN in the Great Poland -
General Stanislaw MIELZYNSKI,
Ignacy Pradzynski,
JAN UMINSKI in 1821 [in Poland in 1822, 5000 members].

Les Freres Anglais et Français Réunis was founded in 1807 in Poznan, subsidiaries of the French Grand Orient, and consisted of numerous military and civilian dignitaries and prominent citizens; the champion for a long time was general Wincenty Axamitowski.
Colonel Stanislaw Mycielski, Józef Poninski, Aleksander Zychlinski, Augustyn Zaborowski, Bernard Rose, Count Kacper Skarbek, Wiktor Szoldrski, General Henryk Dabrowski, General Amilkar Kosinski, Count Aleksander Bninski, Kazimierz Turno, Count Melchior Lacki. In 1812 Faustyn Zakrzewski a master; and Jozef Poniatowski; others members: Barbara Dabrowska, Julianna Poninska, Karolina Palombini, Jaraczewska, Wincentyna Axamitowska, Eufemia Kwasniewska, Sulkowska, and Augustyna Zablocka; Lasocki in Lomza, General Kretkowski in Leczyca, Plichta in Plock, Franciszek Mickiewicz, General Stanislaw Mielzynski, Maximilian and Adam Moszczenski;
it was constituted again in December 1815 and on 16 March 1816 with Zaborowski, and was the meeting mourning for a brother TADEUSZ KOSCIUSZKO / Thaddeus Kosciuszko on 19 December 1817.
In Dec. 1819 - Jan. 1820 was meeting of General Jan Nepomucen Uminski with Colonel Dobrogoyski, envoy of Kalisz. Dobrogoyski informed on the secret network in Cracow, and Uminski was claiming that is always ready to establish a branch in the Great Poland; he had confidential relations with Lieutenant Colonel Louis Sczaniecki; the secret organisation was formed - probably at the beginning of 1820 in Poznan - national Freemasonry:
Sczaniecki, Count Wiktor Szoldrski, Gajewski, Czapski, Pawlikowski, Morawski, Jarochowski, Karol Stablewski, Klaudiusz Sczaniecki, brothers Bojanowski, Zaborowski, Radomski, Stanislaw Chlapowski, Skórzewski, three brothers Mielzynski, two Potworowski, Tytus Dzialynski, Józef Krzyzanowski, Garstkiewicz, Monkowski, Bukowiecki, Alojzy Zaborowski, Kalinowski, General Pradzynski also in Warsaw.
General Uminski was a member since 1820 with witnesses Morawski, Pradzynski, Adam Grabowski, with a contacts to counties nobility of southern, around Gostyn and Leszno. Maybe a separate filial existed in Leszno. In 1820 gathered a large number of members from the Leszno area; Pradzynski was in Leszno a member of the commission to limit the Russian - Prussian border.

The Union of Scythemen came from the National Poznan Freemasonry.
According to testimony of Pradzynski - General Stanislaw Mielzynski was the chairman of above The Union of Scythemen;
members among others:
judge Morawski and general Uminski, the delegate to the headquarters in Warsaw. The oath was more militancy, than of the national Freemasonry. When in Poznan was founded named above Union, in Warsaw a negotiations were started in the direction of assimilation whole organization. Poznan recommended the creation of the central committee of the whole Poland in Warsaw or Poznan; Uminski stayed in Warsaw since May 6, 1821. To the Association was given the name of the Patriotic Society [in Warsaw]. At the head stood Wierzbolowicz.
Uminski was the formal founder of the Patriotic Society.
In this way national Freemasonry formally ended its life, transforming in 1820 in Poznan to the Union of Scythemen, and in 1821 to the Patriotic Society. People remained the same.
Uminski again was - from February to April 1822 - in Warsaw.
Józef Krzyzanowski, was in Warsaw, too, but soon, in fact Lukasinski was arrested, and also Dobrogoyski and Dobrzycki.
1823 Count Stanislaw Soltyk, later Franciszek Jablonowski, among others, made contact with Russia.


General Franciszek Paszkowski in 1816 - 1819 lived in the Great Poland, then in Cracow. Acc. to me Paszkowski was secret member of the Union of Scythemen, and he escaped in 1822 to Free City of Cracow.
There he was very active as a mason, especially supported the underground struggle for independence and unification of Poland.
The 'Union of the Scythemen' was a secret organization for Polish independence, which operates in the Poznan region in 1820-1826. It was established on the base of the Poznan National Freemasonry with the head board - Gen. Stanislaw Kostka Mielzynski, and General Jan Nepomucen Uminski. Gen. Stanislaw Kostka Mielzynski [see Pawlowice and Aleksander Bilewicz senior, and Baszkow close to Krotoszyn - see the branch of Angela Merkel] carried out the unification talks in Warsaw, ending with the transformation of Freemasonry to the National Patriotic Society in May 1821 [Ignacy Pradzynski, Maciej Mielzynski and Louis / LUDWIK Szczaniecki] but was broken in 1826.

Mentioned Maciej Józef Franciszek Mielzynski b. 1799 in Winna Gora, d. on March 5, 1870, Polish political and social activist, a landowner. He was the son of Jozef Mielzynski / Joseph; he was educated in Berlin; he was imprisoned for participating in the 'Union of the Scythemen'; took part in the November Uprising in 1831, served under the command of Dezydery Chlapowski. For a short time he lived in exile, then jailed; also received a high penalty fine.

And now we look at
Roman Soltyk b. 1790 - d. 1843, who was a Polish nobleman, political activist and general [see Wola Pszczolecka and Kalinowski]. Born in Warsaw; Roman was son of Stanislaw Soltyk b. 1752, and Caroline / Karolina Sapieha.
ROMAN SOLTYK was a member of secret independence organisations in the Congress Poland, like his father, he became a member of the underground Patriotic Society. In 1826 he was imprisoned, but released [see Union of Scythemen]. Linked to the conspiracy of Piotr Wysocki. In 1830, vice-president of the Patriotic Association.

Stanislaw Soltyk b. 1752, d. 1833, senator of the Polish Kingdom, the Speaker of the Parliament of the Duchy of Warsaw; in 1779 he was the caretaker of the Masonic lodge of the Three helmets, and in 1811/1812 he was a member of the lodge Temple of Isis [see Wankowicz].

MAJEWSKI at head of the TEMPLARS

[Captain Franciszek Majewski, was authorized to set up the Lodge by the Edinburgh, whose members he knew during his stay in England; The TEMPLARS [Templariusze] acted until the outbreak of the November Uprising in Kiev and Berdichev. Many of the Templars were also members of Patriotic Society, like Lieutenant Colonel Seweryn Krzyzanowski. The Patriotic Society also spread to Lithuania, where reached the Masonic circles.
The Templars Masonic Society was founded in 1820 in Volyn.
The arrests, which took place in 1825, after the military coup of the Decembrists, resulted in detection of the Patriotic Society.
Piotr Moszynski born 1800, the member of the TEMPLARS, exiled after 1826 in TOBOLSK, back to CRACOW, was also the Chairman of the Mound of Kosciuszko Committee in Cracow, 1856 - 1878,
after GENERAL Franciszek Paszkowski.

Ca 1790 the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland was formed, which began to warrant Templar Lodges, and evolved into the Supreme Grand Encampment in 1836 [in 1805 as the "Edinburgh Encampment No. 31", then became the"Grand Assembly of Knights Templar in Edinburgh"]. The Templar degree had filtered into the lodges of the Antients from Ireland about 1780. In 1791 - the formation of its first Grand Conclave, with Thomas Dunckerley as Grand Master.
In 1805 their Royal Patron, Duke of Kent, became Grand Master himself.
The modern revival of Templarism in Scotland starts with Alexander Deuchar, of the Grand Assembly of the High Knights Templar in Edinburgh; in 1811 with a Charter from the Templar Grand Master in England, the Duke of Kent, Alexander Deuchar established the Grand Conclave of Knights of the Holy Temple and Sepulchre, and of St. John of Jerusalem [see Wankowicz and Swolna]. In 1813 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England, and in December 1813 - above Prince Edward became Grand Master of the Antient Grand Lodge of England.
Mentioned above the Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus, b. 1767, died in 1820, was the fifth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and the father of Queen Victoria!
The Duke of Kent was appointed Field-Marshal of the Forces in 1805. His wife was Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld with daughter Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom. His mother - Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz];

co-operated with
Piotr Lagowski, Zablocki, Uminski of Poznan, Oborski in Lithuania, Ludwik Sobanski in Volhynia, CICHOWSKI in KALISZ, Jordan in Cracow, Romer, Bialozor, Jozef and Stanislaw Gruzewski, A. Soltan, Mikulicz, brothers Mackiewicz,
Aleksander Pociej, Zawisza, Konstanty Radziwill, Nowomiejski, Billewicz, Karwicki, Jozef ZALEWSKI, Worcell, Narcyz OLIZAR, Piotr Moszynski, PULASKI.

Ignacy Pradzynski was a member of the 'Kosynierzy Union' and one of the founders of the Patriotic Society (1821).
Captive (1826-1829) for belonging to secret organizations. In 1830-1831, during the November Uprising, a subcommand of the Zamosc Fortress, then quartermaster general of the General Staff, commander of the corps of engineers and -
from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - general commander.
Author of war plans against Russia, partly used by general Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki. He was also the author of a plan to coordinate partisan activities in the Kingdom of Poland [compare Sulimierski - Zaliwski movement in 1833; see LUBIEC estate].

The 'Kosynierzy Association' - a secret Polish independence organization operating in the Poznan province in 1820-1826.

It was founded on the base of the Poznan National Masonry. Its ties to the emperor Alexander I were not responsible for the Poznan activists. At the head of the 'Kosynierzy Union' was
General Stanislaw Kostka Mielzynski

[Stanislaw Kostka Andrzej Jakub Mielzynski born in 1778, Rabin, died 1826, Pawlowice, Count, Freemason.

Count Stanislaw Mielzynski on 24 Nov. 1806, was appointed colonel of the Napoleonic army and began to organize the 3rd Infantry Regiment; Col. Stanislaw Mielzynski was stationed in Pawlowice; in August 1807 in Poznan under Colonel Mielzynski. The 3rd Infantry Regiment / the Legia of Poznan received the number 11th and was part of the 3rd Infantry Division, of General J. H. Dabrowski. Stanislaw Kostka Andrzej Jakub Mielzynski - 1810, Brigadier General of the Polish Army.
Stanislaw was the son of Maksymilian Antoni (1738-1799), and Konstancja Czapska].

The delegate to the Kingdom of Poland was General Jan Nepomucen Uminski.
He also in May 1821 carried out unification talks in Warsaw, ending with the transformation of National Freemasonry into the Patriotic Society, to which he had subordinated the 'Union of Scytheman' / SCYTHEMEN, with
Ignacy Pradzynski,
Maciej Mielzynski
and Ludwik Sczaniecki.

It was broken down in 1826, in connection with the deconstruction of the Patriotic Society in the Kingdom of Poland.

Association 'LECHICI':

Association of Free Poles (Association of Free Poles Brothers, Association of Free Lechites) - secret patriotic organization, operating in 1819-1823 in the Kingdom of Poland.
The organization was founded in November 1819 in Warsaw, and leaders were
Tadeusz Krepowiecki,
Wiktor Heltman and
Ludwik Piatkiewicz,
with Seweryn Goszczynski, Maurycy Mochnacki, Stanislaw Jachowicz, Józef Kozlowski and Ksawery Bronikowski.
The Association of Free Poles numbered about 40 members fighting for the full unification of Polish lands and the independence of the state, while promoting the principles of liberalism,
urged to fight against the Russian invader, and prepared papers.
After the arrest of Wiktor Heltman and Ludwik Piatkiewicz in 1821, the activities of the organization weaken. In 1823, the Association of Free Poles was dissolved.

We back to Kiedrzynski - Pstrokonski branch:

Pstrokonski Franciszek Ksawery 1715 - ca 1783, m. Agnieszka Nieniewska d. 1776, with Marianna, and Wiktoria Pstrokonska [b. ca 1740 ?] married Marcin Kiedrzynski [b. ca 1715/1720 ?], son of Jakub Kiedrzynski senior, 1668 - 1729, and Ewa Gomolinska b. ca 1680 or Anna Gomolinska.

See marriage in RADOMSKO:
1751: Walenty Pagowski m. Franciszka Karsnicka 1voto Ostrowska widowed, with witnesses: Dionizy Zaremba, Kazimierz Ostrowski, Walenty Bleszynski of Roznów, and Brzuchowski.
1756: Adam Rozek m. Marianna Bleszynska in Rozny, marriage in Dobryszyce; witnesses: Walenty Pagowski of Piaszczyce and Walenty Bleszynski.
1761: Sebastian Kobierzycki m. Jadwiga Komornicka of Braclaw from Ladzice; witnesses Walenty Bleszynski, Marian Komornicki.
In 1778:
Ludwik Kiedrzynski m. Róza Bleszynska of Rozny; witnesses: Stefan Siemienski, Adam Rogojski, Melchior Dulski.

In Radomsko:
1739 -
Augustyn was born; mother Agnieszka Kiedrzynska.

In the Sieradz county in 1791/1793:
Kiedrzynski Floryan with his son Leon Kiedrzynski.


in 1704, Teresa Ruszkowska, widowed after Seweryn Czyzewski, vs. Stanislaw Dominikowski and Zofja Kiedrzynska Dominikowska, 1 voto Adam Drogonski.

We have two noblewomen named Julianna Kiedrzynska:

1. Sobotka, 1798, Jan Arnold 1751-1840, the owner of Pecherzow, married Juljanna Kiedrzynski [2nd], b. ca 1770 / or in 1772-1811, 1st married Ruszkowska, widowed, the owner of Wierzchoslaw.
witness Maciej Bogdanski, official in KALISZ.
2. Note:
Andrzej Kiedrzynski b. 1715/1720, was probably a cousin to MARCIN Kiedrzynski, senior, b. ca 1700-1788.

Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of mentioned above Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798].

Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.

Józef MADALINSKI, b. 1774, died after 1809, Captain in 1809, m. Julianna [1st] nee Bogdanska, 1st voto JAKUB Kiedrzynski; she d. in Orpiszew / Orpiszewko / ORPISZEWEK in 1809/1811
(Orpiszewko was owned by the Kiedrzynskis);
with daughter Kunegunda born before 1809 in Orpiszewek, m. in 1835 in Restarzew, to Grzegorz Chrzanowski b. ca 1784, son of Zofia Tymienicki Chrzanowska.

Jozef Madalinski was son of Kajetan Madalinski, 1740-1784 and Dorota Kiedrzynska 1740 or 1750 - 1784.

Dorota was 1st married (1768 / 1769 ?) to Wawrzyniec Grabinski / Wawrzyniec Bartlomiej Grabinski who d. before 1769, his father Stefan Grabinski d. 1742, mother Konstancja Lubiatowska d. 1763; his brothers: Jan Grabinski, Andrzej Grabinski, Bartlomiej Grabinski d. 1787; his step-father Szymon Czarniecki d. 1744;
Dorota m. 2nd to Tomasz Psarski born ca 1740 / 1750, died ca 1807; Tomasz was owner of Wola Dzierlinska bought in 1786. Antoni PSARSKI who was the son of Tomasz, and Lucja Czekulin had daughter KONSTANCJA Psarska (b. ca 1819 - died after 1840). Above Tomasz Psarski born ca 1740 - died after 1770 / 1819 + Dorota Kiedrzynska 1740-1784 had son Antoni Psarski born in 1770.
Dorota m. 3rd to Kajetan Madalinski 1740-1784, with son Józef MADALINSKI, b. 1774, died after 1809, Captain in 1809.

Dorota's brother -
Izydor Kiedrzynski who was b. 1749 and m. to Helena who was born in 1762 and she died in Wola Wiazowa in 1828 [the family of the author].

Jakub Kiedrzynski was born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798. His two wives: Brygida Bardzka [in 1767]; and Julianna nee Bogdanska [ca 1788].
Above Józef MADALINSKI, b. 1774, died after 1809, Captain in 1809, m. Julianna nee Bogdanska, 1st voto JAKUB Kiedrzynski; she d. in Orpiszew / Orpiszewko in 1809 (Orpiszewko was the Kiedrzynskis).
Józef Wawrzyniec Kajetan MADALINSKI b. 1774, owner of Kraszyn and Chodaki, had children:
a) Kunegunda b. ca 1809 in Orpiszewek, m. in 1835 in Restarzew, to Grzegorz Chrzanowski b. ca 1784;
b) Sebastian Fabian MADALINSKI.

Józef Wawrzyniec Kajetan MADALINSKI b. 1774 had brother Jakub Hiacynt MADALINSKI born 1775, m. Honorata Psarska died ca 1820, with daughter Anna b. 1797, m. in 1821 to Józef Julian Walewski son of Andrzej owner of Wola Balucka, 2nd time married to Jan Kanty Psarski, landowner of Wielgie.

3. In Raszków in 1801 [RASZKOW - 9 km south-west to BEDZIESZYN]:
Teofila Domicella was born, the daughter of Jan Antoni Arnold, the owner of Pecherzew in the Sieradz province, by his wife Julianna Kiedrzynski, 1st Ruszkowska
[JAKUB Kiedrzynski had daughter Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska b. ca 1770/1772].
Józef Ossowski and
Franciszka Radolinska, she was the owner of Bedzieszyn
[Bedzieszyn in 1778, owned by Jan Kosicki; Bedzieszyn - 10 km na pólnoc od Ostrowa; 8 km south-east to BIEGANIN / Bieganino of Kiedrzynski; 20 km west to KALISZ].
Ossowski the owner of BINIEW / Bieniewo, 6 km west to named BEDZIESZYN.

4. In Raszków, 1801, Jan Nepomucen Józef Ruszkowski was born, with godparents:
Ignacy Frankenberg and his wife Marcjanna, both owners of Koscielec [east to Proszowice ? or KOSCIELEC near to Redziny, Mstow, Rudniki, Lubojenka, WIERZCHOWISKO - north-east to Czestochowa; see Kiedrzynski].

5. Kiedrzynski Franciszek Placyd, son of Józef Kiedrzynski, was born in 1771.

6. In BESANCON was living lieutenant Kiedrzynski, inf. by the Polish National Committee in Dec. 1831-1832. No inf. in 1833 !

In the Cracow prov. in 1791:

Antoni, Kiedrzynski, born in 1751, in Kiedrzyn close to Czestochowa.

Close to Czestochowa in 1783 – 1792:
Kamyk - owned by mentioned above Antoni Kiedrzynski and Stanislaw Jeziorkowski;
Kiedrzyn - to Antoni Kiedrzynski;
Kobylczyce - Maciej Pstrokonski, and Jan Nepomucen Woznicki with Marcin Wierciszewski and Ignacy Korwin Jaszewski.
Kotowice – Adam Mecinski;
Kruszyna - until 1789 Konstancja nee Danilowicz, married Potocka. 1789 - Adam Potocki.
Kuzniczka - Antoni Kiedrzynski with Paciorkowski;
Wierzchowisko - part to Antoni Kiedrzynski,
Wilkowiecko - 1783 owned by Maksymilian Chodakowski. 1790 - Jakub Fryderyk Psarski.
Wola Hankowska - Bartlomiej Trepka, and Antoni Kiedrzynski.

In Kalisz:

in 1774, Wojciech Ciesielski, the son of Antoni Ciesielski, the grandson of Krzysztof Ciesielski. In a court with Marianna Gawlowska, also Jan; Izydor and Florjan Ciesielski - brothers in Zdzenice Skrzyszczyzna and the owners of Ciesielszczyzna.
Vs Kasper Kiedrzynski, son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowski-Kiedrzynska. It was sold part of Skrzeszczyzna.

In 1735 in KALISZ:
Kazimierz Ciesielski, son of named above Krzysztof Ciesielski and Maria Dzenicki-Ciesielska, on behalf of Stanislaw; Antoni and Jan Ciesielski - brothers, about Zdzenice Skrzeszczyzna in part ceded to Marcjan Zdzenicki.

Zdzenice / Zdzienice, close to TUREK, and Malanów; south-west to TUREK, 18 km north-west to DOBRA; 14 km north to MADALIN and BEDZIECHOW of Kiedrzynski; 4 km north-east to MALANOW, 20 km north-west to MILEJOW [see GLUCHOW !].

Prior of the monastery at Jasna Góra:
Anastazy Kiedrzynski 05.1719 - 05.1722.

The GOMOLINSKI family:

Stanislaw Gomolinski official in Wielun, who was Jan's son from Szpinkowno, and two daughters, Anna and Barbara.

Piotr Gomolinski b. ca 1510, official in Sieradz, married widow Mieszkowska, with 2 sons:
Jan Gomolinski and
Mikolaj, and 4 daughters:
Barbara, Weronika, Urszula and Anna b. ca 1545 ?;
Piotr was the owner of Lopatki.
Above sons -
born ca 1530, Jan [Jan Gomolinski in the Sieradz province] + Belzacka, with children:
1. mistake - see sons of Mikolaj ! Born ca 1550, Stanislaw the bishop of Chelm, and Kamieniec, who by Jan Zamojski, chancellor, in 1589, in the Lublin, was appointed guardian;

2. Florian, b. ca 1580 ?;
3. Marcin.

Come from Florian or from Marcin Gomolicki - in 1764: Andrzej Gomolinski, from the Leczyca province; Ludwik Roch Sariusz Gomolinski, colonel and Piotr Sariusz Gomolicki, the major of the Crown.

4. Kazimierz Gomolinski b. ca 1580/1610, was the son of Jan Gomolinski, junior b. ca 1550? Kazimierz Gomolinski, of Lazinska, had son
Wladyslaw Gomolinski, and Wladyslaw [Wladyslawa GOMOLINSKI born ca 1630] married Slomkowska with the son
Jan Gomolinski [born ca 1660/1670]. Jan with Bielicka had 3 sons:
Antoni; Franciszek; Karol [b. 1700 ?].

JAN GOMOLINSKI b. ca 1665, had son:
Karol Sariusz-Gomolinski 1696-1784, died in Krosniewice,
Polish judge, medical chamberlain. Named Karol Saryusz Jelita Gomolinski b. 1696, chamberlain of Leczyca, m. Helena Pokrzywnicka with the son Ignacy Gomolinski, the instigator.
Ignacy born ca 1725.
Ignacy's sisters:
1. b. ca 1738, Józefata Sariusz-Gomolinska 1738-1823, primo voto Count Skarbek, General major; secundo voto Szymon Dzierzbicki official in Leczyca.
b. ca 1740, Marianna + Count Opacki of MINSK.

b. ca 1530, Mikolaj + Myszkowska, the daughter of Marcin Myszkowski, official in Wielun, with 3 sons of named MIKOLAJ GOMOLINSKI:
1. Stanislaw, priest in Krakow; bishop in Luck,
2. b. ca 1560, Jedrzej the brother of Stanislaw bishop, married Debowska of Sieradz.
3. Florian Gomolinski of Sieradz, MP in 1595.

Aleksander Gomolinski b. ca. 1610, d. ca 1667, had 2 sons:
1. b. ca 1640, Samuel Gomolinski, maybe in the Radomsko county, by his mother Barbara Malachowska Gomolinska,
2. Aleksander Gomolinski + Teresa Lipska had son
Jan, b. ca 1645, and daughter Ewa born ca 1646, inf. 1667, after Swientoslaw Lipski, the priest of Choczki in the Kalisz province took heirloom.

Jan Gomolinski m. Zbijewska, but she died in 1687, Cracow.
We know on Pawel Gomolinski d. 1711, Bishop of Kiev from 1698, royal secretary.

The Pstrokonski - Kiedrzynski - Gomolinski branch:

Pstrokonski Franciszek Ksawery 1715 - ca 1783, m. Agnieszka Nieniewska d. 1776, with Marianna, and Wiktoria [b. ca 1740 ?] married Marcin Kiedrzynski [b. before or ca 1720], son of Jakub Kiedrzynski

{Marcin Kiedrzynski b. before or ca 1720, son of Jakub Kiedrzynski senior, 1668 - 1729, and Ewa Gomolinska b. ca 1680}

and his wife Anna Gomolinska or Ewa Gomolinska b. ca 1680.

Brothers and cousins of Marcin Kiedrzynski

(Marcin Kiedrzynski b. before or ca 1720, come from Jakob / Jakub Kiedrzynski senior b. 1668
[Gomolinska Anna / Ewa m. Jakub Kiedrzynski SENIOR, d. 1729 - the Wielun officer]
- owner of Dymki in the Lututow parish since 1698, inf. 1709 Wielun. Dymki and Lututow - Dymki estate of the Kiedrzynskis is situated 5 km east of Lututow, in the Wieruszow county):

1. Jakub Kiedrzynski / Jakob Kiedrzynski the 3rd, junior, b. 1738 in WILCZKOW; in 1775 court with Anna [JULIANNA] about Kurow (see Walewski; close to Wola Pszczolecka; see Malkiewicz!) close to Wielun; inf. in 1786 and 1788 in Kalisz.
Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of mentioned above Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, and JAKUB was the owner of Orpiszewek.
WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish.
JAKUB died in 1798.
Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.

See: Erasmus Mycielski and Szaniawski Jan Kalasanty.

The closest relatives of the MADALINSKI family was Jakub Kiedrzynski of Kalisz [born in 1738 in Wilczkow] who helped to this family. Józef Madalinski, Jakub Madalinski and Julianna were owners of Raczkow and Upuszczow, inf. 1786. Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski junior, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 were next of kin to the Madalinski family.

Above Józef MADALINSKI, Captain in 1809 m. Julianna nee Bogdanska, 1 voto Kiedrzynska, d. in Orpiszew / Orpiszewko in 1809 (Orpiszewko was the Kiedrzynskis).

2. Jan Kiedrzynski b. ?
(others with the first name Jan: Jan Kiedrzynski with Ostoja arms, b. ca 1710 and Jan Kiedrzynski b. ca 1680 who was brother (?) of Adam - inf. 1704 from the Poznan province),

3. Andrzej Kiedrzynski (senior) - b. ca 1715/1720, owner of Biegacino in 1760, that is Bieganin / Bieganino ca 23 km west of Kalisz and 16 km south of Orpiszewko / Orpiszewek [see Izydor Kiedrzynski and his son - Gabriel / Gabryel Kiedrzynski].

4. Ignacy Kiedrzynski / Ignacy Kiedrzynski [b. ca 1730; acc. to my research he was the brother of named above Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720.
Andrzej Kiedrzynski was the landowner of Biegacino in 1760, that is Bieganin / Bieganino ca 23 km west of Kalisz and 16 km south of Orpiszewko; married Franciszka Jackowska]:

In 1764 in Wielgomlyny, Ignacy Kiedrzynski of Malowana Wola (5 km east of DMENIN; 9 km north-west of WOLKA BANKOWA; 5 km north of Kobiele Wielkie) married Zofia nee Zablocka 1 voto Swiecicka (widow, a woman who has lost her husband by death).

Cousins of above named Marcin Kiedrzynski, come from Jakob / Jakub Kiedrzynski senior, the Wielun officer:

1. Kasper or Kacper Kiedrzynski, with wife Maryanna Arcichowska.

2. Wiktoria nee Kiedrzynska, m. Adam Rogujski owner of Wola Murowana, 9 km south of Opoczno - inf. in 1781 and 1782.

3. Michal Kiedrzynski b. after 1745, owner of Kamyk close to Klobuck and Wilkowiecko - in the Cracow province, west of Kiedrzyn, east of the Polish border and Prussia - inf. 1783 - 1788; in 1781, Colonel Chodakowski bought the estate Wilkowiecko - 14 km north-west of Kamyk of the Kiedrzynskis, and 9 km north-west of Klobuck - then to the Psarskis.

Kamyk, close to Klobuck (26 km to the Austrian border and 12 km north-west of Czestochowa), was the Kiedrzynski property since 1672 from the Bielski brothers, owned by Franciszek Kiedrzynski - inf. 1669 in the Wielun county; born ca 1625; Franciszek Kiedrzynski was the brother of Ignacy, Jan, and Stanislaw Kiedrzynski - inf. 1669 of the Wielun county; Franciszek was son of Piotr Kiedrzynsky b. ca 1595 - inf. of 1621 on the Wielun county. Piotr was the branch of Jan Kiedrzynski vel Kierzynski, with the Ostoja coat of arms, b. ca 1565, inf. of 1590 in Kolo, about Jan - writer of Ostrzeszow, again inf. of 1606 in Wielun

4. Wojciech Kiedrzynski born 1745 in Kiedrzyn, killed by Russians in Krzepice on 05 November 1768; he was living in the Sieradz province. Krzepice - Czestochowa i Klobuck were the centre of the Bar Confederation in 1768.

5. Antoni Aleksy Kiedrzynski b. ca 1740, owner of Kamyk, Kiedrzyn - inf. 1745, Lechow(o), Kuznica Kiedrzynska, Wola Kiedrzynska north of Czestochowa, officer in Latyczow, the Ostoja coat of arms, he lost assets.
Kiedrzynski taken out loans in the Royal Prussian Bank in Berlin. His land estate was in debt (the Kiedrzyn property). This was in the years 1793 - 1806. In 1815 the Government of the Polish Kingdom took over debts owed by the Kiedrzyn property and took over the management of this lands in Kiedrzyn (in the jurisdiction of the State).
The Kiedrzyn estate was situated in the Lelow county, the Cracow province, south-east of Kamyk of the Kiedrzynskis, north of Czestochowa, east of Liswarta river - the border of Poland and Prussia.

We back to conspirators:

Andrzej Michal Horodyski b. 1773 in Baworowo.

The Society of Polish Republicans was the Polish secret organization, in Warsaw on October 1, 1798 to mid-1801; with contact to the Deputation in Paris, and Kosciuszko in Paris.

The main activists were:
Jan Orchowski / John Aloysius Orchowski,
Raymond Rembielinski [see Wiktor Rembielinski],
Andrzej HORODYSKI / Andrew Horodyski and
Erazm Mycielski / Erasmus Mycielski.

Andrzej Michal Horodyski b. 1773 in Baworowo [son of ANTONI], freemason, in 1798 moved to Warsaw, where he became director - after ERAZM Mycielski - of the Society of Polish Republicans.

Horodyski Andrzej maintained correspondence with J. K. Szaniawski in 1802.

Andrzej Horodyski, a friend of the duke Józef Poniatowski, in 1831, the deputy of the minister of the FOREIGN Affairs in Warsaw. His portrait, painted by Benner in 1816.
Note at margin:
Franciszek Kostrzewski - a painter, illustrator, associated with the Warsaw artistic community, was born in 1826 in Warsaw, invited and hosted by noblemen and landowners, he was among others at Sulkowskis in Rydzyna, Chlapowski in Turwia, Koscielski in Karczyn, and Horodyski in Molodiatycze.
Molodiatycze - village in Poland located in the Lublin province, close to Trzeszczany, 18 km west of Hrubieszów.
In 1578, the village belonged to the Branicki family. In the 18th century Molodiatycze were the property of the Wyszynski. Around 1823, the village was inherited by the daughter of Tomasz Wyszynski and brought them in the dowry to Antoni Horodyski (1798-1877).

Antoni Horodyski junior, 1798-1877, son of Ignacy Horodyski and Teresa Koczorowska.
Ignacy Horodyski, 1776-1856, son of Antoni Horodyski senior, born ca 1740, official in DYNEBURG + Ksawera Jaworska.
Above Ignacy Horodyski 1776 / 1780-1856.
The Baworowo castle in the TARNOPOL county; close to Zastaw; 21 south-east to Tarnopol / Tiernopil; west to SKALAT; south to ZBARAZ. Brody - see PASZKOWSKI - ca 90 km north-west to Tarnopol.
A wooden castle was located on a hill, and in the 17th century, the stronghold was rebuilt. The Malecki family around 1800 abandoned the castle; in 1851, the estate was bought by Count Wiktor Baworowski from Malecki. See:
Andrzej Michal Horodyski b. 1773 in Baworowo [son of ANTONI + 1st wife JUSTYNA MARCHOCKA HORODYSKA; Antoni Horodyski senior, 2nd married to Ksawera Jaworska], freemason, in 1798 moved to Warsaw, where he became director - after ERAZM Mycielski - of the Society of Polish Republicans. Horodyski Andrzej Michal d. ca 1857.
In 1773 named Baworów belonged to the Galician Podole in AUSTRIA.
Andrzej Michal Horodyski in 1796 became the activist of Lviv Centralization.
See: Ignacy Horodyski b. ca 1780-1856, the son of Antoni Horodyski senior, and Ksawera Jaworska.
Jadwiga Horodyska b. ca 1830-1903, the daughter of Antoni Horodyski junior, 1798-1877, and Ignacja Wyszynska - see above Molodiatycze.
The son Wladyslaw, married to Józefa Chrzanowska. In 1866, a distillery was in Molodiatycze - compare Wola Wiazowa. Before 1890, the village was in the hands of Antoni Horodyski, son of Wladyslaw. Antoni Horodyski 3rd, 1858-1902, first married to Józefa Rostworowska, and after her death to Taida Wodzicka.

Andrzej Michal Horodyski / Michal Andrzej Horodyski, b. 1773, translator, and Freemason. Wedding about 1800.
Translator together with Szaniawski, 1808; also with S. Staszic, F. K. Dmochowski, A. and K. Gliszczynski, A. Wyganowski, M. Wodzynski.
Horodyski Andrzej Michal, 1798 co-organizer and secretary of the Polish Republicans Society; Jacobin, 1807-09 he cooperated in organizing the Polish authorities; 1831, the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1830-1831) - the head Adam Jerzy Czartoryski. Wincenty Niemojowski - vice president, head of the Administration and Police Department.
In 1831, Minister of Internal Affairs and Police has been appointed Bonawentura Niemojowski then Antoni Gliszczynski; Wiktor Rembielinski the minister of justice.

Horodyski Andrzej Michal, 1798, took over these functions - secretary of the Polish Republicans Society - after ERAZM Mycielski. 1801, the direction of the Society.
Maintained encrypted correspondence with H. Kollataj - became one of Kollataja's closest friends.

In 1802, he became a shareholder of the Trzycieski, Horodyski et comp. - commercial house, which was also opened in Odessa, to which they also received:
P. Maleszewski
[see Venture de Paradise / Sulkowski / Napoleon, and Breguet - Duflon in Russia + Konstantynowicz, Nobel, Armand],
J. K. Szaniawski
[area of Wieruszow and Szaniawski was the family of Erazm Mycielski. General Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski approached Gen. Dabrowski's opponents - he became friend with Józef Kalasanty Szaniawski and Andrzej Horodyski, with whom he was later considered, at the time of the Duchy of Warsaw, as one of the leaders of "Polish Jacobins"]
and J. Drzewiecki
[see DUFLON in St. Petersburg co-operated with DRZEWIECKI - his family. Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company financed Lenin's activities through a wife of Apollon Konstantynowicz, ie. Anna Konstantynowicz nee ARMAND - she come from Maria Paszkowska, the daughter of General Franciszek Paszkowski. Anna was the best friend of Inessa Armand, the lover of Lenin].

Andrzej HORODYSKI after the invasion of the Russians in 1813, he became associated with Adam Jerzy Czartoryski. In time of The November Uprising was connected with General Skrzynecki. He was a member of the freemasonry lodge of Isis / Izis in 1811/1812, a member of the Great Kazimierz Wielki in 1819/1820 [1816, Casimir the Great worked until the dissolution in 1821]. Izis in the east of Warsaw - a Polish masonic lodge opened on April 1, 1780.

Note at margin:
Michal Jerzy Poniatowski b. 1736, d. 1794 in Warsaw, the Plock bishop in 1773, the Freemason, son of Stanislaw Poniatowski, and Konstancja Czartoryska; the brother of the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski.
MICHAL had son Piotr Maleszewski
[closest to Jozef KALASANTY Szaniawski, and Horodyski] - see Sulkowski + Venture de Paradise, also Breguet and Duflon - Konstantynowicz.

Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. 1797/1798, of Wesola / WIESIOLKA, and Tyczyn, official in SZADEK, m. Nepomucena Pradzynska b. ca 1790 - her second marriage ca 1825.
W. Maciej Sulimierski / Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski, the owner of the Wiesiolka village and the owner of ZIELENCICE, where he lived and the future godfather of Filip SULIMIERSKI [December 22, 1843 / Jan. 1844], was pardoned in the Russian court after 1834 although he was arrested for the guerrilla.
Nepomucena Pradzynska had a sister and brother:
Sylwia Pradzynska 1791-1862 m. Jakub Jan Krasicki insurgent of 1831, Colonel, 1785-1848;
and Wincenty Józef PRADZYNSKI, 1795-1858 [the landowner of WOLA WIAZOWA], m. Salomea Mierzynska.
Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA; see below]
and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847.
Nepomucena Pradzynska married 1st to Antoni Moszczenski, ca 1810 to ca 1825, son of Aleksander Ezechiel Moszczenski official in Brzesc Kujawski [!], 1759-1846, and Marianna Radziminska.
Nepomucena's children:
Teodor 1812-1831; Ignacy 1813-1880; Aleksander 1819-1829; Antoni Stefan Tadeusz 1822-1829.

Mentioned above Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, close to OBORNIKI and MUROWANA GOSLINA. Died in 1817; son of Antoni Pradzynski and Marianna Czaplicka / Marianna Bardzka.
Husband of Marcjanna Marianna;
father of Nepomucena Moszczenska Sulimierska;
Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski

[Free Poles Association / Free Lechytes - a secret patriotic organization in 1819-1823 in the Kingdom of Poland;
founded in November 1819 in Warsaw by Tadeusz Krepowiecki, Wiktor Heltman and Ludwik Piatkiewicz; among the members were
Ignacy Pradzynski, Seweryn Goszczynski, Maurycy Mochnacki, Stanislaw Jachowicz, Józef Kozlowski and Ksawery Bronikowski - all about 40 members.
They fought on full unification of the Polish lands and the independence of the state; called for fight with the Russian invaders, prepare papers and readings. Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association. He was member of the Patriotic Society. When Alexander I went to the congress of the Holy Alliance to Opava (in early 1821 moved to Ljubljana), he to sign an agreement to intervene in the event of a revolution.
Arrived from Warsaw, Ignacy Pradzynski put forward the project of independence of the Great Poland's branch of the National Freemasonry. They were renamed the Union of Scytheman, 1820-1826];

Wincenty Józef Pradzynski
[see below on WOLA WIAZOWA] and
Sylwia Zuzanna Krasicka.
Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, was the brother of Józefina Gertruda Pradzynska; Melchior Jan Pradzynski; Antonina Joanna Malgorzata; and Ludwika Klara Róza Modliborska; inf. by Leszek Mila.

In WOLA WIAZOW Stanislaw Wincenty Pradzynski died in 1855; b. 1828; son of Wincenty Józef Pradzynski 1795-1858 and Salomea Mierzynska 1799-1877.
His grandparents:
Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski [see above] 1761-1817, born in Pacholewo, bapt. in Bialezyn, d. in Poznan; Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska 1770-1847; Rafal Mierzynski 1775-1826; Marianna Zagajewska.

Izydor Kiedrzynski who was b. 1749 and m. to Helena born in 1762, she died in Wola Wiazowa in 1828 [the family of the author].
Gabriel Kiedrzynski born as Gabryel in 1796 (or 1798, 1803) in Osiny / Osina; married in 1821 in Wola Wiazowa, died Jan. 1848 in Wola Wiazowa (Gabriel died after 1819 - a mistake - acc. to somebody). Osiny / Osina - 10 km north of Sulmierzyce, ca 22 km north-west of Krepa, property Osiny / Osina of the Walewskis - south-east of Szczercow, that is north of Jedlno! Gabriel had 5 sons and 4 daughters with Katarzyna Wojtaszek b. 1796 / 1807 in Rusiec, m. 1821 in Wola Wiazowa, d. after 1866; Rusiec was land of the Walewskis! Gabriel Kiedrzynski born as Gabryel in 1796, 1798, 1803 in Osiny; married in 1821;
Kiedrzynski Gabriel from Osiny, acc. to Neyman.
I am thinking Osina / Osiny close to Chabielice and south-east of Szczercow, that is north of Jedlno; ca 10 km north of Sulmierzyce (land of Kiedrzynski), ca 22 km north-west of Krepa; the property of Osiny / Osina was belonged to the Walewskis; above Gabriel had 5 sons and 4 daughters with Katarzyna Wojtaszek b. 1796 / 1807 in Rusiec, m. 1821 in Wola Wiazowa, d. after 1866; Rusiec was land of the Walewskis! FRANCISZEK Walewski born ca 1675 / 1690, died 1745, was the landowner of named Rusiec.
Jedlno was property of Elzbieta Walewska nee Mecinska and her son, who sold Wieruszow in 1793; then this family owned also Wola Wiazowa and Rusiec.
FRANCISZEK Walewski b. 1745, d. 1813 (son of Marcin Walewski 1700 / 1720 - 1761 and Marcjanna Romer 1720 - 1761), owner of Rusiec, Wieruszów, Dabrówka, Jastrzebice, Broszecin, Wola Wiazowa, Lesniaki, Laziny, Zawadow; General, m. Ludwika Stokowska;
A. Kacper m. Anna Lubieniecka, Izabela Oswiecimska,
B. Damazy m. Katarzyna Wagrowska,
C. Józef b. 1771 m. Marianna Blociszewska,
D. Ignacy Józef b. 1786, m. Salomea Walewska from Rusiec, Dabrowa, Jastrzebice, Kuznica.

WOLA WIAZOWA of the Walewskis, 1781 church; in 1885 estate with: Wola Wiazowa, Wincentów, Stanislawów, Deby. Then to Pradzynski: Stanislaw Kostka Pradzynski, d. 1853.
The distillery of spirits in Wola Wiazowa belonged to Pradzynski.
The distillery of spirits in Wola Wiazowa belonged to Pradzynski, but the village was still owned by Walewski.
MOKIEJEWSKI also had several distilleries of spirits, but near to Przysucha - Opoczno.

The Pradzynski family and Wola Wiazowa - Wilkowo Polskie:
Aleksander Madalinski owner of Raczkow and Upuszczow close to Sieradz, married in 1725 to Barbara Walknowska Walichnowska, the daughter of Ewa nee Kozuchowski, with children:
A. Kontancja Madalinska m. in 1757 to Dominik Zelislawski d. 1772, 2 voto Maksymilian Pradzynski son of Teresa nee Malachowski- Pradzynska;
B. Kajetan MADALINSKI d. 1784, owner of Raczkow, Upuszczow, m. Dorota Kiedrzynska daughter of Andrzej Kiedrzynski [see also on JAKUB KIEDRZYNSKI] and Franciszka Jackowska, 1 voto Wawrzyniec Grabinski son of Stefan Grabinski, 2 voto Tomasz Psarski, died 1807, owner of Wola Dzierlinska.

Kunegunda Ewa Anna Maslowska b. 1743 Ruda, baptis. in Rudlice, m. Franciszek Ksawery Walewski b. ca 1740, owner of Wola Wiazowa, son of Franciszek Walewski and Teodora Walewska.
Above Franciszek Walewski officer in Rozprza, 1710-1745, wife Teodora Walewska b. 1710. His son Ksawery Franciszek Walewski officer in Ostrzeszów, 1739 / 1740-1796.

WOLA WIAZOWA owned by the Walewskis in the 18th cent., they founded in 1781 a church.
In 1885 estate included Wola Wiazowa, Wincentów, Stanislawów, Deby, and owned by Pradzynski:
Stanislaw Kostka Pradzynski / Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [born in Pacholewo, died in Poznan; owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and his wife BRONIKOWSKA;
next Wola Wiazowa was taken by his son Wincenty Pradzynski
[that is Wincenty Józef Pradzynski], died 1858 in Warszawa
(Wincenty's brother: Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski {b. 1792 in Sanniki; General}.
Wincenty was born on April 5, 1795, in Iwno / IWNIE close to Kostrzyn. His wife Salomea was born on November 19, 1790, in Wasosz)
and his wife Salomea Mierzynska b. 1799

[the sons of named Wincenty Jozef Pradzynski, 1795-1858:
Stanislaw Wincenty Pradzynski / Stanislaw Pradzynski, 1828-1855 in WOLA WIAZOWA;
Wincenty Boleslaw Pradzynski born in 1839, d. 1895;
Edward Emilian Julian Pradzynski b. 1838 in Leznica Wielka - died in 1895 in WOLA WIAZOWA + Maria Skorzewska

{a case of excise duty on spirits, which was supposed to be exported abroad (to Prussia ?) in Piotrkow in 1875 and in 1892; the owner of the distillery in Wola Wiazowna's estate, Edward Pradzynski, for the purpose of securing the excise tax due to him for export abroad spirits, presented a deposit in the general amount of 17,000 rs. In 1875 Pradzynski demanded from the excise manager in the Kalisz to return to him the deposit on the principle that the corresponding amount of spirits was supposedly from his distillery exported abroad.
A court case in 1893 - Maria Pradzynska vs. Edward Pradzynski
(compare the life of MATEUSZ "KIEDRZYNSKI" of Wola Wiazowa - a trade in alcohol, snuff, cigars, lubricants to Prussia. And Gabriel Kiedrzynski / Gabryel of Jedlno and Wola Wiazowa - 1831/1832 to April abroad ?; and Jan of Wola Wiazowa and Wola Pszczolecka, come from named Gabryel)};

Boleslaw Jan 1842-1855,
and Wladyslaw Pradzynski 1837-1898 lived in LEZNICA WIELKA close to Leczyca + Anna Skrzynska].

Stanislaw Pradzynski 1828-1855, a single, son of Wincenty and Salomea born Mierzynska; Stanislaw died in Wola Wiazowa in 1855.

In 1858, Wincenty Pradzynski died, the owner of Kobierzycko [at half way from BLASZKI to Sieradz; the Wróblew parish, 3 km to KOBIERZYCKO] and of Wola Wiazowa / Wola Wiezowa; Wincenty-Józef-Grzymala Pradzynski, was the Actual Counselor of State; died in Warsaw on 19 November 1858.
In 1863 in the Wola Wiazowa manor was secret printing house of Feliks Kicki.

1892 - Wola Wiazowa belonged to Pradzynski [see above on Edward Emilian Julian Pradzynski b. 1838 in Leznica Wielka - died in 1895 in WOLA WIAZOWA + Maria Skorzewska].

The PRADZYNSKI's genealogy:

Melchior Jan Pradzynski b. 1753 in Mrowino [at half way from Szamotuly to Poznan], died 1797, son of Antoni Pradzynski 1710-1761, and Marianna Czaplicka; husband of Petronela KIEDRZYNSKA !;
father of Andrzej Pradzynski and Józef Pradzynski;
brother of Józefina Gertruda; Antonina Joanna Malgorzata; Ludwika Klara Róza Modliborska; and
Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski [1761-1817, m. Bronikowska; owner of WOLA WIAZOWA; the father of GENERAL Ignacy Pradzynski 1792-1850 [see Freemasonry and General Franciszek PASZKOWSKI - Armand - Konstantynowicz].
In Wola Wiazowa in 1866 see Kiedrzynski under nickname].

Mentioned Petronela Pradzynska - Kiedrzynska, b. 1767/1769. Petronela Pradzynska Kiedrzynska married Melchior Jan Pradzynski, b. 1753 in Mrowino [at half way from Szamotuly to Poznan], died 1797, son of Antoni Pradzynski and Marianna Czaplicka.

Stanislaw Rembowski [1691-1768; son of Wojciech Rembowski and Marianna Przedzynska / PRADZYNSKA !; Stanislaw had sister Katarzyna Konarska and a brother Jan Rembowski]. See WILKOWO POLSKIE and Zamoyska-Kiedrzynska.
Andrzej Pradzynski, 1794-1872; born in Kowalew / KOWALEWO close to PLESZEW, 5 km east to Orpiszewek of Kiedrzynski; north-east to Dobrzyca. His father born in MROWINO, in 1753 [at half way from Szamotuly to Poznan].
Petronela Pradzynska - Kiedrzynska, b. 1767/1769, was the mother of above Andrzej Pradzynski born in KOWALEWO / Kowalew close to PLESZEW, 4 km to south-west [14 km north-east to DOBRZYCA, north to Bieganin, 5 km east to ORPISZEWEK], in 1794, d. in ZERKOWO, was living in WODZISKA close to STRZEMBORZA [close to Koluszki is situated Strzemboszewice]; and Józef Pradzynski b. ca 1792.
Free Poles Association / Free Lechytes - a secret patriotic organization in 1819-1823 in the Kingdom of Poland;
founded in November 1819 in Warsaw by Tadeusz Krepowiecki, Wiktor Heltman and Ludwik Piatkiewicz;
among the members were Ignacy Pradzynski, Seweryn Goszczynski, Maurycy Mochnacki, Stanislaw Jachowicz, Józef Kozlowski and Ksawery Bronikowski - all about 40 members.
They fought on full unification of the Polish lands and the independence of the state; called for fight with the Russian invaders, prepare papers and readings.
Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association. He was member of the Patriotic Society.
When Alexander I went to the congress of the Holy Alliance to Opava (in early 1821 moved to Ljubljana), he to sign an agreement to intervene in the event of a revolution.
Arrived from Warsaw, Ignacy Pradzynski put forward the project of independence of the Great Poland's branch of the National Freemasonry. They were renamed the Union of Scytheman, 1820-1826.
Its members "broke the gypsum of Alexander, burned his constitution, stop looking at Warsaw".
They embraced Kosciuszko's bust [see general Paszkowski and General Fiszer]. Further secret organizations were created. In 1819, the Free Poles Association was formed, headed by Victor Heltman. May 1, 1821 - the Patriotic Society was founded. The Patriotic Society was run by Lukasinski, and after his arrest by the Krzyzanowski. Lukasinski was arrested in 1822.
The Union of Scytheman, 1820-1826 with Ignacy Pradzynski at the head. Stanislaw Soltyk and Ignacy Pradzynski, leaving the prison in the state of extreme exhaustion.
In 1816 Polish students founded the Polonia corporation in Wroclaw and then in 1818 in Berlin; and also in 1819 in Krakow. The oldest corporation was established in 1828 in Dorpat.
Jakub Kiedrzynski - the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798]; the closest relatives of the MADALINSKI family. Jakub Kiedrzynski was the official of Kalisz.
Petronela Pradzynska Kiedrzynska married Melchior Jan Pradzynski, b. 1753 in Mrowino [at half way from Szamotuly to Poznan], died 1797, son of Antoni Pradzynski and Marianna Czaplicka.
Stanislaw Kiedrzynski / Stanislaw Kostka Kiedrzynski, son of Marcin Kiedrzynski [ca 1715/1720-1788], born ca 1730 / 1739, married to Marjanna nee Zamoyska [b. ca 1720 / 1730]. Stanislaw died in 1773 / 1774 or after 1775.
In WSCHOWA in 1775 Marianna Zamoyska [widowed after death of Stanislaw Rembowski of Dobrzyn {marriage in 1752}, and after Stanislaw Kostka Kiedrzynski, writer in Wschowa], after receipt of payment from Ignacy Szoldrski of Smolensk, formally recognized the case is closed about Wilkowo Polskie and the Bielawy farm, since 1768 in hands of Jakub Szoldrski.
Named above
Jan WRONSKI was the owner of Golanice - close to Jezierzyce Koscielne and Krzycko Wielkie; south-east to WLOSZAKOWICE.
The owner of Wilkowo Polskie in 1818 was Antoni Swiniarski / Swinarski; maybe a son of Mikolaj Swinarski; brother of Marianna Agnieszka Barbara Mielecka; Józefa Bninska; Jan Warzyniec Antoni Swinarski b. 1751.
Wilkowo Polskie in 1805, Konstancja, was born, daughter of Rafal Nerski and Zuzanna Sokolnicka, the owner of Wilkowo Polskie; witness: Melchjor Szoldrski owner of Popowo.
Wilkowo Polskie in 1816, bpt.; but born in Popowo, daughter of Melchjor Szoldrski and Albertyna Kolaczkowska.
Wilkowo Polskie, 1820; in Popowo was born daughter of Melchjor Szoldrski with witness Ignacy Kolaczkowski owner of Wojnowo.
1807 in Popowo, Ms Balbina Suchorzewska married Szoldrska, died; the owner of Golembin and Popowo, born in Tarnow in 1751, wife of Ignacy SZOLDRSKI. Buried in Przemet.

Western Borderlands of Poland.

PRZEMET - 28 km east-south-east to KARGOWA [Kargowa in 1541 to Zychlinski; it served as a customs chamber of POLAND at way to Brandenburg and north Silesia of the Czech Kingdom. But Trzebiechow was situated in Brandenburg / Prussia in 1482 to 1945].
PRZEMET - 16 km south-west to Wilkowo Polskie [Wilkowo Polskie - 27 km north-east to ex-border of Silesia and the Czech Kingdom]; and 16 km north-west to ex-border of Silesia [Silesia in 1742 to Prussia].

Jezierzyce Koscielne - 14 north-east to WSCHOWA [Wschowa in 1343 to Poland]; 14 km south-east to GORSKO. 4 km west to Golanice and Krzycko Male. 5 km to ex-border of Bohemia - Czech / Silesia [1348-1742].

GORSKO, 10 km south-west to PRZEMET; 13 km north-west to Jezierzyce Koscielne.

Wilkowo Polskie 23 km north to KRZYCKO WIELKIE.
In 1815-1848, Wilkowo Polskie belonged to the Kosten county; and Wilkowo Polskie was owned by Marceli Czarnecki, including Siekowo, Siekówko, Ziemin and Bielawy in 1841. At the beginning Osowski in 1644 put away the dowry to his daughter, who married a Catholic, Radomicki. In the 17th cent. owned by Szoldrski, inf. 1679. See: KIEDRZYNSKI + PRADZYNSKI.

Popowo Stare was the part of the parish of Wilkowo Polskie until 1660; the distance is 3 km.

All villages below situated north-west to LESZNO [ARMAND - Papmehl of LESZNO - GOLITSYN / GOLITZYN - BAGRATION-GRUZINSKY]:

1. Wroniawy [PLATER-ZYBERK] - 22 km south-west to Wilkowo Polskie; 17 km north-west to PRZEMET.

2. CHOBIENICE, 25 km north-west to Wroniawy;

3. Wilkowo Polskie, at half way from Wolsztyn to Koscian.

4. Wilkowo Polskie, 15 km north-east of PRZEMET / Przemet [see in named Przemet was living a father to Andrzej Mielzynski of Kcynia, 1698-1771 + Anna Petronela Bninska, 1720-1771].


The webpage 'Executive Intelligence Review' was founded on 21 November 1987, but EIR, Executive Intelligence Review, was ed. on January 15, 1988, vol. 15, No 3. EIR: Founder and Contributing Editor: Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. and Editor-in-chief: Criton Zoakos
(Criton M. Zoakos is President of Leto Research, Inc., an economic research and consulting firm in Ft. Lee, NJ. Formerly, he was a columnist for the Asia Times. Earlier, he worked with Norman A. Bailey, Inc. of Washington, D.C., a firm headed by Dr. Bailey, formerly the President Reagan's Special Assistant for International Economic Affairs at the National Security Council. Dr. Norman Bailey, a native of Chicago, Illinois; Dr. Bailey in 1981, joined the Reagan administration as Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and Senior Director of International Economic Affairs on the staff of the National Security Council in the White House),
Editor: Nora Hamerman.

EIR is published by New Solidarity International Press Service.
Executive Intelligence Review is a newsmagazine founded in 1974 by the American political activist Lyndon LaRouche.
The article "New KGB history skirts lessons of the...", by Aleln and Rachel Douglas, is about "A History of the KGB" by John J. Dziak, Lexington Books, edited on October 1, 1987, 234 pages.
'Chekisty: The KGB...' was ed. the first by 'Free Press' on 28 September 1987, and then
'Los Angeles Times', on November 22, 1987 by Michael Krepon about 'CHEKISTY: A HISTORY OF THE KGB' inf.: "The Soviet state security apparatus has a wide-ranging portfolio, including internal security, foreign espionage, kidnaping, assassination, and control over nuclear weapons. Many of the sordid details are provided in John J. Dziak's short history of the KGB, 'Chekisty'."
And again 'Chekisty: The KGB...' was ed. by 'Free Press' on 01 January 1988.

The Lexington Books edited this book on 01st October 1987, but second publisher 'Ballantine Books' ed. on October 31, 1988.

AP published on March 18, 1988 in BOSTON, that on

March 17, 1988 "Lawyers for Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr. introduced today three letters between Henry A. Kissinger and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and said they were evidence of a Government effort to harass Mr. LaRouche. A Government prosecutor said later that he might put Mr. Kissinger on the stand to rebut the harassment charge. ... Today's developments came in a months-long Federal trial of Mr. LaRouche, a political extremist who, along with six of his aides and five of his organizations, is charged with conspiring to obstruct a grand jury investigation of credit card and loan fraud attributed to his 1984 Presidential campaign. Among the letters introduced today was one written in August 1982 by Mr. Kissinger to William H. Webster, who was then the F.B.I. Director and is now Director of Central Intelligence. ... Oliver Revell, the F.B.I.'s executive assistant director, responded with two letters saying that the bureau would investigate Mr. Kissinger's complaint and that there appeared to be some evidence of illegal telephone use by LaRouche supporters to harass him. John Markham, an assistant United States attorney, told Federal District Judge, Robert Keeton, that he might call Mr. Kissinger as a witness after the testimony of a former LaRouche aide scheduled to appear Friday. ... Mr. LaRouche contends he has been the target of a 20-year Government vendetta that climaxed in 1984 because of his outspoken criticism of the Administration's efforts to aid the rebels in Nicaragua...".

(Some on Lyndon LaRouche:

" internationally known economist, and his exceptional successes as a long-range forecaster, are the outgrowths of his original discoveries of physical principle, dating from a project conducted during the 1948-1952 interval".

Acc. to
"In his subsequent search for a metrical standard for this treatment of the functional role of cognition, he adopted the Leibniz-Gauss-Riemann standpoint, as represented by Bernhard Riemann's 1854 habilitation dissertation. Hence, the employment of Riemannian conceptions to LaRouche's own discoveries became known as the LaRouche-Riemann Method. That work was further enriched by his study of the Riemannian biogeophysicist Vladimir Vernadsky, whose concepts play a major role in LaRouche's scientific work".

At we read: "Throughout the work of Ukrainian-Russian [Pole!] biogeochemist Vladimir Vernadsky, we find a powerful argument for why processes on Earth, and in the Universe, are organized according to a top-down principle of life, and, even higher, human cognition. This is a concept found throughout the writings and speeches of economist Lyndon LaRouche, who has often referenced the work of Vernadsky".

Vernadsky's life's work ended up culminating in a similar investigation, of the unique distinction of man from animal, something Vernadsky approached from the standpoint of a biogeochemist. Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky wrote 'Revolutionary Theory of the Biosphere and the Noosphere'.
Irina Trubetskova of the Department of Natural Resources, University of New Hampshire: After years of silence, the West finally started to discover and scientifically recognize a prominent Russian researcher, organizer of science, educator, public figure, person of encyclopedic knowledge, philosopher, and thinker - Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky, a genius that belongs to all of humanity.

GRANDPARENTS of Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr., among others:
Ella Stevens Lougee, b. Lynn, Mass., 1869;
George Weir, b. Bridgeton, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland, in 1860, emigrated to US in 1863, lived in 1920 in Perry Co., Ohio;
George Weir married Martha H. Wood, daughter of Daniel Heveland Wood Jr. and Caroline Almira Starr, in 1890.
The WEIRs come of Bridgeton and Hamilton.

История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Wernadski, Modzelewski and Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz family in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia.

informed by By John Mintz from Washington Post, on January 14, 1985:
It was January 1974, and Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr., the leader of a left-wing sect, was telling his followers why they had to believe his story that one of them had been brainwashed by the Soviet secret police. ... The story of how Lyndon LaRouche transformed himself from Marxist theoretician to red-white-and-blue conservative in 10 years is a tale of a political chameleon. ... He has taken with him on his ideological journey a worldwide organization that follows his every instruction and mimics his every political twist and turn, according to interviews with former LaRouche associates and experts on the group, as well as the group's internal documents. ... his organization, known as the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC), according to interviews with former NCLC members, others familiar with its activities, published reports and an examination of the group's internal documents, some of which were filed in a recent libel suit in Alexandria. ... A top associate, Nancy Spannaus ... LaRouche associates point to the Schiller Institute's sometimes large conferences as evidence that his followers do not constitute a cult. ... Paul Goldstein, a top LaRouche aide, said descriptions of the group as a cult come from former members who "have gotten burned out because of the pressure" of outsiders' attacks.
Another source: Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort by Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, New York: Guilford Press, 2000: ...Though often dismissed as a bizarre political cult, the LaRouche organization and its various front groups are a fascist movement whose pronouncements echo elements of Nazi ideology. Beginning in the 1970s, the LaRouchites combined populist antielitism with attacks on leftists, environmentalists, feminists ... They developed an idiosyncratic, coded variation on the Illuminati Freemason and Jewish banker conspiracy theories. ... A former Trotskyist, Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr., founded the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC) in 1968 as an offshoot of the radical student movement. But in the early 1970s, LaRouche engineered a political about-face, using cult pressure tactics to consolidate his grip over the NCLC and initiating a campaign of physical attacks on Communists and Black nationalists...
During the 1970s and 1980s, the LaRouchites built an international network for spying and propaganda, with links to the upper levels of government, business... The LaRouchites traded information with intelligence agencies in the United States, South Africa, East Germany, and elsewhere. ... Food for Peace and the Schiller Institute, and put out such publications as New Solidarity (later The New Federalist) and Executive Intelligence Review. In 1976 LaRouche's original electoral arm, the U.S. Labor Party (USLP), published a conspiracist attack on President Jimmy Carter...
In 1989, LaRouche was sentenced to fifteen years in prison for mail fraud conspiracy, based on illegal and manipulative fund-raising practices, as well as tax evasion. His organization continued to operate while he was in prison...
... LaRouchism, also known as the LaRouche movement, is an idiosyncratic political movement based on the views of Lyndon LaRouche, an American political activist. ... the LaRouche movement has attracted a significant amount of Jews (Anton Chaitkin, Jeffrey Steinberg, Paul Goldstein, Phil Rubinstein, Harley Schlanger and others). ...
Gregory Rose, a former chief of counter-intelligence for LaRouche who became an FBI informant in 1973, said that while the LaRouche movement had extensive links to the Liberty Lobby, there was also copious evidence of a connection to the Soviet Union. George and Wilcox say neither connection amounted to much-they assert that LaRouche was "definitely not a Soviet agent",
by Wikipedia.
By Wikipedia
( and
"...Beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Lyndon LaRouche formed a variety of political organizations, including the U.S. Labor Party and the National Democratic Policy Committee. These organizations served as the platforms for presidential campaigns by LaRouche starting in 1976, and by his followers in scores of local races. According to one candidate, supporters viewed LaRouche as "the greatest political leader and economist of the 20th century, and they're proud to be associated with him. They feel he's leading the battle to save Western civilization." The Survey of Jewish Affairs, 1987 called the LaRouche movement one of the two most prominent "extremist political groups" of 1986. ... The U.S. Labor Party (USLP) was a political party formed in 1973 by the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC). It served as a vehicle for Lyndon LaRouche to run for President of the United States in 1976, but it also sponsored many candidates for local offices and Congressional and Senate seats between 1972 and 1979. ... According to Dennis King, the USLP chairman advocated launching ABC (atomic, biological and chemical) warfare against the Soviet Union as well as the military crushing of Britain (which his newspaper described as the headquarters of the "Zionist-British organism"). ... The National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC) is a political organization in the United States founded and controlled by political activist Lyndon LaRouche, who has sometimes described it as a "philosophical association". ... According to the Los Angeles Times, LaRouche said he met with representatives of the Soviet Union at the United Nations in 1974 and 1975 in order to discuss attacks by the Communist Party USA on the NCLC, and to propose that the CPUSA should be merged into the NCLC. He denied receiving any assistance from the Soviets. ...
The NCLC had it origins in the 1968 convention of the Students for a Democratic Society. It comprised people who had been expelled from the Maoist Progressive Labor Party, an SDS faction, and students from Columbia University in New York City. It called itself the "SDS Labor Committee" or the "National Caucus of SDS Labor Committees". Led by LaRouche, it included "New Left lieutenants" Ed Spannaus, Nancy Spannaus, and Tony Papert, as well as Paul Milkman, Paul Gallagher, Leif Johnson, Tony Chaitkin, and Steve Fraser.
According to Dennis King, Papert and Fraser had been targets of the FBI's COINTELPRO operatives. ... It was originally a New Left organization influenced by Trotskyist ideas as well as those of other Marxists such as Rosa Luxemburg, but opposed other New Left organizations which LaRouche said were dominated by the Ford Foundation, Institute for Policy Studies and Herbert Marcuse. ... The LaRouche criminal trials in the mid-1980s stemmed from federal and state investigations into the activities of American political activist Lyndon LaRouche and members of his movement. They were charged with conspiring to commit fraud and soliciting loans they had no intention of repaying".

Helga Zepp-LaRouche founded the Schiller Institute in Germany in 1984. In the same year, LaRouche was able to raise enough money to purchase 14 television spots, at a cost of $330,000 each.
"...Between February 1982 and February 1983, with the approval of the National Security Council, LaRouche met with Soviet embassy representative Evgeny Shershnev. Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld reported in his 2011 memoir that at a 2001 dinner in Russia with leading officials, he was told by General Yuri Baluyevsky, then the second highest-ranking officer in the Russian military, that LaRouche was the brains behind SDI. ... In 2012 the former head of the Russian bureau of Interpol, General Vladimir Ovchinsky, also described LaRouche as the man who proposed the SDI. ... The LaRouche organization's relationship with the Soviet Union ranged beyond military and scientific matters. Former NCLC intelligence staffer Kevin Coogan writes that in 1979 LaRouche met in West Germany with Julian Semenov, a Soviet spy novelist widely believed to be linked to the KGB. Semenov asked the LaRouchians to investigate the disappearance of a czarist treasure looted by the Nazis. The LaRouchians found no treasure, but they did publish an EIR teaser about it. They also published an article by Semenov on the Kennedy assassination. Predictably, he speculated that Peking was involved. Another key Soviet contact was Ioni Andronov, a correspondent for Literaturnaya Gazeta. Andronov frequently chatted with Paul Goldstein, whom he occasionally quoted as a counterintelligencc expert. In one interview Goldstein told Andronov he thought the so-called Bulgarian role in the attempted assassination of Pope John Paul was a hoax. On this point he was probably right, but he went on to suggest that the CIA might have been involved - an allegation for which there is no evidence whatsoever. ... According to Coogan, the LaRouchians met regularly with Soviet officials in Washington as late as 1983. The LaRouchians claim they provided reports on these contacts to Judge Clark's office at the NSC. Whatever the truth, LaRouchian publications until the death of Leonid Brezhnev displayed a certain degree of affection for hard-line Stalinism because of its no-nonsense attitude toward Zionists and other dissenters and its commitment to central economic planning. New Solidarity's obituary on Brezhnev praised him as a "nation builder" and avoided any mention of his invasions of Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan. Thereafter, as LaRouche became more heavily involved in supporting Star Wars and NATO, the NCLC line changed. Moscow became the "Third Rome," a center of unremitting Russian Orthodox evil. When Gorbachev took power, the LaRouchians said he was the Antichrist. The Soviets in turn took serious note for the first time of LaRouche's West European political intrigues. In the wake of the 1986 assassination of Olof Palme, the Soviet press depicted the LaRouchians as the prime suspects. ... LaRouche countered that the KGB did it, a charge for which there was no more rhyme or reason than Goldstein's allegations about the CIA and the Pope. Meanwhile, LaRouche claimed that the October 1986 government raid on his headquarters in Virginia was Soviet-inspired. According to LaRouche, when Reagan and Gorbachev met in Iceland, Gorbachev delivered an ultimatum: Either you get rid of LaRouche or there'll be no arms deal. In Paris, LaRouche sued the pro-glasnost Soviet magazine New Times for calling him a "Nazi without the swastika." It was basically the same suit he had brought repeatedly without success in American courts. The pro-glasnost Soviet magazine chose to play by Western legal rules: They mounted an aggressive courtroom defense, entering LaRouche's own writings as evidence. The Paris High Court rejected LaRouche's suit and ordered him to pay costs as well as damages to the magazine and its distributors...").

We back to my work.
Then came the second exploration period, since September 1989 to 2002. I traveled through West Berlin + West Germany (1989), Vienna,
Georgia / Sakartvelo
(when I was unemployed during the period 1989 - 1992, I met on my way Soviet intelligence services in all 1990 which cooperated against me with Polish counterintelligence - Lija Guramovna T. married T.),
Azerbeidzan, Ingushetia, Kabardino - Balkaria, Ossetia, Abkhazia, Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Lithuania, Slovakia, Hungary.

I met Georgians, Russians, etc, ... but mostly tens people of Poland and other countries has granted me accurate genealogical data, and not just about family Konstantynowicz;
thanks to this I could - in 1992 - provide a working thesis of particular importance: "in our family was someone on the top of the Soviet military intelligence" , and our family Konstantynowicz moved in Tsarist Russia very close to the Russian intelligence core. The parts it turned out to be true; I am writing that only partially, because the key person was a Swiss with Italian - Estonian origin, and this man had no affinity with our family, but was created by the military system, whose my Konstantynowicz family was a part: in Miezonka, Swolna, Moscow, Estonia, St. Petersburg, Kazan, the Vaud canton and the nearby Swiss villages, Riga.
This search took me 27 years, but it took 20 years to Stalin it came up on the trail military conspiracy in May 1937 - probably as long, because the key person - Artusov surely created a Soviet counterintelligence, and next he took the position as head of civilian intelligence, then deputy head of the military intelligence of the Soviet Union. In the period February 2003 to date (31 January 2014) in 2014, communicate to all with the help of Yahoo servers in California, knowledge on the history and genealogy of the Konstantynowicz family, by using further of the factual help my readers .

Sebastian Rybarczyk, journalist and publicist, specializes in the history of special services, at '' on January 15, 2014 write about
(my webpage was writing on Artuzow on January the 01st, 2014 and on 08th January, 2014):

"...Strange that he did not defend himself, using his knowledge of the most senior (Soviet) leaders, eg, at early 20s (of the 20th cent.) he [ARTUZOV / Artuzow] was responsible for the 'protection' of Clare Sheridan - an attractive young British sculptor, Churchill's cousin and lover of Trotsky and Kamenev, the personal enemies of Stalin...".

Well, unfortunately, I lost on 02 January 2014 the previous workplace.

Below quote from work of
Jim Macgregor [Jim Macgregor - co-author of Hidden History. Jim was born in Glasgow in 1947 and raised in a cottage in the grounds of Erskine Hospital for war disabled] and Gerry Docherty [Gerry Docherty - co-author of Hidden History. Gerry was born in 1948. He graduated from Edinburgh University in 1971 and was a secondary school teacher by profession. He taught economics and modern studies, developed a keen interest in the theatre and has written a number of plays with a historical theme including Czechmate in 1982, Montrose in 1993, and Lie of the Land in 2008], entitled:
"First World War Hidden History. Russia in Revolution 4: Leaders-In-Waiting" -

"...Lenin resided in Switzerland for the first two years of war while Trotsky spent 1915-1916 across the border in France, repeatedly irritating the French authorities. He attended the international socialist conference in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, in September 2015 which called for an end to the war and wrote inflammatory articles for a small anti-militarist Menshevik journal Nashe Slovo (Our Word). In September 1916 a group of Russian soldiers from a transport ship at Marseilles rioted and stoned their colonel to death. When the riot was put down and the soldiers arrested, some were found to be in possession of Nashe Slovo which contained anti-war articles written by Trotsky. He claimed that the newspapers had been planted by French police to provide a reason to expel him from the country. On 30 October 1916, two gendarmes escorted him to the Spanish border from where Trotsky made his way to Madrid. On 9 November, after ten days of unrestricted freedom in that expansive city, Spanish detectives apparently tracked him down and arrested him as a 'known anarchist' and undesirable alien. Here begins a remarkable story, largely drawn from
Leon Trotsky's autobiography.

A mysterious benefactor arranged Trotsky's release from jail in Madrid and his transfer, under police supervision, to the southern port of Cadiz. There he waited for another six weeks. On 24 November, Trotsky wrote a long and revealing letter to his comrade Moisei Uritskii in Copenhagen in which he confessed that when he arrived in Cadiz he had roughly 40 francs in his pocket. Somehow, the Trotsky-Uritskii letter fell into the hands of the British Secret Service.
British intelligence, under the control of the admiralty's Naval Intelligence Division (NID), headed by Admiral William Reginald 'Blinker' Hall watched his every move. Hall played a central role for the Secret Elite inside the admiralty and amongst his dubious achievements he manoeuvred the Lusitania into the jaws of a German U-Boat off the south coast of Ireland in 1915 and monitored communications between the American embassy in London and Washington.

But who was Moisei Uritskii?
Moisei Uritskii.
A Russian lawyer, Uritskii was a member of the Jewish socialist party, the Labour Bund, and spent a period of time in exile. After the Bolsheviks seized power, Uritskii was installed as head of the Petrograd division of the feared Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, and directly responsible for the torture and death of many innocents.

In Copenhagen, Moisei Uritskii was closely associated with another revolutionary plotter, Alexander Israel Helphand-Parvus, yet another very important player in Secret Elite intrigues [see Berezyna and Koziell-Poklewski, Konstantynowicz, Slotwinski, Malkiewicz, Radziwill, Chrapowicki and Wankowicz]. These connections cannot be explained by chance.

After a relaxing stay in Cadiz, Trotsky was taken to Barcelona to be 'deported' to New York. Why Barcelona? Cadiz was an equally important seaport with closer connections to New York. According to Trotsky, 'I managed to get permission to go there to meet my family'. Trotsky's second wife, Natalia, and their two sons were brought by 'special arrangement' from Paris to join him in Barcelona where they were taken on tourist trips by the detectives. From whom did he obtain special 'permission'? This was not the normal sequence of events; first class prison cell, hotels in Cadiz and Barcelona, sightseeing with his detectives? The man was not being treated as an 'undesirable alien'. He and his family were being pampered. At Barcelona, on Christmas Day 1916, they boarded the Spanish passenger ship, Monserrat to New York. Immigration Service archives relating to foreign nationals arriving at Ellis Island in 1916 indicated that the Trotsky family travelled first class to New York. Moreover, information collected by American immigration showed that the fares had been purchased for him not by him.
But by whom?
Poster for Cravan's 1916 fight in Spain 1916.
A fellow passenger, one of the very few with whom Trotsky engaged, was the light-heavyweight prize fighter, Arthur Cravan who had been defeated in a world title fight in Barcelona in front of a crowd of 30,000. The purpose behind Cravan's journey is unknown, but the intriguing possibility has been raised that he was a British agent sent to glean as much information as he could from Trotsky.
On arrival in New York he would have reported to Sir William Wiseman, head of British Intelligence in the United States. There is the additional possibility that the tall, powerfully built, Cravan served as Trotsky's personal bodyguard.
This is not as fanciful as it might first appear. He had clearly been exceptionally well protected by plain clothes police officers throughout his time in Spain. Trotsky's expected arrival in the United States had been published in the American press at the very time anti-German propaganda and pro-war jingoism moved into overdrive. The international bankers who were to use him as one of their major pawns in their Russian intervention wanted no mishap to befall a key player before the game had even started. Monserrat arrived in New York late at night on January 13, 1917. The passenger manifest prepared for the U.S. immigration authorities showed that Trotsky was carrying at least $500 (an equivalent of $10,000 today). His initial residence was given as the exclusive Astor Hotel, the favoured haunt of the banking and financial elites when in New York. The reservation had been made for him by persons as yet unknown. Trotsky failed to record in his autobiography that he and his family stayed at the Astor, but related how he 'rented' an apartment in a 'workers district', paying three month's rent in advance.

Trotsky's apartment at 1522 Vyse Avenue in the Bronx.
The apartment, on Vyse Avenue in the Bronx, had every convenience, including 'a gas cooking range, bath, telephone, automatic service elevator and a chute for garbage.' There was even a concierge. Perhaps most astonishingly, the family used a chauffeured limousine. Trotsky, the 'impoverished, undesirable' revolutionary, had enjoyed a first-class cell in Madrid; stayed at upmarket hotels in Cadiz then Barcelona for six weeks; went on guided tours with his family; travelled first-class on a 13 day voyage to New York; stayed at a luxury hotel before renting an excellent apartment in New York and enjoyed stylish living standards and a chauffeur. How? In stark contrast to his immense good fortune, concurrent events in Russia precipitated disaster. While Trotsky luxuriated in New York, revolution exploded on the streets of St Petersburg. Odd that Trotsky and Lenin were comfortably moth-balled outwith the danger zone, leaders- in-waiting, supported and protected by un-named persons. ...".

Part 1 - Intelligence. Scotland, Ireland, Estonia, Switzerland, Russia. Bolshevik Revolution 1917. Key note.

Part 2 - Intelligence. Scotland, Ireland, Estonia, Switzerland, Russia. Bolshevik Revolution 1917. Key note.

Espionage and intelligence in Russia 1772, 1914, 1917, 1937, 1989.

At the beginning of 2014, the first on the world I am showing very interesting network! Lenin and Inessa Armand, Konstantynowicz, Breguet, Duflon, nobility from Scotland, Italy, Ireland, France, Switzerland, the German noble families in Estonia.
This military - political intelligence network has a different appearance depending on, which side you watch from. It's like the external universe, which expands. It has a chaotic structure, but only to the viewers. For top executives of the network, it is extremely bright and clear.
It works like clockwork.
Time passes, and this network is expanding, as the universe, at that time some stars turning pale, faded and disappeared.
Maciej Pietraszczyk on 19 January 2015 wrote down: "A feature of the network operation is the lack of central leadership but actions are run in a fixed overall direction; they are not necessarily coordinated. This causes the highest effectiveness and practically physical impossibility of liquidation".

The underground structure has clearly defined objectives at the beginning of the 20th century:
Europe 1789, 1815, 1914, 1917, 1937. Belarusian, Estonian, Polish and Russian genealogical and historical database
1. call up the chaos in Europe (see below on Major Edmund Charaszkiewicz and Gavrilo Princip);
2. to bring the continental war (Bogdan Hutten-Czapski);
3. overthrow of the Romanovs in Russia (Hanecki, Radek, Parvus, Armand, Konstantynowicz);
4. lead to anarchy in Russia (Lenin, Dzierzynski, Artuzow Frutchi, Pilar Pilchau);
5. starting the war between the invaders, who take away the Polish independence (Pilsudski);
6. pulling the western countries into the war, and in due time also America (Koziell Poklewski, Ricord, Anjou).
Overarching objectives are:
1. Polish independence (Jodko Narkiewicz, Pilsudski, Sudzilowski, Krzyzanowski, Konstantynowicz),
2. The independence of the Baltic States (Pilar Pilchau of Parnu);
3. The creation of a Jewish state in Palestine (Zionist movement of Odessa).

Odessa and French intelligence:

1. In 1801 Maleszewski interested in the problem of the Black Sea. He wrote the memorial to the French Government, published in 1802; has demonstrated the benefits of French trade with Ukraine (Sur le commerce de la Mer Noire). Maleszewski / Maliszewski in September 1802 was in Warsaw, and in November he was elected active member of the Warsaw Society of the Friends of Science under Ignacy Zaborowski. Maleszewski / Maliszewski was shareholder of the "Trzecieski, Horodyski et comp." in Odessa for the development of trade in the Black Sea. He also participated in other commercial companies. In June 1803 was in Odessa, where he investigated the conditions for the development of trade with France. Maleszewski / Maliszewski in 1803 returned to Paris.

2. Walenty Wankowicz studied in Polock at the Jesuit Order school;
Gabriel Gruber was his teacher ? But we know that Gabriel Gruber b. 1740, Vienna - died 1805 in St. Petersburg, General of the Society of Jesus in Russia. 1784 Gruber arrived in Belarus until 1800; Napoleon kept secret correspondence with Gruber; Gruber created the Jesuit mission in Saratov (1803), Odessa (1804) and Astrakhan (1805), 1803 in Riga.
Walenty was then in Wilno 1818 - 1824. Around 1821 Wankowicz / Vankovich met at university in Vilna, a countryman - Adam Mickiewicz; they were listening to the same lectures, became closest friends.

Tools to achieve these goals are:
1. The money from the Scottish (Perth), Jewish and American banks; revenue from the Mediterranean trade - Marseille, Greece, Naples, Crimea; and plantations in Ceylon and from the Asian trade - Ceylon, India, Japan (Nagasaki);
2. the use of secret non-goverment organisations (NGOs) in Europe and America (masonry);
3. The creation of favorable underground structures inside the intelligence networks of Western Europe and American countries (MI5 in 1909).

I managed to investigate and decipher a system in 2013 after 26 years of my researches: this is a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military intelligence of the Tsarist Russia:
deep political espionage (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic technological-scientific intelligence (Breguet + Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company, also Nobel and Armand families:
telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.).

Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence.

An influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign UK policy ca 1895 to ca 1921 played Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, a British statesman.

Acc to Aydelotte:
" 1888 Rhodes made his third will ... to LORD ROTHSCHILD (his financier in mining enterprises), but ... for strategic reasons Lord Rothschild was subsequently removed from the forefront of the scheme. Professor Quigley reveals that Lord Rosebury, replaced his father-in-law Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes' next and last will. ... Quigley informs us that the central part of the 'secret society' was established by March, 1891, using Rhodes' money.

The organization was run for Rothschild by Lord Alfred Milner - the ROUND TABLE worked behind the scenes at the highest levels of British government, influencing foreign policy and England's involvement and conduct of WW I.
... Between 1894 and 1907 a number of international treaties were signed to have Russia, France, England and further nations unit against Germany in the case of war. It was the task of the
COMMITTEE OF 300 to set the stage for the First World War. From the ROUND TABLE group emerged as a front the 'Royal institute for International Affairs' ... known as 'Chatham House' and had among its founding members Lord Albert Grey, Lord Arnold Toynbee ... of the MI6, H. G. Wells, Lord Alfred Milner - head of the Round Table, and H. J. Mackinder - inventor of the so-called geopolitics.
... sums of money from the international bankers, among others from ALFRED MILNER - by Jan Van Helsing - who later took over the secret Round Table, were poured into the Ochrana that already had infiltrated the Bolshevik movement. Agents steered many of its activities. The infiltration was so strong that in 1908 four of the five members of the Petersburg committee of the Bolshevik party were Ochrana agents".

Some details:

Hubert Bland, a bank-journalist, worked for the London Sunday Chronicle, a paper owned by newspaper magnate Edward Hulton, formerly of the Liberal Manchester Guardian. Bland was a co-founder of the Fabian Society in 1884 and became a treasurer. He also recruited Bernard Shaw. Bernard Shaw was working for the London Pall Mall Gazette, where William T. Stead served as editor and Alfred Milner as his assistant, both Stead and Milner were close to diamond magnate and Rothschild associate Cecil Rhodes and were involved in the formation of the influential secret organisation known as the Milner Group. Having been recruited to the Fabian Society by his friend Bland in 1884, Shaw recruited Annie Besant and his friends Sidney Webb, Sydney Olivier and Graham Wallas in 1885 and 1886.

Shaw married Charlotte, daughter of Horace Payne-Townshend, a wealthy Stock Exchange investor. He was employed by millionaire William Waldorf - Lord Astor, owner of the Pall Mall Gazette, and became a close friend of the Milner Group leader - Waldorf and his wife Nancy. Shaw's friend, Sidney Webb married Beatrice - a close friend of Rothschild associate and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, the daughter of Richard Potter, a wealthy financier with international connections, the chairman of the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railways of England and Canada.
Shaw, Webb, Olivier and Wallas became the Fabian Society's dominant Big Four with John Passmore Edwards, an leader of the Liberal Manchester School, and with Richard Cobden. The Fabian Society was in close touch with the Rothschilds both directly and through Lord Arthur Balfour, and has also been close to David Rockefeller. Cecil Rhodes the South African diamond millionaire, used his fortune to promote the scheme of federating the English speaking peoples around the globe.
Rhodes and other acolytes of Ruskin, formed a secret society known as the Round Table Group, were able to gain access to Rhodes' fortune after his death in 1902. The Milner Group, the secret society formed by Cecil Rhodes, dominated the British delegation to the Peace Conference of 1919, founded the UK Royal Institute for International Affairs in 1919 / 1920 (the British Institute of International Affairs was founded in London in July 1920), the US Council on Foreign Relations, and parallel groups in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India.
In 1919 British and American delegates to the Paris Peace Conference, under the leadership of Lionel Curtis, conceived the idea of an Anglo-American Institute of foreign affairs to study international problems with a view to preventing future wars - at Chatham House, Number 10 St. James's Square in 1923 (Professor Arnold Toynbee became the leading figure until his retirement in 1955).

Retinger was very close to Lionel Curtis, the founder of Chatham House and Retinger was politically active in London exactly at the same time when Chatham House was established in 1921-1923; the Chatham House / the Royal Institute of International Affairs represented by both ideologies of the Rhodes - Milner ideology with the ideology of the Fabian society and Retinger had links to both these groups; his the Bilderberg Group had their first meeting in May 1954 at the Bilderberg Hotel, near Arnhem in Holland.

"Revolution in Russia 1: Understanding Influences", by Jim and Gerry:

"... In March 1919, The Times reported, 'One of the most curious features of the Bolshevist movement is the high percentage of non-Russia elements amongst its leaders. Of the 20 or 30 leaders who provide the central machinery of the Bolshevist movement, not less than 75 per cent are Jews…'. Note that The Times differentiated between Russian and Jew, as if it were not possible to be both, while the Jewish Chronicle emphasised the importance of the Jewish influence on Bolshevism: 'There is much in the fact of Bolshevism itself, in the fact that so many Jews are Bolsheviks, in the fact that the ideals of Bolshevism at many points are consonant with the finest ideals of Judaism'.

Another Jewish journal, American Hebrew, reported: 'What Jewish idealism and Jewish discontent have so powerfully contributed to produce in Russia, the same historic qualities of the Jewish mind are tending to promote in other countries.... The Bolshevik revolution in Russia was the work of Jewish brains, of Jewish dissatisfaction, of Jewish planning, whose goal is to create a new order in the world. What was performed in so excellent a way in Russia, thanks to Jewish brains, and because of Jewish dissatisfaction and by Jewish planning, shall also, through the same Jewish mental and physical forces, become a reality all over the world.' ...

Rabbi Stephen Wise later commented on the Russian situation: 'Some call it Marxism I call it Judaism.' Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, a victim of the communist regime who spent many years exiled in Siberia and was a later recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature, was emphatic that Jews were not involved in the first revolution: 'The February Revolution was not made by the Jews for the Russians; it was certainly carried out by the Russians themselves... We were ourselves the authors of this shipwreck.' Solzhenitsyn, however, added: 'In the course of the summer and autumn of 1917, the Zionist movement continued to gather strength in Russia: in September it had 300,000 adherents. Less known is that Orthodox Jewish organisations enjoyed great popularity in 1917, yielding only to the Zionists and surpassing the socialist parties.' He observed: 'There are many Jewish authors who to this very day either deny the support of Jews for Bolshevism, or even reject it angrily, or else ... only speak defensively about it ... These Jewish renegades were for several years leaders at the centre of the Bolshevik Party, at the head of the Red Army (Trotsky), of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, of the two capitals, of the Comintern...'. Given the repression of the Jews in Russia, it is hardly surprising that they swelled the numbers of active revolutionaries during this period. They had suffered the horror of the pogroms. They had nursed a genuine resentment for Czarist repression. They were determined to change the world. The relationship between Jews and revolutionaries was explained by Theodor Herzl, one of the fathers of the Zionist movement in a pamphlet, De Judenstat, addressed to the Rothschilds: 'When we sink, we become a revolutionary proletariat, the subordinate officers of all revolutionary parties, and at the same time, when we rise, there rises also our terrible power of the purse'. On Herzl's death, his successor as president of the World Zionist Organisation was the Russian born David Wolfsohn. In his closing speech at the International Zionist Congress at The Hague in 1907, Wolfsohn pleaded for greater unity among the Jews and said that eventually 'they must conquer the world'. He did not expand on the role that Jewish Bolshevik revolutionaries might play in this Jewish global aspiration, but from his position it seems apparent that political Zionism and the future 'homeland' certainly would. Wolfsohn's successor as president of the Zionist organisation in 1911 was Otto Warburg, a noted scientist and relative of the Warburg banking family which features heavily in this book. Warburg later spoke of the ‘brilliant prospects of Palestine’ and how an extensive Jewish colonisation would 'expand into neighbouring countries'.

A report in 1919 from the British Secret Service revealed: 'There is now definite evidence that Bolshevism is an international movement controlled by Jews; communications are passing between the leaders in America, France, Russia and England, with a view toward concerted action.'

Hilaire Belloc, Anglo-French writer, philosopher and one time Liberal MP at Westminster, wrote: 'As for anyone who does not know that the present revolutionary movement is Jewish in Russia, I can only say that he must be a man who is taken in by the suppression of our despicable Press'. Contemporary commentators failed to link the Balfour Declaration and the Russian Revolution in October / November 1917, despite their links to Zionism and the 'concerted action' from both sides of the Atlantic. ...".

Copyright by Jim Macgregor and Gerry Docherty in September 2017.

I wrote above that the Round Table was started by Freemason and Rothschild agent, Lord Alfred Milner; but Rhodes, who was connected to the Freemasons, first formalised his idea with William T. Stead;
in 1910, The Round Table Journal: A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire was founded by Lord Milner and members of Milner's Kindergarten: Lionel Curtis, Philip Kerr and Geoffrey Dawson; by 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries: in the United States acted George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Erwin D. Canham.

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, b. 1862, known as Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary from 1905 to 1916, was closely politically, intellectually, and socially affiliated with the Milner Group according to Prof. Quigley; he got Russia and France to sign secret agreements that committed them to join England if there was a major war in Europe. Several years later, when World War I was imminent, Sir Edward Grey denied the existence of the secret agreements.
Sir Edward Grey met few times with Edward Mandell House, the son of a successful banker and land owner; House in 1911 became acquainted with Woodrow Wilson; he confered with British foreign secretary Sir Edward Grey in 1913, and in the spring of 1914 again; Colonel Edward House was a superb behind-the-scenes operator whose talents made him an invaluable diplomat and presidential advisor. "...Wilson proclaimed neutrality and in January 1915 dispatched House back to Europe on board the Lusitania for a second official mission. House hoped to change British blockade policies and end German attacks on merchant ships. House found that both sides were so heavily invested in the conflict that they feared a public backlash if peace were sought without victory...".
A third mission took place in 1916, when House met with Lord Grey; in January 1919, House accompanied Wilson to Paris for the peace conference.
Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner; others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included: Bertrand Russell, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.
The Illuminati, who also called themselves the Society of the Elect: Cecil John Rhodes, Baron Nathan Rothschild, Sir Harry Johnston, William T. Stead, Reginald Brett - Viscount Esher, Alfred Milner - Viscount Milner, B. F. Hawksley, Thomas Brassey - Lord Brassey; Edmund Garrett; Alfred Beit; Sir Abe Bailey; Albert Grey - Earl Grey; Archibald Primrose - Earl of Rosebery; Arthur James Balfour; Sir George R. Parkin; Philip Lyttelton Gell; Sir Henry Birchenough; Herbert A. L. Fisher; William Waldegrave Palmer - Earl of Selborne; Sir Patrick Duncan; Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian, and others.
The Association of Helpers:
1. The Inner Circle:
Sir Patrick Duncan, Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian; Lionel Curtis, William L. Hichens, Geoffrey Dawson, Edward Grigg - Baron Altrincham; Herbert A. L. Fisher, Leopold Amery, Richard Feetham, Hugh A. Wyndham; Sir Dougal Malcolm, Basil Williams, Flora Shaw, Nancy Astor, Arnold J. Toynbee; and others;
2. The Outer Circle: John Buchan - Baron Tweedsmuir, Sir Fabian Ware, Sir Alfred Zimmern; Gilbert Murray, Robert Cecil - Viscount Cecil of Chelwood; Sir James W. Headlam-Morley, and others.
Members in other countries: a. Canada; b. United States: George Louis Beer, Frank Aydelotte, Jerome Greene; c. South Africa: Jan C. Smuts, Sir Patrick Duncan, Sir Abe Bailey, and others; d. Australia; e. New Zealand; f. Germany: Helmuth James von Moltke and Adam von Trott zu Solz.

Victor Rothschild (Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild b. 1910 d. 1990; son of Charles Rothschild; a member of the Apostles Club at Cambridge, a secret society, there he became friends with the future Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt, and Kim Philby - not a member; he was recruited to work for MI5 during World War II, and was the head of B1C, continued to work in security as an adviser to Margaret Thatcher; 1971 to 1974 The Think Tank), who worked for J. P. Morgan & Co., was one of the members of the Round Table.

The Rothschilds had financed Cecil Rhodes, co-operated with the Morgans and the Rockefellers, and they financed the activities of Edward Harriman (railroads) and Andrew Carnegie Steel.

Roundtable inner Circle of Initiates included Lord Milner, Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Balfour, Albert Grey and Lord Nathan Rothschild (Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild b. 1840, d. 1915, a British banker in issuing loans to the governments of the USA, Russia and Austria; a close relationship with Benjamin Disraeli, he also funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and the De Beers diamond conglomerate, and administered Rhodes's estate from 1902 and set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford).

According to Gary Allen's expose, Milner financed the Russian Bolsheviks on Rothschild's behalf, with help from Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg.

The Round Table movement, founded in 1909 - acc. to historian Carroll Quigley - was connected to a secret society named the 'Society of the Elect' with
Cecil Rhodes, Stead and Lord Rothschild as his designated successors, and also Milner, Reginald Baliol Brett Lord Esher, Cardinal Manning, Lord Arthur Balfour, Lord Albert Grey and Sir Harry Johnston;
Carroll Quigley claims in 'Tragedy and Hope' that Rhodes's 'Society of the Elect' was established in 1889 - 1891; an outer circle known as the Association of Helpers was later organised by Milner as the Round Table;
its sister organisations: Lionel Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920, and Walter Lippmann in 1921 - the Council on Foreign Relations, in America.
See also: Alexander May, The Round Table, 1910-66, ed. by University of Oxford.

At this same year, 1909 descendant of Samuel Konarski founded the groundwork of modern English MI5 counterintelligence. KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel b. 1802 in Cracow or in 1803 in Praszka, west of Czestochowa; he was son of Joachim Konarski. That is maybe Rajmund Konarski (1783 - 1863) / Rajmund Joachim Konarski (Rajmund Konarski was son of Józef Konarski and Tekla Laskowska / Tekla Kunegunda Laskowska; and was brother of Tomasz Konarski (General) 1792 - 1878; Jan Konarski and Feliks Konarski; probably father of Samuel Aleksander Konarski).

Alexander Samuel or KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel was wine merchant in England, like Paul Armand who opened in Moscow own wine shop. Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski married to Harriet Fraser Lucas; he was transcribed as 'Alexander Kowaraki'.
She come from the Irish family, Philip Monoux was the West India and Colombia merchant, plantation owner and slave-factor.
Philip Monoux Lucas was a partner in a number of companies and resided in the West Indies between about 1802 and 1810, acted in the Lang, Chauncy & Lucas (address: at 39 Wilson Street Finsbury Square in 1834). Monoux Lucas died in 1830. Emma, the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872. "James Mad Lucas" or "The Hermit of Hertfordshire", was son of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah nee Beesly.
Above Nathaniel Snell Chauncy, 1789 - 1856, son of Charles Snell Chauncy ne Snell, who died in 1809, and brother of Charles Snell Chauncy. West India merchant, partner with Philip Monoux Lucas and Charles Porcher Lang in Chauncy, Lucas & Lang until Lucas's death in 1830.
Harriet Fraser Lucas / Harriet Fraser Konarska was daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah and she was one of the "heirs of Philip Monoux Lucas" identified as a beneficiary of his estate. She married above mentioned Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski at St Pancras in London, 1839. Died in 9 Bedford Place, Brighton in 1871.
Children of Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski / Samuel Konarski / Konasski / Alexander Kowaraki:
a. Samuel Philip Lucas Konarski b. 1843,
b. Marie Konarska b. 1853 / Maria Alexandrina Stuart Konarski or Marian Alexandrina Stuart died 1926, in 1845 living in Kensington, 1846 court against George Lucas;
c. Georgina Augusta Konarska b. 1855 / Georgina Augustus Kell nee Konarski;
d. Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (1847-1933) daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, (inf. of 1895) m. in 1870 to Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney / Valentine MacSwiney / Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY
(son of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom / Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 who married 1st Margaret Cremen, m. 2nd to Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903)
b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897;
her son Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII
(Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938, he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1828 or 1829 and Amelia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852; and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children:
Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at '').
Acc. to: A representation of North Paraiba in the House of Representatives of Brasil, 1821 to 1900; LEGISLATURE 1857 - 1860, district - Areias, copyright by Carlos Eduardo Barata.
Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born in 1828 in Mill Keys Farm, in Paraiba; baptized 1829, in Gurinhem, died 1899, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. He was son of Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, of Nazareth, Pernambuco, and Angela Sofia Teotonia; degree of Pernambuco Univ. in 1851. He was the District Attorney of the District of Areias in Paraiba. In 1871, in Rio de Janeiro, m. to Amelia Machado de Castro Coelho, born 1852, Rio de Janeiro, died 1946, Viscountess Cavalcanti, daughter of Dr. Constantine Machado Coelho de Castro and Mariana Barbosa de Assis Ferreira; her children:
1. Velho Fernando Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born 1873, in Rio de Janeiro. Civil engineer, graduated from the Polytechnic School of Rio de Janeiro, 1899;
2. mentioned above Maria Estela Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Marchioness of Marchesini, for your 2nd wedding.

Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski was died on 14 January 1893 in Nice, France; was a doctor, emigrated to England.
We know also on Thomas / Tomasz Paschalis Seweryn Konarski / KONARSKI Tomasz Paschalis (1792-1878) General 1830-1831, from Zarczyce close to Malogoszcz; in Zarczyce Duze in 1700 was born Stanislaw Konarski actual name Hieronim Konarski; died 1878 - Auxerre. His father lieutenant of the Austrian Army born 1742. Grandfather 1699-1756. Tomasz Konarski married two times: in 1822, Warszawa, and in France.
Marie Melanie Edwige KONARSKA 1855-1940 m. 1880, Auxerre to Isidore ROZE 1848-1934 with Marie Therese Eleonore ROZE 1881-1971 m. 1899 to Henri LIONS with Hedwige LIONS b. 1900.

Auxerre - half way from Paris to Dijon.
We know also that Samuel Alexander Konarski played at roulette in the casino in Monte Carlo with high luck; a surgeon by profession, a participant of November Uprising 1830 - 1831, during which he was wounded, awarded the Golden Cross of the Virtue Military;
after the uprising, he emigrated to England, where he was occupied at large scale in wine trade, thanks to help of Treasury (see below a note).
He spend the winter in warmer corners of Europe, including Monte Carlo, Nice, Monaco.
He left a considerable wealth, for which his daughter Emma bought a large collection of art. Unfortunately, after her death, none of this collection was provided to Polish museums, but only to the collections of the Vatican Museum, the Museum of Cluny in Paris and the City Museum in Pau (France).
1. Emma was the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872.
2. Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney m. in 1870 to Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (Emma KONARSKA 1847-1933).
Her son Valentine Emanuel Patrick MacSwiney (1871-1945) was born in Paris and created a Marquess by Pope Leo XIII.
We know on the copy of confirmation of arms to the descendants of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom married Margaret Cremen
(or Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 m. Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903, her parents John MAC LEOD ca 1774-1839 and Honora RIORDAN; under copyright by Yves GOBILLIARD):
his grandson, Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII (Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938,
he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1829 and Amélia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852;
and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children: Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at '')
and who was only son of Valentine MacSwiney (Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897) by Emma Issabella Countess Konarska daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, inf. in 1895.
This MacSwiney family come also from Mashanaglass.
3. Major, 25th Regiment, King's Own Scottish Borderers (b. 1843, died at Torquay in 1887; the only son of Count Alexander Konarski) Konarski Samuel Phillip Lucas / Samuel P. L. Kouasaki / Samuel Konarski m. Emma Cecilia Konarski / Emily L. Kouasaki / Emma Cecilia nee Walker b. ca 1844 in Paddington, living in 1881 at Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire.

National Treasure, the immigration funds collected in order to promote the fight against invaders on the country, used to promote Polish foreign affairs. The idea of the creation of the National Treasury in exile after the fall of the January Uprising already gone back to Agaton Giller.
The base of this treasure was a gift of Louis Michalski residing in Switzerland; in 1887 Sigmund Milkowski edited the famous book 'The thing about the active defense and on the National Treasury', where he outlined the idea of creating a fund.
Agaton Giller b. 1831 in Opatówek, was a Polish journalist and writer, conspirator and independence activist, a member of the National Government; brother of Stefan Giller.
Ludwik Michalski born Louis Matyasek / Ludwik Maciaszek, b. 1836 in Krakow, d. 1888 in Hilfikon in Switzerland, was Polish-Swiss engineer and entrepreneur, a participant of the January Uprising.
Milkowski in 1859 thought on the idea of national permanent Insurgency, and as Z. F. M. wrote 'Rzecz o obronie czynnej i o skarbie Narodowym', ed. in Paris, 1887; expanded ed. Krakow, 1912: Polish question, so-called 'Polish Intrigue' should be most important for Europe.
He also reminded all the time, on the pattern of Ireland, on the establishment of the National Treasury, with the national voluntary Taxation;
in August 1887 (? 1886) Milkowski / Jez moved to the castle Hilfikon in Switzerland, where he studied with Ludwik Michalski, the Polish emigrant, Maximilian Hertl from Paris, and the curator of the Ossolinski library in Lviv - Dr. Alexander Hirszberg who met Polish Democrats in Lviv, especially the Director of the Lemberger Savings Bank, insurgent of 1863, Fr. Zima, and the Warsaw patriots, to organize a democratic society with a centralization at the top, and the result of those deliberations was the Polish League.
In Switzerland in 1887, by a group of former participants of the January Uprising living in the Prussian and Austrian partitions, as well as abroad, Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez, Maximilian Hertel and Alexander Hirschberg at Hilfikon castle near Zurich, was established the Polish League.
Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824 in the village Saracei in Podolia, d. 1915 in Lausanne, Polish writer, was the son of an noblemen, Joseph, was a Napoleonic officer; the gymnasium in Niemirow; he was graduated from Richelieu high school in Odessa 1843 - 1846, then the University of Kiev 1847; 1848 he went to Hungary via Galicia and served in the Polish Legion during the Hungarian campaign of 1848-1849, where he advanced to the rank of lieutenant.
Since the time of the Hungarian uprising was in the sphere of influence of Stanisław Worcell b. 1799, Heltman Victor b. 1796, Darasz Wojciech b. 1808, and Limanowski Boleslaw b. 1835.
He emigrated to Turkey where he was interned for a year,
1850 he left for England, where, while he was working in a factory producing printing blocks for wallpaper patterns, he joined the Polish Democratic Society.
In 1851 he went to Moldavia as an agent of the Central Committee of European Democracy. During the Crimean War he was on the Balkan Peninsula, and was also an observer attached to the Turkish army. He stayed in Walachia then left for Serbia, Bulgaria, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople,
then in 1858 he returned to London.
After the outbreak of the January Uprising in Poland in 1863, he became commander of the army in Ruthenia and was appointed colonel by the National Central Committee. He organised an insurgent troop in Tulcza, which was to enter Russia through the territory of Romania. 1864-1866 he stayed in Belgrade, then he moved to Brussels, Lausanne and Geneva. Towards the end of his life he settled in Lausanne.
In 1866 he initiated the establishment of the National Treasury to fund future insurgent actions and develop Polish propaganda abroad.
Darasz was the editor of Polish Democrat, a member of the Centralization - Polish Democratic Society and a member of the Revolutionary Committee of the Centralization of Europe.
Heltman was one of the ideologues of Polish Democratic Society and European activist, with
Jastrzębowski Wojciech Bogumil b. 1799, who can safely be called the first theorist of a United Europe; the National Guard soldier, battles at Wawer and Olszynka Grochowska in 1831; his ideas about Europe were echoed in the views of Massini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Ledru - Rollin and Ruge Anolda b. 1802.
Massini fought with MONARCHS EUROPE, already in 1832 he founded YOUNG ITALY, helped organize the YOUNG GERMANY and Young POLAND. These were the steps involved in creating YOUNG EUROPE because he believed that only the young generation could rebuild Europe's monarchs in Europe of Nations.
We back to Milkowski, who was sent back to England 1850 (again 1858); active involvement in the Polish Democratic Society, closer to the international revolutionary circles. Since then, he was theorist of the European revolution.
The Central Committee of European Democracy commissioned colonel Zygmunt Miłkowski task of forming a resistance movement in Russia; detailed instructions on this matter received from the German revolutionary Arnold Ruge; besides Miłkowski, to Galicia was sent Louis Jastrzebski.
Milkowski with a passport in the name of Williams Smith went (1851) to the east, had letters of recommendation from Massini and Bratianu Dmitri; this mission was a tragedy for his family, his brothers Joseph and Felix in Romania were arrested and handed in 1853; Joseph, as the tsarist officer was shot in Izmaiłow; Felix sent to Orenburg. The third brother John was killed in a battle with the Turks at Oltenica. The mission of the European Democracy agents was thwarted by the church and the aristocracy, because some European Democracy activists were Freemasons;
the European Democracy top members:
Giuseppe Mazzini, Ledru-Rollin, Arnold Ruge, Darasz Wojciech and Dimitrie (1818-1892); they shared a need to organize a European revolution. Massini though Mason was the believer man; Arnold Ruge was a atheist. Darasz and Rollin were radicals.
Colonel Sigmund Milkowski did not agree with the policy of Czartoryski, who financed the trip to America, for former insurgents 1863; Society of the Third of May led by Adam Czartoryski also called the Hotel Lambert and the Society for Military of gen. Rybinski Maciej deprived to participate in the fight against the aggressors.
But the League of Liberty and Peace was established in 1867 in Geneva. At the Congress in Lausanne, speech in defense of Polish affairs gave Colonel Zygmunt Milkowski in 1872; the congress was attended by representatives of the Poles, French, Germans and other nationalities. "Almost all the congresses of the League felt the spirit of the EUROPE of NATIONS ... by the inspiration of Charles Lemonnier, at the Congress in Lausanne, Polish independence was considered as a prerequisite for peace in Europe".
Milkowski was one of the founders of the Polish National League, which was transformed into the National Democracy Party.
Also with Louis Matyasek Michalski, an engineer, who opened his castle Hiltikon for this meeting; he was born in a family of teachers. 1863 he joined the January Uprising under Kopernicki Francis (1824-1892). After the uprising got to Switzerland, Sumatra, and back to Switzerland; provided financial support for Polish initiatives.
Hertel was also an engineer, poet, worked for the Ministry of Roads and Transport in Paris. He had a big impact on the French Polonia.
Dr. Hirschberg, historian, the history of diplomacy and Polish-Russian relations. The source of the new organization were manifestos of the POLISH DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY (1832-1862), with the reconstruction of Poland from 1772, but with the right of minorities to autonomy.
Milkowski was also the President of the Supervisory Council of the National Treasury, a member of the Board of the Polish Emigrant Union and of the Executive Board of the Polish National Museum in Rapperswill. In 1900 he made a journey to the USA; he died in Lausanne on 11 January 1915.
Above data under copyright by Dr Marek Adamiec.
On his initiative Zygmunt Balicki came to Warsaw, and founded a secret Polish Youth Union modeled on Freemasonry, at the turn of 1886-1887, among university students; fought on the independence of Poland.

Interesting notes on wine commerce:

1. Trading House "Heirs of A. F. Poklewski-Koziell" / Pakleuski Kozell - the Company founder was Alfons Fomich Poklevskii-Kozell / Alfons Koziell Poklewski who in 1869 bought a large estate in Kurgan, built here a stone wine warehouse.
2. The ARMAND family from Moscow:
Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia ca 1790 - 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow) daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution; Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably). The 29 year-old general Paul Armand came from Paris in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay. He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine.
After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then after 1815 the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.
Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demonet / Demontet family ran in Moscow a sales of these French wines.
When Paul Armand married, he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.
Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage to Elizabeth Osipovna (1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker.
In 1811 in Moscow lived:
Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1787, and his son Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808, French nation; his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787 and daughter Elizabeth b. 1807. Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived (again?) to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica daughter of Charles, was born 1767.
Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808 that is Yevgeny born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow.
Paul was killed and Paul's son, Jean - Ivan, started a wine-import business. It was Ivan's son, the first Eugene, who founded the Armand fortunes.
3. Alexandra Constantinovna Countess von Zarnekau b. 1883 married in 1900 Prince George Alexandrovich Yurievsky, a son of Alexander II of Russia. In 1884, they bought a local wine cellar established by the Frenchman Shote in 1876 for bottling champagne, doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).
4. On July 30th Bronislaw Pilsudski left Nagasaki by ship, on August 3rd left Japan for Galicia (Austrian Poland) via America.
On the main street of Ginza in Tokyo, Pilsudski rented a room from the end of January to July 1906 - had a connection with Russian merchants in Vladivostok and sold natural ice transported from Hakodate in Hokkaido and milk, as well as ice cream and foreign-made wines later. In 1908 Futabatei visited St. Petersburg as a special correspondent for the newspaper Asahi and met Zarnowska - wife of Bronislaw Pilsudski - who was staying at a relative's home there. He did not, however, manage to see Pilsudski.
5. GAILLARD, J. Jeune / Jeune GAILLARD, 1896, a General Store was opened at Nagasaki at 12 Oura under the name of J. Gaillard, the Nagasaki branch of Gaillard & Co., which was led by Jean Sirot. Sirot came from Shanghai. The Nagasaki branch provisioned the French Navy with coal, food and other provisions and in 1897 the branch specialized in wine and spirits. From 1889 to 1903 only C. Joana is listed as head of this branch and J. Gaillard is only mentioned in 1901, with Rene Chevalier Lavaure, to 1904.
6. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829 in Paris, France, d. 1904 / 1908 in London, England; he was son of John O'Meara and Elizabeth Sophie. John O'Meara, b. 1797 in Borrisokane, Co Tipperary, central part of Ireland, south-west of Dublin; died 1867 in Paris.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was husband of Marie Camille and father of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara b. 1861; Henrie Marie Bulkeley b. 1857, Charles Louis Thomas b. 1862, John Herbert Lewis b. 1860, and Camille Alfred O'Meara. Camille Alfred O'Meara b. 1858 in Piltown - south-east of Ireland, d. ?; son of Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara and Marie Camille; husband of Rosalee Julia nee Guilloux; from this family was Louis Fançois Marie GUILLOUX, b. 1899 in Saint-Brieuc, France, his father was a socialist activist of 'Proudhonism'; Guilloux befriended the philosophy tutor Georges Palante, an anarchist. Camille Alfred O'Meara was father of Rose Julie Taylor, Harry O'Meara, Charlie O'Meara, Tom O'Meara, Alf O'Meara, Pat and Camille Cammie; half brother of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - was half brother of Josephine Camille O'Meara and Mathihilde O'Meara. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was born on the 9th December 1829 in Paris and died at Addison Gardens, London, in 1904; he was secretary of the Cercle Imperial Club in Paris, was a cashier in Salt Manufacturing of his brother-in-law's company at Stoke Prior in England, and finally was a wine merchant; married to Marie Camille nee Blot.
Parents of above named Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829: John O'MEARA 1797-1867 and Elisabeth Sophie FITZPATRICK 1809-1889. Acc. to parents of mentioned John O'Meara: Jack O'MEARA and Ann MORAN.
Why James Augustin FITZPATRICK found himself in France between 1805 and 1809, we do not know; France and England at that time were fighting at many fronts; maybe he traded wine from southern France as Paul Armand?! Maybe he traded tea from India? The economic blockade of the UK economy by France, created by closing the trade of this country with the countries of continental Europe and imposed allies of France to introduce trade embargo against Great Britain, resulted edition in Berlin by Napoleon Bonaparte's decree of November 21, 1806. The closure of European ports for the British fleet cut off the United Kingdom from markets and supply. It was notoriously broken because its effects were also negative for the European economies. For example, the cost of wine production in Scotland and France. France also losses because it was the recipient of the English wool.

The creation of a secret society (the Round Table of Milner) had been planning for more than seventeen years. "Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890".
According to Carroll Quigley, "...Rhodes embraced the ideas of Stead much earlier than they actually have met (on 4 April 1889), and then they jointly set up their secret society for the establishment of the Anglo-American Union ... in 1891, February 5. Stead continues: The conception in those day (1880) was confined to few, but nowadays the parties led by Lord Rosebery and Lord Salisbury would vie with each other in asserting their readiness to recognize the European Concert as the germ of the United States of Europe, and to develop the concerted action of six Powers in relation to the question of the East into a Federated Union of all the European States...".
This is not a joke on the readers of this website, that 100 years and 1 day later, the general Kiszczak also closed the debate of his Round Table.
This Round Table that are negotiations conducted to April 5, 1989 by the representatives of the People's Republic of Poland in Magdalenka near Warsaw.

When Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland, then Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, from December 1916 to November 1918, was one of the most important members of David Lloyd George's War Cabinet. His mother was a daughter of Major General John Ready, former Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island and later the Isle of Man.
Upon his return from South Africa, Viscount Milner occupied himself mainly with business interests in London, becoming chairman of the Rio Tinto Zinc mining company, a director of the Joint Stock Bank, in January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson, in Russia, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed; he was an advocate of inter-allied cooperation, in St. Petersburg in February 1917.
But Trotsky in his book 'My Life' tells of a British financier, who in 1907 gave him a large loan to be repaid after the overthrow of the Tsar. Arsene de Goulevitch, who witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution, has identified both the name of the financier and the amount of the loan: over 21 million rubles were spent by Lord Alfred Milner in financing the (October 1917 Revolution) Russian Revolution.
It was a big dream of Pilsudski and Poles to Tsarist Russia collapsed, and then in the revolutionary chaos appeared Lenin had passed into Russia by the Germans.
A documents made it clear, that this above mentioned funding was provided by Milner and channeled through Sir George Buchanan, who was the British Ambassador to Russia at the time, acc. to Goulevitch, p. 230.

In March 1832, Adam Mickiewicz stayed in Dresden, Saxony, where he wrote the third part of his poem 'Dziady'. July 1832 he arrived in Paris, accompanied by Ignacy Domeyko; in Paris, Mickiewicz published articles in 'Pielgrzym Polski', and wrote 'The Books of the Polish People and of the Polish Pilgrimage' - in the part: 'Pilgrim LITANY' we read:
"...The universal war for the freedom of peoples,
We ask you, Lord.
The weapons and national eagles,
We ask you, Lord...".

Tadeusz A. Kisielewski in "The Great War and Polish independence" ed. Rebis Publishing House, 2014, shows the First World War (the Great War 1914-1918) as a game of powers, which fight each other for dominance over Europe and domination in the colonies.

In 1832 the author of 'Pilgrim LITANY', Adam Mickiewicz, although romantic poet, but cool, wrote that
an essential condition of Poland's independence is the conflict between the invaders, and it must be converted into a European-wide war.

In 1895, Pilsudski published an article titled "Russia", in which he formulated for the first time
a basic condition for independence by Poland: to "slit the seams of ethnic Russia" and other non-Russian parts of the empire (to split the seams of ethnic Russia and other non-Russian parts).

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins, Serbs and Bosniak, coordinated by Danilo Ilic, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society.
"...In May of 1914 Colonel Dmitrijevic, a secret way from his own government, introduced the idea of the assassination of Archduke. The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow, was not able to decide, and reached an agreement with friends from the General Staff in St. Petersburg, and after a few days passed acceptance: 'Works ... we will not leave you alone'. Today we know that these words were not empty. We do not know who made the decision. Whoever he was, he had to be close to the heads of the party pro war; it was leading by the uncle of the Tsar, Grand Duke Nicholas (Nikolai); and operate at the interface between the military and diplomacy, he soon began a covert operation to observe long-term Russian ambassador in Belgrade, Nikolai Hartwig. One thing is certain: the decision of St. Petersburg, and then ... shots of Princip started the chain of events that led to the global carnage...",
according to by Hubert Kozieł.

The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow / Viktor Alekseevich Artamonov / Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov / Виктор Алексеевич Артамонов, had a close relationship with Apis;
"...accessible records do not explain what role, if any, Artamonov had in the plot. To make matters murkier still, just before his execution by his own government at Salonika in June 1917, after being accused of involvement in yet another plot, this time against his own leaders, Dimitrijevic boasted in writing of his role behind the Sarajevo plot and admitted that Artamonov funded the terrorist operation, something that Yugoslavia's Communists revealed in 1953 to discredit the royal regime that preceded them in power in Belgrade. As Artamonov died in exile in 1942 without fully explaining his role in the assassination... something undertaken by direction from St. Petersburg. ... Given that Russian radio intelligence was able to read Austro-Hungarian diplomatic ciphers before the war, it seems likely that St. Petersburg was aware of what Vienna's probable reaction to the assassination would be and, as Sean Meekin has recently observed, the Russians subsequently acted as if they have something to hide: 'gaps in the record strongly suggest a good deal of purging took place after 1914', to cover whatever tracks Artamonov left behind. The attaché conveniently managed to be out of Belgrade on the day of the assassination, yet it was well known in Serbian military circles that, in the weeks before the assassination, he and Apis saw each other almost daily. A Serbian colonel who was close to Apis conceded that Artamonov had encouraged the plot... it seems very likely that St. Petersburg knew more about the plot that it later proved politic to admit...".
And "...Serbian military intelligence, whose chief, Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević, colloquially known as Apis (The Bull), was a violent conspirator with impressive credentials even by high regional standards", copyright by

Apis ordered the murder of Franz Ferdinand, and he said that the Russian military attache Artamonov promised protection of Russia from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when Serbia's intelligence operations will be disclosed, and that Russia has financed the killing. In an interview, Artamonov categorically denied any involvement of Russia in this case. Artamonov said that at this time he was on vacation in Italy, leaving only military assistant of Attache Alexander Verkhovsky; and although he had the daily contact with Apis, he learned about the role of Apis only at the end of the war, acc. to Albertini.
Verkhovskii / Alexander Verkhovsky first admitted involvement of the Attache Office, and then completely stopped talking about it.
There is evidence that on June 14, 1914 Russia was at least aware of the plans of terrorists.
Shelking wrote: '...01 (14) June 1914, Emperor Nicholas had a conversation with King Charles in Constanta in Romania. I was there at the time ... as far as I could tell from my conversation with the members of his entourage (Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov) he (Sazonov) was convinced that if the Archduke (Franz Ferdinand) will go in the direction of peace in Europe will not be threatened'.

Mentioned above
Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Верхо́вский / Verkhovsky, Alexander / Aleksander Wierchowski - b. 1886, St. Petersburg, d. August 19, 1938; nobility.
In 1905, for the liberal-constitutional view expelled from the Corps of Pages and sent in Manchuria, was the gunner; awarded the George Cross and promoted to officer. In 1905-1908 he served in Helsingfors, the 3rd Light division in Finland, 1909 lieutenant. Graduated from the Nikolaev Military Academy (1911); 1911 he graduated from the Academy of General Staff. 1911 staff-captain, 1913 - Captain. 1911-1913 he commanded a company of the 2nd Infantry Regiment in Finland. 1913 the senior aide of Staff of the 3rd Finnish Infantry Brigade.
He was sent to Serbia (1914) to study the experiences of participation of the Serbian army in the Balkan wars.
Since the beginning of the First World War he returned to Russia, participated in the battles in East Prussia. Since 1915 head of security section of Staff to the 22nd Corps on the South-Western Front; at the headquarters of 7th Army. Since March 1916, Lieutenant Colonel, Chief of Staff of Army Group, designed to capture Trebizond from the sea. In September - December 1916 in Romania, he was assistant of the security section of the Russia's representative at the headquarters; he arrived in Petrograd and wrote: 'Only a change of political system could save the army from the new misfortunes, and Russia from the ignominious defeat. Army has lost patience...', acc. to '...From the diary of a marching 1914-1918', Moscow.
In early 1917 appointed Chief of Staff of the Chernomorskoy division, designed for landing on the Turkish coast.
After the February Revolution of 1917 he participated in the meeting of officers of the garrison to support the Provisional Government.
On August 30, 1917 Kerensky appointed Verkhovsky the Military Minister;
on Sept. 1st, 1917 introduced him to the Directory, giving the rank of Major-General;
on Sep 7, 1917 Verkhovsky made a presentation on the reorganization of the army;
on Sep 8, 1917 appointed to the Bureau of the Central Executive Committee;
on October 20, 1917 the joint meeting of the Pre-Parliament Committee Defense and Foreign Affairs - Verkhovsky analyzed the state of the army and said we can't fight;
on October 22, 1917 / 04 Nov. "he went on to Balaam" (?), where only on 29 Oct. learned about the October armed uprising.
Nov. 3 / 16, 1917 returned to Petrograd, and together with members of the Central Committee went to headquarters where the All-Army committee and leaders of some socialist parties tried to form a 'general-socialist government';
Nov. 1917 moved to Mogilov.
In 1922 he was a military expert of the Soviet delegation at the Genoa International Conference.
On 18 July 1931 on charges of anti-Soviet activities sentenced to death. December 2, 1931 sentence to 10 years in the camps.

Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov born October 9, 1873 and died August 23, 1942 in Antwerp, Belgium.
"He graduated in 1890 from the Cadet Corps Simbirsk, in 1892 the Military Academy in 1900 and Pavlovsk Academy of Staff of Mykolayiv. ... the Volhynian Guard Regiment, ... and Odessa in 1904. ... military liaison officer 1907 to 1909 in Greece and then from 1909 to 1918 in Serbia. ... 1919 to 1920 he was representative in Belgrade Armed Forces of South Russia, under the direction of Anton Ivanovich Denikin then under those of Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel...".

Very interesting research of Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire, 'Dictionnaire de la Franc-maconnerie', Paris, Armand Colin, 2014, p. 307-314: the conspiracy theory, a whole section of contemporary American literature to have become a topic of academic research among Americanists; revolutions from the eighteenth century.

But the first was John Robison (1739 - 1805), a Scottish physicist and mathematician. He was a professor of philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. A member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, the first General Secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1783 - 1798). See Becu in 1803 in Scotland (Dzierzynski, Becu, Pilar-Pilchau, Bulhak, Pilsudski). Robison also worked with James Watt on an early steam car. Following the French Revolution, Robison became disenchanted with elements of the Enlightenment. He authored Proofs of a Conspiracy in 1797, a polemic accusing Freemasonry of being infiltrated by Weishaupt's Order of the Illuminati. Born in Boghall, Baldernock, Stirlingshire, close to Thornhill, north-west of Stirling; west of Drummond, south-west of the Doune castle.

See: Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD; the Douglas family from Bothwell - 15 km south-east of Glasgow, Kincardineshire, 30 km south of Aberdeen, and from Fordoune, Scotland - 14 km north-west of Srirling; see: Douglas from Italy, Napoli. James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, a Scottish soldier, was born at Inverugie Castle near Peterhead - north of Aberdeen in eastern Scotland, the second son of William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland who b. ca 1664, and was also a Jacobite politician of Scotland. Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta.

Back to John Robison:
"...In 1770 he travelled to Saint Petersburg as the Secretary of Admiral Charles Knowles, where he taught mathematics to the cadets at the Naval Academy at Cronstadt, obtaining a double salary and the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. ... Robison returned to Scotland in 1773 and took up the post of Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He lectured on mechanics, hydrostatics, astronomy, optics, electricity and magnetism (see Gernet, Duflon, Breguet, Konstantynowicz). Towards the end of his life, he became an enthusiastic conspiracy theorist, publishing Proofs of a Conspiracy, ... in 1797, alleging clandestine intrigue by the Illuminati and Freemasons ... carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies. The secret agent monk, Alexander Horn provided much of the material for Robison's allegations. ... In 1798, the Reverend G. W. Snyder sent Robison's book to George Washington for his thoughts on the subject in which he replied to him in a letter. ... Modern conspiracy theorists, such as Nesta Webster and William Guy Carr, believe the methods of the Illuminati as described in Proofs of a Conspiracy were copied by radical groups throughout the 19th and 20th centuries in their subversion of benign organizations...".

Weishaupt (Johann Adam Weishaupt b. 1748 in Ingolstadt, d. 1830) was trained by friend of Moses Mendelssohn - Hartwig Wessely / Hartog Naftali Herz in 1771. Over the next five years
Weishaupt formulated a plan, all secret systems be reduced to a single powerful organization. On May 1, 1776, he formed it to live as a secret Order of the Illuminati or "Enlightened"
and stood at the forefront; see at; this organization essentially acting as a "over-Freemasonry", to take control on all of Freemasonry. Weishaupt himself to be even accept to lodge "Zur Behuntsamkeit" in Munich, and began to arrange his Order within Freemasonry. Please compare the text:; and notes by Douglas Reed, translated by Krzysztof Edmund Wojciechowicz, at,rewolucja-swiatowa.

And now back to England:
Edward VII, b. 1841 in London, in 1874 the Prince of Wales attended the marriage at St. Petersburg of his brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, with the grand-duchess Marie of Russia. He was first elected grand master of the Freemasons of England in 1874; a bencher of the Middle Temple, he was son of Queen Victoria; initiated by the King of Sweden, at Stockholm in 1868, the rank of Past Grand Master of England was conferred upon him in 1870. Patron of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland and was an honorary member of Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1. Grand Master Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (then the King of Great Britain and Ireland as Edward VII from 1901), 1874 to 1901.

The network:
Montenegro - Potapov - Parvus - Berezyna - Konstantynowicz - Artuzow - Volpi - Venetia - electricity:
Prince Arseny Karageorgievich / Karadjordjevic b. 1859, d. 1938, was educated in Paris lycee and graduated from the 2nd Konstantinovskoye Military College in 1888; served until 1916 to the Russian military, Major General of the Russian Imperial Army, participated in the Russian-Japanese War and in the First World War; the pretender to the Serbian throne, who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion; the friend of Drzewiecki, Duflon, Breguet in St Petersburg (see: Potapov in Montenegro; the Azbelev / Azbelew family, and the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Petersburg; Nagasaki and Bronislaw Pilsudski, Volpi; Neuchatel in Switzerland).
Arseny was the son of Serbian Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic and Princess Persia.

The first genealogy of Arseny:

Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov / Demidoff, 2nd Prince San Donato, 1839-1885, owned approximately 100 factories in Russian and 1 million squares kilometers of land in Russia, France and in Italy. He move to Villa Pratolino, named as Villa Demidoff, and m. 2nd time to Helena or Elena Petrovna, Princess Troubetzekaya, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, b. St. Peterburg in 1853, d. Odessa in 1917; Aurora Pavlovna Demidova, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, Princess of Serbia, and later Countess Noghera, born in San Donato in 1873 or 1874, d. Marseille, in 1943 (? - Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), eldest daughter of the second marriage of the above Prince Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; Aurora m. first to Arsene Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1859-1938, son of Alexandar Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1806-1885 and Persida Nenadovic, 1813-1873. General of the Russian army; Comander-General of the Yugoslavian army. He was brother of Peter I, King of Serbians, Croats and Slovens, later King of Yugoslavia, 1844-1921. Prince Arsene divorced in 1896. Paul Karadordevic, Prince of Yugoslavia, b. 1893, was educated at the University of Oxford.

The second genealogy of Arseny:

A wife 1891/2 - 1896 of above Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich:

Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev; her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; her grandfather Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826, her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804; her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817; her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731 died 1812.

Above mentioned Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic / Alexander I of Yugoslavia (1806 - 1885), Prince of Serbia in 1842 - 1858. After his father's death in 1817, he was living in Russia and served to the Russian army to 1840. He left two sons: Peter I of Yugoslavia (1844-1921), 1903 the king of Serbia, 1918 the King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; and above named Arseny (1859 - 1938); his son, Prince Paul was a regent of Yugoslavia in 1934 - 1941.

Mentioned Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato (b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), her father Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d.
1885, Pratolino near Florence),
Russian industrialist, 1871-1872 and 1873-1874 Kiev; the Red Cross during the Turkish war of 1877-1878. He was son of Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov and Aurora Karamzina.

Baroness Eva Aurora Charlotte Stjernvall / Eva Aurora Charlotta Stjernvall; 1836 the name Demidov, 1846 as Karamzin; she was born in 1808, Bёrneborg, died 1902, Helsingfors; the Swedish-Finnish roots, a maid of honor of the imperial court, a large philanthropist.
Her husband was Count Pavel Demidov (1798 - 1840, Mainz), Russian businessman, the owner of the richest Ural iron foundry (see Koziell-Poklewski family), the actual state councilor, honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, philanthropist; the son of Count Nikolai Nikitich Demidov and Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov.

On the other hand we look at
Emmanuel Karaso, Karassu / Carasso / Emanuel Karasu (Salonica, 1862 - died in Trieste in 1934), a lawyer of the Sephardic Jewish Carasso family of Salonica / Thessaloniki, Greece; a member of the Young Turks; a member or a founder, president of the Macedonian Risorta Masonic lodge in Thessaloniki; he worked for Jewish organizations in Turkey, and negotiated the treaty ending the Italo-Turkish War.

And next network in the Balkan kingdom of Montenegro, owned by Volpi, and the Russian military attache from 1903 to 1915 - N. M. Potapov.

Potapov in 1915 taken the position of Quartermaster General and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Russian Army, in charge of all army intelligence.
In the summer of 1917, Potapov began Bolshevik, but he was known since the 1890s.
He help to the transformation of the Tsarist War Ministry into the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs (see the Bonch-Bruevich brothers, Lenin, and village Zbyszyn close to Miezonka).
He was the first Red Army Chief of Staff; close to A. A. Artuzov (see Saanen in Switzerland, Lenin, Dzierzynski in Switzerland, Duflon) - who was a cousin of Potapov.

And at present back again to Montenegro and Serbia, Venetia and Turkey:

"...Parvus's status in Switzerland was secured by his longtime colleague, Adolph Muller, the German Ambassador in Berne, and a Munich publisher. According to authors James and Suzanne Pool ... he had done business with the Nazis since before the putsch. ... The money that Hitler used to purchase the newspaper came from a White Russian and former Okhrana associate, Vasili Biskupsky. ... At the close of World War I, Parvus wrote the following profile of the European situation:
'There exist two possibilities only: either the unification of western Europe, or Russia's domination. The whole game with the buffer states will end in their annexation by Russia, unless they are united with central Europe in an economic community, which would provide a counter-balance to Russia'.
Under any circumstances, Parvus argued that the era of the nation-state system had ended in Europe...".

Acc. to the article on September 23, 2005, Executive Intelligence Review, ... Parvus Permanent War Madness, by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas. This article was based on an exhaustive study by Allen and Rachel Douglas, 'The Roots of the Trust: From Volpe to Volpi, and Beyond - The Venetian Dragomans of the Russian Empire', and on published and unpublished research by Scott Thompson, Marjorie Mazel Hecht, and Joseph Brewda:
"...a doctrine which the Russian-born British intelligence asset Alexander Helphand, also known as Parvus, dictated to Leon Trotsky's effort to overthrow Russia's Tsar in the revolution of 1905. What Helphand dictated to his dupe Trotsky, in writing, personally, there at that time, is a doctrine of 'permanent revolution / permanent war', which Trotsky himself defended up to the moment of his murder by a Soviet assassin, in Mexico in 1940. Alexander Israel Helphand (a.k.a. Parvus). Both (Shabotynsky / Zabotynski) Jabotinsky and Parvus edited publications of the British / Venetian-spawned Young Turk movement, which helped ... the overthrow of the Ottoman Empire.
Like Jabotinsky, Parvus (1867 - 1924) came from (born in Berezyna in 1867) an Odessa family steeped in the grain trade. By 1886, Helphand / Parvus had already become involved in the Okhrana-spawned Russian socialist scene, travelling to Switzerland to participate in the Emancipation of Labor group, led by a number of documented Okhrana agents, including Lev Deutsch, and suspected Okhrana man Georgi Plekhanov / Plechanow.

... By 1900, Parvus had joined the inner circle of the Bolsheviks, using his Munich, Germany apartment to house the printing press for the group, and hosting V. I. Lenin and other leaders (see Brilling, Duflon and Konstantynowicz family, Inessa Armand, Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand).
According to several biographical accounts, by 1902, Parvus was receiving direct Okhrana funding through Gorky, who gave Parvus the rights to publish his works abroad (see Neapol and Capua in my research).
When the entire leadership of the Petersburg Soviet, including Trotsky, was rounded up and jailed in December 1905, Parvus escaped the police clutches. When he was later captured, he escaped police custody, courtesy of the Okhrana agent Lev Deutsch. Parvus next turned up, via Germany, in Constantinople, as a 'journalist' covering the Young Turk rebellion against the Ottomans ... It would be at this moment that Parvus's ties to the leading European 'Venetian Party' factions would be publicly shown.
In 1908, the Committee for Union and Progress, otherwise known as the Young Turks, carried out a military coup, overthrowing the Sultan and seizing power over the Ottoman Empire. ... The actual founder of the Young Turk movement was an Italian Freemason and grain trader named Emmanuel Carasso. Jewish by birth, Carasso had been a founder of the Italian Masonic lodge in Salonika, called the Macedonia Risorta Lodge.
Virtually all of the members of the Young Turk leadership were lodge members. The forerunner of the Macedonia Risorta Lodge was founded by a follower of another Palmerston agent and revolutionary provocateur, Giuseppi Mazzini. ... Carasso was a leading financier (see electricity, Duflon, Konstantynowicz, Venetia) of the entire Young Turk insurrection, and during the Balkan Wars, he was not only the head of Balkan intelligence operations for the Young Turks; he was in charge of all food supplies for the Ottoman Empire during World War I, a lucrative business which he shared with Parvus (see Berezyna and Odessa). ... Another of Carasso's 'business' associates was Parvus, who became economics editor of another Young Turk journal, The Turkish Homeland. Parvus also became a partner of Carasso in the grain trade, and in the arms business, and became independently wealthy. ... Carasso was a protege and business partner of Volpi di Misurata, the leading Venetian banker of the early 20th century, who not only sponsored the Young Turk insurrection, but also promoted the Black Shirt takeover of Rome and went on to run the Mussolini Fascist regime ... The Venetian banker Volpi was closely allied with City of London financiers throughout. And the Young Turks, once they took power, made no secret of their London ties. In 1909 the Ottoman Navy was put under the command of a British admiral; ... banker, Ernst Cassel, established and managed the National Bank of Turkey; and British officials advised the Ministry of Finance, the Interior Ministry, and the Ministry of Justice.
... Parvus also got into the tightly controlled arms business, probably under the patronage of Sir Basil Zaharoff of the Vickers Arms cartel, a prominent Anglo - Venetian enterprise. Once the Balkan Wars had started, leading directly into World War I, Parvus turned his attention back to Russia, laying plans to finance a revolution, to be led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Parvus set his scheme for revolution down in a March 9, 1915 memorandum to the German Foreign Ministry, vowing that the Bolsheviks would take power in Russia in 1916, and seeking financial support. ...
One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski, the head of the Political Section and a longtime business associate of none other than Young Turks financier, the Venetian Synarchist Party operative Giuseppi Volpi, the future controller of Mussolini.
According to his own memoirs,
von Hutten-Czapski had seen the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War as an opportunity 'to smash the Tsarist Empire',
a view shared by Parvus.
... Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark ... Stinnes, too, was tied to Volpi and the Banca Commerciale Italiana. In May 1915, Parvus met with Lenin and Karl Radek in Switzerland (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), and then created a string of front groups in Stockholm and Copenhagen. ... By April 1917, Parvus had pushed the German government to grant secret safe-passage to the Bolshevik leaders back into Russia, and arrangements were soon made, through Parvus and Radek, to smuggle Lenin and 40 other leading Bolsheviks from Switzerland, through Stockholm, back to Petrograd. Parvus remained in Stockholm, in constant communication with the International Mission of the Petrograd Bolshevik Central Committee Abroad...".

On the above Synarchist movement, by LYNN PICKNETT & CLIVE PRINCE:
"...This shadowy politico-occult movement is synarchy, which was developed by the Frenchman Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves, the Marquis d'Alveydre, in opposition to the rise of anarchy in the second half of the nineteenth century. ... The most high-profile late nineteenth-century devotee of Saint-Yves was the physician Gérard Encausse (Papus), a leading light among French esoteric societies. ... Encausse's death in 1916 resulted in a schism in the Martinist Order over its involvement in politics. The activists, under Victor Blanchard - head of the secretariat of the Chamber of Deputies of the French Parliament - formed the breakaway Martinist and Synarchic Order, which established the Synarchic Central Committee in 1922, designed to pull in promising young civil servants and younger members of great business families...".

Acc. to 'Cheney Revives Parvus "Permanent War" Madness', by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas:

"...The German government was deeply split over the issue of backing a Russian Bolshevik revolution. Close advisors to the German Kaiser argued that Germany should push a separate peace with the Tsar, while a faction, centered in the General Staff and around Foreign Minister Zimmerman, pushed for a war-to-the-death with Russia, arguing that war with Russia was inevitable, and it made sense to get on with it before Russia became more powerful. One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski ...
In addition to the German Foreign Ministry and the German General Staff, Parvus was also given access to an exhaustive amount of funds for his Russian regime change scheme from a leading German Synarchist industrialist and close associate of Hjalmar Schacht (later Hitler's Economics Minister), Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark, from which Parvus made millions of gold marks per month...".

Some on Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki:
Von Fürstenberg was a powerful family lived in Germany in the 19th and the 20th centuries.
Maria Felicitas Ferdinanda von Fürstenberg married ca 1920 to Friedrich Carl von Westphalen zu Fürstenberg b. 1900. Sophie Therese de Longueval Gräfin von Buquoy b. 1879, the daughter of Karl de Longueval Graf von Buquoy and Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz, married Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg in 1897.
Her children: 1. Friedrich Carl Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1898, and 2. Carl Philipp Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1907.
Above Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1864. Above mentioned Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1858, the daughter of Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Countess Aloisia Morzin.
Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1819, the son of Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Therese Gräfin von Orsini und Rosenberg.
Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born on 4 November 1796 at Vienna, Austria, the son of Rudolf Graf Czernin and Maria Theresia Gräfin von Schonborn-Heussenstamm.
B. We know that:
1. after the First World War Stanisław Furstenberg lived in Poland, he was prosecutor, inf. 1931.
2. Fürstenberg Stanisław died in Warsaw, on 06.08.1911. Maybe father of Hanecki.
3. History of the Fürstenberg (Furstenberg) beer originated to the 13th cent. in Donaueschingen, Germany; commercial production of the drink starts from the XVIII century; beer brewed at Hallertau, now Fürstenberg Lager brewed in Munich.
At the beginning of the 19th cent. in Warsaw brewed beer: Krembitz, Schaefer and Glimpf, Wojciech Sommer, in the second half of the 19th cent. in Warsaw: Herman Jung, Karol Machlejda, Władysław Kijok, Edward Reych;
Haberbusch and Schiele since 1846 (Błażej Haberbusch, Konstanty Schiele and Henryk Klawe) in Warsaw and Odessa;
Herman Jung since 1840 from Silesia to Warsaw, 1846 the Grzybowska street, then with Knopf taken K. Bochenek brewary and from Antoni Boenisch plant, also the Karol Osterloff brewary at Grochow.
Jakub Fürstenberg / Kuba / Mikola, b. 1879, came from an assimilated German family, his father was a wealthy merchant and industrialist of Polonized German family.
His father Stanislaw von Fürstenberg / Stanislaus von Furstenberg was the producer of beer, and a factory owner.
The first owner Samuel Krauze, next Waldemar Beorner leased a brewery from Anna Krauze (see Krauze / Krause in Estonia), and then became it owner, a subsequent owners: S. Fürstenberg / Stanislaw von Furstenberg, next was Z. Katz;
main gate of this brewary at Grzybowska / Wronia street (Grzybowska 61 then 65, and Wronia No 12); at Grzybowska No 34 a brewary of A. LENTZKI of 1874, then 1891 to Samuel Krauze; but 1889 Waldemar Boerner was owner.
Our Polish-Jewish-German revolutionary, Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki b. 1879, killed in 1937 in Soviet Union; Lenin had received money and instructions from Jakub Fuerstenberg / Yakov Ganetsky, and from Alexander Parvus of Berezyna. Jakub Hanecki since 1896 in the underground movement, since 1901 in Berlin as a salesman, 1902 top member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania; a friend of Feliks Dzierżyński in Warsaw.
According to the book by Berberova "Iron Lady", the Fuerstenberg or Fürstenberg / Furstenberg family was in a relationship with A. Parvus from Berezyna - Odessa (maybe Stanislaw Furstenberg or his wife was next of kin with the Helphand family of Berezyna?).
We read on an announcement of executions for espionage against the German army, in Warsaw during the German occupation, by the martial court due spy sentenced to death:
1. Leo Sommerfeld,
2. Alexander Petrajtys,
3. Jacob Fürstenberg,
on 23 October 1915, acc. to the German form of 1916.
But immediately after Gelfand had visited Lenin in May 1915 in Switzerland, first appeared one of the most efficient agents of Lenin in Copenhagen, in the place which the Gelfand had chosen as the base for his anti-Russian campaign - the agent was mentioned above Jacob Fürstenberg - Ganetzky.
Lenin asserted in the summer of 1917, Ganetzky had never been a Bolshevik.
The journey of the April 1917 went via Frankfurt to Berlin, where the train was stopped for some time; on the evening of April 12, 1917, the train reached Saßnitz,
24 hours later, Lenin went ashore in Malmö. There, his agent Fürstenberg - Ganetzky received him with a message from Parvus: It is now high time to direct German-Russian peace negotiations in the way.
Ganetzky / Ganetsky / Hanecki was a treasurer of Lenin.
Yakov Stanislavovich Ganetsky / Hanecki / Jakub Fürstenberg / Fuerstenberg / Jakub Ganezki / Jakow Stanislawowitsch Fürstenberg was the connection to Parvus, and was the immediate link to Lenin.
Hanecki - Fürstenberg killed on 26 November 1937, was " of the financial wizards who arranged, through his close working relationship with Alexander Parvus, the secret German funding that saved the Bolsheviks ... (with) Karl Radek, was involved in secret negotiations with the German General Staff regarding funding of the Bolsheviks and was one of the organizers of the (Copenhagen operation) as well as a mediator between Lenin and the Germans. He was one of the organizers of Lenin's return in a sealed train from exile in Switzerland to Russia in 1917 ... After the October Revolution of 1917, Ganetsky served as Chief Soviet banker, trade representative and Ambassador to Latvia...(copyright Wikipedia)", by Wikipedia in 2015: he signed the Peace of Riga and Treaty of Kars.
At margin:
Franz Jacob Furstenberg b. 1856 to Franz Johannes Furstenberg and Elizabeth Gerlach. Franz Johannes Furstenberg 1823-1879 married in 1849 to Elizabeth Gerlach b. 1823, her children:
Heinrich b. 1851, August 1853, Furstenberg, Franz Jacob b. 1856, and 4. Franz Joseph b. 1861. The Gerlach family was from Helmsdorf bei Leinefelde.
Franz Johannes Furstenberg born in Helmsdorf, Germany in 1823 to Adam Furstenberg and Dorothea Wachtel. His brother (?) Franz Joseph Furstenberg 1831-1930.

By Wikipedia:
"Karol Sobelsohn / Karl Berngardovich Radek, b. 1885 in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary, d. 1939, acted in the Polish and German social democratic movements; during the Great Purge of the 1930s, he was accused of treason and confessed, after two and a half months of interrogation, sentenced to 10 years of penal labor; killed in a labor camp in a fight with another inmate, or was killed by an NKVD operative under direct orders from Lavrentiy Beria".
1901 Karl set out for Cracow (classmates: Marian Kukiel); met with Boleslaw Drobner, 1902 wrote to 'Promien'; met with Emil Haecker of 'Naprzod'; 1903 in Cracow with Feliks Dzierzynski at the Jagellonian University, but late in 1903 Radek emigrated to Zurich!
took a job as librarian, met with Max Nomad (see Machajski and Trubecki Nestor); then met with Adolf Warski Warszawski, who was his sponsorship to SDKPiL; through Warszawski Warski, he began a correspondence with Rosa Luxemburg; and she arranged for him to publish some articles in the newspapers of the German socialist;
in December 1905 he crossed the Austro-Russian border to Warsaw, was arrested in March 1906 (see Nestor Trubecki); emerged from prison in early 1907;
in May 1907 he became the editor of 'Czerwony Sztandar'; 1908 had transffered some trade union funds to Stanislawski, and Radek must left Warsaw for Berlin;
met with Warszawski and his immediate acceptance into the top socialist circles in Germany in 1908 could been through the intervention of Warszawski, Marchlewski, Luxemburg and Leo Jogiches, Paul Frolich in Berlin.
Then Radek moved to Leipzig (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), under command of Luxemburg; by 1910 Radek was well known in German socialist circles; 'married' 1909/1911 to a German girl Rosa;
summer 1910 in Copenhagen (see Anna Konstantynowicz and Inessa Armand); met Lenin the first. Radek returned to Leipzig; 1910 moved back to Berlin, 1911 with Hanecki Furstenburg and Unszlicht; 1911 disagreement with Marchlewski, but close friendships with August Thalheimer, Konrad Haenisch from Bremen.
Karl Radek in spring 1912 published for Karl Kautsky; but in July 1912 aimed his attack directly at Kautsky.
'Through Germany in the Sealed Coach', ed in 1924, originally published in German in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66. This is the first time this text has been published in English. Translated and transcribed by Ian Birchall. Translation © Copyright 2005 Ian Birchall. Used by kind permission of the translator. Marked up by Einde O'Callaghan for the Marxists' Internet Archive; at
"...On behalf of Vladimir Ilyich I turned, in association with Paul Levi, who at the time was a member of the Spartacus group, and who was temporarily staying in Switzerland, to the representative of the Frankfurter Zeitung, who was known to us. If I am not mistaken, it was a Dr Deinhard. Through him we asked the German Ambassador Romberg whether Germany would allow emigres returning to Russia to pass through its territory. In turn, Romberg enquired of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin and received a reply that was in principle favourable. Thereupon we elaborated the conditions on which we were willing to undertake the journey through Germany. The main conditions were as follows: the German government should allow all applicants to pass through, without asking for their names; those travelling through should enjoy the protection of extraterritoriality and nobody would be entitled to enter into negotiations of any sort with them during their journey. With these conditions we sent the Swiss Socialist deputy Robert Grimm, the secretary of the Zimmerwald Union, and our political ally and comrade Platten to see Romberg. After the meeting with the German Ambassador we met in the trade-union premises. Grimm related how surprised the Ambassador had been, when they had read out to him our conditions for the journey. ...
Grimm, who continued the negotiations in the name of Martov group, had undoubtedly already in Switzerland engaged in negotiations about conditions for peace, and later from Petrograd he sent communications about the prospects for peace from his government, which the Swiss government then probably passed on to the Germans. The attempts to represent him as a German spy or agent are absurd. He wanted to play an important role; Ilyich had already considered that such ambition was the principal motive of his activity. The Germans hoped that in Russia the Bolsheviks would act as opponents of the war and declared themselves in agreement with our conditions. I recommend those gentlemen who are still raising an outcry against the Bolsheviks on this account to read Ludendorff's memoirs, for he is still tearing his hair out over the fact that he let the Bolsheviks through; he has finally grasped that in so doing he was not performing a service for German imperialism, but for the world revolution.
So we set off and travelled in a Swiss train as far as Schaffhausen, where we had to change into the German train. ...
In Trelleborg we made a very striking impression. Ganetsky invited us all to supper which in the Swedish fashion involved Smörgas. We poor fellows, who in Switzerland had been accustomed to have no more than a herring for our dinner, looked at this enormous table with innumerable hors d'oeuvre: we rushed at it like a swarm of grasshoppers and completely emptied the table, to the astonishment of the waiters, who were used to seeing only civilised people at the Smörgas table. Vladimir Ilyich ate nothing. He tried to find out from Ganetsky everything he could about the Russian revolution - but Ganetsky knew nothing. The next morning we arrived in Stockholm. Swedish comrades, journalists and photographers were waiting for us. At the head of the Swedish comrades was Dr Karleson in a top-hat, an inflated chatterer who now, fortunately, has returned from the Communist Party to Branting's camp. ...
In Stockholm Parvus tried to meet Lenin as a representative of the central committee of the German Social Democracy, but Ilyich not only refused to meet him, but charged me, Vorovsky and Ganetsky, together with the Swedish comrades to make a formal record of this attempt. The whole day passed in discussions; we went here and there; but before Lenin left another real deliberation took place. The moment of departure was approaching. Together with the Swedish comrades and a part of the Russian colony in Stockholm we went from the Regina hotel to the station. When our comrades had already boarded the train, one of the Russians took his hat off and made a speech to Lenin. ...
This account by Radek was published in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66.
According to Robert Service, Lenin: A Political Life Volume 2: Worlds in Collision, Basingstoke 1991, p. 153, an account of the journey by Radek appeared in Pravda, no. 91, 20 April 1917, p. 4. However, the 1924 version had clearly been revised, since there is a reference to Ludendorff's Memoirs, first published in 1920.
... Last updated on 18.10.2011".

And more information
(on 26th January 2015 by Hubert Koziel) at
'Antidotes to Empire: From the Congress System to the European Union' by Stella Ghervas of Harvard University, Center for European Studies, Department Member;
'Blockade 9: Sustaining The Enemy – Tea, Coffee And Plenty Denials' by Jim Macgregor (First World War Hidden History) and Gerry Docherty.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski: his father - Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 in Smogulec + Eleonora Mielżyński; his grandfather Józef Grzegorz Longin Hutten-Czapski 1760-1810
(he was brother of Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski Count 1753 - 1833, who was father of Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1862, and Antonina Skórzewski; and grandfather of Matylda Fabianna Jadwiga Osiecimska; Kazimierz Antoni Fabian Hutten-Czapski, and Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1837 - 1884 in Paris);
and his great-grandfather General Antoni Michal Hutten-Czapski (ca 1725) 1725-1792,
great-great-grandfather Ignacy 1699 - 1745.
Wywiad brytyjski, niemiecki i rosyjski, a niepodleglosc Polski w 1918.  Lista teorii konspiracyjnych - najwieksze teorie konspiracyjne w historii.  Teorie konspiracyjne, historia i genealogia rodu Konstantynowicz z Bialorusi.  Masoneria. Rosyjski wywiad wojskowy. Kluczowe zagadnienia.  Wstep i glowne uwagi o historii rodu Konstantynowicz na Bialorusi i w Rosji 1772 - 1917.

Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten born 1725 (ca 1725)
(son of above mentioned Ignacy Hutten-Czapski b. ca 1699 / 1700, who was brother of Franciszek Hutten-Czapski [m. Katarzyna Skorzewska], Józef Piotr Hutten-Czapski, and Teresa Pawłowska),
d. 1802 in Warsaw; his children:
a. Maria Hutten-Czapska b. 1760 m. Gen.-Major Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski of Bukowiec, 1804 Count, with children: 1. Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski b. 1797; 2. Antonina Skórzewski;
b. Anna m. to Józef Oskierka;
c. Ignacy born 1770,
d. Franciszek b. ca 1770;
e. Karol b. in Mińsk 1777-1836 m. Fabianna Obuchowicz (next generation - Emeryk b. 1828);
f. Stanisław 1779-1844 m. Zofia Obuchowicz, Colonel under Napoleon.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Francis Servatius Hutten-Czapski b. 1851, d. 1937, in 1890 negotiated with Pope Leo XIII end of the Kulturkampf in Germany; he was friend with the Cardinals of the Vatican; persuaded the German general staff to support the Bolsheviks (1916 - 1917) and in the independent Poland (since 1918) was the president of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta.
His father Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to
(January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833;
1833 - 1837 Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834, including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland. Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to H. Koziel, in
1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
The republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini.


1. At we read:
"...It appeared that Count Czapski had made his escape from Warsaw, with great difficulty, and was so fortunate as to get to Belfast; on his landing there, he was told, it was necessary to give information of his arrival to the office of the Secretary, under the Act regarding Aliens. On his arrival at Dublin, he had made several inquiries at the Custom House and the Castle, and 966 was told at the latter place, as he only intended to stay a few days, he need not apply again. ... After he had landed in Ireland, he came to Dublin, and when he had been there a short time, he was informed, that, in conformity with the Alien Law, he must state to the Government whether he intended to fix his residence there...".
2. "...THE ALIEN LAW - COUNT CZAPSKI. It will be seen from our Police report in this day's FREEMAN, that the distinguished, but unfortunate Pole, who has been sojourning in Dublin for a few weeks. A was yesterday fined 50Ł by the Magistrates at the Head office of Police, under...", on 3 February 1832 in Dublin.
3. "...I DINNER TO COUNT JOSEPH NAPOLEON CZAPSKI. On yesterday, upwards of seventy gentlemnen sat ... I o 'plendid dinner' at Challoner and Hunt's hotel, Davsonstie, WILLIAM FRANCIS FINN, Etq. in the Chair. The, CHAIMIMANI (??), in proposing the first... Saul, be a about to propose the...", on March 02, 1832, by 'Freeman's Journal', in Dublin.
4. Aliens Act; Petition from Dublin respecting Case of Count Czapski.
"Upon reading the Petition of the Inhabitants of the Parishes of the City of Dublin, in that Part of the United Kingdom called Ireland, whose Names are thereunto subscribed; taking notice of the Arrest and Punishment by Fine of Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski, a Native of Poland, for an unintentional infraction of the Aliens Act; and praying their Lordships 'to take such steps as may be best calculated to vindicate the Character and Nature of the British Laws; and to cause a strict Investigation to be instituted into all the Facts of this Case, with a view to a Redress and Reparation of the Injury sustained, and the Punishment of the guilty...".
5. 1832. The House resumed, and the report was ordered to be received next day. The other orders of the day were then disposed ... COUNTRY MISCELLANEA. AFFAIRS OF GERMANY. A meeting, rather thinly but respectably attended, was held on Wednesday at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand, to express, as the requisition stated, their indignation and abhorrence at the invasion lately made by the Diet of Frankfort on the ancient liberties of the Germanic States. Colonel Evans, M. P., Mr. Wyse, M. P., Sir W. Brabazon, Mr. Murray, Count Czapski, M. Bach, with several other foreigners were present. Mr. T. Campbell as chairman, opened the proceedings in a feeling and energetic speech, towards the conclusion of which he said, 'If England allowed Germany to be enslaved by Princes who were themselves the slaves of Russia, she might, when too late, repent in sackcloth and ashes over her departed liberties. The measures of Napoleon against English commerce would be but a jest, a mere feather, compared with the hostility of the present continental despots...".
6. Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski / Czapski left Dublin for London in April 1832.
7. "William Francis Finn was an Irish politician in the United Kingdom House of Commons", by Wikipedia. "He was elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in (on 20 Dec.) 1832 (with Pierce Butler, b. 1774, held post to 1846), and held the seat until 1837".
Pierce Butler (1774 d. 1864) was an Irish politician, elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in 1832, and held the seat until 1846.
Acc. to we read:
Pierce Butler 1774 - 1846 son of Edmund Butler 1745 - 1793 and Lady Henrietta 1750 - 1785; grandson of Edmund Butler, Charlotte Bradstreet, Somerset Hamilton Butler 1718 - 1774, and Juliana Boyle d. 1774.
William Francis Finn died in December 1862 in Tullaroan, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland; wife Alicia; a member of Carlow town family; William Francis Finn's father, also named William, was a prosperous Carlow merchant and tanner, who resided in Carlow.
His brother, Edmund Finn (d. 1777) produced 'Finn's Leinster Journal' / 'Leinster Journal' of Kilkenny. William Snr. helped finance the paper, then to Patrick Kearney.
Carlow is situated on way from Kilkenny to Dublin, south-east of Mountrath!
William Snr. was one of the Carlow delegates to attend the Back Lane Parliament in 1792.
William Francis senior held lands in Graiguecullen, and farms in Kilkenny. William senior had four sons: Thomas, William - Francis, Patrick and Michael. Thomas 1772 - 1842 resided in Carlow. He was an able journalist and accurate historian, in 1798, in "The Irish Magazine and Monthly Asylum for Neglected Biography 1811, Vol.4"; died 1842, at Bellfield, Clontarf.
William Francis, the second son, educated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1805;
a friend of Daniel O'Connell, O'Connell was a frequent visitor to Carlow town, where he stayed with Alicia and William at their residence at Evergreen Lodge in Cox's Lane. Patrick Finn - William's brother, was actively involved in the County Carlow committee, and was also for many years secretary of the "Friends of Civil Religious Liberty... County", with William as chairman; A Liberal club was established in the town, with the Finn family prominent among its leaders. Peter Gale from the Queen's County, William Francis Finn - Carlow, Nicholas Aylward Vigors - Old Leighlin, and Francis Bruen - Enniscorthy, who represented the Tories. Finn to represent the Liberal party.
William Francis was well known and respected in the Leinster and Munster areas, through his involvement in the Catholic Association.
August 1832 - a Baronial meeting at Ballyhale met with William Finn. William Francis finally declared his intention to stand as a candidate for the constituency of County Kilkenny;
he had settled in Tullaroan, County Kilkenny.
In 1837 William Finn withdrew from parliamentary representation; While residing in Tullaroan, he donated land to the clergy, for the erection of a church and school;
The KILKENNY COUNTY: north of Waterford, north-east of Clonmel and east of Tipperary.
County Kilkenny / Contae Chill Chainnigh is a county in Ireland, in the province of Leinster, of the South-East Region.

Very interesting that the family of Countess Maria Dorota Leopoldyna Czapska (nick-name Dorota Obuchowicz, Maria Strzalkowska, and Dorota Thun), b. 1894 in Praga, died 1981, Maisons-Laffitte, Polish historian, sister of Józef Czapski,
grand-daughter of Emeryk Hutten-Czapski, met and was talking in Belarus with (in 1892) Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, the next of kin of the Belarussian branch of the Czapskis, who described an estate of the Czapski family close to Minsk;
she was living in Paris, 1925 - 1930.
Maria Leopoldyna Hutten-Czapska / Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapski, b. 1894 / 1895 in Prague, died in 1981, was the daughter of George and Josephine;
above George / Jerzy Hutten-Czapski 1861-1930, was son of Emeryk Zachariasz 1828-1896 and Elzbieta Karolina Meyendorff b. 1833 in Sankt Petersburg, d. 1916;
and mentioned Jerzy was grandson of Fabianna Obuchowicz b. ca 1800 and Karol Hutten-Czapski 1777-1836;
also Jerzy was grandson of Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795 (Georges de Meyendorff d. 1863, diplomate) and Zofia Stackelberg b. 1806.
Above named Josephine / Jozefa Thun-Hohenstein 1867-1903, was daughter of Fryderyk Franciszek Józef Thun-Hohenstein 1810-1881 and Leopoldyna Lamberg 1825-1902.
Above named baron Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795, died in Würzburg, Bawaria, acc. to Maria (Maja) Anna Górska-Zabielska.

Copyright by Claude Trudel:
Jerzy / George Baron Meyendorff (1795-1863) recounts his journey from Orenburg to Bukhara made in 1820 in his travelogue published in 1826. He was then a colonel in the General Staff of the Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825).
This expedition is part of Russian expansionism initiated in the 18th century by Catherine the Great (1729-1796).
An extract of this travelogue is contained in the anthology 'The trip to Central Asia and Tibet' published by Michel Jan in the Editions of Robert Laffont. This extract contains two parts: Preparation and dangers of the journey, Manners and customs of Kyrgyz. Acc. to

Józef Kazimierz Sulpicjusz Napoleon Hutten-Czapski / Józef Napoleon, b. 1797 d. 1852, was the father of famous Bogdan Hutten - Czapski. Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski was born 1851, d. 1937.
Bogdan was grandson of Marianna Kornelia Pławińska and Józef Grzegorz Longin Hutten-Czapski Count, 1760 - 1810, who was son of
Antoni Michał Hutten-Czapski

(1725 - 1792; he was brother of Anna Kospot Pawłowska;
Józef Hutten-Czapski [born 1722, father of Ignacy];
Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Hutten-Czapski b. 1725
[father of Maria; Augustyn Szymon Michał Hutten-Czapski; Anna; Karol Hutten-Czapski
{b. 1777, father of Adam Józef Erazm Hutten-Czapski Count b. 1819
who was the father of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk b. 1847
(wife of Wojciech Jan Plater-Zyberk who was son of Henryk Wacław Ksawery Plater-Zyberk b. 1811 and Adelaida von Keller b. 1817 in St Petersburg, who was the daughter of Sophie Eleonore Marie von Borch and grand-daughter of Eleonore Christine Gräfin Browne / Элеонора Христина Юрьервна Борх - Броун born 1766 in Riga),
and Alexandrine Bacheracht.
Karol Hutten-Czapski was also the father of famous Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski Count, and Karol Ignacy Hutten-Czapski}
and Stanisław Hutten-Czapski
and Ludwika)

and Kandyda Rozalia Lipska.

Above mentioned
Emeryk Zachariasz Mikolaj Seweryn Hutten-Czapski, Count, b. 1828, was son of Karol Józef Czapski, friend {?}

(Karol Czapski was owner of Stankow / Stan'kava in Belarus!; b. 1777, died in 1836 in Danilovichi / Daniłowicze
[Daniłowicze / Danilavichy (Данілавічы, Даниловичи, Daniłavičy), ca 11 km east-south-east of Stan'kava / Stankowo of the Hutten-Czapskis, and 18 km south-east of Dzyarzhynsk / Dzierzynsk / Kojdanow of the Hutten-Czapski family; west of Dukora of the Oginski family; ca 40 km south-west of Minsk in Belarus now. In 19th cent. it was the Minsk government, the Ihumen county (Cerven now), the Uzda region];
he was son of Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten of the Chelmno province in Poland, and Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł, daughter of Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko; Karol Czapski married to Fabianna Obuchowicz, daughter of Michał Obuchowicz of Minsk in Belarus; Karol was brother of Stanisław 1779-1844 / 1845, Colonel of the Polish Army; Marshal of the Minsk county, married Zofia Obuchowicz, owner of Kiejdany - son of mentioned Stanislaw was Marian Czapski Count: born in Łachwa in 1816 Belarus now, d. 1875, Więckowice in the Posen province / Poznan province, studied in Wilno / Vilnius, 1845 owner of Kiejdany close to Minsk, exiled to Siberie in 1864, Tomsk to 1867, 1867-1871 Czapski was living in Dorpat, Estonia)

of last Polish king Stanislaw August Poniatowski
(see: Sulkowski, Poniatowski genealogy, Venture, Breguet, Konstantynowicz and villge Miezonka),
and Fabianna nee Obuchowicz; this branch come from Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Czapski, of the Chelmno province, and from Belarus (Radziwill family and Wittgenstein - Radziwill).

Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski studied in St Petersburg, 1863-1864 governor of Great Nowogrod, in 1865 was deputy of the Petersburg governor.

Karol Józef Czapski leased Miezonka from Radziwill 1832 - 1842; then Miezonka was the Konstantynowiczs estate (see: Breguet in Kazan and Armand in Moscow).

Above named Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko / Prince Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila / Міхал Казімер Радзівіл, b. 1702, Olyka, owner of Niasviž, Olyka, Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk and Kopyła. Court Marshal of Lithuania since 1734, Grand Hetman of Lithuania since 1744, 1725 he married Urszula Franciszka Wiśniowiecki, 2nd married Anna Luiza Mycielski in 1754 in Lviv; his children: Michal Krzysztof Radziwiłł, Janusz Tadeusz, Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł - Panie Kochanku, Anna, Ludwika, Teofilia Konstancja Radziwiłł / Teofila Morawska, Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Rzewuska / Katarzyna Karolina, Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł / Weronika Joanna Hutten-Czapska, Hieronim Wincenty, Maria Wiktoria / Maria Wiktoria Maja Moricone / Morykoni, Józefina Grabowska, and last Konstancja.
Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila Žuvelė / Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł / Rybenko d. 1762 in Nieswiez, son of Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1669 - 1719, Karol was brother of Mikołaj Franciszek Radziwiłł; Bogusław Krzysztof; Jerzy Józef Radziwiłł; Ludwik Radziwiłł; Tekla Adelajda; and Jan) and Anna Katarzyna;
he was brother of Katarzyna Barbara Branicka; Tekla Róża Korybut-Wiśniowiecka; Karolina Teresa Pia Sapieha; Hieronim Florian Radziwiłł, and Konstancja Franciszka Sapieha.

In May 1900, Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (acc. to Bogdan Hutten Czapski) gave the political leadership - Chancellors Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst and Bernard von Bulow - "an early opportunity to object to the politically risky portion of his military thinking ... Accepted by Gerhard Ritter, Fritz Fischer, and Norman Rich, he sought to determine what the Reich political leadership thought about violation of Belgian and Dutch neutrality.
In May 1900 Schlieffen asked Graf (Bogdan) Hutten-Czapski, confidential and private secretary to Chancellor Hohenlohe, to visit him. He asked (Bogdan) Hutten (Czapski) if he would sound out Holstein and the Chancellor confidentially.
... Schlieffen apparently did not name the country to which he referred, but Graf Hutten (-Czapski) immediately thought of Belgium. Hutten-Czapski broached the matter with his friend Holstein, the influential advisor to the Foreign Office. ... A few days later Holstein arranged a social gathering at his house to which the Chancellor and the Chief of the GGS were invited. ... Schlieffen apparently carried out the same procedure with Chancellor Bulow. Schlieffen got a different reaction from Herman Freiherr von Eckhardstein, German Counselor in London...", acc. to Moltke, "Schlieffen, and Prussian War Planning", p. 176.
The Schlieffen Plan of the German General Staff in 1905, with the Deployment Plan Aufmarsch I in 1905, "...would not involve Russia but was expected to include Italy and Austria-Hungary as German allies ... In Aufmarsch I, it was stated that Germany would have to go on the offensive to win this kind of war, which entailed all of the German army being deployed on the German–Belgian border, so it could launch an offensive into France, through the southern Dutch province...".
Alfred von Schlieffen, b. 1833, d. 1913, a German field marshal, the Chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906.
Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was at the time the confidential adviser and secretary to Prince Hohenlohe. Acc. to J. Bradford DeLong on July 16, 2014.
In July 1914, Germany had prepared nothing diplomatically, not even the ultimatum to Belgium. Count Hutten-Czapski, records that in May 1900 immediately thought about Belgium. The whole conversation lasted only a few minutes. The name of the country to which Schlieffen referred was never mentioned.
Count Hutten Czapski claims to have been of a different opinion - that it was a momentous decision which would need careful thought. "...Fundamentally he was against any violation of neutrality without the permission of the states involved, because the consequences could not be predicted".
Schlieffen still had close contact with Holstein, also no less significant and influential Count von Hutten-Czapski.
Big play began in the eighties of the 19th century, when Hutten-Czapski, who was the Polish largest landowner in the Prussian officer corps, also enjoyed the full confidence of Holstein, was as a personal secretary at the Imperial Chancellor Hohenlohe; and under his successor Bulow.
Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow b. 1849, in 1905 Prince, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs for three years and then as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909.
Senior military officials, foreign diplomats and military attaches met in the Bogdan Hutten Czapski house. His connections with the ruling circles and members of the imperial government and the Prussian officer corps were very needed to Schlieffen,
"who conducted non-public life. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote about it: 'When he was chief of the General Staff, he let me go to him often and I honored his confidence, using my connections'. ... 'Hutten-Czapski had ample contacts in Poland and Russia and use them to gather political information and military espionage for the Chief of the General Staff...'. The high trust placed him close to Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, evidenced by the fact that Hutten-Czapski to find out about how to Hohenlohe and Holstein relate to the violation of Belgium's neutrality, which was the highest level of state secrets, acc. to Theodor Schiemann. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote, among other things about him: 'Even when he resigned from his position, he allowed me to visit him and said to me, laughing, that I am now the one who delivers to him the most interesting information about court life and politics'. ... On the other hand, Ritter, Wallach and Craig, wrote that between Holstein and Alfred Graf von Schlieffen 'often marked confidential talks on the political situation', and in appreciation of contacts with Hutten-Czapski. ... Contact with Hutten-Czapski proved that among other things it was about foreign policy issues; Helmut Otto said that since August 1891, established contacts between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Caprivi. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen on all important matters consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski (Hague Peace Conference in 1899 Hutten-Czapski). ...
Soon after Hutten-Czapski had a long conversation between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Hohenlohe, also Otto said: 'At the turn of the century to strengthen cooperation with the Government and the General Staff...'.
... In general, we should agree with Otto ...
Helmut Otto also confirms the existence of contacts and cooperation with the Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Hohenlohe ... consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski ... Schlieffen was fully aware of this need and ... foreign events and issues and their impact on military and strategic planning.
These included the Franco-Russian alliance, the peace conference in The Hague, the first Moroccan crisis, relations with partners in the Triple Alliance of Austria-Hungary and Italy and the problems of coalition military preparations, the military objectives and expansionist colonial policy of German imperialism, primarily intervention in China from 1900 to 1902. ... colonial wars in South-West Africa, the struggle against the revolutionary workers' movement...".

It was 1914, the start of the Great War.
But when this war finished, Beseler, as German Governor-General in 1916, proclaimed the German Empire by the occupying powers and Austria - Hungary agreed establishment of an independent Kingdom of Poland. With active help of his close employee Bogdan Hutten - Czapski, he created the new Polish-language Warsaw University and the Technical University of Warsaw. On 10 November 1918, back to Warsaw, Józef Piłsudski; Zdzisław Lubomirski and Adam Koc in the night 09/10 November, 1918 received message about Pilsudski; by Lubomirski's car, Piłsudski arrived to Lubomirski house. Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was looking at this situation from distance, but at Warsaw Castle talked with Hans Hartwig Beseler on Pilsudski; at this moment Sosnkowski moved at Moniuszki avenue. Beseler fled on November 12, with his two aides and Polish officers on a ship on the Vistula river, from Warsaw to Thorn and from there to Berlin.
His contemporaries Hutten - Czapski, Prince Hermann von Hatzfeld and Maria Princess Lubomirska - wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski - expressed their praise of him; Hutten - Czapski: 'The Inspector General of the engineer and pioneer corps and the fortresses had also acquired management experience. ... with a refined and perfect - looking character...'.
Above Prince Zdzisław Lubomirski, a Polish aristocrat, landowner, chairman of the "Central Civil Committee" in 1915. 1917 to 1918 member of the Regency Council. Zdzislaw Lubomirski born 1865 in Nizhny Novgorod, the son of Prince Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski, and Maria Zamoyska; he attended Krakow's St. Anna High School; Jagiellonian University and University of Graz.
Maria Lubomirska b. 1841, d. 1922, daughter of Zdzisław Zamoyski Count; she was wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski Prince, and she was mother of Zdzisław Lubomirski (b. on April 4, 1865, in Niżny Nowogrod, d. 1943); above Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna in the Mohylow region, d. 1908, m. Maria nee Zamoyska; Zdzisław Lubomirski m. Maria nee Branicka; mentioned above Nizhny Novgorod / Nizhniy Novgorod / Nizhny Novgorod in Russia.
Above Zdzislaw Zamoyski:
Zdzisław Zamoyski Count, 1810 Warsaw - d. 1855 in Vienna, Austria, son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia; husband of Józefa Jadwiga Zamoyska; father of:
Stefan Zamoyski, above Maria Lubomirska;
Wanda Grocholska and Zofia Tarnowska;
brother of Konstanty Zamoyski, Andrzej Artur, Jan Zamoyski, Władysław Zamoyski, Celestyna Gryzelda Działyńska; Jadwiga Sapieha; Artur Zamoyski, Elżbieta Brzozowska; Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski and August Zamoyski.
Above named Władysław Zamoyski Count, 1803 - 1868.

Count Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Władysław Zamoyski b. 1852 was a Polish aristocrat and landowner, the grandson of Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski, and of Count Przemysław Potocki. Andrzej Przemysław married Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, granddaughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies, and had eight children.
Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski b. 1775, d. 1856, politician, landowner of Zamość estates. In 1809 he became the chairman of the "Provisional Government" of Galicia. He was Senator-Voivode of the Duchy of Warsaw and the Congress Kingdom from 1810 until 1831. He married Princess Zofia Czartoryska in 1798 in Puławy.
Róża Maria / Marianna Ewa Zamoyska nee Potocka, b. 1831 in Tomaszpil, Ukraine, d. 1890, daughter of Przemysław Potocki and Teresa; wife of Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski b. 1820 in Vienna, who was son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia;
Roza was mother of Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Zamoyski b. 1852 - d. 1927, landowner, born in Warsaw - the grandson of above named Count Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski 1775 in Warszawa, d. 1856 in Wien / Vienna.

On October 7, 1918, on initiative of Prince Lubomirski, Polish declaration of independence was announced and 14th October 1918, Polish Army soldiers pledged allegiance to the Polish flag.
Lubomirski supported Pilsudski's nomination (on 10th Nov. 1918 - 14th Nov.) for the post of the head of state.
Above mentioned Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna / Dubrovno, the Moghilov government; d. 1908, son of Eugeniusz Lubomirski, studied in St Petersburg. Then in France and England. 1863 the Foreign Affairs of Polish Government.
Above named Дубрoвно / Dubrowno in the Sienno (north-east of Miezonka) catholic area; the Orsha county, Moghilev government; at present in the Vicebsk oblast; 90 km to Vicebsk, 19 km north-east of Orsza / Orsha. Dubrovno to 1774 to Sapieha; then Count R. A. Potiemkin / G. A. Potemkin to 1791 (a watch factory!), close to Ksawery Lubomirski estate (and his daughter Klementyna girlfriend of Piotr Kroer);
since 1791 Lubomirski taken Dubrovno - now this place is "capital" of the government; next to Eugeniusz Lubomirski - 1809 new Orthodox church; Dubrovno was the Lubomirski family estate to 1917!
Eugeniusz Lubomirski b. 1789, d. 1834, landowner of Dubrovno close to Orsha from his father;
son of Ksawery Lubomirski (Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski 1747-1819) and Teofila Rzewuski (Teofila Beydo-Rzewuska 1762-1831), and brother of the Russian General Konstanty Lubomirski.

Bogdan Hutten - Czapski had met with the family of Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Hutten-Czapska in 1892.
She was the daughter of George and Josephine, and was born in Prague. Her mother came from the highest aristocracy of the Roman Empire. Maria was a prominent figure who has registered in history primarily as an editor collaborating with Paris 'Culture'. Also worked on biographies of her family, written in collaboration with her brother Jozef Czapski / Joseph.
Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapska, b. 1894 in Prague, died in 1981, Maisons-Laffitte; the granddaughter of Emeryk Czapski / Emeric Hutten-Czapski of the family who had a huge estates from Radziwill, around Minsk, in Curland, Lithuania and Volhynia, acc. to Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski, vol. 1-2, Berlin 1936.
Ferdinand Radziwill of the Polish Knights of Malta, has come after Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, an old friend of the Prussian court and military.
The estate of Pryluki to the Hutten - Czapskis was situated on Ptych river; a house of 1882 and terraced park. Pryluki / Priluki ca 14 km south-west of the Minsk core, and 15 km west of Koroliszczewiczi / Korolishchevici of the Konstantynowiczs; 13 km west of Gatovo / Hatowo, and 23 km north-east of Kojdanow / Koidanov; south-west of Minsk in Belarus, on way to Dzierzynsk / Dzierhinsk / Kojdanow / Koidanov.
Kuchcicze / Kuhtichi of Zawisza and the Radziwill family at the Minsk district; the palace complex, the facade with stone accents.
The first secret missions Bogdan Hutten - Czapski received in 1890, to the Vatican; over the next two years he worked as observer - the German embassy in Paris, where he was ambassador; the later Chancellor, Prince Hohenlohe, which entered into a close friendship with Czapski, and the later Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow, send him on missions; Duke Hohenlohe send Czapski to maintain contacts and research sentiment of the ruling class, also among the well-known from his youth - Bonapartists; he was residing in Paris, and known Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck, and his wife Teresa primo voto Marquise de Paiva; then he moved to Strasbourg, where he was an aide of the Field Marshal Manteuffel.
Then he received from the German General Staff a very important intelligence mission, a trip to the Russian and Austrian ex-Polish districts, to explore moods and relationships (1892). Bogdan Hutten-Czapski met with Karol Czapski of the Minsk goverment;
in 1891 Karol Czapski Hutten in Minsk opened the first pawnshops; in 1892 Hutten-Czapski launched full-scale operations, 1894 Karol Czapski was one of the most wealthy man not only in Minsk, but also in the whole of Belarus.
He know the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company. In the same year in Minsk there was the first power plant, which was able to provide electricity to much of the city. This power was located on Independence Avenue near the Belarusian State Circus.
Karol Hutten-Czapski died in Germany, in Frankfurt on January 17, 1904.

And next very interesting woman:

Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin, wife of Wilhelm Bacheracht, ex-wife of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt;
sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Above Wilhelm Bacheracht, the Russian diplomate, b. 1851, d. 1916 in Berne, the Bern District, in Switzerland; son of Robert von Bacheracht; husband of above mentioned Alexandrine.

Above Robert von Bacheracht b. 1797, died 1884 in Genova, Liguria, Italy. Ex-husband of Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, and father of above named Wilhelm Bacheracht. Also was the Russian diplomate, Vicekonsul in Hamburg, and the generale consul in Genova.
Above Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, born in 1804 in Stuttgart, to a father who was Russian legation secretary Heinrich von Struve; she lived in Hamburg; she was sent to Weimer in 1820, and in St. Petersburg,
married Robert von Bacheracht in 1825,
in 1841 / 1848 she started writing using the Pseudonym Therese. She sepparated from Robert von Bacheracht in 1849 (her love affair with the writer Karl Gutzkow / Karol Guczkow), back to her cousin, Heinrich Freiherr von Lützow (he was the Dutch officer, and she followed him to his post to Surabaya on Java) in August 1849. Therese died in 1852.

Mentioned above
Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin / Hutten-Czapski Alexandra b. 1854 / 1853 - d. 1941, the 1st husband Kolemin;
then entered into a morganatic marriage with the Grand Duke of Hesse Ludwig IV b. 1837; Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and other Royal Houses of Europe. Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany; his mother was the granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
1862, Louis married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. The couple had seven children, among others Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia b. 1864, and Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of All the Russias b. 1872.
Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage in 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska / Aleksandra Czapski Hutten b. 1854 in Warsaw, d. on 8 May 1941, in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland; she was the former wife of Aleksander Kolemin, the Russian charge d'affaires in Darmstadt;
now the Countess von Romrod.

Alexandrine Bacheracht / Alexandrine Countess von Hutten-Czapska died in Vevey / Switzerland, close to La Tour de Peilz; 8 km noerth-west of Montreux (see: Duflon, Konstantynowicz); 18 km south-east of Lutry; 6 km north-west of Clarens!
Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska, Grafin Romrod, daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski, and Countess Mariane Rzewuska / Marianne von Rzewuska Grocholska / Maria Anna Katarzyna Hutten-Czapska nee Rzewuska b. 1827; Alexandrine was the sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Bacheracht, Alexandrine nee Countess von Hutten Czapska, Kolemine, Countess Romrod (1854-1941) has grave with Georg von Kolemines in the cemetery of St. Martin in Vevey, Switzerland; but her husband was Alexander von Kolemin.
Who was Georg v. Kolemines?

"According to L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome I (1986), Grand Duke Ludwig (b. 1837, d. 1892) married morganatically at Darmstadt on 30 April 1884 Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapski (b. 1853 or 1854, d. 1941). Alexandrine was Ludwig's young Warsaw-born mistress of some years, was a recent widow, her husband Alexander von Kolemine, a Russian diplomat, having died the previous month in March. The von Kolemines had been separated since 1884, according to L'Allemagne Dynastique, but according to other sources, Alexandrine and von Kolemine were divorced. She is known as Alexandrine or Alexandra, and her first husband's name is rendered as Kolemine, Kolemin, Kalomine, or Kolomine. ... The Queen wrote to Victoria in reply that she was angry with Ludwig's plan to marry... Queen Victoria acted quickly and decisively. She more or less forced Ludwig to agree to end his marriage ... See 'From Battenberg to Mountbatten', by E. H. Cookridge, London, 1966, ... E. Corti (Salzburg, 1936). ... Ultimately, Alexandrine had no choice, accepted the situation, and left for Moscow. A few years later, in 1892 or 1893, Alexandrine married for a third time, to Basil von Bacheracht, who died in 1916. Finally, as for a child born of Ludwig and Alexandrine's brief marriage, one source mentions his existence, ... by David Duff (London, 1958). ... the child, a son, 'was adopted as a brother by the Empress of Russia'. ... Duff, using information supplied by Lord Mountbatten (Victoria's younger son), states that Grand Duke Ludwig's marriage to Alexandrine was not consummated",
acc. to Yvonne Demoskoff on 14 Mar 2003.

It was different Alexander von Kolemin who in 1842 m. to Marija Aleksandrovna Tolstoj b. 1822, daughter of Alexandr Stepanovich Tolstoj 1788 - 1850 / 1859, and Marija Ivanovna Golovina.

Jurij Alexandrovich Kolemin, was son of above Alexandrina nee Hutten Czapska.

I wrote above that
Alexandrine von Hutten-Czapska was the daughter of Adam Graf von Hutten-Czapski (1819 - d. 1883 in Nice or 1884) and Marianne Countess of Rzewuska-Grocholska (1827-1897).
Her father was raised along with his brothers and Ignacy Hutten-Czapski (Emmerich) on 12 June 1874 to the Count title in the Russia.

Above Adam Józef Erazm Hutten-Czapski b. 1819 was son of Karol Hutten-Czapski and Fabianna;
above Karol Hutten-Czapski b. 1777 d. 1836,
was son of Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Hutten-Czapski and Weronika Joanna, husband of Fabianna;
he was father of Adam Józef Erazm;
Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski;
and Karol Ignacy Hutten-Czapski;
brother of Stanislaw Hutten-Czapski; half brother of Augustyn Szymon (Michal) Hutten-Czapski; Anna Hutten-Czapska and Maria Hutten-Czapska.

In 1894 Karol Hutten Czapski was top figure in Minsk in Belarus; this Jan Karol Alexander Hutten-Czapski, usually as Karol Czapski (August 15 1860-1904) the Mayor of Minsk from 1890 to 1901, a Catholic, Count; born in Stankow close to Minsk Litewski, d. 1904 in Frankfurt;
he was the eldest son of Count Emeryk Czapski, known numismatist and Elizabeth of Meyendorff barons.
The owner of an estates: in Minsk belonged to him orchard, three stone and five multi-storey wooden houses, 34 thousands acres of land in Minsk and the Ihumen / Igumen districts, namely Stankovo:
Negoreloye (11 km south-west of Kojdanow, and north-east of Stolbcy; 12 km south-west of Stan'kowo / Stankovo),
Prusinovo (15 km east of Stolbcy; north-east of Nesvizh / Nieswiez),
Zubarevichi (Glussk / Hlusk area),
Stankovo (in Stankovo library there were more than 2,500 books), forest cottage on the way of Tslyakovo;
Sallenen estate / Sallienien in Courland / west Kurland, Saliene (Saliena), south-west of Kuldinga.
In 1894, a friend of Bogdan Czapski, Hohenlohe was Chancellor of the Reich and Czapski, along with his good friend, gray eminence of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Baron Holstein, became the main adviser to the Chancellor on matters of foreign policy;
Czapski also brokered between Berlin and the Vatican; Czapski at that time supported the candidacy of Edward Likowski on nomination, which Berlin did not want to agree. In 1895, Bogdan Hutten - Czapski was appointed hereditary member of the Prussian House of Lords.
Colonel Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, one of the closest collaborators of General Hans Hartwig von Beseler resided in the Potocki Palace in the years 1915-1918.

In 1914 Max Isidor Bodenheimer set out his vision to Count Hutten-Czapski of the General Staff, chief of sabotage operations on the eastern front.
With support from the General Staff and the Wilhelmstrasse, Bodenheimer established the German Committee for Freeing of Russian Jews in 1914; Bodenheimer wanted the German army to assault the power of the Tsarist empire in the Baltic states, Poland, White Russia and the Ukraine, where he hoped for an 'East European Federation' in which 'all ethnic groups were to enjoy national autonomy', including the Jews, by Wikipedia.
Max Isidor Bodenheimer b. 1865, Stuttgart, the main figure in German Zionism, 1898 he visited Palestine, in August 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, he submitted an Expose on the Synchronization of German and Jewish Interests in the World War to German military headquarters in Cologne. The League of East European States or Federation of East European States was a political idea conceived during World War I for the establishment of a buffer state, which would be a de facto protectorate of the German Empire.

Florence, a node of this network in Italy:
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d. 1885, Pratolino near Florence).
Nikolai Nikitich Demidov, b. 1773 in Moscow, Russia; died in 1828 in Florence, Tuscany, Italy. Since 1815 - Russian Ambassador to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In Florence, where he founded an orphanage and a school, it was built a monument (1871) on the square called Piazza Demidoff.
In 1793, "Demidov married an heiress Baroness Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov, so was able to improve their financial situation. Upon his retirement, Demidov went with his wife in foreign travel, visiting Germany, England, France and Italy, and never missed a chance to get acquainted with the success of the mining equipment ... Returning to Russia in 1806, Demidov, wanting to have at its plants all the latest improvements on the part of technology, ordered from France Professor Ferri, then famous expert in the mining business. Demidov sent at his own expense abroad in England, Sweden and Austria to study specific industries of metallurgy more than a hundred serfs. The Nizhny Tagil plant of Demidov, ... was considered at that time the most advanced around the ridge of the Ural Mountains. ... Appointed in 1815 to Florence as Russian envoy, Demidov arranged here at their own expense an art museum and art gallery, which contains works by famous artists. In Florence Nicholas Nikitich arranged for their money a home for the elderly and orphans charity and donated to his special affairs. Living in recent years in Florence, Demidov though he lived a very luxurious and spare no means patronized scientists and artists, could, however, skillfully manage their affairs in Siberia, America, France and other countries...".
His son with Baroness Elisabeta Alexandrovna Stroganova:
Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov, b. 1798 in Saint Petersburg, died in 1840 in Mainz; husband of Aurora Karamzin; Count Pavel (called Paul) Nikolaievich Demidov as an officer in his father's regiment fought at the battle of Borodino in 1812. After the war he entered the Chevalier Guards regiment; in 1831 he entered civil service as governor of the province of Kursk. In 1834 he entered service in the Ministry of the Exterior as court Huntsmaster, later State Councillor. In Helsinki he married the maid-of-honour to Her Majesty the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Aurora Stjernvall (1808-1902) - they had one son, above Pavel Pavlovitch Demidov (1839–1885), whose daughter Aurora was mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia.
Above Eva Aurora Charlotta Karamzina (nee Stjernvall) was a Finnish-Swede philanthropist. "...Karamzina was born in Ulvila (Ulvsby), in Saaren Kartano, Finland. She was the daughter of Carl Johan Stjernvall (1764-1815) and Baroness Eva Gustava von Willebrand (1781-1844). Her father was a high official in the Grand Duchy of Finland and became the First Governor of the Viipuri Province in 1812. Von Willebrand was a distant niece of Gustav I of Sweden. Following Stjernvall's death in 1815, the Baroness remarried and became the wife of Finland's Procurator, Carl Johan Walleen ... Karamzina had an older brother, Emil Stjernvall Walleen (1806-1890) who became a Finnish Minister of State and a Baron. Karamzina also had two sisters, Emilia (1811-1846) and Alexandra Aline (1812-1851). Emilia married Vladimir Musin-Pushkin while Alexandra became the second wife of Jose Maurício Correia Henriques, the 1st Count de Seisal. Karamzina also had three half-brothers ... Aurora was appointed as a lady-in-waiting to Empress Alexandra Fedorovna the elder (consort to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia), and a lady of the bedchamber of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna the younger and Empress Maria Feodorovna. She was made a dame of the Order of Saint Catherine, the highest honour for ladies in Imperial Russia. ... In 1836, she married Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov ... In 1846 ... she remarried to Andrei Karamzin. ... She was considered a great benefactor in many cities such as Saint Petersburg and Florence. Karamzina's only child was Pavel Pavlovich Demidov ... In 1870, Pavel succeeded his childless uncle, Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, as the 2nd Prince of San Donato. Her granddaughter ... Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova married Arsen Karadordevic, Prince of Serbia and became the mother of the Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia...".
Above named Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato, died in 1885, Pratolino, Florence, was a Russian industrialist, jurist, philanthropist; first m. in 1867 to Princess Maria Elimovna Meshcherskaya (b. Saint Petersburg, 1844 - d. San Donato (or Vienna, per Ferrand), in 1868).
Her son Elim Pavlovich Demidov, 3rd Prince of San Donato, at Hietzing in the suburbs of Vienna born 1868.
In Saint Petersburg in 1871 he remarried to Princess Elena Petrovna Trubetskaya (Saint Petersburg, 1853 - Odessa, 1917), with whom he had six children:
Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, 1873 - d. Bussolino Torinese, Torino), mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia;
Anatoly Pavlovich Demidov, 4th Prince of San Donato (b. San Donato 1874 d. in Marseille);
Princess Maria Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, d. Pratolino), married in Helsingfors to Prince Semyon Semyonovich Abamelik-Lazarev;
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov (b. San Donato, 1879);
Elena Pavlovna Demidova (b. Saint Petersburg, 1884 - d. Sesto Fiorentino), married firstly in Saint Petersburg to Count Alexander Pavlovich Shuvalov, married secondly in Dresden in 1907 to Nikolai Alexeievich Pavlov.
Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato moved to Villa Pratolino / Villa Demidoff next to Gaston Mestayer.
Evgenia Klimentievna Demidova had daughters Evgenia, Avrora and Helena; in Saint Petersburg in 1894 he married Podmener.
d. Look at, on Florence, Bobrinski and Oginski:
da. Pr Dimitri Obolensky, b. St. Petersburg in 1882, d. Cannes in 1964; m. 1st Berlin in 1905 (div 1916) Css Helene Bobrinsky (St. Petersburg in 1885 - died in Bordeaux in 1937); m. 2d in Moscow 18 Jul 1917 (div 1921) to Css Maria Schouwalowa (b. Berlin in 1894, d. Oxford in 1973); m. 3d in London in 1923 to Natalia Fedorov (b. Simbirsk 1894).
db. Ct Alexis Bobrinsky, b. St. Petersburg in 1893, d. London in 1971; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1915 to Css Natalia Fersen (b. Paris in 1890); m. 2d Paris in 1940 to Olga Kosolup-Pchenitchny; m. 3d to Css Olga de Bertren;
dc. Css Catherine Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1883, d. Nice in 1954; m. in St.Petersburg 1908 to Ilya Miklachevsky (b. Odessa in 1877).
dd. Pr Jerome Bonaparte (b. Trieste in 1814, d. Florence in 1847).
de. His sister:
Pss Mathilde Bonaparte (b. Trieste 1820, d. Paris in 1904); m. in Florence in 1840 to Anatole Demidov, Pr di San Donato (b. Moscow in 1813, d. Paris in 1870).

df. Ct Alexander Schouwalow / Szuwalow / Shuvalov, b. Vartemiagui in 1881, d. London 1935; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1903 (div) Pss Helene Demidova di San Donato (b. St. Petersburg in 1884, d. Florence in 1959); m. 2d in Paris in 1916 to Css Sophia Fersen (b. St. Petersburg 1888, d. Davos in 1927).


Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florence / Florencja.
See: 'Freemasonry and Fraternalism in Eighteenth-Century Russia' by Andreas Önnerfors and Robert Collis (eds.), Sheffield Lectures on the History of Freemasonry and Fraternalism, Volume Two, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, 2009, ©2009 CRFF and the authors, ISBN: 978-0-9562096-1-0.
Andrzej Ignacy Oginski: b. 1740, Freemason; 1772 in Vienna wanted to establish failed contact with the French Ambassador, de Rohan; was talking with the British Ambassador in Vienna, David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield (David Murray b. 1727 d. 1796, known as The Viscount Stormont from 1748 to 1793; Minister to Saxony and Poland, 1755-1763; Ambassador to Austria, 1763-1772; Ambassador to France, 1772-1778; married 1st to Henrietta Frederica Bunau, daughter of the British ambassador to Saxony - child, Elizabeth Murray b. 1760 in Warsaw, and she was friend of Dido Elizabeth Belle b. 1761; David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield married secondly Louisa Cathcart, they had five children - Caroline, David, George, Charles, and Henry), but Oginski believed Kaunitz;
his wife Paula Szembek / Paulina Szembek, with son Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florencja.
Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Oginski, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski, Franciszek Ksawery Oginski, Amelia Zaluska, Ida Oginska, Emma Oginska.
In 1796 Catherine of Russia died. 1796 - Paul, the new Tsar, and refugees were accepting amnesties already offered by Catherine. Ca 1797 Kajetan Nagurski joined this re-immigration, and he took Maria Neri back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau. Acc. to Iwo Zaluski: ca 1798, Kajetan Nagurski himself returned to Russian Lithuania, to reclaim and sort out his estate. Kajetan, unable then to get a passport allowing him back into Prussia, and thus to Warsaw, asked Morawski's father, Apolinary, to visit Maria Neri. Apolinary Morawski became lover behind Kajetan's back, with Maria Neri ca 1798. Nagurski brought her to his estate in Lithuania, where he married her, ca 1799. Ca 1800 Maria began to be seen in the company of the dashing young Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania. The affair came to an end when Count Kajetan Nagurski decided to go to Vienna with Maria, where he hoped to find a cure for his jaundice. Kajetan died soon afterwards in Vienna 1800 / 1801. His widow, now an independent lady, returned to Vilnius, and in 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska's life changed direction after she caught the attention of General Count Levin August von Bennigsen, Governor of Vilnius.
1801, Michal Kleofas Oginski
(1790, to The Hague as a diplomatic representative of Poland in the Netherlands; in 1795 Konstantynopol, 1796 Venice, Tuscany; Paris; 1810 Petersburg;
moved abroad in 1815?,
1822 Italy, 1823 Firenze / Florence to death 1833)
was living with his wife Izabela and two infant sons, Tadeusz and Xavier, at his wife's family's estate at Brzeziny, to the south west (see Otrebusy) of Warsaw.
Tsar Paul refused him permission to return, and new Tsar Alexander offered him an unconditional amnesty. Michal Kleofas Oginski, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in inevitable divorce, accepted the amnesty, and returned to Vilnius in 1802. Maria Nagurska / Maria Neri accepted marriage 1802, and in 1804 settled at his estate at Zalesie close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk. Michal Kleofas had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg in 1810.
Her children: Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska, Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813. Her son Ireneusz, born in 1807 / 1808 was conceived of the singer Giuseppe Paliani.

Michal Kleofas Oginski with his parents in 1772 - 1773 was living in Viena; 1773 back with mother to Guzow again; 1785 memeber of Parliament in Warsaw; in March 1794 the Uprising began, which was led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Count Mikhail-Cleophas Oginski was in the front ranks of the rebels. Donated 188000 zlotys, was in command of 480 riflemen. He was elected to the National Council.
Twice attempted to enter the Minsk Governorate to raise Belarusians against Russian occupation; actions under him to Dyneburg / Dinaburg on August 12, 1794; also struggled against Prussian intervention.
When the Russians occupied Vilnius 1794, Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Warsaw.
The Russians outlawed him and seized all his lands. In fall of 1794 he, along with Isabella, flees to Vienna and Venice in Italy, but she soon returned to Poland after learns that her husband has spent on the case "revolution" even her family jewels. Thereafter Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Paris.
He swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1802 and settled in Zalesie village 1804, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow.
1807 - Oginski met Napoleon in Italy,
in Venice; he told with Napoleon but next Oginski moved on Tuscany in 1808, where he was 12 years before; here in Florence General Menou was appointed governor, and Oginski was in the Pitti Palace; after the peace of Schoenbrunn, Oginski repaired to Paris, at the invitation of the Russian minister Prince Kurakin; Oginski was in Paris the seventh time; from Paris back to Wilno, and was entrusted with a memorial from the nobility of Lithuania, and he repaired to Petersburg in 1810 to Alexander who appointed of Oginski to be Senator of Russia and the Russian Emperor gave Oginski the rank of Privy Councilor. In 1810, the nobility of Vilna and Grodno provinces decided to send a representative to the Alexander I on economic and administrative affairs of the region, and this representative was elected Michal-Cleophas Oginski and supported by the Governor-General Mikhail Kutuzov. Then he rejoined his family at Paris; he again appeared at the Tuilleries in 1810, where Napoleon and Duroc again received him about the project re-establishment of the kingdom of Poland. In April 1811 Oginski back to Petersburg to Emperor with regard to Poland.
Michal Kleofas Oginski, not once (1810-1811) met the Russian Emperor Alexander I in St. Petersburg, Vilnius, Mogilev and Vitebsk, developed the latest project of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, known as the Oginski Plan;
this Plan for the restoration of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, to unite the eight provinces, in 1810-1812 offered to Alexander I, however, was rejected by the Emperor in May 1811;
in June 1812, Michal Kleofas / Michael Cleophas Oginski with troops stationed in St. Petersburg. After the war with Napoleon returned to Zalessie, where he remained until 1822, slowly moving away from political affairs;
in 1817 Oginski moved from St Petersburg to Vilna.
I wrote down in 1810 Oginski moved to St. Petersburg, Russia. There he met the Russian Emperor.
"...In 1814, the tsar decreed that the Retow / Rietavas manor be sold to M. K. Oginski for the sum of 277,600 silver rubles. In this way, Rietavas became a private manor of the Oginski family, and soon after that, their most important residence in Lithuania. Duke M. K. Oginski was a multifaceted personality: a prominent figure in the life of the state, the last treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a composer, a man of letters ... (by Jeffrey Andrev Clarke, Liucija Balkevičiūtė).
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, M. K. Oginski lost hope that the Lithuanian state would be restored, and he decided to emigrate. In 1822, he transferred ownership of his Rietavas property to his wife Maria nee Neri / Marija and to his children, and in 1823 he left for Italy. M. K. Oginski never returned to Lithuania".
"...After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Ogiński considered the Polish puppet Kingdom of Poland, with the Tsar himself as King, a sell-out, and he lost faith not only in politics, but also in his marriage, which, like his first one, had gone sour. In 1823 he wrote his most famous Polonaise No 13 in A minor, known as Farewell to the Fatherland, and exiled himself to his beloved Florence...",
by Iwo Załuski, at
In 1815, his marriage came to divorce, said love life of his wife probably condemned his reputation and now Oginski as a senator of the Russian Empire, after the creation of the Congress Kingdom in 1815, left for Italy, settling in Florence again.
By Jerzy Jan Lerski, ‎Piotr Wróbel, ‎Richard J. Kozicki:
"Disappointed again, Oginski emigrated to Western Europe in 1815. ...".
In 1817 Oginski resigned as senator,
" 1822 he became seriously ill, he had drove to Florence (again) to cure itself. From this time Oginski gave away the music and composition ... In 1831 he gave his note book (collection of his notes) with more than 60 works for piano and some songs out".
But different sources wrote:
In 1823 (1815, 1822?) failing health forced him to move to Italy, where he spent the last 10 years of his life.
But in 1820, when finally disappointed policies of Alexander I, Oginski agreed to move to a second wife's home in Napoli / Naples.

And now the most important notes on:
1. The Scotti Douglas / Scotti family of Naples and Nola (below at this webpage); 2. the Neri family from Florence, Venice, Zalesse; 3. also the Mercier / Mercer family from Estonia, Petersburg, Ceylon and south India; 4. tea plantations at Ceylon island. 5. the Weiss family of Estonia.

We need to check all data on Michal Kleofas Oginski trips:
1815 abroad, 1817 ?, 1822 Italy, 1823 Florence.

Explanations to Naples in 1820:

Leonard Borejko Chodźko, historian and writer, born in Oborek, the Palatinate of Vilna, in 1800; son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria; cousin of the Orientalist Aleksander Chodźko; studied at Molodeczno, with Zan, and at Wilna, under the historian J. Lelewel.
In 1819 was the personal secretary of Michael Cleophas Oginski, and together in 1822 left Lithuania, through nearly all Europe; Chodzko after a four-year stay in Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and England, settled in Paris in 1826;
he published Histoire des legions polonaises en Italic in 1829; 1830, "...Lafayette appointed him his aide-de-camp; and after the outbreak of Nov. 29 of the same year in Warsaw, he acted as agent of the revolutionary government in France. He was an active member of the French-Polish and American-Polish committees...".
Member of the Polish National Committee and 'Zemsta Ludu', 1832 / 1833, with Joachim Lelewel and Józef Zaliwski, and also with Józef Kazimierz Sulpicjusz Napoleon Hutten-Czapski / Józef Napoleon, b. 1797 d. 1852,
the father of famous Bogdan Hutten - Czapski (see Pilsudski, Lubomirski, 1892 Minsk in Belarus, Miezonka before 1842.
Members of the 'Zemsta Ludu':
Stanisław Gabriel Worcell, Bolesław Gurowski, Mjr Antoni Krąkowski, Józef Zaliwski; Ostrowski moved to Paris, Krąkowski to Posen, Worcell to Lviv,
Joachim Lelewel who was republican conspirator, a close collaborator of the Carbonari, and of the
Société des Amis du Peuple

[see Inessa Armand:
Inessa Armand born in Paris on 8th May, 1874. Name variations: Ines Stéphane / Eлизавета Фёдоровна / Ines Elisabeth Stephane / Elise / Elisabeth / Elisaveta / Стеффeн / Steffen / Comrade Inessa and Elena Blonina. Born Elizabeth Stephane, was daughter of Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville and Nathalie Wild; married Alexander Armand, Oct 3, 1893.
Alexandre Dumas points to Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux and Ernest Duchatelet were involved in political trials at the time but the person who shot Alfred Galois (a duel) was by the initials L. D., a member of the Society of Friends of the People (La Societe des Amis du Peuple, in France created in 1830, fighting for a republic and for political enlightenment of progressive workers. After the 1833 trial, the society ceased to exist,
acc. to 2010 The Gale Group, Inc). And after - when she was only five - Elizabeth Stephane or Ines / Inessa was brought up by an aunt - new governess and grandmother living in Moscow - around 1880. Anna Asknazi vel Askenazy was friend of Inessa Armand in Moscow of 1909 and also doctor N. N. Pechkin, Boris Armand, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Константинович who helped out financially, Natalia Emil'evna, the twin Brilling brothers-in-law, Alexander Armand. At the age of eighteen she married Alexander Armand, the son of Evgenii Armand, a successful textile manufacturer in Pushkino near by Moscow. At the age of 19 she knew only two languages until as adult she learned German and Polish.
Above mentioned Société des amis du peuple / The Society of Friends of the people was a Republican organization, dissolved October 2, 1830 on the basis of Article 291 of the Criminal Code, but it does not disappear. In April / May, 1831, 19 Republicans are accused of conspiracy, of which ten were members of the Society. New associations take over, such as the League of Human Rights. Member of the Society of Friends:
Evariste Galois was born 1811 in Bourg-la-Reine, died on 31 May 1832 in Paris after a duel; May 9, 1831 in the restaurant Harvest Burgundy, Faubourg du Temple, Evariste Galois was at garden-party, but the next day, arrested with nineteen Republicans, including Ulysses Trélat, Joseph Guinard, Godfrey Cavaignac and Pescheux Herbinville of accused of plotting against the security of the State; on July 4, 1831, Fish and Lacroix make their report on Galois; release on 29 April 1832. Galois's fatal duel took place on 30 May, 1832. There has been much speculation, about a Mademoiselle Stéphanie-Félicie Poterin du Motel; Alexandre Dumas names Pescheux d'Herbinville, one of the nineteen artillery officers whose celebrated at the banquet on the occasion of Galois's first arrest and du Motel's fiance.
Dumas is alone in this assertion, and only a few days after the duel give a description of his opponent that more accurately applies to one of Galois's Republican friends, most probably Ernest Duchatelet, who was imprisoned with Galois on the same charges. There were plans to initiate an uprising during his funeral.
See: John Stillwell of 2010.
Société des droits de l'homme / The Society for Human Rights (SDH) is a republican association from 1830, developed from 1832, after the disappearance of the other great republican association the Society of Friends of the People;
it is organized on the model of the Carbonari.
The note on:
François Etienne Pecheux or Pescheux of Herbinville, former member of the League of Friends of the People / Pescheux d'Herbinville (but also PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE / Théodore Pécheux d'Herbenville):
Evariste Galois confronted Pescheux d'Herbinville in a duel to be fought with pistols, and was shot through the stomach. Évariste Galois, b. 1811.
See: Alexandre Dumas, My Memoirs, p 61 and 247.
Pescheux was named Administrator at Compiegne Palace on May 4, 1848, he took office on June 1 to August 25, 1848 and then at Château de Fontainebleau, on September 2, 1848 until April 15, 1850. He published "Fontainebleau and charming walks to sites and rocks that surround" in 1850.
The genealogy of Inessa Armand:
Henri Lucien PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE born on 14 August 1875 in Asnieres;
parents: Leon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849, marchant, and Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854;
Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1809 and Marie-Josephine DESCHAMPS / Marie-Joséphine Jenny DESCHAMPS by
Her children:
Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE 1839-1904,
Lucien PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1845 married in 1876, in Paris to Caroline GAVIOLI 1842-1924,
Théodore PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1847 - father of Inessa Armand;
Léon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849 married to Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854.
Above Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX des HERBENVILLE / Etienne François PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE, b. on 5 April 1809 in Paris, Artillery Officier, member of the 'Société des Amis du Peuple';
m. 1st to Marie-Joséphine DESCHAMPS;
m. 2nd in 1859 in Paris to Lucie Marie Dorothée PÉPIN; he was awarded the Cross of July]

Société des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen,
Filip Buonarotti, Michał Chodźko in Lyon in 1833; Kalikst Borzewski of Plock, Zawisza, Sperczyński, Kisielewski, Aleksander Psalmart, Józef Dąbkowski).
Mentioned Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski was born 1851, d. 1937.
In 1833 Colonel Zaliwski, co-operated with The Carbonari movement (see Oginski in Naples in 1820; the Scotti-Douglas in Nola and Naples / Napoli and also Scotland), secret revolutionary society founded in early 19th century in Italy.
The Italian Carbonari influenced other revolutionary groups in Spain, France, Portugal and possibly Russia: Bazard, Silvio Pellico, Pietro Maroncelli, Giuseppe Mazzini, Marquis de Lafayette (see Chodzko), Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis Auguste Blanqui, Byron and Giuseppe Garibaldi.

We back again to Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to (January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833; 1833 - 1837 Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski / Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834
(Mazzini's Young Europe, founded in Bern by seventeen exiles; the center of a European movement, acc. to Alberto Mario Banti:
"...according to whom, in a peaceful future, Europe would take the form of a harmonious community, in which all free nations would cooperate both politically and culturally, to their mutual benefit".
"...Mazzini obtained the cooperation of the principal representatives of the various nationalities in the organization of a new association to be called Young Europe. ... appointed delegates, who on April 15, 1834, solemnly agreed to abide by the political, social, and religious platform which was laid down by Mazzini. The main object of Young Europe, according to Mazzini, was to lay the foundation for a universal development of thought and action, which would lead to the discovery and practical application of the divine laws of human government. Mazzini defined the league as the young Europe of the people, which was to supplant the old Europe of kings...",
acc. to ''),
including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland.
Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to Hubert Koziel, in 1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski was the republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini of the Carbonari.
Who was above mentioned an Irishman O'Brien?
Journal of Political Ideologies 06/2008 "...analyses the political economy of James Bronterre O'Brien, most important intellectual of 1830s' British working-class radicalism. It examines O'Brien's critique of 1830s Britain ... The article argues that O'Brien's work of the period 1832–1841 is best viewed as the first example of a genuinely democratic anti-capitalist political economy. The article goes on to analyse changes that occurred to O'Brien's democratic anti-capitalist political economy ... was partially abandoned in 1841. The article concludes that the reasons for these changes are to be found not in ideational factors internal to O'Brien's political economy, but rather in O'Brien's personal circumstances and relationship with his imagined audience", copyright by Ben Maw.
Acc. to Richard Brown at
"...Bronterre O'Brien was born at (near by) Granard (28 km south of Cavan, 36 km north-west-north of Mullingar), County Longford, Ireland, in February 1804 (or 1805), the second son of Daniel O'Brien and his wife, Mary Kearney. His father, who was a wine and spirit merchant and a tobacco manufacturer in co. Longford, failed in business during O'Brien’s childhood, and died soon after. O'Brien was educated at ... Edgeworthstown School, which had been promoted by Richard Lovell Edgeworth. He then went to Trinity College, Dublin ... 1829. He entered the King's Inns, Dublin, and then went to London, where he was admitted as a law student at Gray's Inn in March 1830. In London he met Henry Hunt and William Cobbett. In 1831, ... contributed to Hetherington's Poor Man's Conservative. ... called himself James Bronterre O'Brien. ... visited France on three occasions in 1837-8. In 1836, his translated edition of Buonarotti's History of Babeuf's Conspiracy was published and in 1838 the first volume of his eulogistic Life of Robespierre appeared. ... In 1837, he began Bronterre's National Reformer, but it soon failed and in 1838 The Operative that ended publication in July 1839. ... he had four children. From the beginning of the Chartist movement, O'Brien was one of its most prominent figures. He was a member of the original London Working Man's Association, and was a delegate to the Chartist meeting in Palace Yard ... 1838 ... He represented the Chartists of Manchester at the Chartist convention ... 1840. O'Brien acted in his own defence ... on a charge of conspiracy, but was found guilty at Liverpool in April ... He was sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment. ... Released in September 1841, O'Brien continued the series of bitter personal quarrels with O'Connor ... edited the British Statesman between June and December 1842, and in 1845 became editor of the National Reformer. ... He wrote several pamphlets on Lord Palmerston, Lord Overstone, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Robespierre. He was a member of the Stop-the-War-League during the Crimean War ... died at his home in Pentonville, London, ... 1864. His wife survived him...".
A short on his son Bogdan Hutten-Czapski:
"...On the German side, the emperor had himself as early as July 31, 1914, a day before Germany declared war on Russia, given the German-Polish magnate Count Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Hutten-Czapski (b. 1851), a personal acquaintance of his, a non-binding assurance that the Polish state should be restored when Russia was defeated. The imperial promise may have been vague, but the Imperial Chancellor confirmed it on the same day. ... immediately on the outbreak of war this same Hutten-Czapski, who was a lieutenant-colonel in the Prussian army, was attached to the general staff in charge of Polish and Ukrainian questions. His first commission was to foment insurrection in Congress Poland by means which included the raising of a Polish Legion - the counterpart to Pilsudski's in Galicia - and the dissemination among the Poles of leaflets and cartoons to awaken sympathy for the Central Powers. A month later Hutten-Czapski was relieved of this commission but only, it would appear, because his sympathies were too strongly nationalist ...
See: Fritz Fischer, Germany's Aims in the First World War, New York, 1967 pp. 114-5. Note 4 referring to Hutten-Czapski, 60 Jahre Politik etc., Berlin, 1936, Vol 2, pp. 145 f.;
... Szescdziesiat lat zycia politycznego i towarzyskiego. Warszawa, F. Hoesick, 1936. 2 v. plates ... At head of title: Bogdan Hutten-Czapski...".

Leonard Chodzko died in Poitiers in 1871; he was born 1800, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria;
husband of famous Olimpia (see Venture, Sulkowski and Breguet, Konstantynowicz and Armand in Moscow; Duflon from Switzerland);
brother of Aleksander Chodźko (died 1877)
acc. to Leszek Mila.

Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis, was a French orientalist. The son of a family of diplomats
(his father had been consul in the Crimea and in other countries of the Levant)
and military, he studied at the School of Languages of Louis-le-Grand College in Paris where he learned so well the Arab and Turkish, and at the age of fifteen, was working at the French Embassy in Constantinople. He was a secretary and interpreter of the Embassy of France; he held various positions in Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunis in 1779 and Algier. He also participated in the inspection mission of the Levant, by Baron de Tott. He returned to Paris in 1797 at the School of Oriental Languages, the Turkish​​. The member of the Commission on Science and the Arts, military interpreter of the Army of the East. Member of the Institute of Egypt on August 22, 1798, at the section of literature and arts.
Jean-Joseph Marcel, who was his pupil, said he died of dysenterie, others talk of plague. Another hypothesis says he died on April 19, 1799 in Nazareth, ill after the Siege of Saint John of Acre.
He was married in Cairo to Victoria Digeon (on June 14, 1774), he had two daughters, one of which, Jeanne Venture de Paradis married in 1810 (?) to watchmaker Antoine Louis Breguet, son of the famous Abraham Louis Breguet, which is a branch of Clementine Célarié.
But we know that Breguet, Louis François Clément / Louis Clément Bréguet, b. December 22, 1804 (!) in Paris.
Clémentine Célarié (born 1957) is a French actress and singer, was born as Myriem Célarié in Dakar, living in the United States, back in France to Aix-en-Provence.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis in 1764, as interpreter in Sidon, and in 1770 in Cairo, until 1776, making a number of services to politics and commerce of France.
Above mentioned Digeon Victoria (next of kin ? with Alexander Elisabeth Michel vicomte Digeon / Alexandre Elisabeth Michel Digeon, Major General, b. on June 26, 1771 in Paris, died on August 2, 1826 in the village of Ronqueux, annexed in 1834 to Bullion, near Paris) had two daughters.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis returning to France to report to Cabinet on the art of Egypt, had to leave for Marseilles, to accompany Barone Tott, who inspected the French warehouses in ports of the Levant, 1778 Cairo. This mission taken two years. In 1779 Venture was in Tunis, where he remained for five years as interpreter for the Consulate of France; recalled in Paris, as Secretary of interpreters of the East; then posted in Algiers, in order to renew the treaties between France and Algier, in 1790 returned to France; again in 1793 as Secretary - interpreter, together with the French ambassador to Constantinople; he was arrested in Switzerland at the hands of the Austrians; had expected to Venice 1793 ?, then gone alone to Constantinople where he stayed until 1797; then returned to France, accompanying the Ambassador Ali Effendi. In Paris at the Turkish Special School of Oriental Languages​​. When Napoleon undertook the expedition to Egypt, Venture de Paradis was appointed primary interpreter.
During the stay in Egypt, he was appointed member of the Institut of Egypt since its founding, on August 22, 1798 at the section of literature and the arts. He gone with the emperor in Syria, but during the siege of Acre fell ill of dysentery, in the convent of Nazareth, died during the retreat, or he was transferred to Egypt. Venture de Paradis was one of the most famous Arabists of the time, not only for his languages, but also for his perfect knowledge of the habits and customs of the eastern populations.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis that is Jan Michał Venture de Paradis was father of Janina 'Egipcjanka' Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska / JeanneFrançoise Venture / Jeanne Françoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France, wife of Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet, and mother of Louis Clément Bréguet.
She was also wife of Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski.
Her father Jean-Michel de Venture de Paradis, born 8 May 1739 in Marseille, died 16 May 1799 in Acri / Acra.
Janina Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska, with Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski had children:
Victoire Clementine de Laqueuille,
Olimpia Chodźko
and (different father !) Adela married to Mortier (Adelajda? b. ca 1813 or ca 1815 ?).
So Little Louis had a sister, Adela!
And their mother knew the Polish language:
although she knew a bit the Polish language from first husband. So half-siblings of Little Louis also come to know from their father, the Polish language and Polish history.
Adela had the surname, which suggests that she could be in St. Petersburg already in the 30's of the 19th century? And Breguet, when he was in Kazan in the 40's of the 19th century, could know the Polish language and some Russian language!?
Antoine Louis Breguet ran, with his cousin Lassieur, the team of watchmakers working in a studio on the Quai de l'Horloge.
The 'little Louis' - called as its size does not exceed 1.55 m - was sent in 1824 to Geneva, where he worked as a common laborer.
On his return to Paris in 1827, he devoted himself to the construction of marine chronometers, wrote in 1847 in a notice on its work presented at the Academy of Sciences. In 1832, 'Little Louis' decided to become an electrician.
1833, Louis married his cousin Caroline Lassieur, the daughter of Louis Lassieur and Sophie Courbin.
Lassieur Louis was the son of Marie-Louise a younger sister of Abraham Breguet.
May 20, 1833 Antoine Louis Breguet signed the sale of his 'Breguet house, nephew and Co.', formed by Louis Breguet and Louis Lassieur; the price of 270.000 francs paid by the three members.
Now, he invented a mechanical counter in 1841, published on induction with Masson and Savart, in the Annals of Physics; at that time Louis Breguet realized thermometrograph who recorded at the University of Kazan in Russia temperatures of minus 42 degrees; he was appointed a member of the Kazan university in 1843.
Also in 1843, Louis Breguet devised, upon request by Arago and using a method assigned Wheatstone, apparatus of rotating mirror, 540.000 per minute! This time was full of activity with the electric telegraph in France, after its discovery by the English.
Louis Breguet and Alphonse Foy, invented the first telegraph line from Paris to Rouen (1845). Then he participated in the development of the telegraph dial (1849), created a mobile telegraph, a speed controller, a telegraph printer; Lassieur died in 1851, "Breguet, nephew and Co." became simply the "House Breguet" a name that the company retained for a century.
Louis Breguet had one son born in 1851 named Anthony as his grandfather.
Around 1855, the Breguet built telegraph across Europe, and even in Brazil and Japan; led a studio in Montparnasse; among the new productions appeared exploders knuckle-fist for the army and navy, invention of Louis Breguet.
In 1856, he worked for Lyon; 1857, it was the realization of the time resetting mechanical clock; at Breguet workshops also were born devices of Marey, Yvon Villarceau, Berlin, the seismograph Grye, the chronograph Captain Fleuriais, and many others including accumulators; after the War of 1870, his son Anthony worked out with Graham Bell from the USA, the first phones to Paris; the first theatrical stereo transmissions in 1881.

By Bohdan Urbankowski at

"...Paris, May 30, 1848, meeting of the Society of Slavs. ... speaks Desprez. When the French writer refers ... on Mickiewicz, at the place leaps Leonard Chodźko: 'Mr. Mickiewicz authority is more than suspect, as we believe it all he is a Russian spy!' Chodźko was not a dull fanatic, he has a reputation ... He was written in French - the work of Polish history and literature (two-volume history of the Legions, biographies Kosciuszko, Pulaski et al.), Editor, and what is important: he was a friend - since college - of Mickiewicz in Vilnius, activist of the Filaret Society and publisher of the two-volume Mickiewicz Poetry in 1828. Shocking opinion, which gave, echoed, unfortunately, to our countrymen. Animosity towards earlier beloved poet began to grow after Mickiewicz started in the Towiański movement; because the "Master" Andrzej Towianski also, and even more, was deemed to be an agent of Russia. ... Rumors about Towiański appeared shortly after his arrival in Paris, behind him ... In fact, the way of the future "Master" Andzej Towianski was similar to the way of the future 'Prophet' Adam Mickiewicz, and even a few times with him crossed. A reconstruction of the biography. Towianski was born ... on 1 January 1799 in Antoszwińce (the name of the farm is also present in the plural), was given to schools in Vilnius, ... made friend with Ferdinand Gutt, ... on this friendship has left a shocking record Zbigniew Krasinski, dated 19 March (April), 1848 letter to Delfina. Gutt's father was a pharmacist. It seems that demanded from him poison to someone, apparently Wittgenstein that had married to Radziwiłł (Stefania Radziwill Wittgenstein of Miezonka among others). Old Gutt did not want to bring out the poison, it seems that it was Towiański who advised to bring out the poison... Old Gutt disappeared. I have not known what happened to him, and finally discovered that his body was carved on pieces, and thrown into the river. ... this terrible murder. ... The beginning of the mission of Towiański dated on May 11, 1828. It seems that was in Vilnius and in the neighborhood, but the result was rather unexpected. Edward Wołodko wrote about it in 1907, in the "Library of Warsaw", in the article 'Memories of Towiański' ... Here are a result of denunciation of Towiański by another neighbor, and Towianski was arrested and subjected to a psychiatric examination. ... admits Wołodko - these studies, however, killed of Towianski movement in the eyes of the residents of Vilnius. ... "Master" Andrzej choose somewhere else.
In 1832 he went to St. Petersburg, he met with the Illuminatis, a heirs of Grabianko, but it does not seem that it is only now formed his doctrine.
He tried to convert, so the St. Petersburg police forced him to leave the Russian capital. Yet in 1834 he went to Carlsbad, he was also in Dresden, where he met Odyniec, which inquired about the exact details of Mickiewicz life. Thanks to Odyniec, he met 'Dziady'... Towiański also met and charmed General Skrzyneckiego ... In 1837, after his father's death, he returned to the family farm ... For the second time, as we know, ... on May 23, 1839 before leaving, he wrote "constitution" - a set of moral rules for the peasants, he visited his mother, who settled in Vilnius ... also visited the appropriate authorities. On June 28, 1840 received a passport valid for one year. After arriving at the West, Towiański tried to entrap Skrzyneckiego again - but this time did not work out. There were a lot more serious charges - the destruction of Mickiewicz. In March 1845 the Brussels-writing "White Eagle" published an anonymous article titled 'The Intrigue of the St. Petersburg crowned'. The content gives ' and works of Adam Mickiewicz', which should rewrite the relevant passages: 'Anticipating that the cathedral of Slavic literatures at the College de France can be used to the detriment of Russia, St. Petersburg government decided to prevent this with the help of his agent, Towiański. The goal has been achieved...'. The accusation of spying, Zygmunt Krasinski slipped in a letter to Trentowski on 10 III 1849: 'The Towianski movement and demagogy of our Paris...'. ... To conclude this section, let us add that suspicion of Krasinski and other immigrants coincided with the French suspicions. As proof, we quote the letter of
Duchatel, the Minister of the Interior, to the Minister of Enlightenment - Villemain ... '...can assume that Towiański is actually Russian secret agent.
For several months ... they develop an animated action, some crisscross of France, the others set their meeting in Switzerland or Belgium, try to establish contacts with the former Imperial Army soldiers remaining in active service...'.
... it was introduced by Becu Joseph / Jozef Becu, brother of the doctor known for 'Dziady'. Krasinski noted in a letter to Dolphina Potocka on 26 November 1841: Towiański actually knew the doctor Becu
... Zygmunt Krasinski on June 15, 1851 sent a letter to Count Zamoyski, in which he wrote of the ... rumors about "Master" like the Russian spy...".
Napoleon Stanisław Adam Felix Count Zygmunt Krasinski b. 1812 in Paris, d. 1859, the greatest poet of Polish Romanticism; the biggest influence on his views and all life had a father Vincent Krasinski - General of Napoleon, and later a loyal subject of the Russian Tsar. From the autumn of 1832 to the spring of 1833 he was in St. Petersburg with his father, who wanted to get him to the service of the Russian court; moved to Krakow, Vienna, he went to Italy, in Rome in 1834, 1836 in Rome, he met Julius Slowacki, December 1838 an affair with Delfina Potocka. During the revolution in Rome in 1848 with Cyprian Kamil Norwid defended Pope Pius IX. Zygmunt Krasinski died on February 23, 1859 in Paris. His parents Vincent Krasinski and Maria Ursula Radziwill; marriage with Eliza Branicka, children Władysław Krasiński, Jerzy Zygmunt Krasinski, Maria Beatrice and Eliza Krasińska. Above Władysław Krasiński b. 1844 in Warsaw, d. 1873 in Menton, son of Sigmund and Elizabeth Branicka, during the January Uprising worked in Paris together with Prince Władysław Czartoryski. Marriage to Rose Potocki, was the father of three children: Adam Krasinski (1870-1909), Elizabeth Krasińska (1871-1905) and Sophia Krasińska (1873-1891). Count Adam Krasinski (b. 1870 in Krakow, d. 1909 in Ospedaletti, Liguria), editor of the Library of Warsaw (1901-1909),
1897 marriage to Wanda Mary of Badeni (1874-1950), daughter of Casimir Badeni, Prime Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

BÉCU Jan Ludwik born ca 1741, died after 1797, industrial and commercial activist.
We know on du Barry Jeanne Becu, Comtesse (1743-1793); Jeanne goes by his mother, from the family of Bécu known as the family of roasters; Jean Bécu was a cook recognized under the reign of Louis XIV. His maternal grandparents, Fabien Bécu and Husson Jeanne, they were serving to Isabelle Ludres; they had seven children together Bécu Anne, mother of Jeanne, born April 16, 1713.

In Poland we know on Bécu August, the royal adviser, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" in Grodno, chairman after 1781 and before 1784. Bécu Jacob, the brother of Jan Ludwik Becu / Louis, a royal adviser, 1771-1780 Inspector General of the Tyzenhauz factories in Grodno, 1780-1787 supervising them, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" (Grodno) in 1781;

Bécu Louis / Jan Ludwik, brother of Jacob, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" (Grodno), secr. in 1786.
Dignitaries Officers and Members from Grodno and J. V. Antoine Godin, Chair of the Master of Wilna; freemasons in Grodno in 1817: J. E. Gilibert, J. Becu, Louis Wiazowski, J. Sacco, J. Gimel, Charles Gottlieb / Golt, Jean Godefroi Walter, J. H. Müntz, Zacharius Büttner, Jean Louis Becu, Ephraim Gottlieb, Kaus, François Narwoysz, Chresteon Ernst Fechner, Gembowski, Siegfrierd Schmidt, Jurewicz, V. S. Antoine, Fr. Schreiber.

Александр Карл Пилар фон Пильхау / Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 in Wilno / Вильнюс, d. 1871, his sister - Sophia.

He was married to Ионна Станиславовна Кульвинска / Joanna nee Kulwinska daughter of Stanislaw Kulwinski.

His father was born in 1768 or 1769 - Магнус or Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, then was Major of the Russian army,
married to

Maria Cecylia von Bécu / Мария Цецилия фон Бекю

(she was closest next of kin of Augustas Ludvikas Becu / August Ludwik Becu / August Ludwik Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno - his father was

Jan Ludwik Bécu;

August Ludwik Bécu was owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816 and he has two daughters:

Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki,

and Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872;

Teofil Januszewski, was brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki;

August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki).

His grandfather was Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau / Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау born 1734, married 1756 in Tallinn / Ревель, to Catharina Helena von Tausas / Катарина Хелена фон Таузас;
place of living: Халлик and Йоггис; Hagar / Hallik in Tamsalu, Estonia, county of Laane-Viru, south-west of Rakvere - eastern Eesti;

Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia also came from Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau b. 1734;

Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau was retired major of the Polish army, died in 1801 in Jöggis / Jőgisuu / Jogisoo
(see Kennedy and Lee Oswald at the beginning of this website!),
he was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia;

his sons and daughter:

1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830.
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.
Recorded in service 1780, above Yegor Maksimovic exactly one year later was promoted to sergeant. Received his primary education at home, with the rank of lieutenant was transferred to Narva Infantry Regiment; next to the Vyborg Infantry Regiment; Yegor Maksimovic Pilar participated in a battle with the Swedes under Nyslott; 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811.

2. Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769
(his wife was Maria Becu with her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802.
Magnus Fabian's closest next of kin: Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein; фон Людер / Luder who died 1857),

3. Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Baron / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774.

Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870, and Sauga. Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough. Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia. Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland.

The father of Adolf Pilar von Pilchau was Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, Baron, born and died in Audru / Audern, 1814 - 1870. Grandfather was named above
Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814.

On the Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt family:
Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina. She was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano.
She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Charlotte Julie Pila von Pilchau; Ada Pilar von Pilchau (Helene Bertha Johanna Adele von Gruenewaldt 1853-1889); Theodor Gustav Otto Peter Pilar von Pilchau; and Hilda Pilar von Pilchau.
We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano from Neapol. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau or Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor Mariano.

We back now to the first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar.
Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.
4. Reinhold Woldemar / Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

5. Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau 1734 - 1801 in Jöggis / Jogisoo had daughter:
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau / Katarina Elizabiet Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1769 in Hallik, Estonia, d. 1835;
she was wife of Johan Diedrich Benjamin Althan / Althann; and she was mother of Johan Heinrich Althan; Georg Benjamin von Althann and Emilie Helene Althan; von Althann were living in 1839 in Pernau (Pärnu).
Her family:
Margarethe Elisabeth Gfin. Manteuffel;
Gotthard Johann III Reichsgraf Zoege von Manteuffel;
Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau


Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 was also a son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena;
married to Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein;
her son was Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791.
Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922, was daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau;
Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of
Ottilie Gustava von Lüder,
Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau,
Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and
Georg Pilar von Pilchau.

Sofia Pilchau Pilar / Zofia nee Januszewski / Zofija Pilar von Pilchau d. 28 Jan. 1898 in Wilno (Zofia Januszewska b. 1836, died 1920 - acc. to ''), was sister of
Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena / Helena nee Januszewski voto Dzierżyński (1849 - on January 15, 1896), mother of Feliks Dzierżyński / Felix Dzerzhinsky;

Helena Dzierzynska died 1896
(married to Edmund Rufin Dzierżyński with children:
Aldona Kojałłowicz (Bułhak) - see HLUSK and BOBRUISK;
Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska;
Kazimierz and 4 others).

And next sister was Emilia Zawadzka
(that is Emilia Januszewska Krzywiec, Zawadzka, b. 1834 - d. 1883 in Wilno?, wife of Feliks Zawadzki with Jadwiga Rapacka; Józef Zawadzki and Feliks Zawadzki; and from 1st marriage son and 5 daughters).

Zofia Januszewska had son:
Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau (Адольф Александр Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1860), married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec; he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierzynski; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; she had son
Romuald Ludwik Adolfovitch / Roman Aleksandrovich / Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937
(see ARTUZOW Frautchi and Saanen).

Parents of above Zofia Januszewska were Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806 (Kazimiera Januszewska nee Gorecka 1806 - 1897).

Stanislaw Count Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska.

His father - Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 and died d. 1871. This Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, the Judge of the district of Vilnius, was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar! His sister Sophia nee Pilar Pilchau;
his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida.

Above Jadwiga Rapacka nee b. ca 1870, d. 1956, Warsaw, wife of Tadeusz Rapacki with Janina Kowalska 1909 - 2002 in Poland.

Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau / Пилляр Роман Александрович / Роман Людвиг Пилар фон Пильхау / Ромуальдас-Людвикас Адольфович Пилляр фон Пильхау, that is Roman Pilar von Pilchau / Roman Pilljar / Romuald Pilar von Pilchau, 1894 - 1904 in Mickuny close to Wilno / Vilnius. 1905 to September 1910 - Vilnius secondary school, followed by Zurich in real school (1910 - 1911), where he graduated in 1911. The Pilars then were not wealthy, but still Helena Pilar sent Roman Pilchau Pilar to study in Switzerland. Nothing helped. He came back. Then he went in the other direction, to Russia, to Petrograd, where he studied law. From Dzerzhinsky not departed. In September of the same year, 1911, he continued study in Kuressaare Gymnasium. When German troops occupied the Saaremaa, in Estonia, Pilar von Pilchau evacuated (it is inf. on Dorpat in 1917) to the Yaroslavl Province. Roman Pillar (1895-1937) before World War I, began (1914 ?) to study law at the University of St. Petersburg, where he was soon involved with the Bolsheviks activity of Felix Dzierżyński.
From Mickuny / Mickūnai of the Becu family and the Pilar Pilchau property (near by Terlecki, Ozieblowski, Januszewski, Dzierzynski and Pilsudski families), to Zalesie / Zalesse / Залесье of the Oginski family - close to Smorgon / Smargon / Smorgonie - is ca 60 km to south-east.
Roman Pilar was the cousin of the Dzerzhinsky - Roman Adolfovich / Romualdas Liudvikas Adolfovich Pillar Pilhau was one of the prominent of the initial period of the Cheka - the Deputy Chief of counterintelligence Cheka, deputy chairman of Belarus GPU, then People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Belarus, then worked at senior positions in the Central Asia in 1937, as chief of the NKVD in the Saratov region, was arrested and executed (pay attention to his last post - in the Saratov region was larger numbers of Germans, there was even a Republic of the Volga Germans).
Roman Pilar Pilchau / R. Pillar Pilhau was one of closest personal friends and relatives to the known leaders of the security organs Artuzov.
Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service from August 1931 to May 1935.
Artuzow created on May 8, 1922 the counterintelligence department of the GPU. Artusov / Artuzow / Fraucci knew French. This counterintelligence department was structural unit of the GPU - OGPU, because on May 6, 1922 on the management meeting of the State Political Administration DECIDED to ESTABLISH the structure of a special unit to combat with foreign espionage; the first leaders: Felix Dzerzhinsky, Vyacheslav Menzhinsky and Arthur Artuzov. Everyone from the structure of the Swiss-Estonian and of the Polish nobility of Belarus, I have discussed. Artuzow was in years 1927-1931 - Assistant Chief of the Secret operational management. Artuzov / Artuzow - Frautchi on 01/01/1931 Deputy (Deputy Head of the Foreign Department INO OGPU) and 31 July 1931 headed Foreign department of the OGPU; when creating 10 July 1934 NKVD he headed foreign intelligence, but replaced 21/05/1935 by Slutsky and transferred to the Main Intelligence Directorate on the post of Deputy, (11th January 1937) 01/11/1937 lost this post; Corps Commissar on 21/11/1935; Artuzow / Artuzov on 13.05.1937 appointed on the registration Department and Artuzov Frauchi was arrested on the same day May 13, 1937 as part of the 'Plot of the Generals' (he was executed on August 21, 1937).
Wife of Artuzow: Inna Mikhailovna, in 1938, June 20 accused of spying for the French intelligence service on the grounds that she went twice 'under the guise of treatment' in Paris, where she was recruited; Artuzov Hristianovich Arthur was her husband, living with her from 1934. On August 26, 1938 Ulrich announced the verdict: the death penalty; first wife Lydia Artuzov Slugina escaped arrest; mother of Artuzov, Augusta Avgustovna died shortly after the arrest of Arthur Christianovich; father Christian Petrovich Fraucci / Frautchi and uncle Peter Fraucci / Frautchi died in 1923. Son Kamil / Camill was arrested in 1941; on March 23, 1938 was arrested brother Rudolph Hristianovich Frauchi, was shot by the NKVD in Butovo; the second brother, Victor Hristianovich, moved to Kazan, and became well-known professor; Artusov disagreed with Stalin in matters of Poland and Germany, has also tried to observe certain standards of conduct during the purges of the thirties.
After arrest of Artuzow / Artuzov was a secret trial, and Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Iona Yakir, Ieronim Uborevich, Robert Eideman, August Kork, Vitovt Putna, Boris Feldman, Vitaly Primakov and Yakov Gamarnik (suicide) were accused with planning a military coup on May 15, 1937; they were executed on the night of June 11-12, 1937. Marshal Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Corps Commanders Yefimov, Eideman and Appoga were all arrested on the same day - 22 May 1937; on 24 May 1937, the Politburo passed the following resolution: '...Tukhachevsky, as participant in an anti-Soviet Trotsky-Right conspiratorial bloc ... having engaged in espionage activity against the USSR on behalf of Fascist Germany'. Between 01 and 10 June 1937, Tukhachevsky was describing the conspiratorial organization and plans for defeating the Red Army.
Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi was born in the family of Swiss origin, but Italian nationality.
His father Christian Frautschi came to Russia, where he was engaged in reindeer cheese; cheesemaker, a citizen of the Swiss Federation.
Mother Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938, had the Latvian and Estonian roots, and one of her grandfathers was a Scot;
her father Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik, her mother Bertha Sterling / E'sterling / Stirling / EASTERLING born 1835 d. 1891 - her parents:
Edward Sterling from Scotland / Esterling / EASTERLING and Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland.

Acc. to Józef Mackiewicz:
'Old' Pilar send Roman Pilar to Wilno, then chief of the GPU in Mińsk in Belarus; he was oldest of 4 sons of above Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau, owner of Mickuny, very near to uncle Feliks Dzierżyński.
Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau had only 160 cm tall!
In Mickuny were living the Szabłowskis, among other Ignacy;
a main administrator of the Pilar estate was unknown Szostak, from a family of 5 sons and one daughter; then the Lachowicz family.
At the Bernardin cementery in Vilna we have tombs of the Pilar von Pilchau family:
1. Aleksandra Pilar von Pilchau, d. 25 Oct. 1901;
2. her sister Wilunia, b. 1866, d. 1 Jan. 1872;
3. Pilar Joanna nee Kulwiński, d. 1876;
4. Izabella Pilar von Pilchau Kulwińska, b. 1808, d. 1891;
5. Zofija Pilar von Pilchau d. 28 Jan. 1898;
6. her sister - Helena nee Januszewski, Dzierżyńska, d. 1896, mother of Feliks Dzierżyński;
7. Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, grandfather of Roman Pilar.
Acc. to Czeslaw Malewski:
1. Pilar von Pilchau, Wilno 1818 - 1881; 2. Becu, Wilno 1801 - 1862, inf. 1823.
The von Pilar estate, Mickuny: here was living father of above Roman Pilar, Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau jr. who died 12 Oct. 1939. On 12 Oct. 1826 in Mickuny was consecrated a chapel built by Alexander Pilar senior in 1825 (Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, judge of the border in the county of Vilnius); he was friend of young Juliusz Słowacki, and his sisters Hersylia and Aleksandra Becu. The Mickuny estate owned first August Becu (1771-1824) - August Becu was Professor of Medicine at the Imperial Wilno Univ.
In 1923 in Mickuny was the catholic parish, and Aleksander Pilar, father of Roman, given a home for priest; a father of Roman, above Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau died aged 79, and was buried at the Mickuny cementery; his wife, mother of named Roman, was Helena Pilar, d. on 8 August 1955, aged 91. Acc. to Becu, August Ljudvigovič was son of Ludwik Becu; August Becu was Professor, b. 3.5.1771 in Grodno, died in 1824 in Wilno.

On the other hand:
Mianowski Jozef / Joseph b. 1804 in the district of Human at Ukraine, d. on January 6, 1879 in Ancona, Italy, Polish physician, social activist,
Nowosilcow suspect Mianowski.
Next of kin of Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and her sister Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872.

Aleksandra Mianowska (Bécu) was daughter of August Ludwik Bécu; wife of above Józef Mianowski, mother of Jan Mianowski, she was sister of above named Hersylia Łucja Januszewska.
Above Józef Mianowski 1804 - 1879, was son of Ignacy Mianowski, husband of Nadieżda Mianowska and Aleksandra Mianowska; father of Jan Mianowski. He was graduated in Human, soon was admitted to
the University of Vilnius. There he met a number of interesting personalities, one of them was Adam Mickiewicz, who, according to historian A. Krauschar, was a friend for life.
Mianowski become a doctor. In 1828 in Vilnius became assistant of Jędrzej Śniadecki; 1840 Mianowski was hiding Simon Konarski in the clinic in Vilnius, and when he was executed, Mianowski was in trouble. For a year he was in prison, next he was released.
In 1848 was the court physician of the daughter of Nicholas I. He enjoyed great influence at court in St. Petersburg,
but in Poland in 1857 Medical-Surgical Academy was founded, and Mianowski moved to Warsaw under A. Wielopolski.
Above August Ludwik Bécu / August Louis Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno, d. 7 September 1824 in Vilnius, Polish surgeon, professor of medicine, hygiene and pathology at the Imperial University of Vilnius; Julius Slowacki stepfather.
He came from French Protestant family settled in the seventeenth century at Pomerania; his father, Jan Ludwik Bécu / Jean Luis Bécu, settled in Poland under King Stanislaus Augustus. In 1775 was knighted.
Mother was Caroline of Hein. He was struck by lightning. August Ludwik Bécu was husband of NN and Salomea Bécu; father of Aleksandra Mianowska and Hersylia Łucja Januszewska.
Above BÉCU Jan Ludwik born ca 1741, died after 1797, industrial and commercial activist.
Jan Ludwik Bécu was son of Jakub Bécu; husband of Karolina Bécu; father of August Ludwik Bécu; brother of NN Bécu.

Different CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO b. 30 August 1804, in Krzywicze, Poland, d. Noisy-le-Sec or Juvisy-sur-Orge, Essonne in 1891, Polish poet and diplomat, work on Persian folklore; son of Jan Chodźko and Klara;
above Jan Chodźko / Jan of Świsłocz or Wajżgantos, 1776 - 1851, son of Józef Chodźko and Konstancja;
above Józef Chodźko 1729 - 1783, son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Michał and Franciszek (the branch of Leonard Chodzko who was friend of Oginski).
Mentioned above Leonard Chodźko 1800 - 1871, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria; above Ludwik Chodźko 1769 - 1843 son of Franciszek Chodźko;
Franciszek Chodźko was son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Józef and Michał.
Mentioned CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO between 1820 and 1823 studied at the university of Wilno / Vilna, arrested in 1823 as the Society of Philarets member, went to St. Petersburg, where he studied Arabic, Persian, Turkish (see Venture!) from 1824 to 1830;
the Russian diplomatic service (to 1844) in Persia, as translator in Tabriz, Tehran and Rast until 1841, then traveled in Greece and Italy,
1842 he joined the Polish emigre community in Paris, with Adam Mickiewicz and Andrzej Towiański;
1847 married Helena Jundzill in Switzerland;
1852 - 1855 served the French foreign ministry as an expert on Oriental affairs; Chodźko wanted to send his two sons to Tehran to serve the Persian government.
Borowsky's (Barowski) testamentary executors were above Chodźko / Alexandre Chodikoff / A. Khodzko, and Edouard Goutte, also Polish by birth from the Russian mission in Tehran.

Izydor Borovsky / Isidor Borowski in 1776 born in Warsaw, Poland - d. 1837 or 1838, his mother was a Jew and his father was a Polish nobleman (the illegitimate son of Prince Radziwill ?); 1794 under Kosciuszko in Poland; 1797 in Italy - the Polish Legions;
in 1801 - 1802 / 1803 at Haiti served the French Army (Napoleon Bonaparte dispatched a large expeditionary force of French soldiers and warships to the island, led by Bonaparte's brother-in-law Charles Leclerc, to restore French rule; it ended in November of 1803 with the French defeat at the Battle of Vertieres. Haiti became an independent country on January 1, 1804, with Jean-Jacques Dessalines),
then (ca 1802) in 'Les freres de la cote', a pirat;
a general and an adjutant under Simon Bolivar (1783 - 1830) in Venezuela and Colombia (a successful rebellion led by the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was finally defeated in 1822 in the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela, by Wikipedia),
then under Muhammad Ali / Mehemet Ali (1769 - 1849) in Egypt (in 1829 he was teaching mathematics and English),
and under Abbas Mirza (1789 - 1833) to capture Herat in Afghanistan;
by was reared in the United States (after 1805 ?),
1831 he was in Bushire, Persia (1821 ?);
and "...was afterward recommended by Sir John Campbell, the British minister, to Prince Abbas Mirza, the son of Shah Fatḥ Ali, as a useful and talented man. Borowski developed great military abilities in the service of that warlike prince, and took for him the strong town of Cochan in Khorassan. Later he took the castle of Sarakhs and made prisoner the leader of the Turkomans. After the death of Abbas in 1833, Borowski gave most essential assistance to Abbas' son, Mohamed Mirza (Muhammad / Mahmud 1834), and enabled him to ascend the throne of his grandfather. The English were behind most of the military undertakings of the Persians in those days, and Borowski was looked upon as an English general, and even wore the uniform. But he forsook the interests of the British government and joined the Russian party in Persia, and was shot at the siege of Herat (war 1838 against the Turkmens; but close to Herat in 1836 fought Count Antoni Aleksander Iliński). His wife, a Georgian captive of war, received a pension from Mohamed Shah on account of her husband's distinguished services. Bibliography: Jos. Wolff, Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara, pp. 138-140, New York, 1845; S. Orgelbrand, Encyklopedya Powsiechna, ii., s.v., Warsaw, 1898".
Son of Izydor Borowski was General of Persia, Antoni Radziwiłł-Borowski, 1803–1858, in 1821 in Persia with the father; 1850 was taken Herat.

And more on Poles in Asia:

Jan Prosper Witkiewicz / Yan Vitkevich / Виткeвич, Ян b. 1808, d. 1839, a Polish orientalist, explorer and diplomat in the Russian service. He was the agent of Russia at Kabul just before the First Anglo-Afghan War.
Witkiewicz was the uncle of the renowned Polish painter, and writer Stanisław Witkiewicz, who was father of Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, killed by Soviet troops in September 1939.
He was born close to Wilno. His father, Wiktoryn Witkiewicz, was a vice-marshal of the Rosienie county and his mother was Justyna nee Mikulicka.
Witkiewicz reached Kabul in Dec. 1837 and met with the British representative Sir Alexander Burnes. Dost Mohammed favored the British; but on receiving Lord Auckland's ultimatum he turned to Witkiewicz. Meanwhile, in London, Palmerston called the Russian ambassador and complained about Russian activities in Afghanistan.
Wikiewicz back to Saint Petersburg in 1839. Met with Nesselrode, but a week after reaching Petersburg he was found shot dead in his hotel room.
Burnes was born in Montrose, Scotland, to the son of the provost, who was first cousin to the poet Robert Burns.
When the Lord Auckland ultimatum has sent the Emir postponed Burnes. Sir Alexander Burnes demanded that Dost Mohhamad concluded an agreement with Ranjit Singh and renounced claims to Peshawar; at the same time Witkiewicz returned to St. Petersburg with nothing.
Above George Eden, 1st and last Earl of Auckland, 1784 - 1849, was an English colonial administrator. He served as Governor-General of India between 1836 and 1842.
Captain Sir Alexander Burnes, 1805 - 1841, was a Scottish traveller and explorer who took part in The Great Game. He was nicknamed Bokhara Burnes; born in Montrose, Scotland, his father was James Burnes 1780 in Montrose, Angus, Scotland, d. 1852 in Edinburgh;
son of James Burness and Anne;
grandfather was mentioned here James Burness 1750 - 1837 in Montrose,
son of James Burness senior.
At the age of sixteen, Alexander joined the army of the East India Company and while serving in India, he learned Hindi and Persian, interpreter at Surat in 1822. Transferred to Kutch in 1826; he went to Afghanistan.
Above Montrose is a coastal town and former royal burgh in Angus, Scotland. 61 km north of Dundee, north-east of Perth.
Named above Robert Burns 1759 d. 1796, as Robbie Burns, Rabbie Burns, a Scottish poet and lyricist. Born 1759 in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland; died 1796 in Dumfries, Dumfriesshire, Scotland; he was son of William Burns / Burnes / Burness, b. 1721 in Glenbervie, Kincardineshire, Scotland, died 1784 in Tarbolton, Ayrshire, Scotland;
Rabbie was grandson of Robert Burnes / Burness, 1694 in Glenbervie, d. 1759 in Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, Aberdeenshire, and Annabella / Isabella Keith;
and great-grandson of James Burness and Margaret Falconer;
Robert was brother of Elspeth Brock; Christian Crab; William Burnes; James Burness; Margaret Gavin; George Burness; Thomas Burness; Jane Burness; Isobel Burness and Mary Alexander Burnes 1732 - 1733.
Rabbie Burns was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the eldest of the seven children of William Burnes (1721-1784).
William Burns / Burness b. 1721,
had brother James Burness b. circa 1717 in Glenbervie, Kincardineshire, Scotland, died in 1761 in Montrose, Angus, Scotland.
His grandson was James Burnes 1780 Montrose, Angus, Scotland, died 1852 in Edinburgh.
Mentioned above William Burns b. 1721, d. 1784 in Tarbolton, Ayrshire, Scotland.


A strongest organization in the region of Napoli / Naples was the Carbonari movement in 1820; they proclaimed a constitutional monarchy in Naples.
King Ferdinand I accepted vision of social revolution political changes. Vienna and the Holy Alliance directed intervention against the revolution in 1821. Reintroduced the absolute rule of Ferdinand I.
There are many theories about the creation of the Carbonari movement; creators were to be French Freemasons in opposition to the Masonic Swedish Rite or officers who came to Italy with Joseph Bonaparte and Murat to propagate fighting with the reign of Ferdinand IV; there is also a view that English created in Sicily the Carbonari movement, either Queen Maria Carolina of Austria or the Italian Illuminati at the end of the eighteenth century.
Giuseppe Garibaldi b. 1807 in Nice, politician, and fighter for the unification of Italy, was a Freemason, Grand Master of the lodge Grande Oriente d'Italia, but his grandfather and father were shipowners, owners and captains of small vessels in the northern and western Italy; he joined the revolutionary Carbonari. In February 1834 he took part in a failed uprising led by Mazzini in Piedmont, in Genoa.
Giuseppe Mazzini b. 1805 in Genoa, a journalist, a fighter for freedom together with Garibaldi, also Mazzini was a Freemason; maintained close contacts with Albert Pike, also a Freemason.
We must back now to Napoli / Naples / Neapol:
Silvati, Joseph b. in Naples 1791, lieutenant of the Bourbon cavalry, former officer of Murat, affiliated with the Carbonari, together with M. Morelli stationed in Nola (1-2 July 1820), and started the riots of 1820-21;
after the revolution failed he fled to Ancona; arrested by the papal authorities and handed over to the Bourbon government, was sentenced to death and executed.
In Naples, the conspiracy, which was not intended to overthrow King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies but only to ask a constitution, was growing rapidly and involved senior officers. In March 1820 the message from Spain across quickly in the Kingdom of Naples to strengthen the Carbonari and Masonic movements.
Lt. M. Morelli, head of the section of the Carbonari in Nola, decided to involve his cavalry regiment in the conspiracy. He was joined by Giuseppe Silvati, also lieutenant, and Luigi Minichini, anarchist and priest from Nola.
In the night of 1 to 2 July 1820, head of the Carbonari, Morelli and Silvati gives the kick off of the conspiracy by deserting with about 130 men and 20 officers. Quickly, Minichini joined and he wants to come the countryside to recruit peasants; Morelli, meanwhile, wants to go directly to Avellino where General Pepe was in command; Minichini leaves the expedition; the young officer Michele Morelli, supported by his troops, headed Avellino; on 2 July, in Monteforte, he was welcomed triumphantly. The next day, Morelli, Minichini and Silvati are entering in Avellino. Welcomed by the municipal authorities, and the constitution on the Spanish model is proclamed;
Morelli passes the power in the hands of Colonel De Concilij, Chief of Staff to General Pepe. Minichini goes back to Nola; on July 5, the insurgency extends to Naples, where General Guglielmo Pepe gathered around him many military units.
King Ferdinand I was forced to give Constitution. Elections are held and parliament seat for the first time on 1 October 1820.
But the first spark of uprising was in Nola in the night between 1 and July 2, 1820; Lieutenant Michele Morelli 30 years, was a native of Monteleone Galasso (near Foggia) and Lieutenant Joseph Silvati was from Naples; it's a list of 21 conspirators who journeyed from Nola, on the night between 1 and July 2, 1820: Luigi Minichini from Nola, priest; Dominic Gentile of Nola; Antonio Montano from Naples, coffee makers; Camillo Sepe from Nola, pharmacist; Rossi Giovanni of Nola; others from:
Santa Maria a Vico, Armigeri, San Giovanni in Teduccio, Pozzo Ceravolo, and Piazzolla Nola.
The Revolutions of 1820 was a revolutionary wave in Europe: in Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Italy for constitutional monarchies; and in Greece. The 1820 revolution began in Naples against King Ferdinand I; this success inspired Carbonari in the north of Italy to revolt too. In October 1820 and in February, 1821, Austria send an army to crush the revolution in Naples. The King of Sardinia also called for Austrian intervention. The Neapolitans, commanded by General Pepe, made no attempt to defend, and were defeated at Rieti on 7 March 1821. The Austrians entered Naples.

In 1823 or 1822, Michal Kleofas Oginski traveled with relatives in Italy, lived in Florence, where he died on October 15, 1833 in Florence; his main business was a literary and musical editorial work. He was buried at the monastery cemetery close to the Church of Santa Maria Novella, and later reburied in the Pantheon of Santa Croce.
The father of Michal Kleofas Oginski b. 1765, was Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.
Michal Kleofas Ogiński, owner of the Helenow palace, Otrębusy, Komorów, Helenow and Opacz, was born as Michal Kleofas Ogiski in Guzów close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765; was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer; his father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paulina nee Szembek.
Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 / 1730 or in Warsaw in 1731, d. on May 31, 1800 Slonim or Warszawa, in 1755 was landowner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800, next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow) was Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833, and after Helenow village of the Oginski family, in ca 1800 come to hands of the Ostrowskis.

Interesting note:

Al Capone's right hand was Abram "Alex" Sycowski. Even describes as "the second after Capone".
His real name was Alexei Sycowski, he came from a Jewish family living in
Wielgomlyny, approx. 25 km from Radomsko;
was born around 1894. In 1900 went to Hamburg, and from there to the United States. According to other sources Alexei Sycowski came to the United States together with his family. He was a manager at one of the commercial enterprises in Chicago. Soon after Kid Tiger (his nickname) became the treasurer of the gang and the main manager of smuggling alcohol. Al Capone showed the authorities that high income reaches through the activity belonging to him laundries.

Note to above Wielgomlyny close to Przedborz:

1. Adam Kiedrzynski born 1783 / 1784 / ca 1787, landlord of Sulmierzyce near LUBIEC - brother of IZYDOR; Adam Kiedrzynski was godfather in Wola Blakowa in 1803 like nobleman with Joanna Lepicka. His relatives Felicjan Kiedrzynski and Tekla Lepicka of Wola Blakowa.
Sulmierzyce is situated close to Rzasnia, north of Jedlno; in the Krepa parish since 1769, close to LGOTA WIELKA.
Adam Kiedrzynski married in 1808 in Krepa to
Anastazja Bleszynska / BLESZYNSKI b. ca 1792, from Bakowa Góra close to Przedborz,
with children:
a. Apolonia Scholastyka Joanna 1809-11 in Krepa, 6 km north of Wola Jedlinska; north-east of Jedlno, 11 km north-west of Radomsko, south-east of Sulmierzyce.
b. and Franciszka Aniela b. 1824, Jan. 25th, in Sulmierzyce.

Above Bakowa Góra - near Reczno, 7 km north of PRZEDBORZ (see Wielgomlyny).


Bleszynski, Boleslaw b. 1915-10-18 in Karlin;
Bleszynski Michal, from Przedbórz; in 1813.

Ignacy Błeszyński, senior, born 1742 in Zloczow / Zloczew - died in 1813 or 1815,
son of Kazimierz Błeszyński and Teresa Jordan Struss (m. 1st to Jan Jordan or Ignacy Jordan of Zakliczyn);
he was half brother of
Wojciech Ludwik Jordan (1725 - 1793),
Konstancja Urszula Walewska,
and Spytek Rogatian Jordan.
Ignacy Błeszyński senior, born 1742 was married 2nd time to PETRONELA RADOLINSKA.

Henryk Kacper Tarczałowski b. ca 1820 m. in 1852 in Wierzbie, in the Tczyca parish, to Teodora Błeszyńska b. ca 1825, daughter of
Anna (b. ca 1780) and
Ignacy Franciszek Błeszyński (b. 1783) junior, son of
Ignacy Bleszynski senior (1742 in Złoczów close to Sieradz - died 1813), member of the Bar confederation 1768, and the 1794 Uprising, and Apolonia Sudrawska;
2nd wife of above Ignacy Błeszyński (1742 - 1813) in 1789 was mentioned above Petronela Radolińska (1765 - 1821), daughter of
Jan Radolinski (1726 - 1796) and
Maria Brygida Gałecka.

Michał Jerzy Ludwik Poniatowski was brother to Kazimierz Jakub Poniatowski; Franciszek; Aleksander; Ludwika Maria Zamojska; Izabela Antonina Mokronowska - Branicka; and Andrzej Ksiaze Poniatowski / Duke. Above Ludwika Maria Zamojska nee Poniatowska, 1728 - 1781, was wife of Jan Jakub Zamoyski; and was mother of Urszula Maria Wandalin-Mniszech and above named Brygida / Maria Brygida Gałecki / Brygida Gałecka.

PETRONELA Radolińska (b. ca 1764-1821), was a daughter of Jan Radolinski 1726-1796 and Brygida or Maria Brygida Gałecki / Brygida Malecka; Petronela nee Radolinska was granddaughter of Józef Stefan Radoliński of Wschowa b. 1680 - died in 1740.
Józef Stefan Radoliński lived at the court of Polish King, Jan III Sobieski; clerk in Wschowa (see Sulkowski). Józef Stefan had 7 children:
youngest son Jan Radolinski 1726-1796 was owner of Jarocin, but his brother
Józef Stanisław was officer in Wschowa and in 1757 Józef Stanisław married to Katarzyna Raczyńska (see Kiedrzynski).
Józef Stanisław Radoliński born 1730 - died in 1781 in Winnogóra, the Szamotuły County, was father of
Antonina Maria Breza and
Wiridianna / Wirydianna Fiszer
(see General Stanislaw Fiszer, Radolinski of Wola Pszczolecka, General Franciszek Paszkowski, Armand + Konstantynowicz, Lenin + Inessa Armand, Tadeusz Kosciuszko).

Józef Stefan Radoliński of Wschowa b. 1680 - died in 1740 was brother of Zofia Walewska 1677 - 1723 who married Kazimierz Walewski. Kazimierz Walewski was son of Stanislaw Walewski and Katarzyna Lanckoronska.

Teodora Ludwika Walewska, Marianna Radolińska and Józef Kazimierz Colonna Walewski b. ca 1710, d. 1763 (he had son Atanazy Colonna-Walewski 1733-1815 and daughter Jadwiga Walewska who married in 1762 in Bielawy to Michal / Michael Walewski 1735 / 1740 - 1806) were children of Kazimierz Walewski and Zofia.

In 1774 Józef Stanisław Radolinski from hands of Stanisław August Poniatowski had taken Jeziorki, Słupia and Piekary; Józef Stanisław died in 1781.
Józef Stanisław Radolinski and Katarzyna had daughter Wirydianna (1761 - 1826), who married two times;
1st in 1788 to Maciej Antoni Kwilecki, officer in Wschowa;
Wirydianna m. 2nd time to General Stanisław Fiszer, the Chief of Army Staff of the Duchy of Warsaw and longtime friend of Tadeusz Kosciuszko
(see General Franciszek Paszkowski who had daughter - Armand's wife, and relatives to the Konstantynowiczs!).

Adam Kiedrzynski married in 1808 in Krepa to Anastazja Bleszynska b. ca 1792, from Bakowa Góra close to Przedborz.

In 1778 in Mroczkow close to Skarzysko Kamienna was built blast furnace, produced iron; in 1832 taken by Ignacy / Ignatius Błaszczyński junior, under Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł.
Ignacy / Ignacy Franciszek Błeszyński junior was born 1783 to Ignacy Bleszynski senior and Apolonia Sudrawska; Ignacy junior married ca 1810.
Ignacy Blaszczynski the 3rd (Bleszynski) was grandson of Bibianna / Biblianna Gierowska Blaszczynska (Anna ?).
Ignacy Blaszczynski / Bleszynski the 3rd died in 1864, fought in the January Uprising in 1863 together with Jozef Kalasanty Gierowski 1822-1873, who was exiled after 1863, and also with Franciszek Ksawery Gierowski 1832-1878, both sons of
Sylwester Gierowski 1790-1854, was owner of Wielgomlyny, and was son of Stanislaw Gierowski.
In 1863 they acted with Jan Szubert who was son of sister of Sylwester Gierowski wifes' who was from the Porczynski noble house.
Daughter of Sylwester Gierowski was Klementyna Rychlowska died in 1852 in Wielgomlyny.
Also Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont was born in 1867 in Kobiele Wielkie close to Wielgomlyny.
Kobiele Wielkie is situated around 9 km south-west of Wolka Bankowa and 11 km west of Wielgomlyny.

Some additional details:
Bibianna Gierowska was living in Kobiele Wielkie. She married to Marceli Bleszynski (ac. to me: Ignacy Franciszek Błeszyński junior, b. 1783) - inf. in Radomsko.
Wincenty Myszkowski (born 1789) married 2nd time - wedding in 1829 in Myśliwczów, near Wielgomłyny - Antonina Suchowicz (born in 1808); witnesses at the wedding were: M. Sylwester Gierowski, owner of Wielgomłyny; and Łukasz Musnicki, owner of Niedośpielin.
In 1835 Sylwester Gierowski married to Angela Podkańska in Wielgomłyny.
Named above
Ignacy Antoni Błeszyński b. 1840; died in 1864, Lieutenant of the Finnish infantry regiment of the tsarist army; officer of the insurgent forces in 1863. Born in Rogoźniki;
he was son of Józef Błeszyński born 1813, and Izabela Malczewska;
grandparents were
Ignacy Franciszek Błeszyński (junior) b. 1783 and Anna (that is Bibianna / Biblianna Gierowska Blaszczynska).
Ignacy Błeszyński senior 1742-1813 and Apolonia Sudrawska b. 1750.
Kazimierz Błeszyński, 1703 - 1757, member of Parliament, writer of the Crown Treasury, and judge in Sieradz; Kazimierz Błeszyński was born in 1703 in Błeszno;
he was the son of Joseph / JOZEF Błeszyński and Marianna Linowski.
He owned, among others, Złoczew and Brzeźno in the area of Sieradz. He introduced a uniform system of weights and measures; 1746, he was re-elected as a member of parliament.
He married Teresa - widow of Ignacy Jordan of Zakliczyn, officer in Cracow (Kazimierz Błeszyński married to Teresa Jordan Struss; she married 1st time to Jan Jordan);
founded a church in Brzeźno; died in Wroclaw. He was buried in Złoczew.

Ignacy Antoni Błeszyński (1840 - 1864) was living in St. Petersburg,
then in Tula, in 1860 he was an officer of the Finnish Infantry Regiment but in 1861 he lived in Warsaw, witnessed the patriotic demonstrations. In 1862 he defected from the regiment. In 1863, after the outbreak of the January uprising, he was adjutant of General Józef Wysocki, in Volhynia / Volyn. Then he was sent in Kalisz, to Oxiński; in Piotrkow, then together with Joseph Turczynowicz, close to Rozprza. Błeszyński using the name Malczewski.
He spent Christmas Eve 1863 in Wielgomłyny, with Joseph and Frances Gierowski; the mansion was surrounded by Cossacks, and arrested Błeszyński as Malczewski, also taken Jan Schubert and Stanislaw Lipinski; after investigation has been sentenced to death and was executed on March 5, 1864, with Mosiński and Sukhoi.

Mentioned above Rogoźnik - village near Bobrowniki, 17 km south-east of Tarnowskie Gory, and south-west of MYSZKOW (see Kalinowski).

Marianna Magdalena Błeszyńska nee Łącka, I voto Szczawińska, born in 1704 in Wielgomłyny, daughter of Andrzej Łącki of Nadole and Teofila Teresa SZCZAWINSKA of BOROWIEC, wife of Aleksander Błeszyński and Józef Szczawiński.
Marianna Magdalena Błeszyńska nee Łącka was sister of Helena Zuzanna Bielska born 1716 in Wielgomłyny - wife of Stefan Bielski.

Above Aleksander Błeszyński born ca 1700, was husband of Marianna Magdalena LACKA, and father of
Wojciech Jan Nepomucen Błeszyński born 1738 in Mierzyn, close to Rozprza, south of Piotrków Trybunalski, and
Agnieszka Sułkowska, b. 1736 in Wielgomłyny
(wife of Stanisław Sułkowski and mother of Jan Nepomucen Józef Sułkowski born 1755 in Rozprza; Roch Hipolit Sułkowski; Marianna Agnieszka Sułkowska; Antoni Onufry Sułkowski born in 1765 in Piotrków Trybunalski, and Andrzej Sułkowski).

Above named
Wojciech Jan Nepomucen Błeszyński born 1738 was half brother of Zuzanna Wolska
(Zuzanna Wolska nee Szczawińska, b. 1726 in Wielgomłyny, daughter of Józef Szczawiński and Marianna Magdalena Błeszyńska);
Michał Hieronim Józef Szczawiński and
Jan Józef Wincenty Szczawiński
(Jan Józef Wincenty Szczawiński b. 1729 in Wielgomłyny, son of Józef Szczawiński and Marianna Magdalena Błeszyńska nee LACKA).

WZDULSKI Andrzej Wojciech b. 1781, Zagórze, d. 1848, owner of Sokola Góra (south-west of PRZEDBORZ), married in 1840 in Wielgomłyny, to Michalina Grzymała Skoczyńska.

In 1764 in Wielgomłyny, Ignacy Kiedrzyński of Malowana Wola (5 km east of DMENIN; 9 km north-west of WOLKA BANKOWA; 5 km north of Kobiele Wielkie) married Zofia nee Zabłocka 1 voto Święcicka (widow, a woman who has lost her husband by death),
with witnesses:
Mikołaj Zabłocki from Rogi (6 km south-east of Wielgomłyny),
Antoni Maj / MAY of Wola Życińska (5 km south-east of above ROGI), and
Antoni Zaręba. Zofia nee Zabłocka 1 voto Święcicka - no data.

Jan Kanty Szaniawski (ca 1764 - 1839), landowner of Ochle close to Łask and owner of Gromadzice in the Wielun county, married in 1803, Osjaków, to Agnieszka Psarska b. ca 1770 - died after 1844,
daughter of Władysław Psarski 1700-1787.
Jan Kanty Szaniawski had daughter:
Petronela Szaniawska 1809-1835, married
Feliks Bonawentura Szulimierski / Sulimierski b. 1800
with son Stanisław Jan Szulimierski / Sulimierski b. 1830 - Widawa;
Feliks Bonawentura Szulimierski / Sulimierski was son of Ludwik Szulimierski / Sulimierski born 1770 + Marianna.

Brief explanation to above MARIANNA + SULIMIERSKI:

Marianna Cielecka b. ca 1770, died before 1833, m.
Jan Nepomucen Sulimierski b. ca 1770 - died in 1818, owner of Brzeski / Brzesko, son of
Michal Sulimierski and Jadwiga Jaroszewska;
with children:
Maciej, Filip, Teresa,
that is:
1. Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. ca 1795 / 1798, owner of Stronsko in the Lask county
(9 km south-west of Zdunska Wola and north-west of Widawa),
leaseholder of Wiesiolka, and landowner and Mayor of Zielecice / Zielecice (in the Lask county; here is his manor), the future godfather and uncle of Filip Sulimierski; he had been pardoned although he was investigated in 1833 / 1834.

2. Filip Rafal Sulimierski (1797 Tumusin, close to Zgierz - d. 1843 in Brzeski, in the Szadek county), owner of Chotyszów and Brzeski; married to

Balbina Psarska b. ca 1800,

2nd time in 1831 to Bibianna Barbara Dzwonkowska (1810 in Leszczyn, in the Sieradz county - 1882), daughter of Tekla nee Borowska b. ca 1780;

children of above Filip:

Klotylda Sulimierska b. ca 1835, m. Józef Zaremba son of Józef Zaremba;

Bronislawa Sulimierska (1827 - 1928 !), 1863 Uprising, 1st m. Edward Szenk, 2nd m. in 1871 in Cieszecin to Boleslaw Tarczalowski;

Artur Alfons Sulimierski (1831 in Stolec, the Sieradz county - d. 1902),

Kornelia Sulimierska (1836 - 1837),

Filip Koronat Sulimierski (1843 Sieradz - 1885 Warsaw), author of 'Slownik Geograficzny...'.

Shortly after the outbreak of the Uprising in 1831 Filip Rafal Sulimierski, father of Filip KORONAT, has been appointed a member of the Welfare Committee to collect contributions and financial assistance for the wives of officers.

The members of the uprising in 1831 were Faustyn, Walenty (also in 1833) and Antoni Sulimierski - sons of Mateusz and Justyna Sulimierski.

Father of Faustyn, Walenty and Antoni Sulimierski that is Anthony, Faustyn and Valentine, was Mateusz Tomasz / Matthew Thomas Sulimierski who - for providing food to the partisans in 1833 - was in accordance with the decision of the Commission of Inquiry, placed under court-martial in 1833.

In 1834 mentione above Filip Rafal Sulimierski (1797 Tumusin, close to Zgierz - d. 1843 in Brzeski, in the Szadek county), that is Philip Rafal Sulimierski was sentenced (the future father of Philip Koronat Sulimierski) because he received at his home Faustyn and Walentyn Sulimierski and the commander of Sieradz - Potocki. On May 3, 1833, the Sulimierski brothers troops fought with the Cossack patrol stationed in Szadek.

Filip Koronat Sulimierski (1843 Sieradz - 1885 Warsaw), author of 'Slownik Geograficzny...', was the son of Philip Raphael Sulimierski (1797-1843) and his second wife, Barbara Bibianna nee Dzwonkowski (1810-1882). Filip Rafael Sulimierski was the owner of the village Chotyszów and Brzeski (in the Sieradz county).

Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski born 1798, married Marianna Kempista - uncle of Filip Koronat - who was heir to the village Zielencice, was witness the birth registration of Filip Koronat Sulimierski together with Leon Labecki, teacher of the School District of Sieradz; witnesses to the baptism were Maciej Sulimierski, Karolina Nowicka, Joseph Zaremba and Teresa Starzynska.

The future editor of 'Wedrowiec' had two sisters - Bronislawa (1827-1928) and Kornelia (1836-1837 !) and brother Arthur Alfons (1831-1902) - the first one was a participant of the January Uprising, repressioned after its fall; Arthur worked as a teacher in Warsaw high schools;

the younger brother Filip Koronat was also the author of a book published in 1872. F. Sulimierski in 1856 moved with his mother and siblings to Piotrkow Trybunalski; after graduating in 1862 he started his studies in Warsaw on the newly created the Main School (now University of Warsaw) at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics. F. Sulimierski also participated in a series of lectures on the philosophy of Henry Struve.

Acc. to Nejman:

Wojciech Sulimierski owner in 1728 of Losieniec, married to Dorota Trzebnicka,
with son:
Józef Sulimierski d. 1787, m. Antonina Przeradzka;
with children:
1. Jan died 1809,
2. Salomea;
3. Agnieszka m. Jan Kossobudzki;
4. Ludwik Sulimierski born ca 1758, died ca 1826, owner of Stronsko, m. to Marianna Julianna Kempista, daughter of Maciej Kempista and Joanna Szeliska,
with children:
a) Faustyna born ca 1799, Stronsko, m. Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki;
b) Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski of Wesola and Tyczyn, m. Nepomucena Pradzynska;
with daughter Ewa Józefa born 1836 in Zielecice;
c) Feliks Bonawentura Sulimierski married in 1829 to Petronela SZANIAWSKA - she was b. 1810 in Gromadzice, daughter of Jan Kanty SZANIAWSKI b. ca 1764, owner of above Gromadzice, and Ochle, and Agnieszka Psarska.

Acc. to Nejman the second branch of the Sulimierskis:

come from
Michal Sulimierski owner in 1752 of Kalów, Nowa Wies, Potok, Dury, Borowiska, married to Jadwiga Jaroszewska.
Them children:
1. Adam died ca 1832, with son Wincenty owner of Kalow,
2. Stefan d. ca 1832;

3. Justyna Sulimierska d. 1842, m. Mateusz Sulimierski son of Ignacy Sulimierski and Marianna Wyszlawska; the members of the uprising in 1831 were Faustyn, Walenty (also in 1833) and Antoni Sulimierski - sons of Mateusz and Justyna Sulimierski. Father of Faustyn, Walenty and Antoni Sulimierski that is Anthony, Faustyn and Valentine, was Mateusz Tomasz / Matthew Thomas Sulimierski who - for providing food to the partisans in 1833 - was in accordance with the decision of the Commission of Inquiry, placed under court-martial in 1833.

4. Mikolaj, d. 1831, owner of Wola Dzierlinska, m. Marianna Psarska d. 1819 daughter of Tomasz PSARSKI;

5. Jan Nepomucen Sulimierski died ca 1811, owner of Brzeska / Brzesko, m. Marianna Cielecka daughter of Andrzej,
with daughter Teresa Karolina born ca 1800, Marzenin, m. in 1820 in Kliczków, to Adolf Józef Starzynski b. ca 1782, owner of Chorzeszow;
and with son:
Filip Rafal Sulimierski born in Tumusin in 1797, m. 1819 in Biala, to Balbina Psarska born ca 1799, daughter of Franciszek, 2nd married in 1831 to Bibianna Barbara Dzwonkowska 1810-82;
with children:
Klotylda b. 1820, m. 1837 in Marzenin, to
Józef Waclaw Zareba;
Filip Koronat Sulimierski b. 1843 in Sieradz.

Jan Kanty Szaniawski (ca 1764 - 1839) had sons:
1. Józef Gabriel Szaniawski (1805 in Gromadzice close to Wielun - d. 1879) married in 1841 to Aniela Zbijewska (b. 1816);
2. Jan Chryzostom Ignacy Szaniawski (born 1813, Gromadzice), owner of Chodaki in the Szadek county, and also owner of Kraszyn, and Zwiasty;
3. Ludwik Bartłomiej Szaniawski (b. 1816 in Gronów, the Sieradz county),
owner of Kroczyce in the Lelów county and Malowana Wola (see KIEDRZYNSKI)
and married in 1844 in Rędziny to Aniela Rotkiewicz from Kroczyce (1824, Kroczyce - died 1860, Piotrków) daughter of Marianna Dobińska (Dabińska, Drabińska).

In Wola Malowana was living Zabierzewski.


Above Ignacy Błeszyński (1742 - 1813) senior, in 1789 was married 2nd time to Petronela Radolińska (1765 - 1821), with daughter Anastazja (?).
Adam Kiedrzynski married in 1808 in Krepa to Anastazja Bleszynska b. ca 1792, from Bakowa Góra close to Przedborz.

RADOLIŃSKI Jan b. ca 1726, owner of Jarocin and Radlin, m. Brygida Junosza Gałecka daughter of Ludwika Poniatowska, with:
a. above named Petronela RADOLIŃSKI b. 1765 in Jarocin, m. in 1789 to Ignacy Błeszyński 1742-1813, owner of Złoczew, son of Kazimierz and Teresa Struss (she m. 1st to Ignacy Jordan of Zakliczyn or Jan Jordan);
b. Piotr Józef Antoni;
c. Antoni Jan Piotr;
d. Franciszek Salezy Walerian Stanisław RADOLIŃSKI b. 1767 in Jarocin,
e. Ignacy RADOLIŃSKI born 1771, d. 1825, owner of Jarocin, Kowale Szlacheckie, m. 1804-13, to Anna Kwilecka daughter of Wirydianna Radolińska,
1. Petronela RADOLIŃSKI b. ca 1811, married to general Habe, 2nd to general Jakub Wagner;
2. Gabriela b. 1808;
3. Władysław RADOLIŃSKI b. 1806, died in 1879 in Neapol, 1836 Count, m. in 1840 to Józefa Radolińska 1808-1880, with son
Hugo Juliusz RADOLIŃSKI b. 1841, Prussian diplomatist, m. 1863, Londyn, to Lucy Catherine Wakefield / Łucja Wakefield b. 1842, d. 1880 at Madera, 2nd to Joanna von Oppersdorf.
Hugo Juliusz RADOLIŃSKI b. 1841 that is Hugo Juliusz Raoul Edward Radoliński, duke von Radolin, died 1917 in Jarocin, Ambassador in Sankt Petersburg, Stambul / Konstantynopol and Paris, known Otto von Bismarck and Atanazy Raczyński; 1863 in London married
Lucy Catherine Wakefield, born in India, to Colonel Alfred Howard Wakefield, and Mary Suffolk Wakefiled, daughter of Indian Raja Busscher / Bussaher - Keeroo Visiera.
1864 born his son Alfred, 1866 son Hugo.

Mary Suffolk was born in 1814 in Pakistan. She was married in 1832 to Alfred Howard Wakefield with daughter Lucy Catharina Wakefield 1838-1880 and son George Edward.
Or she married to
John Howard Wakefield b. 1803 in Ipswich, London; wedding in London, 1832.
Above John was son of Edward WAKEFIELD, b. 1774, d. 1854, and Susanna CRUSH;
grandson of Edward WAKEFIELD, b. 1750, d. 1826, and Priscilla BELL, b. 1751, Tottenham.

Above Priscilla Wakefield, nee Priscilla Bell (1751 - 1832) was an English Quaker philanthropist who wrote on feminist economics and scientific subjects, as well as producing children's fiction, acc. to Wikipedia.

Above mentioned Mary Suffolk died in 1852 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

We remember on the governors of British Ceylon

(see my domain on tea in Ceylon, and Pilsudski in JAPAN):

James Campbell, 1822 to 1824, Major general, was succeeded by Edward Barnes.
Colin Campbell b. 1776 d. 1847, Governor of British Ceylon 1841 to 1847 under Queen Victoria; 1792, ran away from the Perth Academy, returned to Scotland to enter a Navigation Academy in Perth, 1792 sailed for India, he was the fifth son of John Campbell of Melfort
(Colonel John Campbell, laird of Melfort - western Scotland and north-west of Glasgow, Kilninver - close to Melfort, and Kilmelfort - close to Melfort, in Argyllshire, Scotland, born 1730, his children:
1. Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell, b. 1767, Killin - half way from Melfort to Perth and west of Perth, in Perthshire, Scotland,
2. John Campbell, b. 1769, Killin, Perthshire,
3. Allan Campbell, b. 1770, Killin, and others children)
and Colina, daughter of John Campbell of Achallader - west-north-west of Perth, whose mother Katherine was a daughter of
Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel - southern Glasgow.
His brother was Vice-Admiral Sir Patrick Campbell.

See in Bengal:
1. Latour;
and Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill.
Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.

See BREGUET, Konstantynowicz, Duflon, Chopin:
Alfred Léon Jean O'MEARA 1834-1899 married 1862, Calcutta in India, to Mary Anne PRICE-BROWNE with children:
Walter Alfred O'MEARA 1863-1939 married 1892 to Annie Mary McKinnon GRAVES;
Frederick Arthur O'MEARA 1864-1887,
Anna Beatrice Edith O'MEARA b. 1865 and married 1886, Lahore (Pakistan).


Siegfried Mendel Wolinski b. February 2, 1903 in mentioned above Wielgomlyny - 12 km south-west of Przedborz, Radomsko County, Lódz Voivodeship, Poland
- east of Kobiele Wielkie and south-east of DMENIN; died 1936 in Tunisia.
Husband of Lola Sarah Bembaron.
Father of Georges Wolinski and Ella Wolinski. Georges Wolinski (b.Tunis) was the son of Siegfried Mendel WOLINSKI of Wielgomlyny, Poland.
in 1717 the Kampanowski family built chapels dedicated St Anna; in 1726 the Moszynski family founded a second chapel on the south side.

Florian / Floryan Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1730 / 1740, owner of Noskowo - inf. 1776, 16 km east of Koszkowo and 27 km east of Kunowo. The same Florian Kiedrzynski b. ca 1730 (1740 ?), married in 1759, his wife was living 1730-1786. His son Leon Kiedrzynski b. ca 1760. His uncle was Kazimierz Kiedrzynski m. Katarzyna Swierczkowska. Above Florian Kiedrzynski's father was Marcin Kiedrzynski b. ca 1700 ? - died in 1788, mother Wiktoria Pstrokonska / Wiktoria Poraj Pstrokonska;
brothers of FLORIAN:
Jan Antoni Maciej Kiedrzynski 1738 - d. ?; Stanislaw Kiedrzynski ? - 1774; Pawel Kiedrzynski; Józef Kiedrzynski;
sister Bona from KARSY, married Kiedrzynska.
Karsy - 10 km south-east of DMENIN and 11 km west of Wielgomlyny.

1787 in Lgota Wielka:
Kazimierz Bleszynski of the Kodrab parish (see above Wielgomlyny), owner of Widawka, and Róza Bleszynska b. ca 1770 (sec. voto Kiedrzynska), daughter of Marianna Stobiecki, were married in the church, witnesses the wedding were Jan Bleszynski and Bonawentura Bleszynski, Ludwik Kiedrzynski the burgrave of Piotrkow, and Roch Wielobycki; Kacper Kepista of Ostrzeszow.

Kodrab - 17 km east of Radomsko. East of Jedlno. Dmenin is close to Kodrab.
Widawka - 4 km north-west of Kodrab.


Jan Kanty Moszynski died 1737 in Warsaw, was Treasurer of the Crown in 1736, trustee of both the Saxons, marries the daughter of Augustus II the Strong and Countess Cosel; his grandfather was
Andrew Louis Moszynski (d. 1683),
he came from a noble family of his father Michal Alexander who lived in Podlasie and served as treasurer.
Aleksander Michal Moszynski / Aleksander Moszynski married to Teresa Ossolinski of Tenczyn; Teresa Ossolinska b. circa 1668, d. 1756;
she was mother of Józef Moszynski and Jan Kanty Moszynski.
Above Aleksander Michal Moszynski b. circa 1664, d. 1700, was son of Andrzej Moszynski and Anna.
Jan Kanty served to the court of Augustus II as a cabinet minister and Secretary of State for Poland, with title chamberlain, allowed the uncle Francis Maximilian Ossolinski.
Frederick Joseph and also August Fryderyk Moszynski / Frederick Augustus Moszynski b. 1731 in Dresden, d. 1786 in Padova, freemason, and economist, expert in the mint, Earl, were sons of Jan Kanty / John Cantius Moszynski and Frederica Augusta, the illegitimate daughter of Augustus II the Strong and Countess Cosel.
Frederick Augustus Moszynski since 1737 has remained under the care of Henry Brühl. He was educated at a military school in Dresden.
In 1765 taken the Bolimowska Wies estate, 10 km west of Guzow of Oginski (see Michal Kleofas Oginski)!
In 1769 he became Grand Master of the Masonic lodge in Poland; he has split the Masonic lodges into three - German, French and Polish, with the mysterious names: Three Brothers, the Perfect Silence and Virtuous Sarmatian chaired by Count Luigi Frederick von Brühl.

Above named Bolimowska Wies is a village in Poland in the Lodz region, in the district of Skierniewice, close to Bolimów.


Michal Kleofas Oginski, owner of the Helenow palace, Otrebusy, Komorów, Helenow and Opacz (see above BOLIMOW), was born as Michal Kleofas Ogiski in Guzów close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765;
was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer; his father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paulina nee Szembek.
Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 / 1730 or in Warsaw in 1731, d. on May 31, 1800 Slonim or Warszawa, in 1755 was landowner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800.
After him the next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow to 1800) was Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833.
Helenow village of the Oginski family, in ca 1800 come to hands of the Ostrowskis (see below!).
Tomasz Adam Ostrowski was owner of HELENOW in ca 1800 to 1817 (and Tadeusz Ostrowski - see below!),
then 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki and Jakub Ksawery Potocki.

Piotr Wojciech Pawel Ostrowski d. 1773 was son of Wojciech Ostrowski born ca 1710, and Katarzyna; husband of Konstancja Katarzyna Ostrowska / Konstancja Stoinska; father of Tomasz Adam Roman Ostrowski; Aleksander Ostrowski and Wojciech.
Tomasz Adam Roman Ostrowski - see owners of HELENOW, GUZOW, OTREBUSY, BOLIMOWSKA WIES - b. 1735 in Krupa-Ostrów / Ostrów Krupski close to KRASNYSTAW. Died 1817 in Warszawa.
Father of
Julia Halka-Ledóchowska;
Antoni Jan Ostrowski (1782 Warszawa, d. 1845 in Les Madéres, France; father of Julia Olimpia Michalowska; Tomasz Antoni Ostrowski; Agnieska Eigert; and Tekla Dzierzykraj-Morawska);
Ludwika Mechtylda Potocka;
Wladyslaw Tomasz Ostrowski (1790 - 1869);
Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski
(1792 - d. 1842 in Wien, father of Maria Morsztyn 1821 - 1907 and Stanislaw Julian Roman Ostrowski);
brother of Aleksander Ostrowski and Wojciech Ostrowski.
His mentioned brother Aleksander Ostrowski died 1790.

The Moszynskis were owners of Wielgomlyny.
Village Wielgomłyny was the home parish of Konstanty that is Constantine Moszyński, who was born in the village of Rudka in 1670.
He was the son of Alexander / Aleksander Moszynski and Magdalena Ujejska.
Wielgomłyny came into possession of this family, through Jerome, who took over the estate after his mother nee Koniecpolski
(Wielgomłyny with Kruszyna, included Zagorze, Trzebca, Myśliwczów-Kolonia, Januszowice and Rudka).
The family had close relationships with the Order of the Pauline.
James / Jakub Moszyński was the grandfather of Constantine Moszyński. He served at the court of Emperor Ferdinand III, died in 1648.
Antoni Moszyński and Magdalena Dobiecka from Rudka / Rutka (1st wife ?) - inf. in 1706, April.
Antoni was the last owner of Wielgomlyny, inf. 1726 and in 1739.
Antoni Moszyński married Jadwiga Wolska (2nd wife ?), with son Adalbert, who died at a young age in 1737, and daughter Petronela.
Petronela Ostrowska, 1713 - 1785, was daughter of Antoni Moszynski who died 1767.
Antoni and Konstanty were sons of Aleksander Moszynski and Magdalena Ujejska of Wilkowice.
Aleksander Moszynski born circa 1640, died in 1700, was son of Jakub Moszynski and Marianna.
Wilkowice - north-west of Rawa Mazowiecka.
Above Petronela nee Moszynska was the last landowner of above named Wielgomlyny. She married Kazimierz Ostrowski of Maluszyn, and this estate found themselves already in the hands of the OSTROWSKIS.
Petronela married Kazimierz Jan Ostrowski in 1730, at age 17. Kazimierz was born in 1710, d. 1755 in Maluszyn; he was son of
Jan of Ostrow Ostrowski that is OSTROW WIELKOPOLSKI;
Kazimierz was Colonel, officer in Sieradz, friend of the KING Stanislaw Poniatowski, and Stanislaw Leszczynski; owner of
Wielgomlyny, Kruszyna, and Sulmierzyce

In 1738 KAZIMIERZ bought Maluszyn
(here lived - samples only -
Aleksander Ostrowski, 1810-1896, with wife Helena Morstin, and 6 children:
August, b. 1836 in Cracow, m. Elżbieta Niezabytowska; Jan b. in Maluszynie in 1840; Konrad in 1846; Józef in 1850; Maria born in Radoszewnice in 1838, married to Stanisławow Jan Władysław Potocki; Ludwika b. 1851.
And next person: Jozef Ostrowski since 1896)
from hands of Malczewski - 20 km of Koniecpol.
The Uncle of KAZIMIERZ Jan / John was Kazimierz Ostrowski, a Jesuit, known Polish philosopher.
Kazimierz Jan Ostrowski had two daughters -
Aniela and
Zofia Helena or Helena born in Rzasnia (baptism with closest friends: Jan Walewski and Elzbieta Mecinska of Wielun),
and 5 sons:
Alexy; Antoni; Kazimierz; Michal and Swietoslaw;
above Michal Ostrowski was next owner of Maluszyn and Wielgomlyny; he was the great-grandfather of Joseph Ostrowski, Polish politician, a member of the Regency Council of the Kingdom of Poland.
Above Aleksy / Alexy Ostrowski son of Jan Kazimierz Ostrowski and Petronela; husband of Jadwiga; father of Ignacy Blazej Ostrowski married Tekla with Brutus Ostrowski and Barbara Ksawera Ostrowski wife of Filip Szaniawski.
Above Brutus Ostrowski husband of Julia with children:
Augusta Bogumila Teofila Belza; Milosz Ostrowski and Konstancja Ostrowska b. 1828 + Leonard Rudzki.
Above Milosz Ostrowski b. 1830 m. ca 1855 to Zawadzka.
Above Augusta Bogumila Teofila Belza b. 1829 wife of Józef Belza.

Mentioned above Kruszyna – village near Wielgomlyny.

Above Jan Kazimierz Ostrowski, died in 1755 in Maluszyn south of PRZEDBORZ, Radomsko County, Lódz Voivodeship; he was son of Jan Ostrowski.
Above Michal Ostrowski b. 1738 in Rzasnia (12 km north-west of Sulmierzyce - see KIEDRZYNSKI) and died in 1805,
married Marianna TYMOWSKI with son
Michal Wojciech Ostrowski 1782 - 1847;
and grandson - Aleksander Ostrowski.
Wife of Michal Wojciech Ostrowski was Józefa Potocka b. ca 1781, d. 1859 in Maluszyn, Radomsko County, daughter of
Aleksander Potocki and Teresa Ludwika HUTTEN CZAPSKI.

Above Aleksander Ostrowski b. 1810 in Maluszyn, d. 1896; husband of Helena; father of Augustyn Ostrowski; Maria Potocka; Jan Ostrowski; Józef August Ostrowski and Ludwik.

Above Augustyn Ostrowski 1836 - 1898 was husband of Elzbieta Wielopolska, that is Elzbieta Wielopolska Niezabitowska Ostrowska b. 1840, daughter of Stefan Niezabytowski and Celina;
she was wife of Augustyn Ostrowski and Zygmunt Andrzej Wielopolski (Count, politician of the conservative pro-Russian orientation; mayor of Warsaw from 1862 to 1863).

Note at margin:
Ludwika Ostrowska Ronikier daughter of Roman Ronikier and Maria Anna Dorota; wife of Tadeusz Ostrowski; sister of Katarzyna Krasicka and Teresa; half sister of Leonila Leontyna Siemienska and Maria Katarzyna Leonia Goetzendorf Grabowska. Ludwika Ostrowska, born Ronikier in ca 1860; her mother was Maria Anna Dorota Ronikier Goetzendorf Grabowska born Lubomirska. Roman Ronikier was born in 1832, in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Maria was born in 1832, in Saint Petersburg;
Tadeusz Ostrowski b. ca 1855/1860.
Maybe he was son of Feliks Augustyn Ostrowski b. ca 1831 / 1834 - d. 1891, and grandson of Jan OSTROWSKI and Magdalena Tyszka (her children: OSTROWSKI Henryk Seweryn born in Kuleszki in the Miastkowo parish in 1832, close to LOMZA; OSTROWSKI Hieronim Mateusz; Wincenty Kryspianin).

On Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski and others brief note:

1. J. B. O. Ostrowski (Nov. 1832; see Frédéric Guillaume de Vaudoncourt; J. B. Ostrowski, 'Czy jest jaka Litwa', Nowa Polska, 3 (1835), folios 28 and 29) or J. B. Ostrowski (Dec. 1832) was a member of the 'Zemsta Ludu' together with Stanislaw Gabriel Worcell, Smolikowski, Czynski, Pulawski, Boleslaw Gurowski, Mjr Antoni Krakowski, Józef Zaliwski, and Joachim Lelewel who was republican conspirator, a close collaborator of the Carbonari, and of the Société des Amis du Peuple (see Inessa Armand).
Acc. to
on Józefat Boleslaw Ostrowski born in 1803 or 1805 - 1871; that is Ostrowski Józefat Boleslaw, nickname Ibus, B.J.C., J.B., J.B. of Pobujany, born in Pobujany / Pobuzany north-east of Lwow / Lviv, son of Jan. 1830 co-operated with Adam Chledowski; emigree to France, 1837–9, escaped to England, then served France counterintelligence, died in Meaux.

Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski b. 1792 - d. 1842 in Wien.

3. Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski was owner of HELENOW 1817 - to 1833 (? Helena was sister of Tadeusz Ostrowski) but after the Józef Zaliwski MOVEMENT in 1833 escaped to France and Austria.
Before him Tomasz Adam Ostrowski - his father - was owner of HELENOW in ca 1800 to 1817.
Then 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki in 1855 and Jakub Ksawery Potocki; Maria Konstancja nee SAPIEHA in 1855.

Count Tomasz Adam Ostrowski 1735 - 1817 a Polish nobleman, politician, statesman and Count since 1798, Colonel of the Crown Army in 1765, the Chamberlain of King Stanislaw II Augustus in 1767,
son of Piotr Ostrowski and Konstancja Stoinska;
a member of the Andrzej Mokronowski Confederation in 1776, MP in 1776 of the Upita county.
Andrzej Mokronowski 1713 - 1784, MP in 1776, the Masovia governor, general lieutenant in 1759, General Major in France in 1754, the Freemason. See about Mokronowski at my webpages.

Count Tomasz Adam Ostrowski 1735 - 1817 in 1765 married Józefa Godlewska, with whom he had a daughter Julia.

1781 he married Apolonia Ledóchowska with nine children:

Antoni Jan Ostrowski, General Commander of the National Guard during the November Uprising (since 1809 he was a member of the Provisional Government, 1828 he was a member of the Parliament Court, 1831 he was appointed President of the Senate, since 1831 in exile);

Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski - owner of HELENOW, and

Wladyslaw Ostrowski, Marshal of the Parliament of the Polish Kingdom in 1830.

In 1795, Count Tomasz Adam Ostrowski 1735 - 1817 married Apolonia Kunegunda Brzozowska.

here lived Antoni Konstantynowicz the first son of Dominik derived from area of Krycau and verified noble descent in the Hrodna government 1861, and his son Stanislav Konstantynowicz (born c. 1855) with wife Anna nee Malkiewicz / Malkevicius came from the Dryssa ujezd (= the Werchnedwinsk district; the place Asveja) in the Government of Vicebsk; she was near related to the families
Brzezinski / Bžezinskis (Konstancja Bžezinskis / Brzezinski), and
Ostrowski (from Piotr Ostrowski de Kaki in 1697; 1760 by the Czerowacz lake in Livonia).

Konstanty Ludwik Plater built in Kraslaw new church, together with Antoni Ostrowski and Jerzy Mikolaj Hylzen in 1768, Jerzy de Ludingshausen-Wolff.

Krystyn Piotr Celestyn Józef Ostrowski, 1811 - 1882, son of Antoni Jan Ostrowski and Józefa Zofia Karolina MORSKI.
Antoni Jan Ostrowski b. 1782, d. 1845 in Les Madéres, France, was son of Tomasz Adam Roman Ostrowski and Apolonia, father of Julia Olimpia Michalowska, Tomasz Antoni Ostrowski, Krystyn Piotr Celestyn Józef Ostrowski, Stanislaw Kostka; Agnieska Eigert; and Tekla Dzierzykraj-Morawska.
Brother of Ludwika Mechtylda Potocka; Wladyslaw Tomasz Ostrowski; Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski of Helenow; Maria Morsztyn and Julia Halka-Ledóchowska.
Christien Ostrowski / Kristien Ostrowski / Krystyn Piotr Celestyn Józef Ostrowski, born in 1811 in Ujazd 11 km north-west of Tomaszow Mazowiecki, died in Lausanne, September 1831 the family went into exile in France; Christien then settled in Belgium, served the Belgian army from 1832 to 1836. He then returned to Paris, and published numerous articles to support the restoration of Poland (Mickiewicz to Krystyn Ostrowski, on 13 November 1840); he is best known as a translator; he translated into French works by Mickiewicz. In 1876 he moved to Lausanne, where he died in 1882.

In 1781 above named
Michal Kazimierz Oginski
was appointed deputy of the Lithuanian provinces, and a year later went abroad. He was in Brussels, Amsterdam, Berlin, Vienna, traveled to England. Visiting Prussia, asked for help of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm II, to regain their estates in Russia.

Michal Kazimierz Oginski, General lieutenant, provincial governor since 1764, composer, writer, poet, cousin of Andrzej Ignacy Oginski / Andrew Ignatius, who was the father of the composer Michael Cleophas Oginski.

His parents: Joseph Tadeusz Oginski and Anna Korybut-Wiśniowiecka;
marriage with Aleksandra Czartoryska.

Countess Olga Kalinowski born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in (1840 acc. to Russians) 1844 and her son:
Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1848 or 1849.
We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow.

Countess Olga Kalinowski was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818.
This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women:
with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867
and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki.

Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.

Дузи Козрое / Хозрой / Cosroe Dusi b. 1808, was an Italian painter, active for many years in St Petersburg, Russia; Cosroe was born in Venice, his mentor was the painter Teodoro Matteini, in 1838, he painted for the Fenice Theater. He traveled through Monaco, Germany, and Russia. In 1838, Drusi designed prints celebrating the visit of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. Dusi had briefly lived in Munich, Bavaria, but around 1839 / 1840, the Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia, after visiting his Venetian studio, invited Dusi to St Petersburg. In Russia, he painted portraits of the Grand Duke and members of the imperial family and the court; he had over the years periodically revisited his native Venice. He returned to Venice in 1856, and died in 1859 / 1860 near Vicenza.
Dusi become best friends of the Earl and Countess Orlov (Orlov Denisov), and they introduced him to families Laval, Branicki, Potocki, Buturlin, with artists Bryullov, Whigs, Vendramin, architect Cavos, Count Tolstoy, the Secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts, with Olenin, director; on the pages of his diary known Stackenschneider, Montferrand, Rossi, Bruno, Grech, Bulgarin; the Grand Duke Alexander, Countess Kalynovska / Kalinowski, merchant Gromov, Countess Orlova.
He wrote down: 1840, on 27 June, the family Branicki with Countess Kalinovsky leaves Petersburg; they ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. July, 12: I went to Tsarskoye Selo, where the Countess Kalynovska-Plautin / Plautyn first posed for me and paid 3500 rubles for two portraits of her sisters Olga Kalinowska and Josephine / Jozefina Kalinowska.
Olga Kalinouski / Kalinowska first love Crown Prince Alexander. Olga Kalynovska born to a noble Polish family. Her mother was from a noble family Potocki, her father served as a cavalry general. Olga was at the Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna's / Nikolayevna court. Soon Olga met the Crown Prince Alexander - young people are often seen in the palace, dancing on shiny balls and masquerades; Olga became the first lover of Alexander Nikolayevich Romanov.
Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna wrote of her beloved brother;
Countess A. A. Tolstay / Tolstoj also noted Kalinovskaya eyes; ... the beautiful eyes of Olga Kalinouski; this young lady, Polish descent, grew up in one of the schools of St. Petersburg. However, Emperor Nicholas I would never agree with such a choice son. Olga Kalynovska was not a princess, she still was not Orthodox.
L. V. Dubbelt recalls about Olga Kalinouski: it was scary!
However, on the Crown Prince Alexander return to St. Petersburg, romance with Olga Kalinovskaya erupts with renewed vigor.
In St. Petersburg Olga Kalynovska lived in the house of his sister Seweryna Kalinowska / Severina, who was married to General Nikolai Fedorovich Plautin / Plautyn;
this is probably why sometimes mistakenly called her as wife of N. F. Plautin.
In fact Kalynovska in 1840 (?) was married to the former spouse of her sister, rich Polish, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski (1808 - 1863). He was the son of the composer, author of the famous polonaise, M. K. Oginski.
The eldest son Ogiński will argue later that he was the son of Alexander II.
We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow.
Ольга Калиновская / Olga Kalynovska was lover since January 1837 on the so-called Chinese masquerade in which Kalynovska shows a first court lady. Tsarevich was then 19 years old. Then he was the Russian Emperor Alexander II (1818 - 1881 St. Petersburg), imperator all-Russian, and Polish king, Grand Duke of Finland (1855-1881) of the Romanov dynasty. 1837: Alexander was ready to abdicate, to marry her. in late April, Alexander once again went on a long journey. For a year, he visited Scandinavia, Austria, has traveled all the Italian and German states.
June 23, 1839, he returned to St. Petersburg and again met Olga Kalinovskaya, then, on March 4, 1840, Alexander went for his bride in Darmstadt. He returned to Russia with her in early September. December 5th, Grand Duchess of Hesse-Darmstadt Maximilian-Wilhelmina-Augusta Sophia Maria was baptized in the Orthodox rite and became Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna (1824-1880).
1839: Alexander spent the month of May in London, where he was warmly received by English aristocracy, was in Parliament, in Oxford, the Tower, the Bank of England and Westminster Abbey.
June 23, 1839 he returned to St. Petersburg to Olga Kalinovska.
A Diaries of 1840 by Zhukovsky:
November 1840: Glazunov and Zaikin, then Ungern. Visits: Nesselrode, Kalinovsky. I dined with Velgorskih. 1840, May, 9 - my doctor Schildbach ... Talk about the Empress and the Grand Duke. Grancy and Ricour. In the evening ... Bariatinskii. Talk about Strauss and Orlov. Kalynovska, the evening.
From the book by Leonid Lyashenko "Alexander II ... history of three solitudes":
... the heir to the throne has fallen in love for the first time in a serious way. The object of his passion became again a maid of honor ... of the Empress Alexandra Fiedorovna, Olga Kalynovska. Love heir to Kalinovskaya was for the royal family even more unacceptable than flirting with Borozdina. ... she also was a Catholic.
1840 acc. to Cosroe Dusi:
May 30. This morning began the portrait of Countess Josephine Kalinovskaya / Jozefina Kalinowska ... 1840, June, the 27. This morning the family Branicki leaves with Countess Kalinovsky. They ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. Then I went to Tsarskoye Selo, where the Countess Kalynovska-Plautin first posed for me and paid 3500 rubles for two portraits of her sisters Olga and Josephine. ... Vladimir Korf's masquerade ball: Korf invites to dance the beautiful Olga Kalinowski - first lady of the Empress and the beloved of heir Alexander, ... Vladimir Korf causing Alexander to a duel. ... but rumors of duel reach the emperor, ... Vladimir and his friend, an adjutant of the Crown Prince - Mikhail Repnin, miraculously escaped the shooting, deprived of all ranks and come under close observation of the head of the Third Division, Alexander Benkendorf.
And Olga Kalynovska goes away from court, to his native Poland, where she get married; Alexander agrees to marry Mary Hesse-Darmstadt.
Oginski, Michal Bogdan, 10 October 1848 - 25 March 1909 in Retow / Reutov, married to Countess Maria Gabriella Potulitskoy (b. 1855). Michael-Bogdan Oginski, Prince Oginski was the son of Aleksandr II Nikolaievich Romanov, Tsar of Russia and Olga Kalinovskya, Countess Kalinovskya.


Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899.

Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Swiatopelk Mirski took part in the Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878; he studied at the General Staff Academy to 1881, in 1887 he was the commander of staff of 3rd Grenadier division; 1895 the Governor of Penza, and in 1897 the Governor of Yekaterinoslav. 1900 Sipiagin appointed him Assistant Minister of the Interior and Commander of the Imperial Corps of Gendarmes. 1902 Governor-General of the North-Western province: Vilna, Kovno and Grodno; was credited with successful liberal reforms, stopping pogroms against the Jews. 1904 Minister of the Interior after Plehve's assassination. His appointment was seen as a victory of liberals, as a victory of the party of widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna who supported the liberal reforms; the Sviatopelk-Mirski's plan included transferring more power to the State Council of Imperial Russia.
On January 22 / January 9, 1905 occurred the massacre known as Bloody Sunday; he never had authorised the shooting of the demonstrators, but his opponents said that he not only did authorise the shooting but also in order to push his own political agenda actively encouraged the demonstration.
He was replaced (on 18 January) as Minister of the Interior by Bulygin in February 1905.
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski 1857 - 1914, married to Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska;
she was from a branch of Wassili Bobrinsky, b. 1804, d. Moscow in 1874, son of Alexei Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1752, who married 1796 to Anna Dorotea / Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg (1769 Tallinn - St. Petersburg in 1846) daughter of the Tallinn commendant Woldemar Conrad von Ungern-Sternberg b. 1739;
Wassili Bobrinsky 1 m. 1824 to Pss Lydia Gortschakova b. 1807, 2 m. 1830 to Sofia Sokownina b. 1812, 3 m. 1869 to Alexandra Utschakova
(his brothers:
A. Alexei Bobrinsky, 1800 - 1868, m. 1821 to Css Sophia Samojlowa b. 1799,
B. Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899 ?).
Her daughter was
Julia Pawlowna Bobryńska / Julia Broel - Plater, Gołąbek - Jezierska, nee Bobrinski / Bobryńska, 1823 - 1899, married Waldemar Gołąbek-Jezierski Count, b. 1822, died 1855 in Warsaw. He was son of Jan Nepomucen Paweł Gołąbek-Jezierski Count and Karolina.
Julia 2nd time married Cezar August Broel - Plater in 1859; Cezar / Cezary August Plater was born on September 8, 1810, in Wilno. They had 2 sons including Cezary Broel-Plater.
Julia 1st married Waldemar Gołąbek - Jezierski in 1851; Waldemar was born in 1822. They had one son Aleksander Gołąbek - Jezierski.
The father of mentioned above Julia was above named Pavel Alekseevich Bobrinski / Paweł Aleksiejewicz Bobryński and Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska Junosza, Countess, nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska.
Paweł Bobrynski / Bobrinski was born on October 27, 1801, in Saint Petersburg; Julia Sonocka Bielińska was born in 1790 or 1804. Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska, ca 1790 / 1804 - 1892; m. 1822, after death of husband she moved to Paris;
her father Stanisław Kostka Bieliński died 1812 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, served on the court of the King Stanisław August Poniatowski; Marshal of the Parliament in 1793, m. Katarzyna nee Golicyn, b. 1775, d. 1825 in Saratów.
The family of above Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
a. Elżbieta Bielińska m. 1779 in Mogilany to Franciszek Wielopolski,
b. Franciszek Bieliński 1740 - 1809, 1776 Nat. Educ. Com., 1794 the Kosciuszko Uprising, owner of Kozłówka to 1799, and the Otwock palace, m. Krystyna Sanguszko.
The father of above named Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
Michał Bieliński died 1747, the Chelmno province governor, Sztum office, 1725 the King court, 1736-42 Kozłówka palace near by Lubartow,
m. 1st to Aurora Maria Rutowska daughter of Fryderyk August II and Fatima, grand-daughter of Jan Jerzy II Saxon / Sas and Anna Zofia of Danmark, 2-v. Claude Marie de Bellegarde;
m. 2nd time to Tekla Pepłowski grand-daughter of Jadwiga Niemyski, of the Kozłówka estate.

Wassili Bobrinsky / Wasyl Bobrzynski had 2 children:

I. Alexei Bobrinsky 1831 - 1888, 1st m. 1855 to Pss Catherine Lvova b. 1834, 2nd m. 1859 Sofia Cheremeteva b. 1842.

He had 4 children:

1. Wassili Bobrinsky 1860 - 1861,
2. Ct Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937, he m. twice,
3. Ct Wladimir Bobrinsky 1862 - 1938, married to a French woman,

4. Css Catherine Bobrinsky / Ekaterina Alexeiievna 1864 - 1926 m. 1886 to Pr Peter Swiatopolk-Mirski / Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski d. 1914;

II. Css Sofia Bobrinsky 1837 - 1891 m. Viktor von Keller d. 1906.

The father of Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
Michał Bieliński / Michael Belinsky, coat Junosza, d. 1746, the provincial governor of Chelmno. Son of Casimir Louis Bielinski, a Polish diplomat and Louisa Maria Morsztyn (d. 1730),
daughter of the poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn / John Andrew Morsztyn.
Brother of Franciszek / Francis Bielinski, also the governor of Chelmno and the Grand Marshal of the Crown.
Michal's 1st wife Aurora Maria Rutowska (d. 1750), illegitimate daughter of the Polish king Augustus II the Strong Saxon, divorced.
The second wife was Tekla Popłowska (d. 1774) with son Franciszek Bielinski / Francis (d. 1809), the writer of the Crown and Stanislaus Kostka (d. 1812), Marshal of the Grodno Parliament. Michal was in 1738-1746, the voivode / governor of Chelmno.
Above mentioned Franciszek Bielinski / Francis Belinsky, coat Junosza, b. 1683, d. 1766 in Warsaw, the Grand Marshal of the Crown 1742 to 1766, the court marshal of the Crown 1732 to 1742, the provincial governor of Chelmno 1725-1732, treasurer of Prussia 1714 -1738.

Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski 1788-1868, Duke in 1861.
His son: Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron back to Russia in 1840, 1841 served at Caucasus -
his brothers and sisters:
1. Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, wife of Wilhelm Rodys, mother of Pelagia Joanna Findeisen

[Pelagia Joanna b. 1849 in Lublin - 1875 in Smilowice, wife of Gustaw Adolf Findeisen, and she was mother of
a. Jadwiga Pawinska
(1868-1924, married in 1886, social activist, had a son Thaddeus, philologist; her husband Pawiński Joseph (1851-1925), a doctor of the Hospital of the Infant Jesus and St. Spirit in Warsaw, the Polish co-founder of cardiology. Born in Zgierz, was the son of John and Amalia Krohn and was brother of Adolf; schools in Łęczycy and in Warsaw, studied medicine at Imperial Univ. in Warsaw 1869-1874. He worked then at the clinic of diagnostic under Ignacy Baranowski; His brother was Adolf Stanisław Pawiński b. 1840 in Zgierz, d. 1896 in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Polish historian, archivist and assistant professor of the Warsaw School of Economics and professor of general history of the Imperial University of Warsaw. In 1862 Pawiński moved to the University of Dorpat in Estonia, 1864 he received the degree of Candidate of Sciences. Theodore Witte from Dorpat, admitted Pawiński to study abroad. First, he moved to Berlin, where he met Ranke. Later, he attended lectures of Jaffe and Droysen. He then went to Göttingen, 1868, after returning to Polish has been an associate professor at the Warsaw School of Economics and the Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw),
b. Stanislaw Findeisen (1873-1970) + Alicja Paulina Handke 1896 - 1994
(her parents Hugo Handke and Matylda Zalern; Alicja Paulina Handke born in Pultusk and died in Warszawa; her son:
Wladyslaw Findeisen b. January 28, 1926 in Poznań, Polish engineer, a professor of technical sciences, rector of the Technical University of Warsaw (1981-1985), automatic, co-founder of systems theory in the context of the wider science of control / adjustment, the chairman of the Primate Social Council, a senator I and II term in Warsaw. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle);
c. and Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 + Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt - Jastrzebiec 1889-1975: his children:
Gustaw Findeisen b. 1912 Smilowice, d. 1992 in Warszawa;
Andrzej Findeisen 1915 - 1944 with daughters:
c1. Bellert Zieleniewska,
c2. Grocholska;
Tomasz Findeisen 1919 - 2004 + Aniela had 3 children;

and last son of Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 and
Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1889-1975 was
Krystyn Tadeusz Findeisen 1924-1944]

and next daughter of above Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, was
Zofia Joanna Saturnina Sliwicka;
and next brothers and sister of above Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron:
2. Ekaterina d. 1879;
3. Vladymir 1823 - 1861, and
4. Dmitri / Dmitry Ivanovich / Dmitrij 1824 or 1825 - 1899, Infantry General and politician, Caucasus and Russo-Turkish wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia;
his son Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857 - 1914), the governor of Penza and Vilna governments, Minister of Interior of Russia;
5. Mikolaj / Nicholas Ivanovitch Sviatopolk-Mirski 1833 - 1898; a godson of Tsar Nicolas II, and was "aide de camp" of the Tsar, General-Adjutant 1874 (1877-1878 war), the Caucasus wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia, 1881-1898 The Don Cossack chief;
1891 he bought at Princess Mary Lvovna Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst the estate of Zamir, located in the Minsk government, the Novogrudek county, after death of Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg; 1898 Member of the State Council; he died at his estate Mir;
1st m. Princess Vera Ilyitchnina Gruzinsky / Grouzinzky in Tiflis, Georgia on 4 May 1860; 1842-1861 or 1863, daughter of Ilija Georgijevich, with son Ilija;
2nd m. in St. Petersburg in 14 April 1868 to Cleopatre Mikhailovna Khanykov, 1845-1910.


Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937.


John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig, and Caroline Margaret Clayton. His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt.
Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas.
Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green, Scotland - on border of England. Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.
Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas. Gretna is 1 / 2 km south of Gretna Green! After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison.


NERI MICHELE (born 16 OCTOBER 1750, Firenze / FLORENCE, ITALY, died ca. 1822 in Firenze).


Ancestors of Johann Laval Anton Maria Viktor, count Nugent-Pallavicini-Centurioni-Fibbia b. 1877 in Graz - died 1930;
Laval Jeremias Anton, count Nugent b. 1843 in Triest (d. 1923 in Florence: 1st m. to Baroness Emma von Zahony b. 1847 in Triest, 2nd to Maria Pallavicini Fibbia of Centurioni, 3rd to Karoline von Steininger), and Maria Pallavicini Fibbia, marquise of Centurioni b. 1850.
The parents of above Jeremias:
Johann, count Nugent b. 1796 in Dublin, died in Brescia, and Regina Contessa Abriani b. 1813.
The father of above Johann b. 1796:
Michael Anton Nugent b. ca 1750, who was also father of above: Laval Graf Nugent von Westmeath 1777 - 1862, served the armies of Austria and the Two Sicilies; born at Ballynacor, Ireland.


Józef Hieronim Retinger (17 April 1888 – 12 June 1960) was a Polish political adviser. Since 1906 in Paris, among his new friends was the Marquis de Castellane, and an artists from Left Bank cafes; 1908 docteur of Sorbonne, next Univ. of Munich,
Florence ca 1907?, 1908 met masonry in London, 1911 Cracow under protection of Count Zamoyski and the Godebski family, and again in 1911 or 1912 to London, 1912 return to Cracow,
married Otylia Zubrzycka; sometimes to Paris and again London where Józef Hieronim Retinger opened a bureau of the Supreme National Council; met with Joseph Conrad, 1914 ? and next he fled to Spain and met L. N. Morones and P. E. Calles, moved in 1917 to Mexico; Józef Hieronim Retinger travelled to USA and met Felix Frankfurter and Sir Edward Bedington-Behrens.


Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, b. 1784 in Livorno, west of Firenze / Florence, banker, his grandfather, Moses Vita Haim Montefiore had emigrated from Livorno to London in the 1740s, but had close contact with Livorno; his parents, Joseph Elias Montefiore and Rachel Mocatta, were in Italy on a business journeys;
Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet began his career as tea merchants, was Jew broker in the City; married Judith Cohen and her sister, Henriette / Hannah married Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777 - 1836), for whom Montefiore's firm acted as stockbrokers.
Nathan Rothschild was a London banker, but was born in Frankfurt am Main, as child of Mayer Amschel Rothschild; 1806 in London he married Hannah Barent-Cohen (next of kin with Karl Marx).

The Bobrinsky family and the Demidov di San Donato:
Andrei SCHUVALOV b. 1802, m. Fekla Valentinovich or Tekla daughter of Walenty b. 1801, (Andrei was son of Pjotr SCHUVALOV b. 1771, and grandson of Andrei b. 1743);
his daughter and son:
a. Sophia (b. 1829), m. in 1850 to Ct Aleksander Bobrinsky (d. 1903);
b. Pawel SCHUVALOV (Schouwalov; Schuwalov) b. 1830, m. 1st in 1855 to Pss Olga Belosselsky-Belozersky and m. 2nd to Maria Aleksandrovna Komarov;
his son Aleksander b. in Vartemiagui in 1881, m. 1st in 1903 (div) Pss Jelena Demidov di San Donato / Elena Demidov b. St.Petersburg 1884 - died in Florence in 1959, m. 2nd in 1916 to Sophia Gfn von Fersen;
Jelena / Elena b. Switzerland, Vevey in 1864 - d. Paris 1932, m. in Batignolles 1881 to Ct Andrei Bobrinsky (d. Paris); she was daughter of Pjotr (b. 1819), and grand-daughter of Pawel SCHUVALOV (b. 1776) m. Pss Barbara Szachowska / Warwara Shakhovsky (b. 1796), the great grand-daughter of Andrei (b. 1743 - above mentioned!) m. Css Jekaterina Petrovna Saltykov (d. Rome 1816).

Николай Никитич Демидов / Nikolay N. Demidov (1773 - 1828 in Florence) in 1822 moved to Florence (1815?); he was one of the richest people in the Russian Empire; Demidov, was living in San Nicolo in Oltrarno, a poor part of Florence; immediately after the death of Nicholas Nikitich, his children Anatoly and Peter ordered the sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini to marble monument; with family Demidov closely related two buildings in Florence - Villa San Donato and Villa Pratolino (also called Villa Demidoff). Villa San Donato is located half a kilometer to the north-east of the park Kashin, outside the historic part of Florence, was built in 1822 - 1831;
a grandson of Nicholas Nikitich Demidov - Paul II did not like San Donato, preferring Villas Pratolino - the estate of the Medicis;
1881, the villa San Donato and the collection of art and minerals were auctioned.
Villa Pratolino (now often called the Villa Demidoff) was built on the ruins in 1822 in Pratolino town, 15 km north of the historic part of Florence.

Павел / Паоло Трубецкoй / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866, Intra, north-west of Milano, south-east of Saanen in Switzerland; son of Петр Петрович Трубецки (1822-1892) and Ада Винанс / Ada Winans, 1835-1917, who lived in Florence; his half-brothers:
Пётр Николаевич Трубецкой (1858-1911), and Сергей Николаевич Трубецкой (1862-1905) of the Moscow Univ.; Paolo in 1914 - 1921 lived in USA.
Above Pyotr Trubetskoy / Петр Петрович Трубецкой / Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy was a Russian diplomat, administrator and general. He was born in Tulcin / Tulchyn, Ukraine, died in Menton, France; son of Пётр Иванович Трубецкой and Emilia Petrovna, husband of Varvara Yuryevna 1828 - 1901, governor of Smolensk and Orel in 1844, friend of Tolstoi. He has 3 daughters:
Мария b. 1863, m. to Александр Александрович Прозоровски - Голицын (1853 - 1914).
Prince P. Troubetzkoy, was attached to the Russian royal court; in 1863, he came to Italy as a diplomat of the Russian embassy in Florence, known the pianist Ada Winans 1835 - died 1917 / 1918 in Intra, who came to Florence to study singing. In 1865 he went again to Florence (Italy) on a diplomatic mission which included the supervision of the Russian church there.
Ada / Ада was daughter of Anthony Van Arsdale Winans and Mrs Jay, from New York; Ada in 1853 started work at the Doane Academy in Berlington, the New Jersey; moved to Florence to learn of bel canto (and to Spain). 1864 Ada finished a work in Milano and Florence; moved to Ghiffa / Ghifa in Lombard, in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 120 km northeast of Turin and about 7 km northeast of Verbania on the western shore of the Lake Maggiore. 1870 he was divorced, but were living in Intra; Ada had 3 sons:
Пьер, Паоло and Луиджи / Luigi:
Pierre / Пьер / Петр b. 1864, m. in 1896, to the American writer Louise Amélie Rives (or Amelie Louisa Reeve 1863-1945, an American novelist and poet, her novel, World's End, became a bestseller in New York in 1914), he died in Charlotesville, VA;
Павел / Паоло / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866;
Луиджи 1867-1959, Navy military engineer (electricity), d. in Ghiffa 1957.
Ada's friend Аchille Tominetti, Leonardo Bazzaro, Paolo Sala, Augusto Laforet, Ulisse Grant, Stefano Turr, Cesare Correnti, the Cairolis;
1884 moved to via Borghetto, close to Porta Venezia, Venice. 1887 Ada and Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy separated, Pyotr lived in Milano with Marianna Chan / Han (?), and had son Питер Хан / Piotr Han (?) in 1886.

Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Ogiński, Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński, Franciszek Ksawery Ogiński, Amelia Załuska, Ida Ogińska, Emma Ogińska.

Above mentioned Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata Count (b. Venice, 1877 - d. Rome, 1947), was an entrepreneur and Italian politician. Become rich by exporting tobacco from Montenegro, invested the gains acquired in the emerging electrical industry and in 1905, returned to his homeland, formed the Adriatic Society of Electricity.

Time of life of Parvus:

Parvus was born in 1867 Berazino / Berezyna; moved to Odessa;
ca 1885 in Odessa with political satirist Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin;
in 1886 Gelfand first traveled from Russia to Basel, Switzerland; 1887 - returned to Russia; the fall of 1888 Gelfand enrolled at the University of Basle;
ca 1892 Gelfand moved to Germany, joined Rosa Luxemburg; 1900 he met Vladimir Lenin in Munich;

1902 to 1908 worked for M. Gorki

(to Autumn 1917 Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff worked in the Russian Embassy in Berlin where she became acquainted with British diplomat R. H. Bruce Lockhart. They owned the mansion Jendel in Jäneda, in Estonia where he was shot dead in 1918; 1918, she was arrested in a suspicion of spying for England and transferred to the Lubyanka prison. Bruce Lockhart, tried to vouch for her; they were lovers; Lockhart was expelled from Russia soon after, Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff was released as well under the condition that she would cooperate with the intelligence service; then she met Maxim Gorky as secretary and wife of Gorky, with a few interruptions from 1920 to 1933; 1920 she met H. G. Wells and became his mistress, renewed in 1933 in London, where she emigrated. Later, she was married to Baron Nikolai von Budberg-Bönningshausen, as a double agent for the Soviet Union and British intelligence.
Her older half-sister, Alexandra Alla Ignatievna Zakrevskaya b. 1884, married Baron Arthur von Engelhardt before 1909, was the great-grandmother of Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 2010);

1905, Parvus arrived in St. Petersburg with false Austro-Hungarian papers and coordinated an agitation; he was arrested on 21 March 1906 and imprisoned with Trocki and Lev Grigorievich Deutsch in St Petersburg - was visited by Rosa Luxemburg; emigrated to Germany 1906, acted again with Maxim Gorky (1902 - 1905) 1906 - 1908, and Rosa Luxemburg;
moved 1908 and 1910 - 1915, to Istanbul in Turkey; he was a business partner of the Krupp concern, of Vickers Limited, and of the Basil Zaharov, German ambassador Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim, also to Enver, Talat and Cemal, and Finance Minister Djavid Bey;

Parvus arrived to Berlin on the 6 March 1915; like Sulkowski, he recommended the division of Russia by encouraging ethnic separatists in various Russian regions, and its loss in the First World War was the best way to bring a revolution.

The plan of the Russian Revolution 1915. Copyright by Chronos. World History on the Internet (Подготовка массовой политической забастовки в России / A preparation of massive political strikes in Russia). ХРОНОС. Retrieved 2006-12-17. This document was produced by Alexander Parvus (Israel Gelfand) in February 1915 and contained a preliminary plan for the destruction of existing political system in Russia, the revolutionary movement for the German money. ... at Part of the plan he had already finished writing in Berlin. ... Printed from the book: Heresh Elizabeth, Bought Revolution. Secret deal Parvus. Translated from the German I. G. Binevoy, Moscow 2005, p. 21-27.

The plan was handed over to the Germans on March 9, 1915, and they immediately began to finance its implementation. When reading the document easy to see that Lenin in 1917, acted in accordance with this plan. Import of money, weapons and subversive literature was carried out to the territory of Russia by the German money through neutral countries. Lenin maintained relations with Pravus connected via Karl Radek and Jacob Ganetsky (Furstenberg). The plan of the Russian Revolution covers twenty pages:

"1. Preparation of the mass political strike in Russia.

By the spring in Russia should start preparing mass political strike under the slogan 'Freedom and peace'. Center of the movement will be in Petrograd and Obukhov, Putilov and the Baltic Shipyard. The strike should cover rail networks between Petrograd and Warsaw, as well as the South-Western Railway. Railway strike will be mainly carried out in the major centers with large teams of workers, railway workshops and so on. To expand the scale of strikes wherever possible, will broken railway bridges, as well as during the strike movement of 1904-1905.

2. Conference of leaders of the Russian Social-Democrats:

The plan can only be achieved under the leadership of the Russian Social-Democrats. The radical wing of the party has already begun to take action. But it is important that joined them moderate faction of the Mensheviks. ... But two weeks ago, their leader Lenin himself raised the question of unification with the Mensheviks. Unity can be achieved through a policy of compromise; ... And thus begin active operations against absolutism. It should be noted that a group of moderates always is under a strong influence of German Social Democracy. Due to the personal authority of some leaders of the German and Austrian Social Democracy ... you can still achieve a lot with them. ... it is necessary to convene in Switzerland or in any other neutral country ... It should take part:
1. Social Democratic Party of Bolsheviks. 2. Menshevik party. 3. Jewish Bund. 4. Ukrainian organization Spilka. 5. The Polish Social-Democratic Party. 6. The Social Democratic Party of Poland. 7. Social Democratic Party of Lithuania. 8. The Finnish Social Democrats.
Congress can take place only if it is absolute reached a preliminary agreement to launch immediate action against the tsarist regime. ... Additional possible participants of the congress are: 9. Armenian party Dashnak-tsutyun. 10. Hindshak.
... the Congress by their decisions will have a major impact on public opinion in France and England.

3. Russian Socialist Revolutionaries.
Separate negotiations need to lead a party of Russian Socialist - Revolutionaries. These people are most inclined to nationalism. However, their influence to the working community is minimal. In St. Petersburg, they have only a small number of supporters at the Baltic Shipyard. On the question of the mass strike, they can be eliminated without prejudice. Their scope - it is the peasantry, where they have a significant impact, using teachers of public schools.

4. Individual movements.
Preparing the creation of an institutional framework for the mass strike should immediately start doing direct agitation. Through Bulgaria and Romania can establish links with Odessa, Sevastopol, Rostov-on-Don, Batumi and Baku. Russian workers in these areas ... have not stopped fighting for these requirements: only two years ago, the big strike of sailors and dockworkers, which again put on the agenda of the previous suggestions. Agitation should be ... and at the same time acquire a political nature a general strike at the Black Sea ... under the domination of unemployment, ... probably take place in Nikolayev, Rostov-on-Don and among workers in certain occupations in Odessa. Such a strike would have a local character ... To carry out such a campaign is necessary above all restores the organization of Russian sailors who settled in Constantinople, then to Alexandria. Now this center should be in Constanta or Galati. Since the war at sea cause severe disturbances in the Black Sea city, this will make them particularly susceptible to political agitation. Special forces must be applied ... in Odessa, ... as in 1905, ... And it would help to give a new impetus to the universal revolutionary movement. If in Odessa uprising broke out, it could be supported by the Turkish fleet. Prospects for the uprising in the Black Sea Fleet can be determined after the establishment of contacts with large Sevastopol. In Baku and the oil area can easily bring the strike. Can not be ignored ... workers are Tatars, ie Muslims. ... Strikes are also possible in the mining region of Donetsk. Particularly favorable conditions in the Urals. There Bolshevik Party has its loyal and strong supporters. Political strike among miners ... as the population is very poor.

5. Siberia.
Particular attention should be paid to Siberia. In Europe it is known only as a place of exile. But along the large Siberian routes, the railway and river banks lives strong peasant class, proud and independent, who wish to maintain independence from the central government. In the cities live energetic businessmen and intellectual layers, which consists of political exiles and which is under their influence. Siberian constituencies sent to the Duma socialist representatives. During the revolutionary movement of 1905 all the management was in the hands of the revolutionary committees. The administrative staff is extremely weak. The armed forces have been reduced to a minimum ... These circumstances make it possible to create some centers in Siberia action. At the same time it is necessary to take care of political exiles who want back to European Russia. This is purely a question of money. Thus, we can send thousands of ... agitators ... in the above campaign centers and in St. Petersburg. ... All of these actions will be developed and ... more co-ordinated their activities will be. On the other hand ... customize party centers must be immediately included, and lead them to unite.

6. Campaign in the press.
At the same time you need to give a boost to Russian Socialist Party, mentioning it in the press and brochures, as well as the direction of its actions. Brochures in Russian may be issued in Switzerland. In Paris goes Russian newspaper 'The Voice', which is edited by some leaders of the socialist Menshevik Party ... In spite of the exceptional circumstances in which it goes, this newspaper has maintained an objective attitude towards the war. ... May be mentioned and considered Swiss, and Italian, and Danish, and Dutch, and Swedish socialist newspapers, as well as the socialist press of America ... German socialist leaders ... easily be able to participate in this discussion in the media campaign would have a significant impact on the position neutral countries, especially Italy, ... in the socialist circles of France and England. ... which can reach up to England and France with great difficulty, would be of great value. ... easily make an impact in the sense ... against the tsarist regime in the socialist press of Bulgaria and Romania. Since Romania will be a central point of revolutionary agitation in the south of Russia, ... for this reason the position of the Romanian daily press is important, not counting, of course, its importance to determine its own position in the war. All major Romanian newspapers are in the service of Russia. ... It is not difficult to organize a group of recognized journalists for publishing large independent daily newspaper with a pronounced tendency to early accession of Germany. ...

7. Campaign in North America.
Particular attention should be paid to the United States. Many Russian Jews and Slavs in the United States and Canada are a very sensitive element for agitation against the tsarist regime. Russian Social-Democracy and the Jewish Bund were sent to tour to these places. ... they can inspire to energetic performances by local forces, to strengthen the organization, strengthen widely represented Russian and Jewish press and thus achieve the heyday of planned activities. ... with millions Russian immigrants, most of whom have only recently left their homeland, are also of great importance. Movement among Russian immigrants in America would have an impact on public opinion of America. ... The German element also needs to act more actively in this war ... A strong movement among the Russian, that is Russian Jews in America would contribute to performance of the Germans. It should be send here a few agitators from German and Austrian Social Democracy.

8. The growth of the revolutionary movement.
Campaign in neutral countries will have a strong reaction on the campaign in Russia, and vice versa. Further development is largely dependent on the military action. ... If the Russian army during the winter will also be tied to their former positions, the disorder will go across the country. Planned propaganda machine will use this disorder, expanding and deepening its across the board. Strikes here and there, food riots, the growing political agitation - all mislead the tsarist government. If it will lead to an repression, it will cause a growing resentment ... it will be interpreted as a sign of weakness, leading to an increase of the revolutionary movement. ... If in the meantime, the Russian army will suffer a major defeat, the movement against the regime can take unprecedented dimensions. In any case, you can count on the fact that if all the forces will be directed to act on with the plan, the spring can happen mass political strike. If the mass strike will have a large scale, the tsarist government will be forced to concentrate forces in the country, especially in St. Petersburg and Moscow. In addition, the government will need strength to protect the rail links. ... will be sent to the railways in the west, you can call a strike everywhere. If it succeeds everywhere, the tsarist government will still be forced to use to protect stations, and so on. ... Simultaneously, the administrative apparatus will be given in the confusion that will accelerate its decay.

9. The peasant movement and Ukraine.
Along with the developments of above, the peasant movement is, as in 1905, an important contributing factor. ... In general, the question of protection of land is the basis of Russian peasant question, ... In Ukraine, all these problems are reduced to demand autonomy. As long as the tsarist government prevails, policy in Ukraine is reduced to giving away land to Moscow nobles and large landowners of Moscow, which protects it from ... Ukrainian peasants; farmers have no choice to rebel, unless they feel that the pressure of government weakened that ... One of the main tasks of the Ukrainian government is to establish law and order in places of anarchy ... The education independent of Ukraine can be considered as an exemption from the tsarist regime, and as a solution to the peasant question. ... a Great Russian peasants did not remain calm under any circumstances ...
10. Movement in Finland.
In connection to the global movement, in Finland, you can take important steps. Finnish parties are in an awkward position, since the country has significant Russian military forces. On the other hand, the Finns did not just want to be annexed by Sweden. Swedes do not seek to annex Finland, they want to make it a buffer country that is independent. Swedish party in Finland - a small minority. Therefore it is necessary to reach an agreement between the Swedish government and the stronger Finnish parties, among which the most influential - the Social Democratic. Such an agreement is possible if the Swedes guarantee Finns greatest autonomy and give them the right to decide which group of states they wish to join. ... systematically begin preparations for a general uprising. The Finnish Social Democrats have at their disposal an excellent organization, similar to the German. ... a special role played by differences in language. All preparations for the revolution must be conducted secretly ... Then part of the concentrated forces will be drawn to St. Petersburg. This will be the signal for the start of a general uprising in Finland. ... The plan was developed by a special commission in St. Petersburg, where the participants were members of the General Staff, as well as senior administrative officials. ... the Swedish army will have to intervene and protect the independence of Finland. Although this is good way to crush the rebellion, it makes absolutely defenseless against army intervention of enemy forces. Therefore, probably, the tsarist government will go the other way and will delay the army to administrative centers, that is, to the coast and along the railroad. In this case, may even be destroyed railway lines with Sweden. Then Russian will dominate only on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia. ... the rebels will form the National Guard ... Of course, much depends on the development of events in St. Petersburg. Finns can be of great help even before the Russian general strike. ... They could organize a system of signaling for aircraft ... Then can be created radiotelegraph stations ...

11. Caucasus.
During the revolution, the tsarist government virtually ignored the Caucasus. ... because of the Russian-Turkish war, the situation is quite different. There is a possibility of falling away of the Caucasus ... But in contrast to Finland, where a well-organized general uprising is possible, movement in the Caucasus will always depend on the national division and struggle of parties. Most strongly manifested themselves during the revolutionary years, Georgians. ... they got full control of the government in Kutaisi and established his administration, the courts, and so on. However, this movement is not led by separatists, and the Social Democrats. ... the Social Democrats had a few Armenians, ... But we must bear in mind that after the disappointment to the revolution and the war against the separatist tendencies, of course, have become popular. In strikes participated Tatar workers. In general, the Tatar population played a reactionary role. They were opposed to the Armenian government agents from Petrograd. This led to bloody stikam between them. ... Turkey has signaled to the Caucasian Muslims that to achieve the objectives of holy war... At the same time must be concluded an alliance with the Young Turks and the Armenian parties in Turkey ... The details of this action ... beyond the scope of this memorable letters. It should be mentioned only the fact that the share of the Caucasus Armenians and Georgians would have a big impact on decisive performance of the Russian Social-Democracy. ... Holy War, which aims to raise the huge mass in Persia, Egypt, North Africa, etc., is unlikely to have a significant influence in Russia. Tatars on the Volga and Kama, of course, do not move. It is extremely peaceful and absolutely obedient peasant ... The situation is different in the Caucasus, but there Tatars were pacified ... Old conflict between Caucasian highlanders and Russian was just a struggle against any centralized state. Since then, the tribes were scattered, their leaders became landowners, hardly having contacts with the masses. The people have lost a sense of independence. ... The Turkish army will be favorably received ... In the Caucasus Muslims large-scale guerrilla war is hopeless. Rise of the Kuban Cossacks quite possible, in this case would be useful Ukrainian propaganda.

12. End of motion.
The growth of the revolutionary movement in the tsarist empire, among other things, lead to a general turmoil. In addition to the general course of military operations, it is possible to take special measures to enhance this troubled situation. For certain reasons the Black Sea basin and the Caucasus are more favorable to the area. Particular attention should be paid to the city of Nikolaev ... In Nikolayev need to strike among the workers, not necessarily of a political nature, but simply on the basis of economic demands. ... First of all, the most important - is the mobilization ... young of its citizens. Russian Social-Democracy strongly opposed to the absolute power of the country is sought by the royal diplomacy. ... If the revolutionary movement reaches a certain size - even if the tsarist government hold power in St. Petersburg - created by the Provisional Government may raise the question of the cessation of hostilities and the beginning of diplomatic negotiations for a peace treaty. If the tsarist government have to conclude an agreement on a cease-fire until an interim government, the revolutionary movement will develop more resolutely ... ...

13. Siberia.
It is necessary to pay special attention to Siberia also because huge supply of artillery and other types of weapons from the US to Russia ... through Siberia. Therefore, the Siberian project should be considered separately from the rest. It should send a few energetic, cautious and well-equipped agents to Siberia on a special mission to blow up railway bridges. They will find enough helpers among the exiles. Explosives can be delivered at the Ural mountain plants ... from Finland. Technical guidelines could be developed here.

14. Campaign in the press.
Assumptions about Romania and Bulgaria were confirmed after finalization of the memorandum and in the development of the revolutionary movement. Bulgarian media now ... pro-German ...

Now it is especially important to take the job. 1. Financial support of the Social Democratic faction of the Bolsheviks ... It is necessary to establish contacts with its leaders in Switzerland. 2. Direct contact with the revolutionary organizations in Odessa and Nikolaev through Bucharest and Iasi. 3. Establishing contacts with the Russian organizations of sailors. Such contact is already over one gentleman in Sofia. Other connections are possible via Amsterdam. 4. Support the activities of the Jewish socialist organization Bund - not Zionists. 5. Establishing contacts with authoritative figures of Russian Social Democracy and Russian Social-revolutionaries in Switzerland, Italy, Copenhagen, Stockholm. Support their efforts ... against the tsarist regime. 6. Support of the Russian revolutionary writers who take part in the struggle against tsarism even in war. 7. Communication with the Finnish Social Democracy. 8. Organization of the Congress of Russian revolutionaries. 9. Influence on public opinion in the neutral countries, especially the position of the socialist press and socialist organizations ... In Bulgaria and Romania, it has already been successfully implemented; continue this work in the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland and Italy. 10. Equipment of the expedition to Siberia with a special purpose: to blow up the most important railway bridges and thereby prevent the transportation of weapons from America to Russia. ... with rich cash transfer for the organization of a certain number of political exiles in the center of the country.

11. Technical preparation for an uprising in Russia:
a) providing an accurate map of the Russian railways with the most important bridges that must be destroyed to paralyze transport connection, as well as identifying the main administrative buildings, arsenals, workshops, which should be given maximum attention; b) a precise indication of the amount of explosives needed to achieve the goal in each individual case. Thus it is necessary to take into account the lack of materials and the difficult circumstances in which the action will be carried out; c) a clear and popular instruction on handling explosives to the explosion of bridges and large buildings; d) simple recipes for explosives; d) develop a plan of resistance of the insurgent population of Petersburg against the armed power with particular reference to the workers' districts. Protection of houses and streets. Protection of cavalry and infantry. Jewish socialist Bund in Russia - a revolutionary organization, which is based on the working masses and which played a role back in 1904.
Bund is in opposing relationship with the "Zionists", from which there is nothing to expect for the following reasons:
1) because of their membership in the fragile party; 2) as the Russian patriotic idea became popular in their ranks since the war began; 3) because after the Balkan War, a core of their leadership actively seek sympathy of the British and Russian diplomatic circles, although this did not prevent them also to cooperate with the German government. Because of this, it is not able to make any political action".

Mr. Peter Wodzinski wrote in February 2013:

"...signals in 1939, that the German-Soviet pact is approaching, called then Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact (23rd August 1939/28th September 1939), Polish Intelligence service received much earlier from the British (they knew from listening and decryption of German diplomatic codes) via Colin Gubbins, operating in Poland under the guise of a sales representative in Bielsko-Biala (near the border of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, where the factory, next to the border of Germany, produced a version of Enigma). Colin Gubbins, later head of the SOE, acted within the deep intelligence organization, informally co-operating with our II Department of the General Staff, outside the official structures of MI-6, an organization based on the private relationship between various influential personalities. Stephenson was a Canadian multi-billionaire , having interests in the whole world, including Germany, which served as 'cover'. He was closely associated with the Admiral Reginald Hall, head of the Royal Navy intelligence at the Great War 1914-1918, which has not ceased its activities after the war, and Bill Donovan, later head of the OSS. The organization eludes historians, because there is no written sources. It work outside, and sometimes contrary, the governments of Britain and MI-6 (the latter was too bureaucratic), so do not could leave traces. It also had its anti-Soviet blade. There is one thing ... on the basis of age-old tradition:
'The King was the ultimate authority in secret-intelligence matters. He made the top intelligence appointments. The British had worked out their own system of checks and balances to prevent the monarch abusing such power - and to prevent a governing party exploiting secret agencies to serve its own ends'.
In other words, in addition to what is seen (also in the papers, even undisclosed) the second channel was still completely invisible, acting with 'blessing' of King George V and George VI, like Gubbins, or Major Desmond Morton, head of the structure for 'wet work'. (Republican opponent of Roosevelt in the 1940s? Darlan in 1942? De Gaulle, who was nearly been 'deleted' in May-June 1943? Or maybe Sikorski?).
The ignorance of the 'invisible channel' can lead to completely erroneous applications.
On the other hand, 'arson of Europe' made by Gubbins was not his idea; founder, theoretician and experimentator (on the small scale) was a Major Edmund Charaszkiewicz, the figure in Poland at all unknown ...
There are two important considerations:
1. Colin Gubbins gave it unofficially, because he and the entire organization so just acted on the basis of the King, Admiral Hall, Churchill, Donovan and Roosevelt.
2. The information submitted with a certain manner before the Ribbentrop - Molotow treaty was signed".

More: 'The Polish Underground Army, the Western Allies, and the Failure of...', by Michael Alfred Peszke:
The British were already thinking of helping the Poles develop guerilla forces in 1939, and this all evolved from a visit to London in late June 1939 General L. Rayski, then Stanislaw Wlodzimierz Pawel Gano, head of the Technical Section of the II Bureau, Mieczyslaw Frankowski in London, Charaszkiewicz - his contacts in London were
Col. Holland and Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins, who was seconded by the British War Office MI R, and who always had warm relations with the Poles.
Colin Gubbins, (1896 - 1976), head of the Special Operations Executive 1943 - 1946; October 1939 - Charaszkiewicz received a letter from his British colleague, Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins in which he informed Charasziewicz that he had been personally searching for him; Gubbins was also responsible for setting up the secret Auxiliary Units, a civilian force to operate behind the German lines if the United Kingdom was invaded during Operation Sea Lion, Germany's planned invasion.
Gubbins was born in Scotland (or in Japan) on 2 July 1896, the younger son and third child of John Harington Gubbins (1852 - 1929), Oriental Secretary at the British Legation. He was educated at Cheltenham College and at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.

Colin was half Scottish - his mother was a McVean

(inf. under copyright by Colin Houston:
Colin's full name was Major-General Sir Colin McVean Gubbins - a wiry Scots Highlander;
his mother's father Colin McVean had been Chief Surveyor of Japan;
the third child in the family, Colin McVean Gubbins was born in Japan in 1896 to Noni and Jack Gubbins. His father Jack / John Harington Gubbins had been born in Agra, India in 1852 and worked in the British consular service as Oriental Secretary in the Tokio Legation. His mother Noni / Helen Brodie McVean had been born in Japan in 1868, and was the eldest child of
Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan.
This clan come among others of Glen Lochy, Perthshire, Scotland and in 1753 in Killin, Perthshire.
The McVean clan from Glen Lochy, in Killin, and DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland; that is Glen Lochay / Gleann Lochaidh ca 73 km west of Perth, and 60 km north-west of Stirling. Killin, Perthshire ca 60 km north-west of Sirling, and north of Callander and of Thornhill.
We remember on the governors of British Ceylon:
James Campbell, 1822 to 1824, Major general, was succeeded by Edward Barnes.
Colin Campbell b. 1776 d. 1847, Governor of British Ceylon 1841 to 1847 under Queen Victoria; 1792, ran away from the Perth Academy, returned to Scotland to enter a Navigation Academy in Perth, 1792 sailed for India, he was the fifth son of John Campbell of Melfort
(Colonel John Campbell, laird of Melfort - western Scotland and north-west of Glasgow, Kilninver - close to Melfort, and Kilmelfort - close to Melfort, in Argyllshire, Scotland, born 1730, his children: 1. Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell, b. 1767, Killin - half way from Melfort to Perth and west of Perth, in Perthshire, Scotland, 2. John Campbell, b. 1769, Killin, Perthshire, 3. Allan Campbell, b. 1770, Killin, and others children)
and Colina, daughter of John Campbell of Achallader - west-north-west of Perth, whose mother Katherine was a daughter of Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel - southern Glasgow.
His brother was Vice-Admiral Sir Patrick Campbell.
See in Bengal:
Latour and Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill.
Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of the Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.
Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. was the son of Sir Henry Stirling of Ardoch, 3rd Bt.; he married Christian Erskine, daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling, in 1762; died 1799. Children of Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. and Christian Erskine:
Mary Stirling d. 1847, Margaret Stirling, unknown daughter Stirling.

Above Mary Stirling married Ebenezer Oliphant, son of Laurence Oliphant, 6th of Condie and Margaret Murray, in 1790. Children of Mary Stirling and Ebenezer Oliphant:
Laurence Oliphant, 8th of Condie b. 1791; William Oliphant b. 1792; Anthony Oliphant b. 1793; Christian Oliphant b. 1795; Lt. Col. James Oliphant b. 1796; Thomas Oliphant b. 1799.

Above Christian Erskine was the daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling.

Above John Erskine was born 1695, was the son of Lt. Col. John Edmund Erskine and Anna Dundas.
When the Oliphant family left Ceylon, the estate sold to Sir Harry Dias. Sir Anthony Oliphant's tea estate, the Oliphant Estate, situated in the hill country in Nuwara Eliya - 55 km south-east-south of Kandy, east of Colombo, 26 km east of Hatton, close to Lindula and Meepilimana - was the first estate to grow tea in Ceylon; Anthony and his son Laurence are the first people to grow tea in Ceylon. Sir Anthony's son, Laurence Oliphant, went on become a Member of the House of Commons.

Laurence Oliphant was the only child of Sir Anthony Oliphant (1793 - 1859), a member of the Scottish landed gentry. Laurence spent his early childhood in Colombo, and the Oliphant Estate in Nuwara Eliya.
In 1848 - 1849, he was in Europe,
1851 to Nepal, returned to Ceylon,
travel in Russia at the Black Sea in 1853
(Odessa ?; see below in 1855 on Adam Mickiewicz and Bednarczyk / Hudzik / Chudzik; Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople, then in 1858 he returned to London),
next - to 1861 Oliphant was secretary to Lord Elgin;
visited the Circassian coast during the Crimean War.
1861 Oliphant was appointed First Secretary of the British Legation in Japan, a visit to Korea, where he discovered a Russian force;
met Alice le Strange, married in London, 1872.

Emil (Emilian) Bednarczyk (1812-1888) - he studied at the Polytechnic Institute in Warsaw. He fought in the Greater Poland during the Uprising of 1848, and the January Uprising of 1863-1864; in 1866 he fought as a lieutenant. Since 1832 in France, worked close to Paris, he was one of the first members of the Polish Democratic Society. In the years 1833 - 1835 he was as an emissary in Galicia. In 1853 stayed in Constantinople, where he helped to General J. Wysocki. And he was a friend of Adam Mickiewicz and witnessed his mysterious death. "November 26, 1855 Mickiewicz woke up in the morning, he asked to give a cup of tea and fell asleep. When at approx. 10 came to him Colonel Emil Bednarczyk, saw...".
Dłużyna - a village in the Przemęcki Park. Here in the mid-nineteenth century began the history of the House of Bednarczyk, ancestors of Anna Hudzik / Chudzik. Czeslaw Bednarczyku 1889 - 1980 ran the family chronicle, was born in Radomicko; his parents Stephen Bednarczyk and Anastasia Skorupiński; Stefan / Stephen was involved in trade and moved (back probably!) from the central Polish - around Lodz - to Radomicko ca 1888. Here he met Anastasia Skorupińska. She was born 1860 in Radomicko.
Dluzyna is located 7 km east of Radomierz and north-west of Leszno, close to ex-Polish border before 1793.
ALEXANDER JOSEPH SULKOWSKI, was b. 1695 in Cracow, and died 1762 in Leszno.
Radomicko north of Leszno, and 14 km east of above named Dluzyna.
Rydzyna of the Sulkowskis is located around 10 km south-east of above mentioned Leszno.

In the tradition of the family of Czeslaw Bednarczyk, he was a close relative of Colonel Emilian Bednarczyk 1812 - 1888.
Emilian Bednarczyk 1812-1888, a soldier of the uprisings 1830/1 and 1848/9, 1863/4 insurgent, a volunteer in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. An eyewitness to the death of Adam Mickiewicz, buried in the cemetery in Krakow at Rakowice, acc. to ''.
Emilian Bednarczyk was born around 1810 / 1812; awarded the Military Virtue. The captain and commander in Pleszew in 1848; the Baden infantry regiment of 1849; the Turkish troops in 1853. The January Uprising in 1863. He died in Krakow in 1888.


DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland; in 1851 he was living in Kinlochscridain / Kinloch Scridain, and died 1880;
Kinloch Scridain is located on east of Bunessan.
he married SUSAN MC LEAN in 1836; stayed in 1837 in Kilfinchen, and 1837 at Iona, minster; Susan was daughter of DUGALD MC LEAN and SUSANNA MC LEOD, she was born 1808 in Ardfinaig
[Ardfenaig is located at the Isle of Mull, west of Scotland, ca 9 km east of Iona Island, 4 km west of Bunessan; Ardfinaig / Ardfenaig / Ardfinnaig. Kinlochscridain, Isle of Mull, Argyllshire: Isle of Mull is east of Iona. That is Loch Scridain (5 km north-east of Bunessan), Isle of Mull],
and died 1883;
children of DONALD MCVEAN and SUSAN MCLEAN are:
Descendants of Colin Alexander McVean b. 1838, and surveyor in Japan, returned to Scotland 1886; in 1891 Killimore House, m. Mary Wood Cowan b. 1837 in Edinburgh, 1868 (1862 ?) in Edinburgh, with children:
Helen Brodie McVean b. 1869 in Japan; Donald Archibald Dugald McVean b. 1870 in Yokohama; Susan McLean McVean b. 1872 in Japan; Alexander Gillies McVean b. 1873, Flora Ann Phoebe; Colin Arthur Campbell McVean b. 1877; Elizabeth Josephine 1878 in Oban; Norman Neil George Cowan, Janet Lucretia Catriona m. Arthur Manson Huston in 1909.
Note under copyright by Merle & Ida King at

At margin:
In Japan, a public telegraph service was inaugurated using Breguet's one; Louis François Clément Breguet b. 1804, d. 1883, was a French physicist and watchmaker, acted in the early days of telegraphy. Educated in Switzerland, Breguet was the grandson of Abraham-Louis Breguet, founder of the watch manufacturing company Breguet.
He became manager of Breguet et Fils watchmakers in 1833 after his father Louis Antoine Breguet retired. With Alphonse Foy, in 1842 he developed an electrical needle telegraph, and his telegraph system (1847) was applied to French railways and exported to Japan. Four Breguet dial telegraph devices is in the museum's collection in Japan;
the Breguet ABC telegraph was first put into commercial use in 1870; but in 1869 a telegraph service was started between Tokyo and Yokohama (December 25, 1869) with the assistance of an English expert named G. M. Gilbert.
The telegraph apparatus used at that time was called the Breguet letter-point telegraph, and was operated by moving a handle over a disc on which letters were written. This telegraph was operated by pointing to letters on the disc, and was easy for novices to work. The foreign expert then was an Englishman named G. M. Gilbert. In those days, many hired foreigners were invited to Japan to introduce the Western system and technology. The Meiji Government had 300 foreigners at the Industry Ministry; one of these foreigners was an English engineer Gilbert, who in Sept. 1869 adopted a dual instrument; Jan. 1870 the first message was send.
The famous Richard Henry Brunton (1841 - 1901), so-called "Father of Japanese lighthouses", was born in Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland.
He was a foreign advisor to build lighthouses in Japan. Muchalls is a small village in Kincardineshire, Scotland, south of Newtonhill and north of Stonehaven, south of Aberdeen - is the birthplace of Richard Henry Brunton; he was a railway engineer, joined the Stevenson brothers (David and Thomas Stevenson) who were engaged by the British government to build lighthouses.
Japan hired the Edinburgh-based firm of D. and T. Stevenson to chart coastal waters and to build lighthouses, what begun under French foreign advisor Leonce Verny;
Brunton was sent from Edinburgh in August 1868 to head the project.
François Leonce Verny / Leonce Verny born in Aubenas in Ardeche, 1837, d. 1908, a French officer and naval engineer of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in Japan, from 1865 to 1876;
studied at Lyon and École Polytechnique. Verny was sent to Ningbo and Shanghai in China from 1862 - 1864, he was also French Vice-Consul in Ningbo. Verny was persuaded to go to Japan by his distant relative, French ambassador Leon Roches in September 1865; 1865 he briefly returned to France helped in the negotiations for the First French Military Mission to Japan.
Mentioned Léon Roches b. 1809, Grenoble, was a representative of the French government in Japan from 1864 to 1868, then assist friends of his father as a trader in Marseilles! Under Bugeaud's recommendation, Roches joined the French Foreign Ministry as an interpreter in 1845. 1863, Roches was nominated Consul General of France in Edo, Japan. His great rival was the British consul Harry Parkes.
François Leonce Verny cooperated with Jules Brunet b. 1838, a French officer who played an active role in Mexico and Japan, and later became a General and Chief of Staff of the French Minister of War in 1898. He was sent to Japan with the French military mission of 1867.
François Leonce Verny also built four lighthouses in the Tokyo area, and managed the building of the shipyard at Nagasaki.

Above Thomas Stevenson (1818 - 1887) was a Scottish lighthouse designer, was a president of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1884 - 1886); he was the youngest son of engineer Robert Stevenson, and brother of the lighthouse engineers Alan and David Stevenson;
James Melville Balfour was trained under D. & T. Stevenson and then emigrated to New Zealand;
Thomas Stevenson married Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour in 1848 with son, the writer Robert Louis Stevenson; Maggie Balfour was the older sister of James Balfour.
James Melville Balfour (1831 - 1869) was a Scottish-born New Zealand marine engineer, built the network of lighthouses; among his siblings were the physician George William Balfour (1823-1903), and Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour (1829 - 1897) who in 1848 married the lighthouse builder Thomas Stevenson.
Balfour was born in Colinton near Edinburgh, Scotland in 1831. He was the youngest son of Rev. Lewis Balfour (1774 - 1860; but we know on James Balfour Mackintosh 1774 - 1860), a minister for the Colinton parish.
The philosopher James Balfour was his father's paternal grandfather
(James Balfour b. 1705 !, d. 1795, a Scottish philosopher, was born at Pilrig, near Edinburgh; he was studying at Edinburgh and at Leyden, his great-grandsons - brothers George William Balfour and James Balfour were a heart specialist in Scotland, and a marine engineer in New Zealand),
and the physician Robert Whytt was his father's maternal grandfather
(Robert Whytt b. 1714 in Edinburgh, was a Scottish physician, on "unconscious reflexes, tubercular meningitis, urinary bladder stones, and hysteria", acc. to Wikipedia; College of Physicians of Edinburgh; he was the second son of Robert Whytt of Bennochie, advocate, and Jean, daughter of Antony Murray of Woodend, Perthshire).
Above mentioned James Balfour 1774 in Edinburgh, Midlothian, d. 1860, father of Margaret Paul; John Mackintosh Balfour-Melville of Pilrig and Strathkinness; Jane Balfour; James Balfour; Robert Balfour; and Anne Balfour; he was brother of Lewis Balfour, Minister of Sorn and Melville Balfour.
Above named Brunton travelled all over Japan making a survey of sites suitable for lighthouses, and advised the government on their actual construction.
He was a Scotsman, and he introduced a fellow countryman, George Miles Gilbert.
The Gilbert family at present in Aberdeen; we know about: Mollie Gilbert 1706 Baniffshire, Scotland; Jobina Gilbert b. 1853 Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland; main area of this family is the CENTRAL DISTRICT, GLASGOW, LANARK; samples: 1822 Old Monkland, Lanark, in 1856 OLD MONKLAND, LANARK, SCOTLAND. LANARK - 42 km south-east of Glasgow, SCOTLAND, and Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland - 16 km east of Glasgow.
Under the superintendence of an English engineer named George Miles Gilbert, wires were put up to connect Tokyo with Yokohama, a distance of eighteen miles, in 1870. George Miles Gilbert, was a telegraphic technician.

Acc to
Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan married in Edinburgh in mid 1862 (1868 ?), come for a long voyage and life together in Japan.
Rev. Donald McVean of Iona, Scotland, and Susan MacLean of the Moy Castle clan,
were living together with Colin's younger siblings Mary, Dougald, Ann, Isabella and Archie McVean. Mary Wood Cowan's sister in 1857 married to the Reverend Boog Watson.
Her father Alexander Cowan was the papermaker but died in 1859. Mary's mother Helen Brodie, was Alexander's second wife, died in 1863. Alexander Cowan and his first and second spouses had twenty children, Mary was the seventeenth. Mary and Colin sailed to Japan after their wedding, in the company of Richard Henry Brunton, the father of Japanese lighthouses, to the Japanese Imperial service.
In Japan, Colin and Mary McVean had a first children, Helen / Noni, later Mrs Gubbins, and Donald / Dondo in 1869 and 1870. Helen Brodie Noni McVean later Mrs Gubbins born 22 March 1869),

but his father was born in India, educated in England;
he was Irish by an ancestor Joseph - George Gubbins, a Captain of Dragoons who campaigned for Oliver Cromwell in Ireland, in 1649 moved to County Limerick
(Limerick / Luimneach is a city in Ireland, located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster);
the family prospered; next soldier in the family was
Colin's great-grandfather Joseph born in 1775;
and next soldier was in 1896 when Colins was born; but above Joseph Gubbins in 1802 returned from service abroad and spent 3 years fortifying the southern counties of England against French invasion; Joseph b. 1775 died 1832, married Charlotte Bathoe of Bath; he served in Santo Domingo with the South Hampshire Regiment, in Holland, Malta, and Egypt with the 2nd Somersetshires and in 1810 he went to Nova Scotia as Inspecting Field Officer of Militia, then in New Brunswick in Canada; was living in Fredericton with 3 children; 1816 returned to England as retirement; his wife Charlotte died 1824, he was now major-general, died 1832;
their third son was Martin Richard Gubbins, 1812 - 1863, Colin's grandfather, joined the Bengal Civil Service of Bombay; in 1856 Martin was Financial Commissioner for the Oudh Province in India; adviser of Sir Henry Lawrence, Chief Commissioner.
Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence b. 1806, d. 1857, a British soldier and statesman in India, who died defending Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny; he was born into an Irish family at Matara, Ceylon, as the eldest son of Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander William Lawrence and was the brother of John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence. Educated at Foyle College, Derry in Ireland, and then Addiscombe, next in 1823 he joined the Bengal Artillery at the Calcutta, where Henry Havelock was also stationed.
Above John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, 1811 - 1879, 1858 to 1869, was the British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Lawrence came from Richmond, North Yorkshire, but spent his early years in Derry, Ulster, then the East India Company College, went to India in 1829 to Delhi with Henry Montgomery Lawrence.
We back to Colins:
in 1919 joined the staff of General Sir Edmund Ironside in the North Russia Campaign serving as his ADC in Murmansk from 13 April to 27 September 1919.
His father John Harington Gubbins was a British linguist, consular official and diplomat: he was appointed to the British Japan Consular Service in 1871
- see 'Collected Writings of Ian Nish', by Ian Hill Nish; then to the Conference at Tokyo in 1883; 1889, became Japanese Secretary at Tokyo; in London at the Foreign Office in 1894, a close friend of Satow's. He wrote among others things 'The civil code of Japan', Tokio 1897-1899.
By Peter Wilkinson and Joan Astley:
in 1857 Martin Gubbins at siege of Lucknow, in 1858, Martin Gubbins was a Judge of the Supreme Court in Agra, he returned to England in January 1863, to his brother's house in Leamington Spa.
A grandmother of Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins had five sons, another had died very young in India; and a daughter;
his father going to Harrow's school, then Cambridge;
Colin's father John was the youngest of Harriet's five sons.

Edmund Charaszkiewicz, was born in 1895 in Punitz / Poniec, in the Province of Posen, the German Empire; the son of Stanisław Charaszkiewicz; on 15 November 1918, Charaszkiewicz joined the Polish Army in the rank of sublieutenant.
1919–21 he participated in battles against Soviets and was taken prisoner by the Lithuanians; 15 December 1920 was assigned to the Second Division of the General Staff. Edmund Charaszkiewicz in 1922 was assigned to Division II of the General Staff, with intelligence and counterintelligence offensive against the neighboring countries of Poland - later became head of the Branch No. 2 in Warsaw - so-called "Promethean action".
Eugene Edmund Charaszkiewicz specialized in clandestine warfare, coordinated Marshal Józef Piłsudski's Promethean movement, aimed at liberating the non-Russian peoples of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union; the Promethean concept was based on the fight against the Soviet imperial state by supporting the activities of independence among the nations belonging to the Soviet state. In 1928 (?) took over the management of the Branch No. 2 of the Division II, with the organization of sabotage.
1931 - 1939, Charaszkiewicz served, last in the rank of major, as chief of "Office 2" of the General Staff's Section II: with the planning, preparation and execution of clandestine-warfare operations, and was also responsible for "Promethean operations," conceived by Józef Piłsudski.
"...The idea was to combat Soviet imperialism by supporting irredentist movements among the non-Russian peoples of the Soviet Union. Thus the Prometheists' ultimate goal was nothing less than the dismemberment of the Soviet Union. The movement's leaders included ... Colonel Walery Sławek, and ... Tadeusz Hołówko. Great importance was attached to Prometheism by Section II's successive chiefs, Colonel Tadeusz Schaetzel and Colonel Tadeusz Pełczyński, and by deputy chief Lieutenant Colonel Józef Englicht. The movement's intelligence operations were directed by Edmund Charaszkiewicz. Contacts were maintained with Ukrainians and Cossacks, and with representatives of several peoples of the Caucasus: Azeris, Armenians and Georgians" - under copyright by Wikipedia. "...In its prosecution of the Promethean agenda, Office 2 worked with official institutions such as the Institute for Study of Nationality Affairs ... and the Polish-Ukrainian Society ... and its Polish-Ukrainian Bulletin ... as Leon Wasilewski, Stanisław Łoś and Stanisław Stempowski, ... Włodzimierz Bączkowski, a leading figure in the "Promethean movement." ... From March 1934 Charaszkiewicz was a member of the Commission for Scientific Study of [Poland's] Eastern Lands ... and the Committee on [Poland's] Eastern Lands and Nationalities ... at the Council of Ministers...".

At the conference of the Central Committee of the Polish Socialist Party held on 17-20 October 1904 in Cracow, Jozef Pilsudski spoke on the new tactics as the results of discussions with the Japanese. No one expected to overthrow of the tsarist regime in Russia, but had to use the new elements related to the internal situation in the country. Jozef Pilsudski advocated the use of the tactics of action, involving the creation of national events and to force society to action;