COPYRIGHT BY BOGDAN KONSTANTYNOWICZ

November 11th, 2015 / November 2018.

Encyclopedia: Jean FRANCOIS Mortier b. ca 1735, acted together with Prince de ROHAN GUEMENE of CAMBRAI in La Collegiale de St Theodard a THUIN - Ferdinand de Rohan, Archbishop of Bordeaux and of Cambrai; b. 1738, d. 1813: he was the son of Hercule Meriadec de Rohan, prince de Guemene and Louise-Gabrielle Julie de Rohan; brother of cardinal de Rohan, and Jules, prince de Guemene. Louis Rene de ROHAN born in 1734; Archbishop of Strasbourg, his parents were Hercule Meriadec, Prince of Guemene and Louise Gabrielle Julie de Rohan. He was born in Paris. Hercules MERIADEC had also above named son Ferdinand de Rohan, Archbishop of Cambrai (1738 - 1813), who had illegitimate children with Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany, illegitimate daughter of the English pretender: Charles Edward Stuart [note - Charlotte was the daughter of Charles III Prince Charlie STUART, Duke of Albany, born in 1720 - Rome, and Clementina, Css of Aberstroff, WALKINSHAW].

Encyclopedia: Emperor Napoleon would descend from James de Rohan-Stuardo / Rohan - Stuart, the natural (legitimate) son of the English king Charles II, with his mistress, Marguerite, duchess of Rohan. Charles II had 14 children, of his illegitimate ties with several lovers. Charles II (1630 - 1685) with Marguerite de Rohan (1617 - 1684) met when the English King arrived in France in 1649. Napoleon's grandfather would have been the grandson of James de Rohan - Stuardo, the son of English King Charles II. In 1647, Charles Stuart, the future King Charles II of England, had a son, Prince Enrico de Boveria Rohan-Stuardo / Rohan Stuart. He died in Naples in 1669, but his widow gave birth to a post-son, Prince Giacomo Stuardo of Naples. Giacomo lived for a long time in Germany and Italy, and in 1722 he had a son, prince Joseph Stuart of Roehenstart, who fought alongside Bonnie Prince Charlie during the rebellion of 1745. Joseph Stuart had himself a son named Prince Eduard Maximilian de Roehenstart, also known as Dr. Ferdinand Smith-Stuart.

Encyclopedia: In 1806 Charles Stuart served Duke Alexander of Wurttemberg, who was the Governor of BELARUS - Minsk province {born 1771 in Gotha; his sister Sophie Dorothea married Tsar Paul I of Russia. In 1811 he was appointed Military Governor of Belarus}! In Saint Petersburg, in 1811, he was offered the hand of an heiress, Marianna Hurko, but made the mistake of falling in love with her sister, EWELINA HURKO-ROMEYKO / Evelina HURKO. He fled Russia, sailing from Kronstadt and arriving in London by November 1811, and to the United States in Philadelphia until 1814.

Encyclopedia: Cagliostro with Althotas, the member of the Knights of St. John, visited Turkey in 1762, and they back to Malta. Cagliostro again visited Malta after trips to North Africa and Europe, where new Grand Master de ROHAN-POLDUC, grant him a chivalrous dignity. In 1776 Giuseppe Balsamo came to London. He learned about Freemasonry. He was admitted to the London 'Expectation' lodge on April 12, 1777 thanks to his influential friends. In England, he took the name of Count di Cagliostro. He wanted to reform this movement. In 1777 he was sent to prison for a short time; from London in 1778, went to the Netherlands, came to Paris in 1778. He found there a patron - Cardinal Louis de Rohan. From Paris in 1778, came to Germany, and the Great Poland to ADAM PONINSKI. He went to Konigsberg and in COURLAND, Mitau / Mitava, and went to Saint Petersburg. Then from Warsaw, in a few months Cagliostro appears in Strazburg in 1780; he met Cardinal Rohan, to play a prominent role in Paris in 1781. In 1782, he founded the Order of Egyptian Masonry and stood at its head. As the Great Kopta he organized the Egyptian rite lodges in: England, France, Germany and Russia.

Encyclopedia: The Order of Saint John in Malta and the history of the Illuminati: Carsten Niebuhr, Tadeusz Grabianka and Alessandro di Cagliostro / Giuseppe Balsamo in 1761, 1762, 1767, 1778, 1779. History and genealogy of the noble Konstantynowicz family. Education and information - author Konstantynowicz Bogdan on 11 November 2018.

Encyklopedia Polski niepodleglej, Konstantynowicz-Armand-Paszkowski: Mesjanizm, Prometeizm, Iluminaci - Tadeusz Grabianka i niepodleglosc Polski, 11 listopada 1918. Martynisci, Templariusze i Masoneria - walka o Rosje - Lenin, 1917.

Berezyna and Lubuszany - the estate of Poniatowski-Tyszkiewicz-Potocki branch - the Knights Templar of the FREEMASONRY.
Miezonka-Swolna-Moscow-St Petersburg and the family history of Paszkowski-Armand-Konstantynowicz.

Stirling Castle, King James VII of Scotland and II of England, and Jacobins in Scotland in the 18th century. Mayer Amschel Rothschild - the Illuminati, 1776. The Knights Templar in 1791 and The Order of Mark Master Masons, 1769.


On 25 May 2018, GDP (RODO) enters into force, in other words a new regulation of the EUROPEAN UNION regarding the protection of personal data. Below - conditions for processing specific categories of personal data in the general EU regulation.

The following data processing conditions for a specific category have been introduced:

1) processing is necessary to protect the vital interests of the data subject or another person [the author of this webpage], and the data subject is physically or legally incapable of giving consent;

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Bogdan Konstantynowicz, encyklopedia Polski Niepodleglej. The Russian conspiracy intelligence network - globalism and globalization.

Bogdan Konstantynowicz, the Independent Poland Encyclopedia.


Secret Societies. CONSPIRATORS, Illuminati, Templars, Freemasons, and the special supplement to the Paszkowski - Armand - Konstantynowicz family [Lenin; Trubecki; Kropotkin; Dzierzynski; Pilsudski] on November the 11th, 1918.



Encyklopedia Internetowa Polski Niepodleglej - Konstantynowicz Bogdan: Kiedrzynski, Psarski, Bleszynski, Soltan, Oginski, Mielzynski, Walewski, Radolinski, Sulimierski, Fiszer, Bninski.


Globalization and globalism - Donald Trump, John F. Kennedy, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Hillary Clinton, Angela Merkel, Bronislaw Komorowski - the Russian global intelligence network. Konstantynowicz Bogdan - Polish Internet Archive. Key note.


The French invasion of Malta -
then ruled by the Order of St. John and the Grand-Master Hompesch who was pro-Austrian - by the French First Republic led by Napoleon in June 1798,
was the revenge of France and Napoleon at the Maltese Order; it was obvious. And Russia's help to the Maltese Order was clear and obvious.

The invasion ended the 268-year-long Hospitaller rule in Malta. The Grand Master and many of 332 knights left the island, and the Tsar Paul I offered final assistance to the Order, raising money from Polish 'Commanderies' and founded the Grand Priory of Russia (1797).
Paul I of Russia was proclaimed Grand Master by some knights. The Order evolved into the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
In 1800 Malta Protectorate was under British protection. Then the island was a British Crown colony in 1813.


"... In 1798, following Napoleon's taking of Malta, the Order was dispersed, but with a large number of refugee Knights sheltering in St Petersburg, where they elected the Russian Emperor, Paul I as their Grand Master, replacing Ferdinand Hompesch then held in disgrace. Hompesch abdicated in 1799 ... Paul I was the leader of the Russian Orthodox Church, and the ladership of the Roman Catholic order. ...

There is disagreement about what happened next. Following Imperial Decrees of Alexander I of Russia in 1810-1811, the properties of Russian Grand Priory of Russia was nationalized ...
Nevertheless, the Tsars have exceptionally authorised the eldest sons of the descendants of hereditary commanders to wear the decorations. ...
One can also find the name of Demidoff, in his quality as hereditary commander in the Almanach de Gotha ...
In the Division of Petitions of His Imperial Majesty's Chancery, for 1912, ... permission is given to Count Alexander Vladimirovitch Armfeldt to wear the insignia of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, with the transfer of that right, after his death, to his son. ...
Portraits of Russian nobility wearing insignias of the Order of St John can be found throughout the 19th Century ...

Count Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander, and Minister of Finance under Alexander I of Russia...".

Explanation to above VASSILIEV / VASILIEV:

The life of Josephine / Josephine Friedrichs, born Mercier was full of romance adventures for the first time when she was 14 years old!
She was born in 1778 or ca 1780 in Paris in the family of artisan Mercier.
Very young Josephine entered the service in the fashionable Parisian store of Madame Boudet de Terre / Mrs. Budde de Terre. "Juju", as everyone called her, at the age of 14 she gone to England. After spending four years in one of the London boarding houses, the next two years, Josephine lived with her patron, who then suddenly died without a will, and not marrying her.

Josephine, in 1798, met in London a German [married him ca 1803] who came from Russia, who was called Colonel Baron Alexander von Friedrichs, a wealthy landowner from the Baltic region;
in fact - Eustache Ivanovich Friederichs (about 1772 - after 1834), the son of Revel's bourgeois.

Her husband back to Russia, leaving his wife temporarily in London. Josephine decided to go to Russia in 1805 to St. Petersburg. Here she learned that Friedrichs was a simple courier who had recently traveled to England with the dispatches of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs!

She was welcomed by an old acquaintance, Mrs. Budde de Terre, who now lived in Petersburg and had a fashion store! She went to her shop in the manager's office. Soon Alexander Friedrichs returned from the Caucasus and persuaded Josephine to return to him. After living with him for two years in poverty [1806-1807], in a rented small apartment, she decided to divorce him. Josephine met Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich [1807].

Josephine found a lover, friend and patron: in 1807, she divorced her husband and settled in the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, and in 1808 she had a son named Pavel Konstantinovich Alexandrov.

Interesting details left in the memories of the famous Denis Davydov. Denis Vasilyevich Davydov (b. 1784, Moscow) is a Russian poet.

Konstantin Pavlovich missed them and in 1813 he wrote to Count Vasilyev. Count Vladimir Fedorovich Vasilyev (1782 - 1839, Moscow) - nephew of the Minister of Finance Alexei Ivanovich Vasiliev [the MALTA ORDER !], the son-in-law of Ivan Kutaisov, in 1820-23, the Tula governor.

Ulyana (Josephine) Mikhailovna Aleksandrova, nee Mercier, m. Friderichs, in the second - Weiss (1788 - 1824). According to the memoirs, Josephine was charming.

Note 1:

The first genealogy of Arseny:

Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov / Demidoff, 2nd Prince San Donato, 1839-1885, owned approximately 100 factories in Russian and 1 million squares kilometers of land in Russia, France and in Italy. He move to Villa Pratolino, named as Villa Demidoff, and m. 2nd time to Helena or Elena Petrovna, Princess Troubetzekaya, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, b. St. Peterburg in 1853, d. Odessa in 1917;

Aurora Pavlovna Demidova, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, Princess of Serbia, and later Countess Noghera, born in San Donato in 1873 or 1874, d. Marseille, in 1943 (? - Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), eldest daughter of the second marriage of the above Prince Pavel Pavlovich Demidov;

Aurora m. first to Arsene Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1859-1938, son of Alexandar Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1806-1885 and Persida Nenadovic, 1813-1873.
General of the Russian army; Comander-General of the Yugoslavian army. He was brother of Peter I, King of Serbians, Croats and Slovens, later King of Yugoslavia, 1844-1921. Prince Arsene divorced in 1896. Paul Karadordevic, Prince of Yugoslavia, b. 1893, was educated at the University of Oxford.

The second genealogy of Arseny:

A wife 1891/2 - 1896 of above Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich:

Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev;

her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov;

her grandfather Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826,

her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804;

her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817;

her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731 died 1812.

Above mentioned Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic / Alexander I of Yugoslavia (1806 - 1885), Prince of Serbia in 1842 - 1858. After his father's death in 1817, he was living in Russia and served to the Russian army to 1840. He left two sons: Peter I of Yugoslavia (1844-1921), 1903 the king of Serbia, 1918 the King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; and above named Arseny (1859 - 1938); his son, Prince Paul was a regent of Yugoslavia in 1934 - 1941.

Note 2:

Alexander Vladimirovitch Armfeldt

- he had the two sons - Kiril and Vladimir.

Alexander Vladimirovich Durasoff b. 1886, was the husband of Xenia Armfelt.

Above Xenia Armfelt b. 1889 was the daughter of Alexander Armfelt and Sofie von Morder.

Named Alexander Armfelt b. 1862 and died in 1941 in Menton, France - see KONSTANTYNOWICZ !

Son of Mauritz Wladimir Armfelt and Alexandrine BILDERLING. Mentioned Mauritz Wladimir Armfelt b. 1827 in Helsinki, Finland.
Son of Alexander Armfelt and Sigrid OXENSTIERNA.
Named above Alexander Armfelt b. 1794 in Riga, Latvia.
Son of Count Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt and Hedvig DE LA GARDIE.

Note 3:

Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Biron / Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Medem b. 1761 at Mezotne, now Latvia, d. 1821, became Duchess of Courland;
had daughters, Wilhelmine and Pauline.

In 1779, eighteen-year-old Dorothea became the third wife of the 55-year-old, childless Duke Peter von Biron, son of the famous Ernst Johann von Biron. The couple had six children;
Dorothea, was probably illegitimate, although recognized by the Duke.

Dorothea von Biron, Princess of Courland, Duchess of Dino, Talleyrand and Sagan / Dorothee de Courlande / Dorothe de Dino, b. 1793, d. 1862; lived into the highest social circles.

Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Medem b. 1761 at Mezotne, now Latvia, d. 1821,
"(by Wikipedia) because her husband was preoccupied with political difficulties at home involving his overlord the King of Poland and the Courland nobility, he frequently sent her on diplomatic missions to Warsaw, lasting months at a time, and to Berlin, Karlovy Vary, and Saint Petersburg for shorter periods. During these long absences Dorothea became alienated from her husband and had numerous love affairs with other men, including Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, Talleyrand, and the Polish nobleman Alexander Batowski, who fathered her fourth daughter, born in 1793..."
named Dorothea.

"...(by Wikipedia also) Upon her youngest daughter Dorothea's marriage to Talleyrand's nephew, Edmond de Talleyrand-Perigord, in 1809, the duchess moved to Paris, having an intense relationship with Talleyrand and influenced him to turn against Napoleon. In 1814 she traveled to the Congress of Vienna to confront him about his alleged love affair with her daughter Dorothea".



At http://www.conspiracyschool.com/round-table by David Livingstone, born in Montreal in 1966:

"...The plot of the Illuminati is directed from London ... According to researcher Dr. John Coleman, who interviewed a Grand Master at Oxford, the Knights of the Garter are the inner-sanctum, the elite of the elite of Her Majesty's Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem

[in 1823, the Council of the French Langues, faction of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, sought to raise through private money to restore a territorial base for the Order of Malta, but the attempt was failed when details leaked to the press. Then the Marquis de Sainte-Croix du Molay became its head. In 1826, Philippe de Castellane, a French Knight of Malta, negotiated in Britain with Scotsman, Donald Currie; De Castellane and Currie were then allowed by the French Council to form the Council of the English Langue in 1831, with a headquartered at St John's Gate {the Old Jerusalem Tavern}, in Clerkenwell

{see Edward Brown, Gudak and Breguet

(in 1870 Louis Francois Clement Breguet transferred the leadership of the company to Edward Brown; he collaborated with Heinrich Ruhmkorff, George Daniels and Professor Thomas Engel, and he met Alexander Graham Bell and obtained a license to manufacture Bell telephones for the French market. He had one son Antoine b. 1851 and he was grandfather of Louis Charles Breguet, aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer - see Duflon & Konstantynowicz in St Petersburg and Moscow - more at http://konstantynowicz.info/Deka_Company_1904_- _1918_St_Petersburg/index.html - and a line to Miezonka and Wola Pszczolecka)
and also Lenin and Trocki
(Krzyzanowski and the Templars in Volhynia and Kiev - a line to the Posen province and Mielzynski - see Angela Merkel and Hanna Suchocka, and also to Cracow and Paszkowski - a line to Armand in Moscow and Anna Konstantynowicz - see Lenin and 'Iskra' - a line to Dzierzynski, Pilsudski, Pilar Pilchau - see 1939 in the Soviet Union):

at 30 Holford Square / Holford Gardens [1800 meters north-west of Clerkenwell Green], Lenin's first London address in April 1902 to 1903 and the offices of Iskra were at 37a Clerkenwell Green - 250 meters north-west of the Old Jerusalem Tavern! At present the Marx Memorial Library is situated ca 200 meters West of the Priory Church of the Order of St John}.

The Order of St. John, formally the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem known as St John International, is a royal order of chivalry first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria a faction of the Order of Malta that emerged in France in the 1820s].

The Knights of the Order of the Garter are the leaders of the Illuminati hierarchy ...

[Queen Victoria, Alexandrina Victoria b. 1819 was daughter of
Edward, Duke of Kent

(son of George III {his father Frederick, Prince of Wales and mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha} + Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1744 - 1818 {her father Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow, and mother Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen})

and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1786 - 1861

(1803 at Coburg, she married 1st to Charles, Prince of Leiningen; 2nd to Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, in 1818 at Amorbach. Victoria's father was Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and mother Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf daughter of Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schonberg)]

... [mentioned above] Charlotte was the grandmother of Queen Victoria, and whose son married the daughter of Frederick III of Hessen-Kassell.

Charlotte's brother was Charles II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whose daughter married the heir of the Prussian crown, Frederick William III.

Frederick II of Prussia was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, who married Louise of Brunswick- Wolfenbuettel. She was the sister of Frederick Duke of Brunswick, the Grand Master of the Strict Templar Observance, and who had convened the great Masonic convention at Wilhelmsbad in Hessen-Kassel.

Frederick Wilhelm II of Prussia was the father of Frederick William III, who became a member of the Order of the Garter.

Of Frederick William III and Louise' four children, three married the brothers and sisters of Csar Alexander I.
Frederick William III's daughter, Charlotte of Prussia, married Paul's son, Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander I, and who also belonged to the Order of the Garter.
Frederick's son Wilhelm I married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the daughter of Nicholas' sister Maria Romanov.
A third child of Frederick, Friedrich Karl Alexander of Prussia, married Maria's Romanov other daughter, Marie Luisa Alexandrina von Saxe-Weimar.

The son of Csar Nicholas, Constantine Nicholaievitch Romanov, Grand Duke of Russia, fathered Olga Constantinovna Romanov, who married George I King of Greece. George was a member of the Order of the Garter, as was his father, Christian IX of Denmark. ...
Christian IX was, in the last years of his life, named Europe's 'father-in-law'. ... Christian's daughter, Maria Fyodorovna married Csar Nicholas III, father of Nicholas II who was killed by the Bolsheviks in 1918. Princess Alexandra married Queen Victoria's son, King Edward VII, the Grand Master of Freemasonry. ...".

The Order of the Garter - The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry; several supernumerary members, known as 'Royal Knights and Ladies of the Garter', belong to the royal family. These titles were introduced in 1786 by King George III; with the installation of Emperor Alexander I of Russia in 1813, supernumerary membership was extended to foreign monarchs, who are known as 'Stranger Knights and Ladies of the Garter'.


The forerunners of the Freemasons - the Knights Templar - founded the concept of banking.

According to former British intelligence agent John Coleman's book, 'The Committee of 300':

the Rothschilds exert political control through the secretive Business Roundtable, which they created in 1909 with the help of Lord Alfred Milner and South African industrialist Cecil Rhodes.

It was the plan known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers, and within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was Rhodes with Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner who was added to the society by Stead.

Rhodes had been planning this event for more than seventeen years (before 1872).

See: the letter of Pike to Mazzini in 1871, and Edward Brown - Breguet Company in 1870.

Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. In modified form, it exists to this day. From 1891 to 1902, it was known to only a score of persons. Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner;

others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included:
Bertrand Russell, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.

David Laurence Aaron born 1938, in Chicago, is an American diplomat who served in the Jimmy Carter administration. He then joined the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency where he served as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. In 1974, on the recommendation of Zbigniew Brzezinski, Aaron became Senator Walter Mondale's legislative assistant. In 1977, Aaron was asked by Zbigniew Brzezinski to become Deputy National Security Advisor in the administration of Jimmy Carter. In Israel, Aaron worked with Moshe Dayan.
When Reagan became President in 1981, Aaron moved into the private sector, becoming Vice President for Mergers and Acquisitions at Oppenheimer and Co. and Vice Chairman of Oppenheimer International.
Aaron was involved in the election campaign of Bill Clinton.

We back again to Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel and to George II King of England:

The Grand Master of the Asiatic Brethren, and leading member of the Illuminati, was Prince Karl, the brother of Wilhelm I of Hessen-Kassel.
Both were the sons of Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel, from his wife, Mary of Hanover, Princess of Great Britain, daughter of George II King of England, and therefore cousin to Frederick II the Great of Prussia.

"Give me control of a nation's money and I care not who makes it's laws" - Mayer Amschel Bauer Rothschild.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild / Anschel (b. 1743 or in 1744), was a German Jewish banker and the founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty.

Salomon Mayer - was the son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild / Mosche Meir, b. 1743 or 1744 in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1812 in Frankfurt am Main; Mayer Amschel Bauer, an Ashkenazi Jew, the son of Moses Amschel Bauer, a proprietor of a counting house.

In 1770, "Mayer Amschel Rothschild draws up plans for the creation of the Illuminati and entrusts ... Adam Weishaupt, ... with its organization and development...".

Mayer Amschel Rothschild marries Gutle Schnaper.
In 1773, was born Amschel Mayer Rothschild, the first of Mayer Amschel Rothschild's sons.
"...He like all his brothers who follow him, will enter the family business at the age of 12".
In 1774, [mentioned above] Salomon Mayer Rothschild was born.

In 1776, "Adam Weishaupt officially completes his organisation of the Illuminati on May 1 of this year. The purpose of the Illuminati is to ... fight amongst themselves; destroy national governments; destroy religious institutions... Weishaupt soon infiltrates the Continental Order of Freemasons with this Illuminati doctrine and establishes lodges of the Grand Orient to be their secret headquarters..."

"... It is Rothschild who said, 'give me control of a nation's money, and I care not who makes [writes] the laws."

"... On the other hand we have Alexander Hamilton [born in 1757 in Charlestown, Nevis, British West Indies; died in 1804 at the William Bayard's Home]; who some believe was a Rothschild agent.

Hamilton's mother [RACHEL born in 1729] was first married to Johann Michael Lavien [born ?] (a German Jewish merchant), from whom she separated in 1750; five years [or 7 years ?] before Hamilton's birth [he was born in 1757]. Because of this separation, she could not legally marry again with Hamilton's father, James A. [James Alexander Hamilton b. in 1718], therefore Hamilton was no allowed in the local Christian school. Instead, he had individual tutoring and classes in a private Jewish school. He became the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, Founding Father, economist, political philosopher, and chief of staff for George Washington. He was also the most influential members of Washington's Cabinet, and his financial expert. Hamilton was an advocated for the establishment of a federal bank to be owned by private interests, and for the creation of debt-money; for which he used false arguments to convince Washington. Eventually he convinced the President - despite the opposition of Thomas Jefferson (by then Secretary of State) - and a federal bank was created in 1791 with a 20 years charter. Although it was termed 'Bank of the United States', it was not owned by the nation (but by individual stockholders - private bankers). The name was purposely chosen to deceive the American population and to make them believe that they were the owners of the bank. The charter for the Bank ran out in 1811, and Congress voted against its renewal, thanks to the influence of Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson...".

Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
A close friend of George Washington,
mentioned Alexander Hamilton, and
named above Thomas Jefferson.

Lafayette was a key figure in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830. Lafayette returned to France, and in 1787 was appointed to the Assembly of Notables, which was convened in response to the fiscal crisis. He was elected a member of the Estates-General of 1789. He helped write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, with Thomas Jefferson's assistance; inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence.

"... My conclusion on the connection between the Rothschilds and the American Revolution: it did exist through Alexander Hamilton (who could only push the agenda for the first 20 years of independence), and also quite possibly through Solomon and Franklin; though it made no difference at the end. It is true that the American Freemasons shared the same ideology that emerged from Jewish intellectuals in Germany and spread throughout secret societies; but I'm having a hard time relating the founding fathers directly to the Rothschilds, with the exception of Franklin, who obviously had his hands in far too many pies to count as a confirmed agent for any side...".

Alexander Hamilton
- Hamilton has also become a favorite for conspiracy theorists who think he was a tool for the New World Order, the Illuminati, and / or the Rothschild family, because of his support for a National Bank.

Hamilton, along with Benjamin Franklin, is one of the very few non-presidents to be portrayed on American money. Alexander Hamilton married into the Rothschild family December 14, 1780.
Alexander Hamilton was born Alexander Levine, of Jewish lineage, in St. Croix, the West Indies. After changing his name ... he married Elizabeth Schuyler

[Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton - her mother was Catherine Van Rensselaer Schuyler; Catherine's paternal great-grandfather was Hendrick van Rensselaer and her 2 x great-grandfather was Killian Van Rensselaer, one of the original founders of the Dutch colony, New Amsterdam. Her maternal grandparents were Robert Livingston the Younger (1663-1725) and Margarita Schuyler (b. 1682), the daughter of Pieter Schuyler (1657-1724), the first mayor of Albany]

... John Paul Mitchell insist that Hamilton married into the Rothschild family.
Here's what we actually know about Hamilton's in-laws:
the father, Philip Schuyler, was a General during the Revolutionary War, while the mother Catherine instituted a scorched earth policy to deprive the British of food.
Philip John Schuyler was a general of the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. Come from the third generation of the Dutch family in America. His daughter Elizabeth married Alexander Hamilton who was the first Secretary of the Treasury to the United States under George Washington.

Rondinone said many of the Founding Fathers were conspiracy theorists. 'George Washington had references to The Illuminati in his writings', he said. 'And Thomas Jefferson wrote that King George III was systematically trying to enslave the American colonists. The Founders' talk about conspiracy theories actually helped muster support for the American Revolution.'
He said theories have abounded throughout American history. 'In the case of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, there actually is strong evidence of a conspiracy to overthrow the government,' Rondinone said.

Now on Thomas Dunckerley:

Thomas Dunckerley (1724 - 1795) was a Provincial Grand Master of several provinces, this was made possible by an annuity of L100, rising to L800, which he obtained in 1767 from King George III by claiming to be his illegitimate half brother - the Prince of Wales, later King George II, was Thomas' natural father.

At this time, in 1751 Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund und Altengrotkau began the Order of Strict Observance [with the superior, Prince Charles Edward Stuart], which came from the reconstituted Templar Order in 1743 in Paris.
The first body of Knights Templar in Ireland was "The High Knight Templars of Ireland, Kilwinning Lodge" with Archibald, the 11th Earl of Eglinton, the Grand Master of Lodge Mother Kilwinning in 1779 in Dublin.
In 1736, the Grand Lodge of Scotland was organised and the Kilwinning lodge was one of its constituent lodges; this one acted as a grand lodge, organising lodges in Scotland and on the continent, as well as in Virginia and Ireland.
Archibald Montgomerie, 11th Earl of Eglinton b. 1726 - died in 1796, was Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge of Mother Kilwinning, from 1771 until 1796.

"Lodge Mother Kilwinning is a Masonic Lodge in Kilwinning, Scotland, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. ... is reputed to be the oldest Lodge not only in Scotland, but the world".
Above Montgomerie was elected as one of sixteen Scottish representative peers, in 1776; was appointed Governor of Edinburgh Castle, in 1782. Montgomerie died at Eglinton Castle, a mansion in Kilwinning, North Ayrshire, Scotland. Ca 1790 the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland was formed, which began to warrant Templar Lodges, and evolved into the Supreme Grand Encampment in 1836 [in 1805 as the "Edinburgh Encampment No. 31", then became the"Grand Assembly of Knights Templar in Edinburgh"].

The Templar degree had filtered into the lodges of the Antients from Ireland about 1780.

In 1791 - the formation of TEMPLAR's first Grand Conclave, with Thomas Dunckerley as Grand Master.

In 1805 their Royal Patron, Duke of Kent [Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus], became TEMPLAR Grand Master himself.

The modern revival of Templarism in Scotland starts with Alexander Deuchar, of the Grand Assembly of the High Knights Templar in Edinburgh; in 1811 with a Charter from the Templar Grand Master in England, the Duke of Kent, Alexander Deuchar established the Grand Conclave of Knights of the Holy Temple and Sepulchre, and of St. John of Jerusalem [see Wankowicz and Swolna].

In 1813 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England, and in December 1813 - named Prince Edward [Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus] became Grand Master of the Antient Grand Lodge of England.
Mentioned above the Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus, b. 1767, died in 1820, was the fifth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and the father of Queen Victoria!

Baron von Estorff advised the Landgrave that Mayer Amschel showed an exceptional ability to increase wealth through his investments. Mayer Amschel arranged to hire 16800 Hessian soldiers to assist the nephew of Federick's wife, King George III of England, in suppressing the American Rebellion. When Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel died in 1785, Rothschild obtained total influence over his successor, Karl's brother Elector Wilhelm IX, who he managed to make one of the wealthiest monarchs of his time.

In 1769, Mayer Amschel Rothschild had become an agent for the Hessen-Kassel court:
[but Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel died in 1785]
for Prince William IX of Hesse - Kassel
(Prince WILHELM IX / William IX was the grandson of George II, and also a cousin to George III, who was a nephew to the King of Denmark and also a brother in law to the King of Sweden).
Prince William handed his wealth to be managed by the Rothschilds.

Wilhelm X Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim married Louise Charlotte von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim (born of Denmark-Oldenburg). They had a son
Friedrich Wilhem II von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim born 1820.
Friedrich married Alexandra Nicholaievna von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim (born of Russia-Holstein-Gottorp- Romanov).
Alexandra was born on June 12, 1825.
Mentioned above
Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia (1825 - 1844) was the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas I, Emperor of Russia, and his wife, Princess Charlotte of Prussia. She was a younger sister of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
Above
Alexandra Feodorovna, born Princess Charlotte of Prussia (1798 - 1860), was Empress consort of Russia. She was the wife of Emperor Nicholas I, and mother of Emperor Alexander II.
Charlotte was born the eldest surviving daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia, and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
In 1814, her marriage was arranged for political reason with Grand Duke Nicholas Pavlovich of Russia, the future Tsar Nicholas I.
Mentioned
Frederick William III / Friedrich Wilhelm III (1770 - 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. His parents:
Frederick William II of Prussia + Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Above named
Frederick William II / Friedrich Wilhelm II, b. 1744, was King of Prussia from 1786. His father Prince Augustus William of Prussia, August Wilhelm, b. 1722, was Prince of Prussia and
a younger brother of Frederick II.
Augustus was the second surviving son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea.

Above
Frederick II / Friedrich; b. 1712, was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786.

We back to
Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia b. 1825, the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas I, and his wife, Princess Charlotte of Prussia.
Mentioned
Nicholas I b. 1796, was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland.

His parents:
Paul I of Russia + Sophie Dorothea of Wurttemberg / Maria Feodorovna, Duchess Sophie Dorothea of Wurttemberg; b. 1759, the second wife of Tsar Paul I.
Her father Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Wurttemberg. Friedrich Eugen, Duke of Wurttemberg b. 1732, Stuttgart; the son of Duke Karl Alexander, Duke of Wurttemberg and Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis.
Parents of named PAWEL I:
Peter III + Catherine II.

Named
Wilhelm X Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim that is Prince William of Hesse-Kassel, b. 1787, the first son of Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen.

Above
Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel b. 1747, a Danish general.
He was born as the youngest son of Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel / Landgrave Frederick II, and Princess Mary of Great Britain, he was the last surviving grandchild of George II of Great Britain, dying one month before Queen Victoria (granddaughter of his first cousin King George III) ascended to the throne.
Mentioned
Frederick II / Landgraf Friedrich II von Hessen-Kassel, b. 1720, was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) from 1760 to 1785.
He raised money by renting soldiers to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War, he combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values.


Ferdinand VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBUTTEL, the Prince of Brunswick-Lunebourg and the TEMPLARS:

Ferdinand VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBUTTEL,
the General of Prussia, 1758 - 1766 Field Marshal,
Freemason (1777), Grand Master of the Strict Observance [Templar] (1777).
"...The system of the Strict Observance grew out of what is known as Templarism. Templar Masonry commenced to grow up in France soon after true Freemasonry was introduced. This was about 1725. However, no Grand Lodge was established till 1752. The Strict Observance as a separate system was formed Germany and dates from about 1748. It was produced by a process of evolution ..."
- by Burton E. Bennett.

Ferdinand VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBUTTEL, the Prince of Brunswick-Lunebourg was the member of the Knight of the Garter {Illuminati} (1783)
- the Knights of the Order of the Garter are the leaders of the Illuminati. The Pilgrim Society and the Order of the Garter (or "Knights of the Garter") are the controlling inner-parts of the Military Order of Malta ("Knights of Malta"). The word "Garter" can be seen as another term for "secret".

Daniel Lazar wrote:
One reference stated, "The Society of the Cincinnati" in 1783, it is likely that no Englishman feels a greater sense of pride in being a Knight of the Garter, or Scotsman, a Knight of the Thistle, than an American feels in being a member of The Society of the Cincinnati.
The Order of the Garter is the secret inner group which is an elite group within the Order of St. John of Jerusalem which is the British part of the Knights of Malta. The Knights of the Garter are the leaders of the Committee of 300.

Ferdinand VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBUTTEL, the Prince of Brunswick-Lunebourg, born in 1721, died in 1792.
His children:

Karl I VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBUTTEL, Duke;

Elisabeth Christine VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBUTTEL, 1715-1797, married to Friedrich II Der Grose / Frederick the Great, of Prussia, King, 1712-1786;

Juliane VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBUTTEL, 1729-1796, married to Frederik V the DANMARK, the King, 1723-1766

{Frederick V, Danish and Norwegian, b. 1723, "was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 1746; The Norwegian Masonic historian Karl Ludvig Bugge claims that Frederik V as crown prince was included in the
Copenhagen Masonic Lodge St. Martin in 1744, and inspired by the Prussian king Frederick the Great who was also included in a masonic lodge in his youth. They both had fathers who were violently opposed to the Masons,
but unlike the Prussian king, Frederik V never published his membership of the lodge". As an active Freemason, he set up in 1749 the first Masonic lodge in Norway}.

Named Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Luneburg b. 1721,
in 1757 to 1762 he led an Anglo-German army which repelled French attempts to occupy Hanover.
He was a freemason, initiated in 1740 into the Lodge of The Three Globes in Berlin, and received the degree of Master Mason in 1743 at Breslau [see BYSTRZANOWSKI].

In 1738, the future Frederick the Great, then Crown Prince, was initiated as a Freemason in Brunswick;
"... he invited Baron von Oberg and the writer Jakob Friedrich von Bielfeld, who were instrumental to his candidature, to form La loge premiere / La loge du Roi notre grand maitre at Rheinsberg Castle, with Oberg as Master. He led the lodge himself from 1740. The foundation of the Grand Lodge - 1740, when, with the King's permission, the lodge Aux Trois Globes was formed under the auspices of Charles-Etienne Jordan.
A new lodge created in Meiningen, Frankfurt an der Oder, Wroclaw, Dresden and Neuchatel.
In 1744 they therefore took the name Great Royal Mother Lodge of the Three Globes.

"... In 1767 the Mother Lodge "The Three Globes" became submerged in the Rite of Strict Observance as L'union, but withdrew in 1778. After the Williamsbad Congress of 1782/3, which ended Strict Observance, they declared independence and adopted the "Rectified System"...".

Mentioned
Charles-Etienne Jordan b. 1700 in Berlin, was a Prussian-born Huguenot refugee, advisor to Frederick the Great;
he visited France, England and the Netherlands.

"At the Rheinsberg Castle he was the member of a radical intellectual circle including general Heinrich August de la Motte Fouque. Jordan was an avid collector of banned radical and "Socinian" books...".

And above Ernst Heinrich August de la Motte Fouque, b. 1698, was a Prussian Lieutenant general and a confidante of King Frederick the Great. Born in The Hague to an old Norman family, befriended Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia, visiting him while the crown prince restricted to Kostrin.

Above
Rite of Strict Observance as L'union - a Rite of Freemasonry,
a Masonic body of the 18th century.
Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund (1722-1776) introduced a new "Scottish" Rite to Germany, which he renamed "Rectified Masonry" and, after 1764, the "Strict Observance", while referring to the English system of Freemasonry as the "Late Observance."
"Despite its initial popularity, growing dissatisfaction among members over the failure to being initiated into the mysteries of the Unknown Superiors led to the Convent of Wilhelmsbad in 1782.
The delegates there renounced their Templar origins...".
Willermoz also claimed to receive instruction from "unknown superiors".
The Illuminati took over Freemasonry in 1782 at the Congress.
This invisible leader was said to have possibly been Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender. This was the same man whom Ramsey had tried to tutor some year prior.

"...The first meeting convened on the October 25th, 1764, for the purpose of convincing the Lodges under the Strict Observance system to recognize Johnson in the officer of Superior. At the second meeting held in 1765, Baron von Hund was invited to attend who had supported Johnson, but, upon discovery that he was a fraud, had him arrested and jailed where he died on May 13th, 1775. The third convention was held in Altenburg, near Jena, in 1768 where Baron von Hund was proclaimed as the Grand Master of all the Strict Observance Lodges {by Barry Newell}."

Mentioned above
Karl Gotthelf, Baron von Hund und Altengrotkau b. 1722, Unwurde, a German freemason; in 1751, he founded the Rite of Strict Observance. Von Hund came from Silesia,
descended from Henry von Hund und Altengrotkau, whose son was Commander of the Order of Malta in Glatz, ca 1523 [see SULKOWSKI].
In 1741 Hund was at the coronation of Charles VII of BAVARIA, in Frankfurt, where he was admitted to the Masonic brotherhood. 1742 / 1743 he was in Paris, and there converted to Catholicism. In 1743, he became Master of a lodge.

He claimed that it was in Paris in 1743 that he was initiated, by Scottish knights, into the Order of the Knights Templar, and was the introduced to the pretender to the British throne, Prince Charles Edward Stuart as the Grand Master of the Knights Templar.
Present were the Earl of Kilmarnock and other senior Jacobites. He was initiated by the "Knight of the Red Feather, whose identity he was pledged to conceal, but he may have tried to hint that it was Charles Edward Stuart".
Hund claimed to have been appointed by these "unknown superiors" of the Templars as "commander in chief" of the Order of Province VII (Germany) of the TEMPLARS.
"Hund's relationship to the alleged French Templar Order is unclear, and his surviving diary entries give little information".

Above
Charles VII b. 1697, died in 1745, the prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1742.
Mentioned Charles VII / Charles Albert was born in Brussels, the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, and Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska, the daughter of King John III Sobieski of Poland.
Theresa Kunegunda / Teresa Kunegunda Sobieska, b. 1676, a Polish princess, an Electress of Bavaria and of the Electorate of the Palatinate; Regent of the Palatinate in 1704-1705. The daughter of the Polish King John III Sobieski and Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien.
Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska was also the mother to Clemens August of Bavaria, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.
Her son
Johann Theodor of Bavaria b. 1703, was a cardinal, Prince-Bishop of Regensburg, Freising, and of Liege. "He was said to have had affairs with several women despite his clerical status and was liked by the inhabitants of the bishopric".

The parents of above Ferdinand of BRUNSWICK:

Ferdinand Albrecht II VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBUTTEL, 1680-1735 + Antoinette Amalie VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBUTTEL, 1696-1762.


Note to MARTINIQUE:

The Society of the Cincinnati is a hereditary society with branches in the United States and France, founded in 1783. Top members:
Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton,
George Washington was elected the first President General of the Society in December 1783.
The third President General of the Society was Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.

King Louis XVI ordained the French Society of the Cincinnati, which was organized on July 4, 1784.

A supporter of independence from Britain, Pinckney served in the American Revolutionary War, rising to the rank of brigadier general.


Henry Home, Lord Kames and Agatha Drummond - SOBIESKI and Cochrane:

Above
Agatha Drummond, 1711 - 1795, the daughter of James Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond and Jean Carre. Wife of Henry Home, Lord Kames. Mother of George Drummond-Home, Laird of Blair-Drummond

{GEORGE, 1740 - 1819, son of Henry Home, Lord Kames and Agatha Drummond. Married Janet Jardine

(Janet / Jardine Home Drummond, 1762 - 1840, the daughter of John Jardine, Min. of Tron, Edinburgh - John Jardine, born 1715, son of Robert JARDINE; lived in Lochmaben in 1736; Dean of the Chapel Royal 1761; he known David Hume the philosopher; JOHN married in 1744, to Jean (died 1766), eldest daughter of George Drummond, commissioner of Excise, and Lord Provost of Edinburgh)

with son:
Henry Drummond-Home (born in 1783 in Perthshire, Scotland. He had a son George Stirling Home Drummond b. 1813, Edinburgh)}

and Jean Home [more below !].
Sister of George Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond born in 1705.

Mentioned
Jean Home born ca. 1745 / Jean Heron, the daughter of Henry Home, Lord Kames and Agatha Drummond. Married (1761) to Patrick Heron; divorced in 1772; she was exiled to France by her parents; In 1782, Boswell had a long conversation with Lady Kames about Jean. JEAN was sent to France accompanied by a teacher of french, Alexander Drummond who was going there with a daughter.
James Boswell had affair with Jean in 1761 - 1762 at Kirroughtrie.

Above PATRICK HERON:
born ca. 1736, died 1803. Patrick Heron of Heron and Kirroughtrie, was the son of Patrick Heron (d. 1761) and Margaret, daughter of John Mackie of Palgoun.
Married (1761) to Jean Home, daughter of Henry Home, Lord Kames. They divorced in 1772 following Jean's adulterous affair with a young officer.
Re-married (1775) to Elizabeth Cochrane (1745-1811), a cousin of James Boswell

{Elizabeth Cochrane (1745-1811), the daughter of the 8th Earl of Dundonald. She married Patrick Heron. She was the composer of an air, 'The Banks of Cree'. Above
8th Earl of Dundonald, Thomas Cochrane, 1691 - 1778, was a Scottish nobleman, army officer and politician.
He was Member of Parliament for Renfrewshire. His cousin, William Cochrane, 7th Earl.
Thomas was born in 1691, the seventh son of William Cochrane of Ochiltree, and his wife Lady Mary Bruce, eldest daughter of Alexander Bruce, 2nd Earl of Kincardine.
We back to
John Dundas Cochrane, d. 1825:
Captain John Dundas Cochrane (1793 - 1825) was a Scottish officer in the Royal Navy, traveller and explorer.
An illegitimate son of Scottish adventurer Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone.

Andrew James Cochrane-Johnstone b. 1767, a Scottish soldier, politician and adventurer; was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. The youngest son of above Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, from Jane Stuart b. 1722;
in 1793, ANDREW married Georgiana Hope-Johnstone, a daughter of James Hope-Johnstone, 3rd Earl of Hopetoun.
Note:
John Cochrane was in 1822 in Irkutsk.

Above Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone and his brother the Admiral Alexander Cochrane in the West Indies; servant of Prince Alexander Labanov in Russia.

Charles Stuart Cochrane b. 1796, son of above Alexander Cochrane, career in the Royal Navy, 1823 in Gran Colombia, the firm of Rundell, Bridge & Rundell, for exploitation of the pearl fisheries in Gran Colombia; 1830 in France; next in Glasgow.

After the death of John Cochrane in 1825, Ksenia Cochrane remained in Great Britain to London to John's Cochrane sister Eliza until 1827; next in Petersburg in 1827; here she met the famous Arctic explorer,
Pyotr Anjou (b.1796 / 1797), and married him in St Petersburg;
Ksenia Anjou had six children: Ludmila, Pyotr Anjou a naval man, Fedor, Ivan, Aleksandra, and Elisaveta in St Petersburg and Oranienbaum.
Pyotr Anjou / Pyotr Fyodorovich Anjou, was an Arctic explorer and an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy. Pyotr Anjou / Piotr Fyodorovich Anjou b. 1796 or 1797 in Vyshny Volochyok, near Tver.
See below on COCHRANE !}.

Patrick Heron of Heron and Kirroughtrie was the co-founder, with Archibald Douglas, of the Ayr bank Douglas, Heron & Company which went bankrupt in 1773.
In 1793 he was elected MP for the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. He was inherited by his only surviving child, Mary (d. 1856), and son-in-law Lieutenant-General Sir John Maxwell (d. 1830), 4th Bart of Nova Scotia, who assumed the surname and arms of Heron.

Above
Kirroughtree - close to Newton Stewart; south-west SCOTLAND - west to CASTLE DOUGLAS.

Named above
Lieutenant General Sir John Shaw Stewart Heron-Maxwell, 4th Baronet (1772 - 1830), known as John Maxwell until 1803, was a Scottish officer in the British Army and a politician. He was the 4th son of Sir William Maxwell, 3rd Baronet, of Springkell in Dumfriesshire. His mother Margaret was the daughter of Sir Michael Stewart, 3rd Baronet, of Blackhall, Renfrewshire. Lieutenant general in 1819.
In 1802 he married Mary Heron, the only surviving child of Patrick Heron, a founder of the Ayr Bank and MP for Kirkcudbright Stewartry.
When her father died in 1803, she inherited his estates, and John changed his name to Heron-Maxwell.

Mentioned above
Douglas, Heron & Company, also known as the Ayr Bank, was a Scottish bank with its head office at Ayr. It opened in November 1769 and folded in 1772.

There were 131 original partners, including Patrick Heron of Kirroughtree, the Earl of Dumfries, the Earl of March, and Sir Adam Fergusson of Kilkerran; the Duke of Buccleuch, the Duke of Queensberry, and Archibald Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas.

Above
Archibald James Edward Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas b. 1748, a Scottish politician. He was born Archibald James Edward Stewart, in Paris [at the house of Madame Le Brun in Faubourg Saint-Germain], the son of Sir John Stewart, 3rd Baronet b. 1687, and Lady Jane Douglas, daughter of James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas. Lady Jane Douglas was the sister of Duke of Douglas.
Lady Jane was 47 when she married the 60-year-old Colonel Sir John Stewart.

Named
James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas b. ca 1646, was the son of Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus and 1st Earl of Ormonde, and Lady Anne Stuart. James, second marquis of Douglas, born in 1646, succeeded his grandfather in 1660, and was a privy councillor to Kings Charles II and James VII

{James II and VII b. 1633, was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII.
He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II.

James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales b. 1688, nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. In 1719, James Francis Edward Stuart married at the chapel of the Episcopal Palace in Montefiascone, near Viterbo, to
Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702-1735), the daughter of Jakub Sobieski, the granddaughter of King John III Sobieski of Poland.
He had two sons:
1. Charles Edward Stuart b. 1720, nicknamed "Bonnie Prince Charlie";
2. Henry Benedict Stuart b. 1725, a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church}.

His [James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas] first marriage was in 1670 to the Lady Barbara Erskine, daughter of John Erskine, 21st Earl of Mar and Jean Mackenzie. He later married Mary Kerr, daughter of Robert Kerr, 1st Marquess of Lothian and Lady Jean Campbell.
Robert Kerr, 1st Marquess of Lothian, b. 1636, known as the 4th Earl of Lothian from 1675 to 1701.

More on AYR BANK:

Margaret Campbell - born 1729 ARL, SCT [Inver, Scotland]; died 1790; father Colin CAMPBELL, mother Martha MCILVOIRE.

Cardross, 37 km north-west to GLASGOW;
Cardross, Dumbartonshire, Scotland - Dunbartonshire or the County of Dumbarton is a historic county, lieutenancy area and registration county in the west central Lowlands of Scotland lying to the north of the River Clyde.

Above named INVER and the CAMPBELL clan:
George Arbuthnot's father was a businessman (Aberdeen) who died shortly after being ruined in the Ayr Bank crash of 1772;
George Arbuthnot secured a post as Chief Secretary to the Governor of Ceylon, and founded the Arbuthnot Bank in Madras (1810); 1810 he married Eliza Fraser, daughter of an Inverness solicitor who was staying with her uncle in Madras.
They returned to Britain in 1823, purchased an estate in Surrey, and visited Rome.

Note:
HERON, Patrick (born ca 1672 - died in 1761), of Heron, Kirroughtrie, Kirkcudbright. the son of Andrew Heron of Kirroughtrie by Jean, daughter of John Dunbar of Machermore. PATRICK married 3rd in 1721, Isabel, daughter of Neilson of Dumfries, merchant, widowed after Thomas Maxwell of Cuil, Buittle, Kirkcudbright.

COCHRANE:

John Dandes Cochrane / John Dundas Cochrane / Cochran, British explorer, Captain of the Royal Navy, b. 1793 - d. 08/12/1825. In 1820 journey across Siberia, which went to Kamchatka and back;
from Ekaterinburg he went to Tobolsk and Omsk, Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and to the Chinese border, Zmeinogorsk, Kolivan and Barnaul and Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, to Yakutsk, then Verkhoyansk, and Lower Kolyma and the Upper Kolyma and Oymekon to Okhotsk, crossed to Kamchatka to Petropavlovsk; a year in Kamchatka, he moved to Okhotsk, to Yakutsk and the Lena up in Irkutsk, Nercinsk and Tsuruhaytu on the Chinese border, Kiakhta, Irkutsk

(John Dundas Cochrane / John Cochrane was in 1822 in Irkutsk or 1823),

Tomsk, Omsk, Tobolsk, the Urals. John Cochran, at journey from St. Petersburg across Siberia to Kamchatka, married in 1822 to the Siberian girl and returned to England and published an interesting book about his journey in Philadelphia (1824) and Edinburgh (1824), Weimar, 1825, Jena, 1825, Vienna, 1826.

Kotchoubey suspected him of being a spy, in a letter to Speranskii in 1872;

Cochran is called "the British fleet service captain" and 'Englishman Cochran took foot journey across Siberia'; and returned to England, acc. to "Complete Poems", Khvostova, 1829, p. 219. Death of John Cochrane in 1825, Ksenia Cochrane remained in Great Britain in London with John's Cochrane sister Eliza until 1827; next in Petersburg in 1827.

Note:

James Holman met Captain Rikord in the city of Kazan.

Captain John Dundas Cochrane, d. 1825, was a Scottish naval officer, son of Scottish adventurer Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone; he was a
cousin of Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, and
nephew of Admiral Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane.

"Cochrane married Ksenia Ivanovna Loginova (1807-1870) in 1822; she was an adoptive daughter of Admiral Pyotr Rikord, the Russian governor of Kamchatka. As a widow, she married Pyotr Anjou, an Arctic explorer and Russian admiral", by Wikipedia. John Dundas Cochrane died in 1825 in Valencia, Colombia. Above mentioned

Andrew James Cochrane-Johnstone b. 1767, a Scottish soldier, politician and adventurer; was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. The youngest son of Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, from Jane Stuart b. 1722;
1793 he married Georgiana Hope-Johnstone, a daughter of James Hope-Johnstone, 3rd Earl of Hopetoun;
had one daughter.
1797 was promoted to Colonel and then made Governor of Dominica; next he had married Amelia Constance Gertrude Etienette, a widow and the only child of a French governor of Guadeloupe, in 1803. Above named

Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, a Scottish nobleman, army officer and politician.
Thomas was born in 1691, the seventh son of William Cochrane of Ochiltree, and Lady Mary Bruce, eldest daughter of Alexander Bruce, 2nd Earl of Kincardine, by Wikipedia.


Marseille and the Anjou family - Avignone and the Illuminati Order:

A.
Branch from Jean VENTURE d. 1660, Consul de Marseille in 1637;
his son Charles de VENTURE sieur de PARADIS;
grandson Jean Michel de VENTURE b. 1701 in Marseille;
great-grandsons Jean Joseph de VENTURE
and Jean Michel de VENTURE de PARADIS born 1739 Marseille
- his children:
1.
Unknown by name de VENTURE de PARADIS married to Jozef Sulkowski / Joseph SULKOWSKI born in 1770 in the Poznan province in Poland - died in 1798 in Cairo / Kair / Caire, Egypt:
the friend and aide de camp to Bonaparte,
friend with Muiron, Vivant Denon, Carnot, Augereau, and Bourienne.
And 2.
Jeanne VENTURE de PARADIS 1774 - 1813 married to
a. Ludwik / Louis MALESZEWSKI / Piotr Maleszewski with children
Klementyna nee Maleszewska / Clementine MALESZEWSKI married to de LAQUEILLE, and
Olimpia Maleszewska / Olympe MALESZEWSKI married to Leonard CHODZKO b. 1800 - died in 1871;
b. m. 2nd in 1810, Paris to Antoine Louis BREGUET 1776 - 1858.

Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis in 1764, as interpreter in Sidon,
and in 1770 in Cairo, until 1776, making a number of services to politics and commerce of France.
Digeon Victoria (next of kin ? with Alexander Elisabeth Michel vicomte Digeon / Alexandre Elisabeth Michel Digeon, Major General, b. on June 26, 1771 in Paris, died on August 2, 1826 in the village of Ronqueux, annexed in 1834 to Bullion, near Paris)
had two daughters.

Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis returning to France to report to Cabinet on the art of Egypt, had to leave for Marseilles, to accompany Barone Tott, who inspected the French warehouses in ports of the Levant, 1778 Cairo. This mission taken two years. In 1779 Venture was in Tunis, where he remained for five years as interpreter for the Consulate of France; recalled in Paris, as Secretary of interpreters of the East; then posted in Algiers, in order to renew the treaties between France and Algier, in 1790 returned to France; again in 1793 as Secretary - interpreter, together with the French ambassador to Constantinople; he was arrested in Switzerland at the hands of the Austrians; had expected to Venice 1793 ?, then gone alone to Constantinople where he stayed until 1797; then returned to France, accompanying the Ambassador Ali Effendi. In Paris at the Turkish Special School of Oriental Languages.
When Napoleon undertook the expedition to Egypt, Venture de Paradis was appointed primary interpreter.
During the stay in Egypt, he was appointed member of the Institut of Egypt since its founding, on August 22, 1798 at the section of literature and the arts. He gone with the emperor in Syria, but during the siege of Acre fell ill of dysentery, in the convent of Nazareth, died during the retreat, or he was transferred to Egypt. Venture de Paradis was one of the most famous Arabists of the time, not only for his languages, but also for his perfect knowledge of the habits and customs of the eastern populations.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis that is Jan Michal Venture de Paradis was father of Janina 'Egipcjanka' Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska / JeanneFrancoise Venture / Jeanne Francoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France, wife of Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet, and mother of Louis Clement Breguet.
She was also wife of Piotr Pawel Jan Maleszewski.
Her father Jean-Michel de Venture de Paradis, born 8 May 1739 in Marseille, died 16 May 1799 in Acri / Acra.

B.
Russian prince Alexander Troubetzkoy in 1846 bought a property for Maria Taglioni, a prima ballerina. Marie Taglioni transferred much of her activity to Saint Petersburg, where she and her father spent a season from 1836 till 1842;
her husband, Jean Pierre Victor Alfred Gilbert de Voisins / Count Alfred Gilbert de Voisins m. 1832, separated in 1835 and divorced in 1844;
but she has a daughter in 1835 and the second a son in 1843, probably illegitimate, but he has the title Comte Gilbert de Voisins.

Marie's daughter Marie Eugenie married Alexander Troubetzkoy, born 14 July 1813, and her next of kin to a Furst zu Windischgratz. During the 1870's Marie Taglioni resided in London. Later she moved with her son and his family to Marseilles, where she died in 1884.

Marie Eugenie Gilbert de Voisins died 1901, her brother Georges Philippe Gilbert de Voisins died 1893, his son Augusto died 1939 in Paris;
husband of above Marie - Alexander Troubetzkoy b. 1813.

Marie's father - Jean Pierre Victor Alfred Gilbert de Voisins died 1863 with wife Marie Taglioni died 1884.
Grandfather Pierre Paul Alexandre born 1773. His sister Anne Marie Marthe died 1801 with husband Marie Joseph d'Osmont, Lieutenant General.
Great-grandfather Pierre Paul second Gilbert de Voisins with wife de Beauchamps.

C.
The underground structure of the Illuminati Order has clearly defined objectives at the beginning of the 20th century:

1. call up the chaos in Europe (see below on Major Edmund Charaszkiewicz and Gavrilo Princip);
2. to bring the continental war (Bogdan Hutten-Czapski);
3. overthrow of the Romanovs in Russia (Hanecki, Radek, Parvus, Armand, Konstantynowicz);
4. lead to anarchy in Russia (Lenin, Dzierzynski, Artuzow Frutchi, Pilar Pilchau);
5. starting the war between the invaders, who take away the Polish independence (Pilsudski);
6. pulling the western countries into the war, and in due time also America (Koziell Poklewski, Ricord, Anjou).

Overarching objectives are:
1. Polish independence (Jodko Narkiewicz, Pilsudski, Sudzilowski, Krzyzanowski, Konstantynowicz),
2. The independence of the Baltic States (Pilar Pilchau of Parnu);
3. The creation of a Jewish state in Palestine (Zionist movement of Odessa).

Tools to achieve these goals are:
1. The money from the Scottish (Perth), Jewish and American banks;
revenue from the Mediterranean trade - Marseille, Greece, Naples, Crimea;
and plantations in Ceylon and from the Asian trade - Ceylon, India, Japan (Nagasaki);
2. the use of secret non-goverment organisations (NGOs) in Europe and America (masonry);
3. The creation of favorable underground structures inside the intelligence networks of Western Europe and American countries (MI5 in 1909).

Antoine-Joseph Pernety was fascinated by the mystical doctrines of Swedish Emanuel Swedenborg, and he founded, with Count Tadeusz Grabienka, the Illuminati of Berlin in 1778/1779. His proselytism did not please the king who sent him away.

Castle of Mont-Thabor, Bedarrides:

Pernety left Berlin in November 1783, accompanied by the count, "returned to Avignon and accepted, at the end of 1784, the invitation of the Marquis de Vaucroze, a wealthy landowner in Bedarrides, who said he was ready to welcome them to his home, in one of his properties, the "Temple of the Mount" Thabor."
On his return, PERNETY became friendly with the Marquis de Vaucroze, who installed Pernety in a little house on his estate at Bedarrides, a few miles from Avignon, 120 km north-west to Marsylia.
"The chateau was built in the 18th century as a mansion for a nobleman Marquis de Vaucroze. The name Mont Thabor was given by Don Pernety, the founder of the sect of Illumines of Avignon: at the property he planted trees coming from the Israeli mountain, Mont Thabor ... From 1840 the place became a "Relais de Diligence", a place to stay for travellers. 1881 the property was purchased by the Swiss immigrant Fritz Stehelin".
" ... These fraternal feasts brought together more than a hundred people. The irruption of the French Revolution in the Papal States of Avignon and Comtat Venaissin dispersed the Illuminati. Arrested, Pernety was quickly released on the personal intervention of citizen Francois Poultier ... with the lawyer Vincent-Xavier Gasqui, who installed it in his Hotel ... of the Three Pilates".

Bedarrides of Marquis de Vaucroze, a wealthy landowner in Bedarrides - close to Avignon.

In XVIII century many foreigners were arriving from the West to Russia; the Anjou family came from the southern France, Aix-en-Provence, 35 km north of Marseille; and 26 km north of Aix is located Le Puy-Saint-Reparade.

Le Puy: 38 km south-east to the Papal Avignon district ! Le Puy: 80 km south-east to Bedarrides - the Illuminati of Pernety and Grabianka!

During 1795-1799 period, the initiation hierarchy was established by TADEUSZ GRABIANKA, and the temple of the Avinion Illuminati was modeled on the Solomon Temple. Grabianka back to London in 1796 and in 1800, acc. to S. Spector. In 1799, Tadeusz Grabianka left France and he went to the AUSTRIA = Galicia for a short time, and then to Russia in 1802 in Ukraine, then in St Petersburg. There he entered the circle of aristocracy. Tadeusz Grabianka in 1802 found himself in Russia, i.e. in Ukraine. In the autumn of 1804, Grabianka found himself in Tulczyn with Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki (born 1751). In 1805, the next protector of the "master" Tadeusz Grabianka, became Count August Ilinski (1766-1844), at whose invitation he arrived in St. Petersburg in August 1805.

D.
The ARMAND family from Moscow:

Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia ca 1790 - 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow) daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution; Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand.
But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably).

The 29 year-old general Paul Armand came from Paris in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay. He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine. After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then after 1815 the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.

Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demonet / Demontet family ran in Moscow a sales of these French wines. When Paul Armand married, he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.

Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage to Elizabeth Osipovna (1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny / Eugeniusz Armand born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker.

E.
The first genealogy of Arseny:

Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov / Demidoff, 2nd Prince San Donato, 1839-1885, owned approximately 100 factories in Russian and 1 million squares kilometers of land in Russia, France and in Italy. He move to Villa Pratolino, named as Villa Demidoff, and m. 2nd time to Helena or Elena Petrovna, Princess Troubetzekaya, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, b. St. Peterburg in 1853, d. Odessa in 1917;
Aurora Pavlovna Demidova, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, Princess of Serbia, and later Countess Noghera, born in San Donato in 1873 or 1874, d. Marseille, in 1943,
eldest daughter of the second marriage of the above Prince Pavel Pavlovich Demidov;
Aurora m. first to Arsene Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1859-1938, son of Alexandar Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1806-1885 and Persida Nenadovic, 1813-1873. General of the Russian army; Comander-General of the Yugoslavian army.
He was brother of Peter I, King of Serbians, Croats and Slovens, later King of Yugoslavia, 1844-1921.
Prince Arsene divorced in 1896.

Paul Karadordevic, Prince of Yugoslavia, b. 1893, was educated at the University of Oxford.

The second genealogy of Arseny:
A wife 1891/2 - 1896 of above Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich:
Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev; her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov;
her grandfather Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826,
her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804;
her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817;
her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731 died 1812.

Above mentioned Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic / Alexander I of Yugoslavia (1806 - 1885), Prince of Serbia in 1842 - 1858. After his father's death in 1817, he was living in Russia and served to the Russian army to 1840. He left two sons:
Peter I of Yugoslavia (1844-1921), 1903 the king of Serbia, 1918 the King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes;
and above named Arseny (1859 - 1938); his son, Prince Paul was a regent of Yugoslavia in 1934 - 1941.

F.
Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. It used French families located in Switzerland, Ceylon, France, Russia. Scottish and Irish families combined to Naples and Marseille, Ceylon, Odessa and Japan; Russians, English and Pilsudski entered by Japan to Ceylon; parallel from Odessa the Zionist movement came out founding a base of the state of Israel. Odessa has paired their to Berezino, Ireland - Japan - Ceylon.

And the whole system took over the movement of Germans from Estonia, and underground combat movement of Pilsudski, combining the objectives of the independence of these two states: Poland / Lithuania / Belarus + Estonia / Latvia, and as I wrote above Israel. Then they created a counterintelligence and intelligence of new Bolshevik Russia and the USSR. It already was a masterpiece, but totally wrecked by Stalin in 1937 - have to say that in this case, Stalin was a genius.

G.
Gaetano Errico Malatesta Maria Pasquale was born in 1853 in Villa Santa Maria Maggiore, at two miles distance from the castle of Caserta, and ca 4 km south-east of Capua, now part of the town called Santa Maria Capua Vetere, in the province of Caserta.

Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta;

he was son of Don Federico Malatesta, a landowner and entrepreneur originally from Napoli, and Lazzarina Rastoin, a French lady originally from Marseille.

H.
The Rastoin family:
RASTOIN Jacques, b. 1900 in Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhone, Senator 1966-1971, comes from a large Marseille industrial family of oils and soaps.
His father Emile Rastoin, founder of the new oil mill in 1899, chaired the Marseille Chamber of Commerce and Deputy Mayor of Marseille.
His brother Edward, also a former president of the chamber of Commerce of Marseille. He is also appointed head of the Savings Bank. The company of Tuileries of the Mediterranean is creates in 1882, by the founder from Marseille, Edward Rastoin (1835-1903) partner with Mr. Francois Mary Denis Anselm and Michel Agard.
The second son of Edward,
Albert Rastoin (1866-1946) it succeeds until 1946.
Next Rastoin Edward (1895-1997), Jacques (1900-1979) and Bernard (1904-1979) are CEO of company until 1973.

E. Rastoin is the son of an owner from Aix Provence, Bernard Rastoin, 1803-1859.
He has studied School of Arts and Job in Aix Provence, open in 1843.

RASTOIN, Roquebrussanne of Var, Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur, France 1809-1845;
RASTOIN, Val of Var, Cote d'Azur, France 1740-1818;

Rastoin is a great French family of Marseille, which has benefited from the rise of the oil mill industry in the late nineteenth century. The first Rastoin oil mill was founded in 1882.
Deputy Mayor of Marseille: Emile Rastoin in 1905-1908.

I.
The famous Richard Henry Brunton (1841 - 1901), so-called "Father of Japanese lighthouses", was born in Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland.
He was a foreign advisor to build lighthouses in Japan. Muchalls is a small village in Kincardineshire, Scotland, south of Newtonhill and north of Stonehaven, south of Aberdeen - is the birthplace of Richard Henry Brunton; he was a railway engineer, joined the Stevenson brothers (David and Thomas Stevenson) who were engaged by the British government to build lighthouses.
Japan hired the Edinburgh-based firm of D. and T. Stevenson to chart coastal waters and to build lighthouses, what begun under French foreign advisor Leonce Verny; Brunton was sent from Edinburgh in August 1868 to head the project.

Francois Leonce Verny / Leonce Verny born in Aubenas in Ardeche, 1837, d. 1908, a French officer and naval engineer of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in Japan, from 1865 to 1876; studied at Lyon and Ecole Polytechnique. Verny was sent to Ningbo and Shanghai in China from 1862 - 1864, he was also French Vice-Consul in Ningbo. Verny was persuaded to go to Japan by his distant relative, French ambassador Leon Roches in September 1865; 1865 he briefly returned to France helped in the negotiations for the First French Military Mission to Japan.

Mentioned Leon Roches b. 1809, Grenoble, was a representative of the French government in Japan from 1864 to 1868, then assist friends of his father as a trader in Marseilles!
Under Bugeaud's recommendation, Roches joined the French Foreign Ministry as an interpreter in 1845. 1863, Roches was nominated Consul General of France in Edo, Japan. His great rival was the British consul Harry Parkes.
Francois Leonce Verny cooperated with Jules Brunet b. 1838, a French officer who played an active role in Mexico and Japan, and later became a General and Chief of Staff of the French Minister of War in 1898. He was sent to Japan with the French military mission of 1867.
Francois Leonce Verny also built four lighthouses in the Tokyo area, and managed the building of the shipyard at Nagasaki.

J.
Peter Forsskal / Pehr Forskaol / Petrus Forsskahl, was born in Helsinki in Finland. Forsskal died in Arabia / Yemen in July 1763.
On 10 March 1761 they started trip:
the Shetland Islands and Iceland; southwards towards Gibraltar, entering the Mediterranean and
anchoring near Marseilles (13 May).
Their next stop was Malta (June 14-20),
followed by the Greek Islands, Smyrna, Constantinople on 30 July. Malta's Grand Harbour on 14 June 1761.
Carsten Niebuhr had visited Malta in June 1761 - with Forsskal. The last threat came from a British warship that on 6 June 1761 was refused permission to inspect the merchant vessels in the Danish convoy.

The MALTA Island was under the rule of the Order of St John of Jerusalem and had the Portuguese Fra Emmanuel Pinto as Grand Master (1741 - 1773). In 1762-1766, Cagliostro in Malta in the Pinto's laboratory. Acc. to Freller, the Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta from 1741, was considered by Count Cagliostro as a true Illuminati.

K.
Dorothea von Biron, Princess of Courland, Duchess of Dino, Talleyrand and Sagan / Dorothee de Courlande / Dorothe de Dino, b. 1793, d. 1862,
was daughter of Dorothea von Medem, Duchess of Courland, and a Polish statesman Aleksander Batowski,
"...thus making her half-Polish. For a long time, she accompanied the French statesman Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, whereas she was the separated wife of his nephew, Edmond de Talleyrand-Perigord".
Copyright by en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princess_Dorothea_of_Courland.

Dorothea von Biron / Dorothea von Kurland / Herzogin von Dino - Sagan, Herzogin von Dino in Kalabrien / Dorothee, princesse de Courlande, comtesse Edmond de Perigord / duchesse de Dino / duchesse de Talleyrand / duchesse de Sagan, born 1793.
Her mother was Dorothea von Medem, Duchess of Courland (with husband, Duke Peter von Biron)
and father the Polish envoy to the Duchy of Courland, Aleksander Batowski (was a close associate of her uncle Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord during the Napoleonic period).
Her three elder half sisters, all legitimate daughters of the Duke of Courland, were very anti-French:
Princess Wilhelmine, Duchess of Sagan; Princess Pauline, Duchess of Sagan; and Princess Johanna Katharina, Duchess of Acerenza.
For a long time, she accompanied Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord (to the Congress of Vienna and after 1815; Charles was granted the duchy of Dino, Calabrian island, by the king of Sicily in recognition of his services at Vienna),
whereas she was the separated wife (m. in Frankfurt 1809 to 1818) of his nephew, Edmond de Talleyrand-Perigord.
She had illegitimate daughters:
1. born in 1816, Bozena Nemcova, the great Czech writer (that is Marie-Henriette Dessalles b. 1816);
2. Julie Zulme b. 1826 m. Joseph Evarist Laurent Bertulus, Dr, b. 1809 in Toulon, d. 1881 in Marseilles, with son M. Paul Bertulus;
Paul Bertulus was investigating judge in Paris when in January 1898 he received a complaint against Colonel Picquart about false telegrams and White Speranza that were sent to him to compromise. Bertulus was a judge during the Dreyfus Affair and told with witness Christian Esterhazy, the nephew of Charles;
3. and Antonine Piscatory b. 1827.
With Edmond de Talleyrand-Perigord:
1. Napoleon Louis de Talleyrand-Perigord, 3rd Duke of Talleyrand b. 1811, married Anne Louise Charlotte de Montmorency;
2. Dorothee Charlotte Emilie de Talleyrand-Perigord b. 1812;
3. Alexandre Edmond de Talleyrand-Perigord, 3rd Duke of Dino b. 1813, Paris, married Valentine de Sainte- Aldegonde.

L.

ANJOU and RIKORD:

James Holman met Captain Rikord in the city of Kazan.

Captain John Dundas Cochrane, d. 1825, was a Scottish naval officer, son of Scottish adventurer Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone; he was a
cousin of Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, and nephew of Admiral Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane.
"Cochrane married Ksenia Ivanovna Loginova (1807-1870) in 1822; she was an adoptive daughter of Admiral Pyotr Rikord, the Russian governor of Kamchatka. As a widow, she married Pyotr Anjou, an Arctic explorer and Russian admiral",
by Wikipedia.
John Dundas Cochrane died in 1825 in Valencia, Colombia.

Above mentioned
Andrew James Cochrane-Johnstone b. 1767, a Scottish soldier, politician and adventurer; was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. The youngest son of Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, from Jane Stuart b. 1722;
1793 he married Georgiana Hope-Johnstone, a daughter of James Hope-Johnstone, 3rd Earl of Hopetoun; had one daughter.
1797 was promoted to Colonel and then made Governor of Dominica; next he had married Amelia Constance Gertrude Etienette, a widow and the only child of a French governor of Guadeloupe, in 1803. Above named
Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, a Scottish nobleman, army officer and politician.
Thomas was born in 1691, the seventh son of William Cochrane of Ochiltree, and Lady Mary Bruce, eldest daughter of Alexander Bruce, 2nd Earl of Kincardine, by Wikipedia.

After the death of John Cochrane in 1825, Ksenia Cochrane remained in Great Britain to London to John's Cochrane sister Eliza until 1827;
next in Petersburg in 1827; here she met the famous Arctic explorer, Pyotr Anjou (b.1796 / 1797), and married him in St Petersburg; Ksenia Anjou had six children:
Ludmila, Pyotr Anjou a naval man, Fedor, Ivan, Aleksandra, and Elisaveta in St Petersburg and Oranienbaum.

Pyotr Anjou / Pyotr Fyodorovich Anjou, was an Arctic explorer and an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy. Pyotr Anjou / Piotr Fyodorovich Anjou b. 1796 or 1797 in Vyshny Volochyok, near Tver.

Ludmila Korostovetz (1794 - 1883), married to the famous traveler, Admiral P. I. Rikord, Petro Rikord / Pyotr Rikord b. 1776, Russian admiral, explorer, scientist, diplomat, writer, shipbuilder, from Toropets in the Pskov province, now Tver region,
his father:
Johann Ignatievitch Ricord / Johan = Jean-Baptiste Ignatievich Rikord, from Nice / Nicea, after in Poland.

Charles Radclyffe, Earl of Derwentwater - b. 1693, d. 1746, was the youngest son of Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater and Lady Mary Tudor.
"...Charles Radclyffe was allegedly Grand Master of the Priory of Sion, succeeding Sir Isaac Newton in that role.
Lawrence Gardner asserts that he was linked to the bloodline of the Grail through his mother, Lady Mary Tudor, the illegitimate daughter of King Charles II of England.

The Radclyffes were, however, also descended from Ivo de Tailbois, an illegitimate son of the Count of Anjou,
and therefore descended from the Merovingian bloodline directly.
Charles Radclyffe along with the Chevalier Andrew Michael Ramsay was responsible of the introduction of Scottish Rite Freemasonry to continental Europe".

Anjou, Peter, 1796 - 1869, received the name Pyotr Fyodorov Anjou. In 1844 Anjou assigned the rank of Rear Admiral, he was appointed captain of the port of Kronstadt.
Peter Anjou married a young widow Xenia Ivanovna 1807-1870, whom he met in the family of Peter Ricord, countryman of Toropets.
His son Peter Anjou, younger,
sailed on the frigate Pallada,
his grandson was the captain of the first rank and the commander of the squadron, who brought the France to sign a treaty between France and Russia in 1909.

But the first of Anjou in the 1750s was a watchmaker.
The Anjou family built in Moscow a house, between 1740 and 1750.
Admiral Peter Fedorovich Anjou, was the great friend of Wrangell.

a.
Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, Count Jacob Sivers b. 1731, in Wesenberg / Rakvere, Estonia; died 1808, in Bauenhof, Governorate of Livonia, near Valmiera; he was appointed general governor of Novgorod (1764-1776), Tver (1776 - 1781 as governor of Tver and Novgorod) and Pskov;
son of Joachim Johann von Sievers;
he was gifted with great possessions: several villages near Minsk in Belarus, in Estonia (Heimar, Rasik and Kampen), Livonia (Bauenhof, Neuhall, Zarnau and Ostrominsky), Ingria (Gadebusch, Lopatino, Selco and Muratovo), the province of Polotsk (Starostei, Kasian and Dobra Rudnia), in Finland (Sackala).

b.
At the same time, Admiral Pyotr Fyodorovich Anjou / Piotr Fyodorovich Anjou / Peter Fedorovich Anjou born 1796 / 1797 - the great friend of Wrangell - an Arctic explorer, born in Vyshny Volochyok. Vyshny Volochyok, located close to Borkovo, ca 80 km north of Torzok; 85 km north-east of Kuvshinovo; 140 km north-west of Tver.

1773 to 1782, Count Sivers Jakov acted here, when was Tver and Pskov governor.

c.
Baron Ferdinand Friedrich Georg Ludwig von Wrangel / Ferdinand Petrovich Vrangel also was born 1796 / 1797 in Pskov, died in Dorpat in Estonia; was a Baltic German explorer of Alaska.

WRANGEL Georgy. He was born in 1876. Baron
(his great-grandfather, Abram Petrovich Hannibal and his father, Michael G. Wrangel, mother Charlotte P. nee Korf).

Brother Michael Vrangel / Mikhail Wrangel. He graduated from the Imperial Alexander Lyceum. From 1901 - District Commander of the 2nd section of the Peterhof County, 1907 - District Commander of the 4th section;
married to Marianne Lvovna Wrangell nee Golicyn / Galitzine.

After the revolution, remained with his family to live on the farm, on February 21, 1918 shot at the front of his mother, wife and four young children. A day later, the body was buried in the village near Raskulitsy Church.

The family of Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers b. 1716 d. 1781 and Leonette Wilhelmina von Rehbinder 1729 - 1753:
son Georg Johann von Sivers (b. 1750, Eusekoll, Estonia; died Hiitola / Pukinniemi / Khiytola - a rural settlement of the Republic of Karelia, Russia) married in 1773 in Tallinn to Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau (b. 1749, Wait, Estonia)
with children:
Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers 1780, Anna Charlotta Christina von Sivers 1783, Dorothea Wilhelmina Johanna von Sivers, Elisabeth Christina, Catharina Hedvig Elisabeth.

Anjou, Peter, 1796 - 1869; descended from Lutherans, who had migrated from France some generation previously

[Fyodor Anjou / Fedor Anjou b. 1758, was a naval doctor.
Son of Frenchman Jean-Andrian Anjou, a watchmaker, b. ca 1720, who had fled to Russia from the southern France, Aix-en-Provence / Aix Provence, 35 km north of Marseille; and 26 km north of Aix is located Le Puy-Saint-Reparade.
But the first of Anjou in the 1750s was a watchmaker.
The Anjou family built in Moscow a house, between 1740 and 1750.
The Anjou family settled in Russia in a provincial town Vishny Volochek.
Anjou, Peter, 1796 - 1869, received the name Pyotr Fyodorov son Anjou. In 1801 Fedor Anjou received the right to acquire the hereditary nobility [compare Paul Armand]. In 1815, Peter made a midshipman.

Maybe Jean Adrian's father was:
Jean-Baptiste d'ANJOU of Puy Sainte-Reparade, born 1701 in Aix, godfather Jean-Baptiste Estienne, godmother Martha Therese Gouin, died 1765 in Le Puy-Sainte Reparade, married 1735 in Puy Sainte-Reparade to Therese OLLIVIER LA FOREST daughter of Jean Francois Bourgeois and Magdeleine LA BERGE, in the presence of Mathieu Gastaud Pourrieres priest, Joseph and Louis Granon Rocamus. She died before 1773 (1748) in Puy-Sainte-Reparade.
Puy Sainte-Reparade - ca 38 km to the Papal Avignon district];

also known as Petr Fedorovich Anzhu, on 23 May 1820 with Wrangell, via Moscow, Irkutsk, the Lena, Ust-Yansk, traveled to New Siberian Islands. Anjou was involved in exploration in 1825 - 1826, with Friedrich Rembert von Berg, to Aral Sea. The Anjou family in Russia:
In XVIII century many foreigners were arriving from the West to Russia.

The Anjou family came from the southern France, Aix-en-Provence, 35 km north of Marseille; and 26 km north [it was error - 16 km] of Aix is located Le Puy-Saint-Reparade. 80 km south-east to the ILLUMINATI estate!

Jean d'Anjou from Pertuis, baptized at Aix in 1656, m. in 1695 to Francoise GOYRAN born in Aix in 1664, daughter of the advocate in the parliament of Provence, and Therese of Saurat - southern France;
children:
a. Margaret Theresa of Anjou born 1696 in Aix,
Suzanne of Anjou born 1697, in Pertuis - 5 km north-east of Le Puy-Saint-Reparade and 40 km to the border of the Papal Avignon district,
Melchior Anjou godfather, godmother Suzanne Cornarel;
b. Jean Joseph Anjou;
c. Anne-Gabrielle d'Anjou born 1700 in Aix - ca 80 km south-east to Avignon, Jean Antoine Silvecane godfather, godmother Anne d'Anjou;
d. Jean-Baptiste d'ANJOU of Puy Sainte-Reparade, born 1701 in Aix,
godfather Jean-Baptiste Estienne, godmother Martha Therese Gouin,
died 1765 in Le Puy-Sainte Reparade, married 1735 in Puy Sainte-Reparade to Therese OLLIVIER LA FOREST
daughter of Jean Francois Bourgeois and Magdeleine LA BERGE,
in the presence of Mathieu Gastaud Pourrieres priest, Joseph and Louis Granon Rocamus.
She died before 1773 (1748) in Puy-Sainte-Reparade.

Puy Sainte-Reparade - ca 38 km to the Papal Avignon district.
The Anjou family settled in Russia in a provincial town Vishny Volochek. Anjou, Peter, 1796 - 1869, received the name Pyotr Fyodorov son Anjou. In 1801 Fedor Anjou received the right to acquire the hereditary nobility [compare Paul Armand]. In 1815, Peter made a midshipman, was assigned to serve on the frigate 'Avstroil' and five years later received the rank of lieutenant and appointed head of the polar expedition to study and describe the coast of Siberia. In 1824, this work has been successfully completed; F. F. Berg, whose task was to describe the north-eastern shore of the Caspian Sea and the western shore of the Aral Sea, taken Peter Anjou.
1844 Anjou assigned the rank of Rear Admiral, he was appointed captain of the port of Kronstadt.
A house of Rear Admiral P. F. Anjou is located at Yeleninskaya st., 20-22 in 1848-1849. In 1909 the house of Yeleninskaya 20-22 were registered under Anju Anna Ivanovna.
Samples:
Anjou Vladimir Ivanovich (1876-1921), Captain 1st rank, great-grandson of Peter Fedorovich Anjou.
Anjou Ivan (?), grandson of Admiral Anjou.
Pyotr Anjou (1832-1876), Captain 1st rank, son of an admiral.

Fyodor Anjou / Fedor Anjou b. 1758, was a naval doctor. Son of Frenchman Jean-Andrian Anjou [a watchmaker], b. ca 1720, who had fled to Russia from the southern France, Aix-en-Provence / Aix Provence, 35 km north of Marseille; and 26 km north of Aix is located Le Puy-Saint-Reparade
(not from the province of Anjou in France - that is mistake).

Anjou Fyodor b. 15/08/1758 - d. 02/11/1824. Born in the family of a watchmaker; 1775 in the Moscow hospital school,
after graduating 1779 was soon sent abroad, studied first in Berlin and then in Gettinge where in 1783 received degree of doctor;
1784 - 1788 in Moscow province, enlisted in Vishny Volochek in 1790 to 1797; 1801 he received the hereditary nobility; his son Peter (1796-1869).

Anjou, Peter F. / Anjou Pyotr Fyodorovich (1796 / 1797 in Vishny Volochyok in the Tver province - 1869), Admiral.
His grandfather was a native of France, a Protestant. Persecuted for their faith;
Peter's father, Fyodor, was a doctor.
His friend Baron Ferdinand Wrangell.
His son Peter sailed on the frigate Pallada, his grandson was the captain of the first rank and the commander of the squadron, who brought the France to sign a treaty between France and Russia in 1909.
Military glory of Peter F. Anjou gained in the battle of Navarino with the Turks. He commanded the artillery of 'Gangut'; in this battle on the flagship 'Azov', under the M. P. Lazareva, were young officers P. Nakhimov, V. Istomin and V. Kornilov. All three admirals. Year after Navarino, 1828,
Peter Anjou married a young widow Xenia Ivanovna 1807-1870, whom he met in the family of Peter Ricord, countryman of Toropets.
In this marriage born three sons and three daughters:
1834-1897 Ludmila, in marriage Steinheil;
Fedor 1842-1858, Marine Corps cadet;
Peter sailed on the frigate Pallada - home in St. Petersburg

(Petr Petrovich Anzhu (1832-76), 1848 - 50 Danmark, England; Pacific Ocean and Korea. Son of Xenia Ivanovna Loginov and Peter Fedorovich Anjou. He was buried at the Smolensk Lutheran Cemetery with his father.
Japan, Korea Peninsula.
In service since 1847, on ships of the Baltic Fleet in the Atlantic Ocean in 1848-1850, officer (1849), 1852 - 1855 leads hydrography near the Korean coast, going to the Pacific Ocean on the frigate Pallada; 1873 - 1875 leads hydrography Ladoga and Onega lakes);

Alexander, died in 1888.

Anjou Vladimir Ivanovich, Captain 2nd class in 1912, born 1876,
in service since 1896, midshipman (1898), the war with Japan 1904 - 1905, senior officer of the gunboat Hivinets (1910 - 1911), Europe (1911 - 1912) and Cupid (1912). The commander of the destroyer Valiant (1912 - 1915);
speaks English, French, German and Italian;
orthodox, married, one daughter (1916).

Anjou 1st Peter Ivanovich, Captain 1st class, 1913, born 1872; in service since 1888, hydrographic office of the Naval Academy (1898), cruiser Ukraine (1905 - 1906) and the cruiser Stormbreaker (1906 - 1908); orthodox, married, one daughter (1914).

Anjou Xenia, emigration 1920, she was the participant of the White Movement.
Anjou Olga D., b. 1869, arrested on April 12, 1932, has been sentenced to 3 years in Temlag.

Above mentioned Friedrich Rembert von Berg / Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg; the Finnish count, b. 1793 or 1794 in Schloss Sagnitz / Sangaste moisa - d. 1874. He was crucial in crushing the Polish January Uprising in 1863. Sangaste is located in Valga County, 5 km south-east of Keeni, 2 km south-east of Tiidu, ca 22 km north-east of the Latvian border, in southern Estonia.
His stepson Friedrich Georg Magnus Berg b. 1845 in Tartu,
Berg's parents were Friedrich Gotthard Karl Gustav von Berg (1796-1861) and Charlotte Katharina Elisabeth von Sievers (1824-1899).
She was born in Alt-Ottenhof, Wolmar region, Latvia now;
her father Johann Joachim Georg Alexander Graf von Sievers 3rd, 1779 - 1827.


Note in December 2018 to Pierre Jean Paul MALESZEWSKI:

Pierre Maleszewski = Piotr Maleszewski was born in 1767 in Lidzbark Warminski,
and died in 1828 in Chatellerault, FRANCE.
He was married three times:

Married in October 1794 in Paris, to Francoise VENTURE de PARADIS, 1774 - 1813, the daughter of
Jean Michel VENTURE de PARADIS, 1739-1799 and Victoire / Victoria DIGEON, ca 1754 - 1847;
divorced in September 1809; they had two daughters:

Clementine MALESZEWSKI, 1794-1864;

Olympe MALESZEWSKI / Olimpia Maleszewska, 1797-1889.

Pierre Maleszewski 1st married to Marie Adelaide DUMAY, with
a daughter Adelaide MALESZEWSKI / Marie Therese Adelaide MALESZEWSKI, 1789-1820.

ADELAIDE Maleszewski married Alexandre Francois MORTIER, officer of Legia, 1781-1856.

Alexandre Mortier was born in 1781 - Paris; d. 1856 - Precigne, Sarthe.

He was the son of Jean Francois MORTIER and [marriage ca 1777/1780] Genevieve Catherine ROBERT

[we know on Francoise MORTIER, ca 1735-1811, married in 1754, Toussaint SOUCHU, d. 1775. Francois was the son of Pierre Mortier b. 1686 / 1687

{compare -
his brother was Charles Mathieu Mortier 1689 - 1745 of Le Cateau-Cambresis,
both the sons of Charles Joseph Mortier, b. ca 1658, died in 1720!

MORTIER, Adolphe Edouard Casimir Joseph was the grandson of Charles Mathieu Mortier, 1689 - 1745 of Le Cateau-Cambresis
(under copyright by Jean HAMON at gw.geneanet.org),
and Adolphe married Anne Eve Hymmes / Eve-Anne Himmes / Hymnes / Hymns in 1799.

MORTIER, Adolphe Edouard Casimir Joseph, duc de Trevise, 1768 - 1835, the son of Antoine Charles Joseph Mortier, 1730 - 1818, that is Charles Mortier of Cambraisis, member of States General in 1789, and Marie Anne Josephe de Bonnaire 1738 - 1799;
and named ANTOINE m. 1761 in Le Cateau-Cambresis}

and Francoise BERTHELOT, b. 1708, the daughter of Marin BERTHELOT, b. 1675 - Tuffe!].

Jean FRANCOIS Mortier b. ca 1735, acted together with
Prince de ROHAN GUEMENE of CAMBRAI
in La Collegiale de St Theodard a THUIN

- Ferdinand de Rohan, Archbishop of Bordeaux and of Cambrai; b. 1738, d. 1813:
he was the son of Hercule Meriadec de Rohan, prince de Guemene and Louise-Gabrielle Julie de Rohan; brother of cardinal de Rohan, and Jules, prince de Guemene.
Louis Rene de ROHAN born in 1734; Archbishop of Strasbourg, his parents were Hercule Meriadec, Prince of Guemene and Louise Gabrielle Julie de Rohan. He was born in Paris.
Hercules MERIADEC had also above named son Ferdinand de Rohan, Archbishop of Cambrai (1738 - 1813), who had illegitimate children with Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany, illegitimate daughter of the English pretender:
Charles Edward Stuart [note - Charlotte was the daughter of Charles III Prince Charlie STUART, Duke of Albany, born in 1720 - Rome, and Clementina, Css of Aberstroff, WALKINSHAW].

SEE:
Cagliostro with Althotas, the member of the Knights of St. John, visited Turkey in 1762, and they back to Malta. Cagliostro again visited Malta after trips to North Africa and Europe, where
new Grand Master de ROHAN-POLDUC, grant him a chivalrous dignity.
In 1776 Giuseppe Balsamo came to London. He learned about Freemasonry. He was admitted to the London 'Expectation' lodge on April 12, 1777 thanks to his influential friends. In England, he took the name of Count di Cagliostro. He wanted to reform this movement. In 1777 he was sent to prison for a short time; from London in 1778, went to the Netherlands, came to Paris in 1778.
He found there a patron - Cardinal Louis de Rohan.
From Paris in 1778, came to Germany, and the Great Poland to ADAM PONINSKI. He went to Konigsberg and in COURLAND, Mitau / Mitava, and went to Saint Petersburg. Then from Warsaw, in a few months
Cagliostro appears in Strazburg in 1780; he met Cardinal Rohan, to play a prominent role in Paris in 1781.
In 1782, he founded the Order of Egyptian Masonry and stood at its head. As the Great Kopta he organized the Egyptian rite lodges in: England, France, Germany and Russia.

Andrzej Ignacy Oginski: b. 1740, Freemason; 1772 in Vienna wanted to establish failed
contact with the French Ambassador, de Rohan;
was talking with the British Ambassador in Vienna, David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield

Meriadec was a chaplain of the Empress Josephine de Beauharnais

("Grande Oriente d'Italia was founded in June of 1805 to Milan, and was set under the regency of Eugene Beauharnais. With the fall of the French empire and of its Murat's appendage in Naples, the Italian Freemasonry fell in a deep crisis. ... especially in Sicily").

He served as prior and doctor of the Sorbonne and provost of the church of Strasbourg.

By Wiki: "... His mistress was Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany, illegitimate daughter of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, with whom he had three children, including Charles Edward Stuart, Count Roehenstart.
Charles Edward Augustus Maximilian Stuart, Baron Korff, Count Roehenstart (ca May 1784 - 28 October 1854) was the natural son of Prince Ferdinand of Rohan (1738-1813), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cambrai, by Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany, herself the natural but legitimised daughter of Charles Edward Stuart, "The Young Pretender" or "Bonnie Prince Charlie".

Roehenstart was later a passive Jacobite claimant to the British throne". Count di Cagliostro. He wanted to reform the Freemason movement. In 1777 he was sent to prison for a short time; from London in 1778, went to the Netherlands, came to Paris in 1778. He found there a patron - Cardinal Louis de Rohan. Louis Rene de ROHAN born in 1734; Archbishop of Strasbourg, his parents were Hercule Meriadec, Prince of Guemene and Louise Gabrielle Julie de Rohan. He was born in Paris. Grandparents: Charles de Rohan, 5th Duc de Montbazon + Charlotte Elisabeth de Cochefilet. Hercules MERIADEC b. in 1688, had also a son Ferdinand de Rohan, Archbishop of Cambrai (1738 - 1813), who had illegitimate children with Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany, illegitimate daughter of the English pretender, Charles Edward Stuart and Clementina Walkinshaw.

ADELAIDE Maleszewski married Alexandre Francois MORTIER, officer of Legia, 1781-1856.
They had a daughter
Louise Marie MORTIER, born in 1819, d. December 1899 - Paris;
ie. Louise Marie MORTIER, 1819-1899, daughter of Alexandre Francois MORTIER, and Marie Therese Adelaide MALESZEWSKA,
married to Yves Joseph Francois Denis RENAULT.

Louise had a son:
Alexandre Jean Arthur Leon RENAULT, b. 1844, married in 1879 to Julia Alphonsine Marie Marthe BERGER, b. 1857, and 2nd he married in 1895 to Josephine Anne Eugenie PORAK b. ca 1855, with a son Georges Gabriel RENAULT 1897-1970.

Pierre Jean Paul MALESZEWSKI / Piotr Maleszewski married in 1816 in Paris, to Jeanne GARRAN de COULON b. 1784.

Pierre Jean Paul MALESZEWSKI / Piotr Maleszewski b. 1767 in Lidzbark Warminski. 1786 - emigration in Paris. In 1794 the marriage with Francoise VENTURE de PARADIS.
1809 divorce with Francoise VENTURE de PARADIS in Paris.
Pierre Jean Paul MALESZEWSKI / Piotr Maleszewski in 1816, the marriage with Jeanne GARRAN de COULON in Paris.
He died in 1828 in Chatellerault.


Emperor Napoleon would descend from James de Rohan-Stuardo / Rohan - Stuart, the natural (legitimate) son of the English king Charles II, with his mistress, Marguerite, duchess of Rohan.
Charles II had 14 children, of his illegitimate ties with several lovers.
Charles II (1630 - 1685) with Marguerite de Rohan (1617 - 1684) met when the English King arrived in France in 1649.

Napoleon's grandfather would have been the grandson of James de Rohan - Stuardo, the son of English King Charles II.

In 1647, Charles Stuart, the future King Charles II of England, had a son, Prince Enrico de Boveria Rohan-Stuardo / Rohan Stuart. He died in Naples in 1669, but his widow gave birth to a post-son, Prince Giacomo Stuardo of Naples. Giacomo lived for a long time in Germany and Italy, and in 1722 he had a son, prince Joseph Stuart of Roehenstart, who fought alongside Bonnie Prince Charlie during the rebellion of 1745. Joseph Stuart had himself a son named Prince Eduard Maximilian de Roehenstart, also known as Dr. Ferdinand Smith-Stuart.

Vasily Troubetzkoy, general of cavalry, member of the State Council, born 1776 and died 22.2.1841. His relatives: de Voisins, Gilbert, de Rohan-Rochefort, Manfredi, de Beauregard, Mussin-Pushkin, de Morny, Silva-Bazan.

His granddaughter Margarita, b. 14.10.1857, married 14.11.1881 to Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard who died 1.6.1911.

Next granddaughter: Maria, b. 7.12.1886.

Marie Adelaide DUMAY [17 years old] m. 1st to Pierre Maleszewski

[with the daughter Adelaide MALESZEWSKI Mortier / Marie Therese Adelaide MALESZEWSKI, 1789- 1820 - compare on Mortier and ROHAN in THUIN in Belgium:

Ferdinand Maximilien Meriadec de Rohan (1738-1813) was an Archbishop of Bordeaux in 1769, and Archbishop of Cambrai in 1781.
He was the son of Hercule Meriadec de Rohan, prince de Guemene.

Charlotte, duchesse d'Albany, STUART, 1753-1789, had a relationship with Ferdinand Maximilien de ROHAN-GUEMENE, 1738-1813.
Charlotte was the daughter of Charles III Prince Charlie STUART, Duke of Albany, born in 1720 - Rome, and Clementina, Css of Aberstroff, WALKINSHAW, the daughter of John of Camlachie and Barrowfield, WALKINSHAW
- his family was a branch of the Walkinshaws of Renfrewshire, close to Paisley, west to Glasgow in SCOTLAND.

Lieutenant Colonel of the Russian Army {1800, promoted in 1803; until 1806}, Charles Edward Augustus Maximilian Stuart, Baron Korff {Florence in Nov 1814 - 'Up to about this time the signature is likely to be "A. M. Korff" or "Korff Roehenstart." Later he shifts usually towards "Charles Edward Stuart, Baron Korff, Count Roehenstart".'}, Count Roehenstart b. ca May 1784 in PARIS, and died in October 1854 in Dunkeld near to PERTH, in SCOTLAND, was the natural son of Prince Ferdinand of Rohan.

Count di Cagliostro. He wanted to reform the Freemason movement. In 1777 he was sent to prison for a short time; from London in 1778, went to the Netherlands, came to Paris in 1778. He found there a patron - Cardinal Louis de Rohan. Louis Rene de ROHAN born in 1734; Archbishop of Strasbourg, his parents were Hercule Meriadec, Prince of Guemene and Louise Gabrielle Julie de Rohan. He was born in Paris. Grandparents: Charles de Rohan, 5th Duc de Montbazon + Charlotte Elisabeth de Cochefilet. Hercules MERIADEC b. in 1688, had also a son Ferdinand de Rohan, Archbishop of Cambrai (1738 - 1813), who had illegitimate children with Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany, illegitimate daughter of the English pretender, Charles Edward Stuart and Clementina Walkinshaw.

Colonel Charles 2nd m. Louisa Constance Smith, Countess of Roehanstart come from Kidlington in Oxfordshire.

CHARLES in 1803 was invested with a Russian banker named Sofniev his fortune, one hundred thousand roubles. In 1806 Charles Stuart served Duke Alexander of Wurttemberg, who was the Governor of BELARUS - Minsk province {born 1771 in Gotha; his sister Sophie Dorothea married Tsar Paul I of Russia. In 1811 he was appointed Military Governor of Belarus}!

In Saint Petersburg, in 1811, he was offered the hand of an heiress, Marianna Hurko, but made the mistake of falling in love with her sister, Evelina HURKO.
He fled Russia, sailing from Kronstadt and arriving in London by November 1811, and to the United States in Philadelphia until 1814.
In 1816, Charles Stuart-Roehenstart went to Scotland and again to England].

DUMAY, Marie Adelaide Emelie born in 1772 in Montargis; m. 2nd to BARDIN, Charles, born in 1778 in Chalonne. Mariage in 1798 in Montargis.
Montargis is a commune in the Loiret department in north-central France on the Loing river. The town is located about 110 km south of Paris.


Explanation to the HURKO - Romeyko family of the Mscislav and Vicebsk provinces in POLAND until 1722:

Vladimir Josifovich HURKO, 1795 - January 1852, Freemason, the member of "Isbrannyj Michail" Lodge, and others Lodges in Moscow and St Petersburg.

the son of JOZEF Hurko, ie. Josif Josifovich Hurko-Romeyko, d. ca 1812;

the grandson of Jozef Hurko / Josif Hurko-Romeyko, died ca 1780 {the official in Vicebsk in 1759-1780}.
Jozef Hurko, d. ca 1780, was the father of
Aleksandr Josifovich HURKO - Romeyko, in 1780 the official in Vicebsk,
Jozef Josifovich Hurko, d. ca 1811/1812, 1797-1799 deputy governor of Courland,
Ksawery Josifovich Hurko;
Stanislaw Josifovich Hurko, in 1804 Captain, the official in BABINOWICZE / Babinovichi = Babinavichi [is a small town in Liozna Raion, in the Vitebsk Region of Belarus. At half way from Witebsk to ORSZA - east to BOGUSZEWSK rail station];
and JOACHIM Josifovich Hurko.

Above Aleksandr Hurko had a son JOZEF Aleksandrovich Hurko {Yosif Aleksandrovich Romeiko-Gurko}, b. 1782, died in 1857, General-Lieutenant in 1839, Senator in 1845, m. in 1822 to Anna Dorota Luiza MEDEM, b. 1802,
the daughter of Ivan MEDEM
{Anna Dorotea HURKO / Anna Dorothea Luisa Baroness von Romeiko-Gurko (born Medem in 1802), was the daughter of Johann Otto Friedrich Baron von Medem and Anna Friedrika Baroness von Medem -
ie. Johann Otto Friedrich Baron von Medem, 1768 - 1808.
Maybe Johann / Johann Otto Friedrich Baron von Medem, born in 1768, was the brother or the half-brother to KARL von MEDEM b. 1762?

[Count Karl Johann Friedrich Graf von Medem / Karls Johans Fridrihs fon Medems, 1762 - 1827, was the son of
Johann Friedrich (Ivan Fedorovich) Graf von Medem and Lovisa Charlotta von Manteuffel, Szoege, Platon.

KARL was the husband of Christine Charlotte Wilhelmina Elizabeth Browne-Camus, 1770 - 1821, the daughter of George, 1st Count Browne of Camas and Eleonora Christina von MEDEN or Mengden.

And named KARL was the brother of
Johann Friedrich Graf von Medem;
Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Biron
and
Christoph Johann Friedrich von Medem, Graf, b. 1763 in MEZOTNE parish - now LATVIA.
Half brother of [see also below !]
Charlotte Elisabeth Konstanze von Medem
and
Louisa Elisabeth von Nolde].

At margin:

1.
Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Biron / Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Medem b. 1761 at Mezotne, now Latvia, d. 1821, became Duchess of Courland;
had the daughters,
Wilhelmine and
Pauline.

In 1779, eighteen-year-old Dorothea became the third wife of the 55-year-old, childless Duke Peter von Biron, son of the famous Ernst Johann von Biron. The couple had six children;
Dorothea, was probably illegitimate, although recognized by the Duke.
Dorothea von Biron, Princess of Courland, Duchess of Dino, Talleyrand and Sagan / Dorothee de Courlande / Dorothe de Dino, b. 1793, d. 1862; lived into the highest social circles.

Dorothea von MEDEM, 1761-1821, married in 1779 to Peter von BIRON, with daughters:
A.
Wilhelmine von Biron, Herzogin von Sagan, 1781-1839, relationship in 1798 with Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, 1757- 1814 with
Gustava Wilhelmina Charlotta Armfelt, b. 1798;
Adelaide Gustava Aspasie Armfelt, 1801-1881.
Wilhelmine von Biron, Herzogin von Sagan, 1781-1839, married in 1800 to Jules Armand Louis de Rohan, Principe di Rohan 1768-1836

[the son of Henri Louis Marie de Rohan, b. 1745, duc de Montbazon and Victoire Armande Josephe de Rohan. Ex-husband of Wilhelmine von Biron.
The grandson of Jules Hercule Meriadec de Rohan b. 1726 in Paris;

the great-grandson of Hercule Meriadec de Rohan, prince de Guemene born in 1688].

Wilhelmine von Biron, Herzogin von Sagan, 1781-1839, married in 1805 to Vassili Sergeievich Troubetzkoy, 1776- 1841.

Wilhelmine von Biron, Herzogin von Sagan, 1781-1839, married 1818 to Karl Rudolf von der Schulenburg, 1788- 1856.

B.
Dorothea von Biron, Prinzessin von Kurland, 1793-1862, married to Edmond de Talleyrand-Perigord, Duca di Dino, 1787-1872.

2.
Cagliostro arrived in St Petersburg in 1779 [until 1780], but earlier he visited some important people and places in the following order:
Adam Poninski in Poland [maybe in Wilkowo Polskie - the land of the SZOLDRSKI family, his next of kin] in about September 1778 - February 1779;
Konigsberg / Krolewiec on 25th February 1779;
Mitau / Mitawa in Courland about 01st March 1779 [to von Medem and von Recke].
Cagliostro met in Mitau in March 1779, Charlotte Elisabeth Konstantia v. Recke, ie. Elisa von der Recke (1754 - 1833); she will be the future author, German writer and poet.
Elisabeth Charlotte Constanzia von der Recke born in Schunberg, Courland; was the daughter of the Imperial Count Frederick of Medem and his wife Louise.

After her father had remarried in 1767, Elisa lived again in his house, where her stepmother Agnes Elisabeth von Brukken (1718-1784) tried to give her a general education.
In 1771, Elisa von Medem married the chamberlain Georg Magnus von der Recke, for reasons of status; she was divorced in 1781. She worked as a diplomat for her half-sister, the Duchess Dorothea of Courland.

Above Georg Magnus von der Recke [come from Neuenburg / Jaunpils in Western Lettlands / Latvia, south-west to RIGA] - born in 1739 in Schnepeln [SNEPELE in western Courland, south to Kuldiga; ie. Snepeles / Schnepeln] and died in Mitau}.

Named above Jozef Hurko had a son Aleksandr Josifovich Hurko / Aleksandr Yosifovich Romeiko-Gurko, b. 1824, died in May 1880, Captain, married ca 1851 to Ekaterina DEMIDOV, ca 1830-1869, the daughter of
Colonel Aleksandr DEMIDOV, ie. the son of Grigorij Demidov, 1803 - 1853 + Olga Aliedin; d. 1873.

Aleksandr Josifovich Hurko, b. 1824, had sibilings:
Nikolai Josifovich Hurko, b. 1826;
Maria Antonia Hurko, b. 1828, m. in 1846 to Henryk Andrzej Zerwe, b. 1813;
Jozefina Aleksandra Hurko, b. 1833.

Leopold HURKO or Leontij Hurko - Romeyko, b. 1783 had children:
Nikolai Leontievich Hurko, 1812 - 1849
and
Aleksandr Leontievich HURKO, 1823 - 1906, the owner of RAJ in the Smolensk governorate;
m. Zofia Vasilievna Vonliarliarska, b. ca 1839, d. ca 1870, the daughter of an author Vasilij.

See the Bolschoj Raj estate:

WOLLOWICZ or Volovitch since 1590 in this territory, next of kin with the Szemiot family in 1700, owned A.D. 1778: Staje, Berezetnia, Horowatka, Ray - i.e. Bolschoj Raj in present Russia and near by border between Belarus and Russia, Miteykow i.e. Miljejkova close by current border, Kozuchowicze - i.e. Koshuchowitschi in Russia now, Polachowszczyzna, Jurginow and Pietrowicze i.e. Petrovici estate - 810 ha. and 10 km E of Soino - in Zahustyn area, the Klimavicy district A.D. 1784, Russia now; related to Kamienski - inf. of 1623; others in Mscislau in 1634, too.

Above

Vladimir Josifovich Hurko, 1795 - 1852
{the son of Jozef Jozefowicz Romejko-Hurko, d. 1811/1812;
the grandson of Jozef Romejko-Hurko, d. 1780}
with his wife Bss Tatiana KORFF, b. 1795

{the daughter of Baron Alexis Nicolaus (Alexei Grigorjewitsch) von Korff, b. ca 1750, and NASTASJA von Korff;
and the granddaughter of Fromhold Georg von Korff, died 1758;
who was the son of
Heinrich Christian von Korff, 1692 - 1753,
and the grandson of
Magnus Ernst von Korff},

had children:

Sofija Vladimirovna HURKO, 1822 - 1841;
MARIANNA Hurko / Marianna Vladimirovna Hurko, b. 1825, married Vasilij Muraviev - Apostol, Ivanovich, b. 1817; Jozef HURKO, Vladimirovich, 1828 - 1901, commander in 1877 - 1878, General-governor of Warsaw 1883 - 1894, Feldmarshal in 1894, m. Maria SALIAS de Turnemir, 1842 - 1906 in Wiesbaden, buried in Sacharovo in the TWER governorate.

Already in the years 1877-1878, Polish officers in the headquarters led the Russian Army in the Balkans, and they met with the problems of Russian imperialism and the problems of small nations in Transcaucasia and the Balkans.

In 1877 in order to overcome the ridges of the Balkans, the General JOZEF HURKO / Josif Hurko (about 12000 soldiers) was appointed as commander.

General Jozef Hurko / Iosif Vladimirovich Hurko (Gurko) born in July 1828, in Veliky Novgorod or in the village of Burnejko in Mogilev Governorate; died 1901 in the village Sakharov in the Tver Governorate;
Russian field marshal. He came from a Polish-Belarusian noble family, the son of
General Vladimir Iosifowicz Hurka (1795-1852) and Tatiana Aleksandrowna, baroness Korff;

the grandson of Polish nobleman Jozef Hurko-Romejko, junior, died in 1811.

General Jozef Hurko born in 1828,
was a student in 1846; participant of the Crimean War (1853-1856). Then a commander of the 2nd Division of the Guard.

In the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), he was commanding the Division from June 1877, he made a march - maneuver for the Balkans (commanded by Aleksandr Puzyriewski), for which he was promoted to general-adjutant.

Mentioned above
Jozef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR died in 1811, the son of Jozef Hurko Romejko, senior,
Polish nobleman and state activist of the Russian Empire, the first vice-governor of the Kurland Governorate after 1795/1796.
He came from a noble family from the Polish province of Vitebsk. He was born ca 1750/1760. He served the army as Petyhorski's lieutenant before 1796.

Recommended by the general-governor of Kurland, Peter Ludwig von Pahlen, on the newly created position of vice- governor of the Kurland Governorate. The nomination was issued by Tsarina Catherine II.

In addition to the estates in the Courland province, Jozef Hurko-Romejko, junior, also owned estates in the Mogilev Governorate, in the Orsza county.
That is
Krynki = Krotowsza or neighbouring Krotowsze / KROTOVSHE;
Wysokie Luszajewo;
and Pograbiowka.
He died in 1811.

Krynki was situated in the Wysoczany district; the ORSHA county in the Mohylew province. Kratowsza, in 1849 belonged to the Mikulino Rudnia parish.

Wysokie Luszajewo = Wysokie / Vysokoje - north to ORSHA; close to Obuchovo; Grishany; Jurcevo.

Burnejko in the Mohylew province.

General Jozef Hurko [Jozef HURKO, Vladimirovich, 1828 - 1901, commander in 1877 - 1878, General- governor of Warsaw] owned in 1901 Sacharowo in the TWER province
[compare inf. in my domain].

KRYNKI, south-east to KOPTI; west to Bolszaja WYDREJA; south-east to VICEBSK; north to Vyshacany. See KOLPINO - west to OSIPOVO; close to LUCHOSA.

BABINOWICZE / Babinavichy - in the 17th and 18th cent. belonged to OGINSKI. 1772 to Russia. Babinowicze, the Orsza county; by the Werchita River. Babinavichi / Babinowicze in the ORSHA county - Babinowicze - south to Liozno, of the Vitebsk region of Belarus. North to ORSHA.

Jozef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR b. ca 1750/1760, was the son of SENIOR Jozef Hurko / JOZEF HURKO - ROMEJKO, born ca 1710 - in 1759-1780 the Vitebsk chamberlain.

Jozef Hurko / Gurko, senior, was maybe the son of JAN HURKO, born ca 1680 from KROTOWSZE-KRYNKI.

Christina Golynskaya (Krystyna Holynska) was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski. She gave her estate in will to her brother Kazimierz HOLYNSKI, and to her sister Frantiska. In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of Jesuits.
Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms, born ca 1670 - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was the first husband of KRYSTYNA HOLYNSKA; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko born ca 1680 of Krotowsze-Krynki) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714.

Acc. to 'Secret Memoirs of the Court of Petersburg...' Zachary Konstantynowicz / Constantinowitz in 1796 was a valet (servant) of Yekaterina Alexeevna or Catherine II the Great, Empress of Russia.

Stephen (Stefan) Golynsky (Stefan Kazimierz Holynski born ca 1630/1640) was the third son of Davyd / Dawid Holynski, owned the estate Soin (Soino, Soino Wielkie, Woronowe Slobody). In 1663 Golynsky / Holynski mentioned, Mayor Zhmudsky, served in the regiment of Ilya Surin (mother of Stepan Holynski was kind of Surin ancestry).

On January 31, 1664 a priest of the Mstislavl Church, Herman Konstantynowicz filed a complaint against Paul Moskevich and Stephen Golynsky / Stefan Holynski for armed mob to his house, for loot his grain bread and torturing her daughters (a data extracted from the Vitebsk and Mogilev documentary province books, stored in a central repository in Vitebsk, and published under the editorship of M. Verevkin, T. 24, Vitebsk 1893, p. 455-457).

Above COURLAND in 1776:

Johann August Starck / Stark (1741 - 1816)
was a author and the Konigsberg theologian, best remembered for arguing that an Illuminati
{the Bavarian Illuminati, a secret society founded in 1776. "The society's goals were to oppose superstition, obscurantism, religious influence over public life and abuses of state power. ... The Illuminati - along with Freemasonry and other secret societies - were outlawed through edict, by the Bavarian ruler, Charles Theodore, with the encouragement of the Roman Catholic Church, in 1784, 1785, 1787 and 1790. ... the group was vilified by conservative and religious critics who claimed that they continued underground and were responsible for the French Revolution..."}
led conspiracy, which led to the outbreak of the Revolution in France 1789 {see Jean Philippe GARRAN DE COULON and Maleszewski with Poniatowski}.

Immanuel Kant and Johann Georg Hamann were among his acquaintances in Konigsberg. In 1776 Starck went to Mitau
[Courland; at margin see Komorowski]
and took place here as professor of philosophy until 1781 when he back to Darmstadt.

1767 or 1768 - J. A. von Stark / STARCK has established a new sect, which grew out of Clirici Ordinis Templariorum / Clerics of the Knights Templar;
he was in 1761 initiated into a French freemasonry lodge at Gottingen but left for St. Petersburg in 1761, while teaching in St. Petersburg, Starck had met a Greek by the name of Count Peter Melesino / Melissino, 1726- 97, a lieutenant-general in the Russian Imperial Army, and whose order of freemasonry claimed the clerics of the Templar Knights; then traveled to Paris in 1765 and obtained a position at the royal library; back to Germany, in Wismar (1766-8).

Starck promoted the clerical brand of Templarism

[see: in France in 1749; in 1750 in French Brittany; see Count Belford who had flown from Scotland to Russia; in Ireland 1750/1760 or since ca 1758-1760; on 24th June 1758 in Tipperary at Lodge No 296 (see below) with Sir Chas. A. CAMERON; Berlin in 1760; in Ireland in 1765 - Sir Edward Gilmore]

and in 1768 joined it to movement of Karl Gotthelf von Hund (1722-76), a union formalized in 1772. He helped found a Strict Observance lodge at Wismar (1767), returned to St. Petersburg in 1768, presumably on freemasonry business, back in Konigsberg in 1769 where he lived next door to Immanuel Kant.

1769 - in Boston, New England, was established the Provincial Grand Lodge, under the auspices of Scotland.

Named Jozef Jozefowicz Hurko / Osip Hurko - Romeyko, died ca 1811 / 1812,
and was the father to
EWELINA Hurko-Romeyko, Josifovna,
{she was married to Tadeusz Szczyt died 1799, in Roma - he was the POLOCK noble Marshal},

MARIANNA HURKO

{Lieutenant Colonel of the Russian Army (1800, promoted in 1803; until 1806), Charles Edward Augustus Maximilian Stuart, Baron Korff (Florence in Nov 1814 - 'Up to about this time the signature is likely to be "A. M. Korff" or "Korff Roehenstart." Later he shifts usually towards "Charles Edward Stuart, Baron Korff, Count Roehenstart".'), Count Roehenstart b. ca May 1784 in PARIS, and died in October 1854 in Dunkeld near to PERTH, in SCOTLAND, was the natural son of Prince Ferdinand of Rohan. Colonel Charles 2nd m. Louisa Constance Smith, Countess of Roehanstart come from Kidlington in Oxfordshire.

Count di Cagliostro. He wanted to reform the Freemason movement. In 1777 he was sent to prison for a short time; from London in 1778, went to the Netherlands, came to Paris in 1778. He found there a patron - Cardinal Louis de Rohan. Louis Rene de ROHAN born in 1734; Archbishop of Strasbourg, his parents were Hercule Meriadec, Prince of Guemene and Louise Gabrielle Julie de Rohan. He was born in Paris. Grandparents: Charles de Rohan, 5th Duc de Montbazon + Charlotte Elisabeth de Cochefilet. Hercules MERIADEC b. in 1688, had also a son Ferdinand de Rohan, Archbishop of Cambrai (1738 - 1813), who had illegitimate children with Charlotte Stuart, Duchess of Albany, illegitimate daughter of the English pretender, Charles Edward Stuart and Clementina Walkinshaw.

CHARLES in 1803 was invested with a Russian banker named Sofniev his fortune, one hundred thousand roubles.
In 1806 Charles Stuart served Duke Alexander of Wurttemberg, who was the Governor of BELARUS - Minsk province. Alexander born 1771 in Gotha; his sister Sophie Dorothea married Tsar Paul I of Russia, and in 1811 he was appointed Military Governor of Belarus.

In Saint Petersburg, in 1811, Charles Stuart was offered the hand of an heiress, Marianna Hurko, but made the mistake of falling in love with her sister, Evelina HURKO.

He fled Russia, sailing from Kronstadt and arriving in London by November 1811, and to the United States in Philadelphia until 1814. In 1816, Charles Stuart-Roehenstart went to Scotland and again to England},
and
LEOPOLD or Leontij Hurko, 1783 - 1861

{fighting in 1812 near BORODINO -
married to Varvara Poltoracka, Dmitrievna, 1793 - 1838; the daughter of Dmitrij Poltoracki, b. 1761, d. 1818;
the granddaughter of Colonel MAREK Poltoracki, 1729 - 1795},

Vladimir Hurko-Romeyko, Josifovich, 1795 - 1852
{come from the Vicebsk / Witebsk province; the FREEMASON; in 1828 he was living in NOVGOROD},
maried Bss Tatiana KORFF - Schmysing, b. 1794/1795, died in 1840, the daughter of Aleksandr KORFF

{Aleksandr maybe was the brother of Baron Niklaus von KORFF und SCHMYSING - from KORFF. Probably next of kin to Friedrich Nikolai Georg (Lieutenant-General Fedor Karlovich KORF, led a Russian cavalry corps in 1812-1814 during the Napoleonic Wars) Baron Korff, 1773 / 1774, in Virginahlen / Virginalen in Courland, d. 1823 in Orel - the son of Nikolaus Karl von Korff, of Preekuln and Juliane Jakobine von Behr}.

JOZEF Jozefowicz HURKO - Romeyko, died ca 1811 or in 1812,
was the deputy-governor of COURLAND in 1797 to 1799.


Note to EWELINA HURKO:

Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt / Szczyt / Szczyth, died in 1677, the official in POLOCK in 1666-1670; and in 1673-1677; MP, acted in Prozoroki. The son of Krzysztof Szczyt Niemirowicz and Zofia Lisowska / Lissowski, 2 voto married Jozef Skinder. Justynian was the grandson of Mikolaj Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the Polock top official, and the great-grandson of Mikolaj Niemirowicz Szczyt older, the Court Marshal.

Justynian Niemirowicz had 3 brothers:
Jan Szczyt; Mikolaj Szczyt younger, Aleksander Szczyt; and 2 sisters:
Anna; Halszka.

Justynian Szczyt married in 1648 to Anna Tukowicz, d. 1694, the daughter of Bazyli Tukowicz and Zofia Siehen.
Justynian had 6 sons:
Konstanty Marcjan Szczyt, the father of JAN Szczyt Niemirowicz - the governor in Inflanty; the grandfather of Justynian Niemirowicz SZCZYT junior;
Bronislaw Szczyt;
Krzysztof Benedykt Szczyt - the father of the governor of MSCISLAW, Jozef Szczyt; and the grandfather of the Brzesc Litewski official - Jozef Szczyt Niemirowicz and Jozef's brother - Krzysztof Szczyt Niemirowicz;
Samuel Karol Szczyt - the grandfather of Marcin Niemirowicz Szczyt;
Olbracht Szczyt, the Wenden official and in Smolensk.
Kazimierz Szczyt, the monk.

Justynian died in 1677, and he was buried in Prozoroki.

Above
Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt junior, b. 1740, died in 1824, MP; the son of the Inflanty governor, Jan Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt (1705-1767) and his second wife Barbara Chominski d. 1775, widow after death of Kazimierz Kociell. Barbara was the daughter of Ludwik Jakub Chominski and Anna Koziell-Poklewski of Oszmiany.
Anna Chominski, Koziell Poklewski, was the stepdaughter of Duke Leon Kazimierz Oginski.

Justynian Szczyt had 3 stepsibilings:
of his father and 1st wife, Helena Rypinski - Jozef Szczyt; and Dorota Szczyt m. Jan Szadurski

[Jan Szadurski d. 1771 in Pusza; the Inflanty official in 1766-1771, and in 1752-1766, 1758-1762, 1744-1748, 1759-1762, MP. Dorota and Jan Szadurski had a daughter Barbara Szadurska m. the son of Mikolaj Tadeusz Lopacinski, ie Tomasz Lopacinski; and
second daughter, Konstancja Szadurska married the Wilkomierz official, Jozef Marykoni / Jozef MORYKONI, General Major of 1794, ie. Jozef or Tomasz Morykoni b. 1751, the Wilkomierz official, in 1772 the Lithuanian Army Major, acted in 1789 and in 1794, together with Michala Oginski in Inflanty; then in Warszawa and Praga in 1794.

Note on the MORYKONI family -

KAZIMIERZ Tyzenhauz / Kazimieras Tyzenhauzas b. ca 1740 - son of Benedykt Tyzenhauz SENIOR - was the husband of Barbara Gielgud, and father of ZOFIA Tyzenhauziene.
Kazimierz Tyzenhauz was the brother of
Barbara Wawrzecka; Benedykta Niezabitowska;
Aleksandra Anna Morykoni;
Teresa Tyzenhauz, and
Magdalena Maria Ewa Walewska.

Kolyszko (Kolysko) Adam (1796-1870), insurgent in 1831, a member of the parliament; acted in the area of Wilkomierz;
his mother came from a noble Lithuanian family Morykoni, who came from Italy, farming in the property of Palisze in area of Wilkomierz.

Michal Lisiecki (1803-1882) was born in Porakiszki. He finished high school in Kiejdany. In 1818, he studied at the University of Wilno; he graduated with the degree of law candidate. He was an officer in the Russian army, he was dismissed and lived in Vilnius, where he participated in a secret youth organization. In 1831, he was ordered to organize an uprising in the region of Rakiszki and on the border with Courland.
The branch was organized in Solachy [?], in the court and with the help of Count Benedykt Marykoni

{Benedykt Beniamin Morykoni / Morykoni Pucini / Moriconi, the owner of Towiany, north to Wilkomierz, 1790-1812. Benedykt Morykoni, 1752-1812, married Maria Wiktoria Maja Radziwill (b. 1756), the daughter of Duke Michal Radziwill "Rybenko" (1702-1762). Benedykt Morykoni - a great Lithuanian writer in 1777, chamberlain of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski in 1771; MP. A member of the Andrzej Mokronowski confederation and a member of parliament in 1776 from the Wilkomierz county; member of Parliament in 1780. A member of the conspiracy in Lithuania, preparing the outbreak of Kosciuszko Uprising. Member of the Lithuanian Government. In 1794 he was a member of the Secret Deputation. Head of the Food Department of the Central Deputation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the Kosciuszko Uprising in 1794}.

ALEKSANDER BILEWICZ of the Rosienie county married Anna Romer with 4 sons:
1. Tadeusz Billewicz, senior, b. ca 1728, died in 1788; in 1783 - the Mscislau province
{TADEUSZ had daughter Helena Wazgird (Morykoni) and also he had son ADAM BILLEWICZ / Adomas Bilevicius, b. ca 1750, who was father of Kazimierz Tomasz; and Kaspar Bilewicz, and so on.
Above KASPAR - Kasparas Bilevicius, b. ca 1782, d. 1840, had son
Antoni Billewicz or Tadeusz BILEWICZ, b. ca 1815, + Helena Michalowska b. 1820, with:
Pranas Bilevicius;
Maria Pilsudska / Maria Billewicz (1842 - 1884; born 1842 in Adomava) + Jozef Wincenty Pilsudski

(1833 - 1902. Note:
Antoni Bulhak b. 1898, married to Wanda Bulhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and Maria Juchniewicz nee Pilsudska, b. 1873, d. 1921 -
her parents:
named above Maria Pilsudska nee Billewicz + Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833.

MARIA JUCHNIEWICZ had the brother - Jozef Klemens Pilsudski b. 1867);

Wiktor Billewicz and
Zofia Zubow b. ca 1860.

Above ZOFIA:
Zofia Zubow nee Billewicz, was born circa 1860, married Wlodzimierz Zubow before 1887, with son Wlodzimierz Zubow b. 1887 Szawle [Siauliai / Siaule north of Raseiniai] - d. 1959 in Kowno},

2. Jerzy BILEWICZ, studied in Krolewiec, known German, then in Nieswiez {Jerzy Bilewicz was the Judge of ROSIENIE in 1765};
3. Teodor Billewicz + Kozuchowska of Kalisz;
4. Mateusz Bilewicz also lived in Smorgonie and NIESWIEZ; Mateusz + Lopacinska had sons.

We back to
Jan Szadurski - the landowner of the father properties:
Inflanty - Pusza, with Dorotpol; Duksztygaly; Wolkimberg / Zielonpole; Zwirdzin / Zwierdzin / Zwirzydyn; Cecyny; Dunakla / Dunakle; Malnow / Malnowo / MALNAVA - see the Malkiewicz family; Poszmuciowo / Puszmuciowo / Poszmujciowo; Siedlikowszczyzna; Hofftenberg / Jozefow; Jasmujze.
In the POLOCK province: Zlotowo Kozadawlowo / Synkowo.

Jan's children:
Konstancja and Barbara - more above;
Jozef; Ludwika; Salomea;
Ignacy SZADURSKI;
Franciszek Ksawery SZADURSKI],

and Justynian Szczyt had a sibiling of the 1st marriage of his mother -
a brother, Tadeusz Kociell, m. Anna Tyszkiewicz, the daughter of Jozef Benedykt Tyszkiewicz and Teresa Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the daughter of the Smolensk governor, Krzysztof Benedykt Niemirowicz-Szczytt.

Justynian Szczyt in POLOCK was the envoy to Petersburg, with the help of Ivan ORLOV and Grigorij Orlov, for the maintenance of the Polish language in the judiciary of the POLOCK ex-province.
Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt was twice married; 1st to Kazimiera Barbara Lopacinski (1746-1773), the daughter of Mikolaj Tadeusz Lopacinski and Barbara Kopec, the daughter of Michal Antoni Kopec.

And named Justynian had a son - Feliks Szczyt, the noble Marshal in DRYSSA, who was the father of Jan Szczytt, exiled in Siberia. Also Justynian had 4 daughters:
Barbara m. Jozef Rudomin-Dusiatski the son of Mikolaj Rudomin Dusiatski, with children:
Elzbieta Rudomin m. Pakosz, the writer;
Anna + Stanislaw Gorski, with Kornela Gorska m. Count Karol Przezdziecki;
Jozefa m. Kajetan Swirski;
Tekla.

Justynian Szczyt married 2nd to Kazimiera Woyno-Jasienski d. 1783, the daughter of the Polock official, Jozef Woyno and Ludwika Sulistrowski.
With 4 children:
Jozef Szczyt, the Russian Court official, m. Franciszka Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki, the mother of
Ewelina Szczyt m. Stanislaw Chominski;
Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczyt, the POLOCK Marshal, married to the daughter of Jozef Hurko-Romejko, ie. Ewelina HURKO !
Jan Szczyt, d. 1851, the DRYSSA Marshal, m. Anna Bobrowski;
and Dorota m. Mikolaj Siostrzanek-Karnicki / Siestrzanek KARNICKI
with children:
Aniela m. Aleksander Wielhorski, Count, the son of Michal WIELHORSKI;
Adela m. Konstanty Radziwill, Duke, ie.
Konstanty Mikolaj Stanislaw Juliusz Franciszek Radziwill b. 1793 in Rome, d. 1869 in Poloneczka,
in 1800 Count in Szydlowiec, known as Maciej Konstanty RADZIWILL.
The son of Maciej Radziwill and Elzbieta Chodkiewicz, the daughter of Jan Mikolaj CHODKIEWICZ.
In 1840, Konstanty Radziwill married 3rd time to Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka, the daughter of the LUCYN marshal, Mikolaj KARNICKI, and Dorota Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the daughter of Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt.
Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka and Konstanty had 8 children:
Mikolaj Antoni Radziwill;
Maciej Jozef

{Maciej Jozef Konstanty Radziwill, b. 1842 in Poloneczka, d. 1907 in Konstanca,
the owner of Zegrze,
- see the von Gersdorff family in Pomiechowek !

Maciej Jozef Konstanty Radziwill, come from the branch of Dominik Mikolaj Radziwill, 1643-1697; Dominik was the owner of Kleck; the son of Aleksander Ludwik Radziwill.
Dominik Radziwill was the father of Jan Mikolaj Radziwill; and of Mikolaj Faustyn Radziwill.

Mikolaj Faustyn married in 1710 in Rohotna to Barbara Franciszka Zawisza - Kiezgajllo (1690 - 1746), with 15 children:
Albrecht Radziwill;
Udalryk Krzysztof; Jerzy;
Stanislaw Radziwill.
Stanislaw Radziwill b. 1722, d. 1787, the son of Mikolaj Faustyn. The father of Anna Olimpia Mostowski.
Stanislaw had the daughter Franciszka Teofila Radziwill.

Named Franciszka Teofila Soltan nee Radziwill, b. ca 1751, the mother of Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan;
Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka;
Helena Soltan
and Anna Soltan.

Named KAROLINA:
the mother of Emilija Augusta Justina Kublicka;
Adolf Kublicki;
Valentina Kublicka;
Anna Benislawska and
OKTAWIA Piottuch Kublicka, the daughter of JOZEF Kublicki and Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka. Oktawia was the wife of JOZEF SZUMSKI [with the son Wilhelm Szumski] and DOMINIK Konstantynowicz [sometimes as Vincentas Konstantinovicius] of MIEZONKA.

Note:

The Minsk Governorate Middle School {not in Volhynia!}, in June 1829, award to Wincenty Konstantynowicz together with: Julian Jacyna, Tadeusz Dybowski, Ignacy Kreyczman, Leon Mirecki, Alexander Bielecki, Antoni Godziewski. Acc. to Kuryer Litewski in August 1829; ie. 11 years old Wincenty Konstantynowicz was born in 1818}.

About above EWELINA HURKO:

Jozef HURKO JUNIOR, had 2 sons:
Leopold Hurko (1783-1860) the Russian Major General;
Wlodzimierz Hurko (1795-1852) the Russian General;
and the daughter
Ewelina HURKO (d. 1821 in ROMA) - the wife of Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the POLOCK official (1778-1840), the son of Justynian Niemirowicz.

Wlodzimierz Hurko [1795-1852], had a son {the grandson of Jozef HURKO [died in 1811]} the Russian Field Marshal and the Warsaw governor, Jozef Wladimirowicz Hurko / Romeiko-Gourko (1828-1901).

Above
Justynian Niemirowicz - Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt / Szczytt-Niemirowicz / Szczytt, b. 1740, d. 1824, MP.



Malta, Naples / Napoli and Cagliostro:

Manuel Pinto da Fonseca, b. 1681, d. 1773, was the 68th Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta from 1741, and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta. 1741 - 1773, he was known as ALTHOTAS.

His foster child was Claude Charles DE DAMAS DE MARILLAC, Vicomte DE DAMAS DE MARILLAC, 1731-1800.

Manuel Pinto da Fonseca was a friend of Cagliostro. He met Balsamo-Cagliostro in MESSINA.

Malta was visited in 1754 by unknown chemist.
Swedish naturalist - Pehr Forsskal, 1732-1763, visited Malta in 1761.

1762-1766, Cagliostro in Malta in the Pinto's laboratory. Acc. to Freller.
Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta from 1741, was considered by Count Cagliostro as a true Illuminati.

Cagliostro with Althotas, the member of the Knights of St. John, visited Turkey in 1762, and they back to Malta.
Cagliostro again visited Malta after trips to North Africa and Europe, where new Grand Master de ROHAN-POLDUC, grant him a chivalrous dignity.
Cagliostro had the first Masonic initiation in the Lodge de Saint Jean d'Ecosse, in the eastern part of Malta - again in 1777 in the lodge No. 289 in LONDON. Above Lodge in Malta also became involved with the Illuminati Order.

Cagliostro in Malta the first met Francesco Aquino, Prince de Caramanico, b. 1738, ambassador to London for the Naples Kingdom, and the family of Raimondo di Sangro, Prince of Sansevero, who invite Cagliostro to NAPLES.

Raimondo di Sangro, Prince of Sansevero b. 1710, d. 1771, was an Italian inventor, scientist, alchemist -
friend of Charles III of Bourbon

[Karol III, born on January 20, 1716 in Madrid, died on December 14, 1788 in Madrid, prince of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalia and in 1731-1735, the king of Naples (as Charles VII) and Sicily (as Charles IV) in 1735-1759, the king of Spain in 1759-1788 from the Bourbon dynasty.

CASERTA
- construction began in 1752 at the request of extravagant King Charles III of Bourbon, according to the design of his court architect Luigi Vanvitelli. The construction was continued only by his third son - Ferdinand I (King of Naples Ferdinand IV, King of Sicily as Ferdinand III, King of Both Sicily as Ferdinand I). See below!].

Above the seventh Prince of San Severo was born at Torremaggiore to Antonio, Duke of Torremaggiore, and his mother was Cecilia Gaetani of Aragon. He was educated at the Jesuit College in Rome. He joined the secret brotherhood of the Rosicrucians, where he was initiated into ancient alchemic rituals. The Prince spoke several European languages, as well as Arabic and Hebrew. He communicated with fellow masons such as the Scot Andrew Michael Ramsay, and the English poet Alexander Pope. He was head of the Neapolitan masonic lodge. In 1750 when the Free Masons made their way to Naples, don Raimondo decided to join them as Grand Master for the whole Kingdom. In 1790, in front of a Roman tribunal of the Holy Inquisition, the Count of Cagliostro claimed that all his knowledge of alchemy was taught to him many years before in Naples by "a prince who had a great passion for chemistry", In 2001-2018, Rino Di Stefano.

The Capella Sansevero was said to have been constructed on an old temple of Isis, and di Sangro was said to have been a Rosicrucian. Most important masonic symbols of the Sansevero Chapel are: Disillusion's Bas-relief - a work by Francesco Queirolo dating back to the mid-1700, is dedicated to Raimondo's father, Antonio di Sangro. The place in the background is the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem, a place of christian but also masonic importance because the initiating tradition of Hiram's myth was born there.

His son Paolo di Sangro, II principe di Castelfranco, born on June 18, 1746 in Naples.

Above Torremaggiore is a town in the province of Foggia in the Apulia, region of southeast Italy.

Pinto died on 23 January 1773 [Manuel Pinto de FONSECA].

Jose Antonio Pinto da Fonseca e Vilhena - Vicomte DE DAMAS DE MARILLAC, Page du Grand Maitre de l'Ordre de Malte (1742), Chevalier de l'Ordre de Malte, Ordre des Cincinnati (1783), Gouverneur de la Guadeloupe (1782-1783), Gouverneur de la Martinique (1783- about 1789 or until 1791), b. in 1731 - his foster father Manuel PINTO DA FONSECA, Grand Maitre de l'Ordre de Malte, 1681-1773.

Capua:

William Lock / Locke, William, the younger (1767-1847), amateur artist, friend of Henry Fuseli; Locke painted historical and allegorical subjects, after 1819 he lived at Rome and Paris
(see: Luke Schaub from Neuchatel and Basel - in 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy; Paszkowski family in Cracow, Moscow, Rome in 1839 and Paris in 1839/1840 also!);
leaving one son, William 3rd, and a daughter Elizabeth. Locke, William, the third (1804-1832), captain and amateur artist, published some illustrations to Byron's works. He was drowned in the lake of Como, Italy; married Selina, daughter of Admiral Tollemache; he had daughter,
Augusta Selina Locke b. 1833, married:
a. Ernest Lord Burghersh,
b. the Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square.

Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta.

The de Luna family come from Don Giovanni Sanchez de Luna b. 1642, III Marquis of Gagliati / Gagliato, 1798, the Sanchez de Luna obtained the title of Duke on the surname.

CARACCIOLO Louis / CARACCIOLO Luigi, b. 1826 in Napoli, d. 1889 in MILAN.
His father: Carlo Luigi and mother: Teresa SANCHEZ DE LUNA.
It is hereditary noble family. Noble titles Duca di San Teodoro, di Sant-Arpino, di Casal di Principe, di Parete, Marquis / marchese di Capriglia, of Villamaina; the Neapolitan citizen;
m. LOCK Augusta Selima;
children:
Teresa, married firstly Marcantonio Colonna.

Marcantonio Colonna / Don Marcantonio b. Naples / Napoli / Neapol, 1844, d. 1912 in Rome, 15th Prince and Duke of Paliano - ca 45 km east of Roma, of Sonnino - north-west of Napoli, Avella - north-east of Napoli, Tagliacozzo - north-east of Rome, Tursi - south of Italy, Marino - south-east of Rome / Roma, de Cave - east of Rome / Roma, Ceccano - south-east of Rome, Lord of Genazzano - east of Rome, Morulo ?, Rocca di Papa - south-east of Rome, San Lorenzo east of Rome, Santo Stefano close to Capriglia east of Napoli, Serrone east of Rome, Trivigliano east of Rome, Vallecorsa north-west of Napoli, Vico south of Napoli and Sgurgola south-east of Rome;
married in Rome in 1875 to
Teresa Caracciolo b. 1855 Naples / Napoli, d. Rome 1935, of San Teodoro, Sant'Arpino close to Aversa, Casal di Principe close to Aversa, Capriglia east of Napoli and Villamaina east of Napoli,
daughter of Duke Luigi and Augusta Selina Lock / Augusta Selima Locke;
children:
Isabella b. 1879, Duchess of Sant'Arpino, Tursi in south of Italy and Avella south-east of Caserta and close to Nola, m. 1900 to Angel Ansano Chigi Zondadari of San Quirico;
Vittoria b. in London 1880, m. in Rome 1901 to Leone Caetani of Sermoneta on way from Rome to Napoli. Nola in Italy.

Luigi Scotti Douglas d. 1880, Count of Vigoleno, Regio Rescritto in 1856; his son Alfonso b. in Nola in 1849, d. 1910.

Nola, north-east of Napoli, ca 23 km. South-east-east of Aversa, and south-east of Santa Maria Capua Vetere!

The Scotti family originates from ALBERTO became Lord of Piacenza; from the Lords of Vigolino or Vigoleno. The branch of Vigolino settled in Naples after 1734,
from RAMIZIO married Josephine Poulet in Naples, child Joseph, b. 1776 who married Dorothy Granalais.

Above mentioned
Luigi Scotti Douglas / Louis Scotti was born in 1796 in Naples / Napoli, married Mary Josephine Carlier,
with whom he had Ferdinand, Federico and Alfonso;
he began his military career as a bodyguard in 1816; after a long military career in 1859 promoted field marshal. Died in Naples, 1880.

The branch of Vigolino settled in Naples, from RAMIZIO married Josephine Poulet,
next generation in Napoli:
Joseph, Count of Vigolino b. 1776 who married Dorothy Granalais;
his son: Luigi who was above mentioned;
his sons: Ferdinand, Federico, Alfonso;
above named FERDINAND Scotti b. 1831, student from 1841 to 1847, captain, 1861 in Gaeta;
FEDERICO b. 1836, served the Guards,
ALFONSO Scotti Douglas, Earl of Vigolino, b. 1849, promoted lieutenant of Engineers and appointed assistant director of the Force in Capua, he returned to college to finish studies,
married Celestina Loencilli with son EDOARDO b. in Naples, 1874 married to Emma Gini, with daughter Annita b. Milan in 1904, and ALFONSO in 1910.

Mary Josephine Carlier - maybe she is Mary Carlier, b. 1811, daughter of Daniel Carlier and Mary Marlain; sister of Henry Augustus Carlier; William Evans Carlier and David Evans Carlier, half sister of Daniel Carlier - copyright by Marco Alexander Herbst at geni.com.

Above Daniel Carlier, b. 1766, London, England; died 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India, son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier; inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst, Rachel Cowan, Stephen R Johnson and Stephen David Berryman.

Daniel Carlier m. Mary Marlain; he was born in 1770 / 1766 at London, England (? - in Colombo, Sri Lanka), d. 1822 / 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India.
Son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier.
Husband of Mary Marlain;
father of Henry Augustus Carlier; Mary Carlier; William Evans Carlier; David Evans Carlier and Daniel Carlier;
brother of Isaac Carlier, half brother of Abraham Carlier, inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst at geni.com in 2009;

Mary MARLAIN b. ca 1770, d. 1855 Ootacamund; he was working as Conductor of Madras Invalids; is the man who leaves the Huguenot community in London to go to India.

Daniel's parents were Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier, both born in London;
he married a woman from Colombo, Mary Marlain, in 1807 in India, but he had also son Daniel, born about 1796. He had son Daniel second who married Eliza Grace Evans in 1829 in Palamcottah, Madras from his third wife - her father may be William Evans.

Mary Carlier (Marlain) b. ca 1770 in Colombo, Ceylon; d. 1855 in Ooty, Tamil Nadu, India.

The CARLIER name is French Huguenot, French Protestants and in 1720 Jan CARLIER born in Amsterdam, North Holland had two children born in Colombo, Sri Lanka which was colonized by the Dutch. Marriage record for Daniel CARLIER in 1807 to Mary Marlain from Colombo, lived in Fort St George, Madras. But Elizabeth CARLIER b. 1828 had parents D. CARLIER and Elizabeth.

It is possible that the Huguenot CARLIER from England went to South India with the East India company; above data under copyright by Moira Breen from USA.

Note:

CARACCIOLO Louis / CARACCIOLO Luigi, b. 1826 in Napoli:
landlord of Casal di Principe - 15 km south-west of Santa Maria Capua Vetere;
and owner of Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the Caserta region in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta.
Estates:
Casal di Principe - 15 km south-west of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, di Parete - 6 km south-east of above named Casal di Principe and 4 km south-west of Aversa, Capriglia - north-east of Napoli, Villamaina - east of mentioned Capriglia.

Gaetano Errico Malatesta Maria Pasquale was born in 1853 in Villa Santa Maria Maggiore,
at two miles distance from the castle of Caserta, and ca 4 km south-east of Capua, now part of the town called Santa Maria Capua Vetere, in the province of Caserta. Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta;
he was son of Don Federico Malatesta, a landowner and entrepreneur originally from Napoli, and Lazzarina Rastoin, a French lady originally from Marseille.

Like Bennigsen, Michał Kleofas Oginski had fallen head over heels in love with Maria Nagurska; Michał Kleofas proposed, Maria accepted, and they were married sometime during 1804, and settled at his estate at Zalesie. By this time Michał Kleofas Oginski had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg, and was put in charge of Education in Russia's newly acquired lands.
Maria Neri - Nagurska - Oginska wrote to her sister, Countess Cuchina Scotti, in Florence.

Countess Cuchina Scotti, in Florence - by Zaluski - "...She (Maria Neri) then sent for her younger sister Cuchina to give her a better life in Lithuanian society, and as a companion for herself. Cuchina complied, and promptly became pregnant by Nicholas Morawski, Maria's former lover's younger brother, and uncle of the writer. So Maria sent Cuchina back to Florence, and arranged for her to marry Count Scotti - in the end a satisfactory arrangement all round. The child was born in happy circumstances a legitimate Scotti...".

At present Hotel Scoti (Scotti, Scotto) is a unique pensione in the heart of the historical centre of Florence (Firenze, Italia). Located in an elegant 16th century palazzo in Via Tornabuoni.

Ermanno Stradelli b. 1852, Italian photographer, of Borgo Val di Taro currently in the province of Parma, then in the province of Piacenza. His mother, Marianna Douglas Scotti di Vigoleno, place of residence in Borgotaro / Borgo Val di Taro.

Castello di Vigoleno north-east of Genova.

Borgo Val di Taro - east of Genova.

Curiosity at margin only:
In Santa Maria Capua Vetere - ("...il processo di I grado a Santa Maria Capua Vetere contro 15 persone ritenute legate alla mafia e al clan dei Casalesi, alleate per monopolizzare i trasporti su gomma e i mercati ortofrutticoli del centro sud. ... fratello di Salvatore, capo dei capi di Cosa Nostra ... di Sandokan...") "...15 people believed to be linked to the Mafia and to the Casalesi clan (The Casalesi clan is a clan within the Camorra, an Italian criminal organization, operating from Casal di Principe in the province of Caserta between Naples and Latium. ... it is a confederation of clans in the Caserta area. The Casalesi clan is believed to be one of the most powerful groups within the Camorra, specialising in construction and keeping a lower profile than clans that focus on drug dealing [a main boss from San Cipriano d'Aversa, 11 km north-west of Sant Arpino; 14 km south of Capua]), allied to monopolize the transport of rubber and fruit and vegetable markets of the Old South: ... boss of bosses of the Cosa Nostra ... the cousin of the same name of Sandokan ... owner of ... a company that, thanks to an agreement between the Mafia and the Casalesi clan, acquired the monopoly of road transport; ... dominus clan Mallard; ... former regent of the Licciardi clan Secondigliano; ... the top element of the Licciardi. The defendants were found guilty, for various reasons, of mafia association, unlawful competition, false registration of property, extortion and arms trafficking. That set up between the Sicilian Mafia and Casale, said the Naples mafia pm Caesar Sirignano, who led the investigation...".

Capua:
Errico Malatesta born 1853 in Capua, went to Geneva, where he collaborated with Machajski and Kropotkin to 1881. Jan Strozecki vel Janek Galecki b. 1869, from 1877 to 1887 in Kielce he was friend with Stefan Zeromski and Jan Machajski in Switzerland.

Gaetano Errico Malatesta Maria Pasquale was born in 1853 in Villa Santa Maria Maggiore, at two miles distance from the castle of Caserta, and ca 4 km south-east of Capua, now part of the town called Santa Maria Capua Vetere, in the province of Caserta
(Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta);
son of Don Federico Malatesta, a landowner and entrepreneur originally from Naples, and Lazzarina Rastoin, a French lady originally from Marseille;
family owned a thriving factory; his father, a former merchant of Naples; a branch of the noble family of Santa Maria Capua Vetere; the third of four children - after Emilia (1849), Aniello (1851) and before Augustus (1857), he completed his studies in a college, enrolled University of Naples, where he studied medicine for three years without graduating. Malatesta visited Geneva, where he befriended Elise Reclus and Peter Kropotkin, helping the latter to publish La Revolte, finally settling in London.

Above Elise Reclus, Jacques Elise Reclus / Jacques Elisee Reclus, 1830 - 1905, French geographer and historian. Caserta, with the Bourbon castle and large domain, was the scene of aristocratic and court life. Between these Santa Maria, rural town of small proprietors and merchants. Errico Malatesta - the University of Naples, about 1868, studying rhetorics, Roman history, Latin and Mr. Gioberti's philosophy, in a cafe at Naples made the acquaintance of Carmelo Palladino, of the International section, a young lawyer; he visited Bakunin with Afiero at the end of 1872; in Locarno in 1874, friend with Carlo Cafiero - born in Barletta (Apulia), 1846, of a rich and reactionary local family.

The Rastoin family:

RASTOIN Jacques, b. 1900 in Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhone, Senator 1966-1971, comes from a large Marseille industrial family of oils and soaps. His father Emile Rastoin, founder of the new oil mill in 1899, chaired the Marseille Chamber of Commerce and Deputy Mayor of Marseille. His brother Edward, also a former president of the chamber of Commerce of Marseille. He is also appointed head of the Savings Bank. The company of Tuileries of the Mediterranean is creates in 1882, by the founder from Marseille, Edward Rastoin (1835-1903) partner with Mr. Francois Mary Denis Anselm and Michel Agard. The second son of Edward, Albert Rastoin (1866-1946) it succeeds until 1946. Next Rastoin Edward (1895-1997), Jacques (1900-1979) and Bernard (1904-1979) are CEO of company until 1973. E. Rastoin is the son of an owner from Aix Provence, Bernard Rastoin, 1803-1859. He has studied School of Arts and Job in Aix Provence, open in 1843.

RASTOIN, Roquebrussanne of Var, Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur, France 1809-1845; RASTOIN, Val of Var, Cote d'Azur, France 1740-1818; Rastoin is a great French family of Marseille, which has benefited from the rise of the oil mill industry in the late nineteenth century. The first Rastoin oil mill was founded in 1882. Deputy Mayor of Marseille:
Emile Rastoin in 1905-1908.

MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, 1840.

The first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cecilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern;
she was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau.

Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano.
She also was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau.

This is the branch of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

The same branch:
Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830 / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., from the family of a professional military,
his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801.

Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. in Kirna, Teri vald, Jorvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Joggis (Jogisuu). He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.


Note to EWELINA HURKO:

Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt / Szczyt / Szczyth, died in 1677, the official in POLOCK in 1666-1670; and in 1673-1677; MP, acted in Prozoroki. The son of Krzysztof Szczyt Niemirowicz and Zofia Lisowska / Lissowski, 2 voto married Jozef Skinder. Justynian was the grandson of Mikolaj Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the Polock top official, and the great-grandson of Mikolaj Niemirowicz Szczyt older, the Court Marshal.

Justynian Niemirowicz had 3 brothers:
Jan Szczyt; Mikolaj Szczyt younger, Aleksander Szczyt; and 2 sisters:
Anna; Halszka.

Justynian Szczyt married in 1648 to Anna Tukowicz, d. 1694, the daughter of Bazyli Tukowicz and Zofia Siehen.
Justynian had 6 sons:
Konstanty Marcjan Szczyt, the father of JAN Szczyt Niemirowicz - the governor in Inflanty; the grandfather of Justynian Niemirowicz SZCZYT junior;
Bronislaw Szczyt;
Krzysztof Benedykt Szczyt - the father of the governor of MSCISLAW, Jozef Szczyt; and the grandfather of the Brzesc Litewski official - Jozef Szczyt Niemirowicz and Jozef's brother - Krzysztof Szczyt Niemirowicz;
Samuel Karol Szczyt - the grandfather of Marcin Niemirowicz Szczyt;
Olbracht Szczyt, the Wenden official and in Smolensk.
Kazimierz Szczyt, the monk.

Justynian died in 1677, and he was buried in Prozoroki.

Above
Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt junior, b. 1740, died in 1824, MP; the son of the Inflanty governor, Jan Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt (1705-1767) and his second wife Barbara Chominski d. 1775, widow after death of Kazimierz Kociell. Barbara was the daughter of Ludwik Jakub Chominski and Anna Koziell-Poklewski of Oszmiany.
Anna Chominski, Koziell Poklewski, was the stepdaughter of Duke Leon Kazimierz Oginski.

Justynian Szczyt had 3 stepsibilings:
of his father and 1st wife, Helena Rypinski - Jozef Szczyt; and Dorota Szczyt m. Jan Szadurski

[Jan Szadurski d. 1771 in Pusza; the Inflanty official in 1766-1771, and in 1752-1766, 1758-1762, 1744-1748, 1759-1762, MP. Dorota and Jan Szadurski had a daughter Barbara Szadurska m. the son of Mikolaj Tadeusz Lopacinski, ie Tomasz Lopacinski; and
second daughter, Konstancja Szadurska married the Wilkomierz official, Jozef Marykoni / Jozef MORYKONI, General Major of 1794, ie. Jozef or Tomasz Morykoni b. 1751, the Wilkomierz official, in 1772 the Lithuanian Army Major, acted in 1789 and in 1794, together with Michala Oginski in Inflanty; then in Warszawa and Praga in 1794.

Note on the MORYKONI family -

KAZIMIERZ Tyzenhauz / Kazimieras Tyzenhauzas b. ca 1740 - son of Benedykt Tyzenhauz SENIOR - was the husband of Barbara Gielgud, and father of ZOFIA Tyzenhauziene.
Kazimierz Tyzenhauz was the brother of
Barbara Wawrzecka; Benedykta Niezabitowska;
Aleksandra Anna Morykoni;
Teresa Tyzenhauz, and
Magdalena Maria Ewa Walewska.

Kolyszko (Kolysko) Adam (1796-1870), insurgent in 1831, a member of the parliament; acted in the area of Wilkomierz;
his mother came from a noble Lithuanian family Morykoni, who came from Italy, farming in the property of Palisze in area of Wilkomierz.

Michal Lisiecki (1803-1882) was born in Porakiszki. He finished high school in Kiejdany. In 1818, he studied at the University of Wilno; he graduated with the degree of law candidate. He was an officer in the Russian army, he was dismissed and lived in Vilnius, where he participated in a secret youth organization. In 1831, he was ordered to organize an uprising in the region of Rakiszki and on the border with Courland.
The branch was organized in Solachy [?], in the court and with the help of Count Benedykt Marykoni

{Benedykt Beniamin Morykoni / Morykoni Pucini / Moriconi, the owner of Towiany, north to Wilkomierz, 1790- 1812. Benedykt Morykoni, 1752-1812, married Maria Wiktoria Maja Radziwill (b. 1756), the daughter of Duke Michal Radziwill "Rybenko" (1702-1762). Benedykt Morykoni - a great Lithuanian writer in 1777, chamberlain of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski in 1771; MP. A member of the Andrzej Mokronowski confederation and a member of parliament in 1776 from the Wilkomierz county; member of Parliament in 1780. A member of the conspiracy in Lithuania, preparing the outbreak of Kosciuszko Uprising. Member of the Lithuanian Government. In 1794 he was a member of the Secret Deputation. Head of the Food Department of the Central Deputation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the Kosciuszko Uprising in 1794}.

ALEKSANDER BILEWICZ of the Rosienie county married Anna Romer with 4 sons:
1. Tadeusz Billewicz, senior, b. ca 1728, died in 1788; in 1783 - the Mscislau province
{TADEUSZ had daughter Helena Wazgird (Morykoni) and also he had son ADAM BILLEWICZ / Adomas Bilevicius, b. ca 1750, who was father of Kazimierz Tomasz; and Kaspar Bilewicz, and so on.
Above KASPAR - Kasparas Bilevicius, b. ca 1782, d. 1840, had son
Antoni Billewicz or Tadeusz BILEWICZ, b. ca 1815, + Helena Michalowska b. 1820, with:
Pranas Bilevicius;
Maria Pilsudska / Maria Billewicz (1842 - 1884; born 1842 in Adomava) + Jozef Wincenty Pilsudski

(1833 - 1902. Note:
Antoni Bulhak b. 1898, married to Wanda Bulhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and Maria Juchniewicz nee Pilsudska, b. 1873, d. 1921 -
her parents:
named above Maria Pilsudska nee Billewicz + Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833.

MARIA JUCHNIEWICZ had the brother - Jozef Klemens Pilsudski b. 1867);

Wiktor Billewicz and
Zofia Zubow b. ca 1860.

Above ZOFIA:
Zofia Zubow nee Billewicz, was born circa 1860, married Wlodzimierz Zubow before 1887, with son Wlodzimierz Zubow b. 1887 Szawle [Siauliai / Siaule north of Raseiniai] - d. 1959 in Kowno},

2. Jerzy BILEWICZ, studied in Krolewiec, known German, then in Nieswiez {Jerzy Bilewicz was the Judge of ROSIENIE in 1765};
3. Teodor Billewicz + Kozuchowska of Kalisz;
4. Mateusz Bilewicz also lived in Smorgonie and NIESWIEZ; Mateusz + Lopacinska had sons.

We back to
Jan Szadurski - the landowner of the father properties:
Inflanty - Pusza, with Dorotpol; Duksztygaly; Wolkimberg / Zielonpole; Zwirdzin / Zwierdzin / Zwirzydyn; Cecyny; Dunakla / Dunakle; Malnow / Malnowo / MALNAVA - see the Malkiewicz family; Poszmuciowo / Puszmuciowo / Poszmujciowo; Siedlikowszczyzna; Hofftenberg / Jozefow; Jasmujze.
In the POLOCK province: Zlotowo Kozadawlowo / Synkowo.

Jan's children:
Konstancja and Barbara - more above;
Jozef; Ludwika; Salomea;
Ignacy SZADURSKI;
Franciszek Ksawery SZADURSKI],

and Justynian Szczyt had a sibiling of the 1st marriage of his mother -
a brother, Tadeusz Kociell, m. Anna Tyszkiewicz, the daughter of Jozef Benedykt Tyszkiewicz and Teresa Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the daughter of the Smolensk governor, Krzysztof Benedykt Niemirowicz-Szczytt.

Justynian Szczyt in POLOCK was the envoy to Petersburg, with the help of Ivan ORLOV and Grigorij Orlov, for the maintenance of the Polish language in the judiciary of the POLOCK ex-province.
Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt was twice married; 1st to Kazimiera Barbara Lopacinski (1746-1773), the daughter of Mikolaj Tadeusz Lopacinski and Barbara Kopec, the daughter of Michal Antoni Kopec.

And named Justynian had a son - Feliks Szczyt, the noble Marshal in DRYSSA, who was the father of Jan Szczytt, exiled in Siberia. Also Justynian had 4 daughters:
Barbara m. Jozef Rudomin-Dusiatski the son of Mikolaj Rudomin Dusiatski, with children:
Elzbieta Rudomin m. Pakosz, the writer;
Anna + Stanislaw Gorski, with Kornela Gorska m. Count Karol Przezdziecki;
Jozefa m. Kajetan Swirski;
Tekla.

Justynian Szczyt married 2nd to Kazimiera Woyno-Jasienski d. 1783, the daughter of the Polock official, Jozef Woyno and Ludwika Sulistrowski.
With 4 children:
Jozef Szczyt, the Russian Court official, m. Franciszka Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki, the mother of
Ewelina Szczyt m. Stanislaw Chominski;
Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczyt, the POLOCK Marshal, married to the daughter of Jozef Hurko-Romejko, ie. Ewelina HURKO !
Jan Szczyt, d. 1851, the DRYSSA Marshal, m. Anna Bobrowski;
and Dorota m. Mikolaj Siostrzanek-Karnicki / Siestrzanek KARNICKI
with children:
Aniela m. Aleksander Wielhorski, Count, the son of Michal WIELHORSKI;
Adela m. Konstanty Radziwill, Duke, ie.
Konstanty Mikolaj Stanislaw Juliusz Franciszek Radziwill b. 1793 in Rome, d. 1869 in Poloneczka,
in 1800 Count in Szydlowiec, known as Maciej Konstanty RADZIWILL.
The son of Maciej Radziwill and Elzbieta Chodkiewicz, the daughter of Jan Mikolaj CHODKIEWICZ.
In 1840, Konstanty Radziwill married 3rd time to Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka, the daughter of the LUCYN marshal, Mikolaj KARNICKI, and Dorota Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the daughter of Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt.
Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka and Konstanty had 8 children:
Mikolaj Antoni Radziwill;
Maciej Jozef

{Maciej Jozef Konstanty Radziwill, b. 1842 in Poloneczka, d. 1907 in Konstanca,
the owner of Zegrze,
- see the von Gersdorff family in Pomiechowek !

Maciej Jozef Konstanty Radziwill, come from the branch of Dominik Mikolaj Radziwill, 1643-1697; Dominik was the owner of Kleck; the son of Aleksander Ludwik Radziwill.
Dominik Radziwill was the father of Jan Mikolaj Radziwill; and of Mikolaj Faustyn Radziwill.

Mikolaj Faustyn married in 1710 in Rohotna to Barbara Franciszka Zawisza - Kiezgajllo (1690 - 1746), with 15 children:
Albrecht Radziwill;
Udalryk Krzysztof; Jerzy;
Stanislaw Radziwill.
Stanislaw Radziwill b. 1722, d. 1787, the son of Mikolaj Faustyn. The father of Anna Olimpia Mostowski.
Stanislaw had the daughter Franciszka Teofila Radziwill.

Named Franciszka Teofila Soltan nee Radziwill, b. ca 1751, the mother of Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan;
Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka;
Helena Soltan
and Anna Soltan.

Named KAROLINA:
the mother of Emilija Augusta Justina Kublicka;
Adolf Kublicki;
Valentina Kublicka;
Anna Benislawska and
OKTAWIA Piottuch Kublicka, the daughter of JOZEF Kublicki and Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka. Oktawia was the wife of JOZEF SZUMSKI [with the son Wilhelm Szumski] and DOMINIK Konstantynowicz [sometimes as Vincentas Konstantinovicius] of MIEZONKA.

Note:

The Minsk Governorate Middle School {not in Volhynia!}, in June 1829, award to Wincenty Konstantynowicz together with: Julian Jacyna, Tadeusz Dybowski, Ignacy Kreyczman, Leon Mirecki, Alexander Bielecki, Antoni Godziewski. Acc. to Kuryer Litewski in August 1829; ie. 11 years old Wincenty Konstantynowicz was born in 1818}.

About above EWELINA HURKO:

Jozef HURKO JUNIOR, had 2 sons:
Leopold Hurko (1783-1860) the Russian Major General;
Wlodzimierz Hurko (1795-1852) the Russian General;
and the daughter
Ewelina HURKO (d. 1821 in ROMA) - the wife of Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the POLOCK official (1778- 1840), the son of Justynian Niemirowicz.

Wlodzimierz Hurko [1795-1852], had a son {the grandson of Jozef HURKO [died in 1811]} the Russian Field Marshal and the Warsaw governor, Jozef Wladimirowicz Hurko / Romeiko-Gourko (1828-1901).

Above
Justynian Niemirowicz - Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt / Szczytt-Niemirowicz / Szczytt, b. 1740, d. 1824, MP.



Doctor Althotas - who was this Illuminati?

Acc to: encyclopedia.com/science, "... The French writer Louis Figuier, author of L'alchimie et les alchimistes (Paris, 1854), stated that Althotas was no imaginary character, that the Roman Inquisition collected many proofs of his existence, but none regarding his origin or end. ... the name Althotas is composed of the word "thot" with the syllables "al" and "as," which if read cabalistically are sala, meaning messenger or envoy; the name as a whole therefore signifies
"Thot, the Messenger of the Egyptians."
... Althotas has also been identified with Kolmer, the instructor of Adam Weishaupt (a German leader of the Illuminati ) in magic, and at other times with the Comte de Saint Germain".

Count Allesandro Cagliostro (1743-1795) "... fled to Messina, where he assumed the title and the identity of Count Cagliostro. ... It was in Messina that the young man met the mysterious Althotas, a man of Asian appearance ... who upon their first encounter proceeded to reveal the events of Cagliostro's past. As they became better acquainted, Althotas said that he didn't believe in ordinary magic, but maintained that the physical laws were mutable and could be manipulated by the powers of mind. The two traveled together to Egypt ...".

In MEDINA, Cagliostro's governor, an Eastern Adept named Althotas, told him that he was of noble Christian.
"I cannot," Cagliostro testified, "speak positively as to the place of my nativity, nor to the parents who gave me birth." His enemies said that he was Joseph Balsamo.
"According to Cagliostro's own account, he lived as a child named Acharat in the palace of the Mufti Salahayyam in Medina. ... Cagliostro to believe that he was born in Malta. Althotas treated him like a son ... when he came to La Valetta (Malta) in 1766, he and Althotas were welcomed and hosted, by Cardinal Pinto...".

Finally Althotas invited Cagliostro to accompany him to Malta. In 1766, he arrived at Rhodes, and thence embarked for Malta. He was graciously received by the Grand Master, Pinto. "Althotas appeared in the dress and insignia of the Order of Malta. I have every reason to believe that the Grand Master Pinto was acquainted with my real origin".
Althotas, possibly a Greek, but he was speaking a mixture of languages. Grand Master Pinto engaged Altotas to assist him in his laboratory. They were admitted into the Order by Pinto, the Grand Master of the Knights of Malta.
At Malta they assisted the Grand Master Pinto. "... Some have speculated that Cagliostro was the son of Grand Master Pinto and a noble lady of Trebizond, but Cagliostro never expressed this view himself. While still on Malta, Althotas died. Minutes before his passing he declared to Cagliostro, 'My son, keep forever before your eyes...'."
Then "Cagliostro left Malta in the company of Chevalier d'Aquino for Sicily, the Greek islands, and eventually Naples, the Chevalier's birthplace. While the Chevalier was occupied with personal matters, Cagliostro proceeded to Rome".


"True Mason", or Academy of True Masons. Source: "Western Esotericism and Rituals of Initiationare".

These academy of real masons, was instituted in 1778.
The rite of Pernetty, or Illuminati of Avignon, established in 1779 [in Berlin], but in 1778, it was in Montpellier, under the name of Academy of the True Masons.

This Lodge, or the Academy, constituted, on March 5th, 1785, at Saint-Pierre of Martinique

[1776 - here was Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Br. BYSTRZANOWSKI.
On 9 March 1772 to 15 March 1776 Vital Auguste, marquis de Gregoire, comte de Nozieres, Governor
{compare: Gregory, Vital Auguste de, Marquis de Gregoire and Earl of Nozieres, Governor of Guadeloupe, Governor General of the Windward Islands, b. 1715 or 1723 - d. ca 1779};

on 15 March 1776 to May 1777, Robert d'Argout - GOVERNOR

{Robert was born in 1723 - LILLE, died in 1780 in Saint Domingue. See Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Bystrzanowski.
Robert's son,
Robert Maurice D'ARGOUT, 1760-ca 1800, in Saint Domingue or in London; + Anne Elisabeth Rose D'OSMOND

(her brother was Joseph Eustache D'OSMOND, Vicomte D'OSMOND, 1756-1839, married 1st about 1790 to VIGEE, ca 1770-/1794; Joseph Eustache D'OSMOND, Vicomte D'OSMOND married 2nd in 1795 to Anne Marthe GILBERT DE VOISINS, ca 1770-1801 - see below!);

and the grandson - Eugene Gabriel D'ARGOUT, Comte D'ARGOUT, 1787-1868}.

In March 1783 to March 1791, Claude Charles de Marillac, vicomte de Damas, the Governor of Martynika in Saint-Pierre of Martinique
{= Jose Antonio Pinto da Fonseca e Vilhena - Vicomte DE DAMAS, DE MARILLAC, Page du Grand Maitre de l'Ordre de Malte (1742), Chevalier de l'Ordre de Malte, Ordre des Cincinnati (1783), Gouverneur de la Guadeloupe (1782-1783), Gouverneur de la Martinique (1783-about 1789 or until 1791), b. in 1731 - his foster father Manuel PINTO DA FONSECA, Grand Maitre de l'Ordre de Malte, 1681-1773}
- b. June 20, 1731 in Lyon and died June 30, 1805 in Margency in Val-d'Oise - north to Paris;
the Viscount of Damascus - the title received in the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem on December 23, 1744 or in 1745,
but they will allow him to get married in 1773.
He is named governor of Martinique, in 1783, with steward Joseph-Francois Foulquier, then Governor- General of the Windward Islands of America, until 1791.
When the revolutionary agitation reached the West Indies, the Viscount of Damascus to maintain the authority of the King and he managed not only to reestablish public order, but also to sent all leaders of the insurgents in France],

as an academy of the True-Masons, ie. the Academy of Real Masons of Montpellier [120 km south-west to Avignon], of the Rite of Pernety of Avignon.

Note to
Anne Marthe GILBERT DE VOISINS, ca 1770-1801:

Jean Pierre GILBERT DE VOISINS married in 1832 to Marie Sophie TAGLIONI, Classical dancer artist, 1804-1884
(parents: Philippe TAGLIONI, 1777-1871 and Sophie KARSTEN b. ca 1780)
with Eugenie GILBERT DE VOISINS, 1835-1901; Georges GILBERT DE VOISINS, Comte DE VOISINS, 1843- 1893; Jean Pierre GILBERT DE VOISINS, Officer, 1846-1870.

Above
Jean Pierre GILBERT DE VOISINS, Comte GILBERT DE VOISINS, 1800-1863,
was the son of
Pierre Paul Alexandre GILBERT DE VOISINS, 1773 - 1843 in PARIS;
and the grandson of
Pierre GILBERT DE VOISINS / Pierre Gilbert, seigneur de Voisins, born 1749, killed in 1792; acc. to George J. Homs.
Pierre, senior, b. 1749, had 2 children:
Anne Marthe GILBERT DE VOISINS, ca 1770-1801;
Pierre Paul Alexandre GILBERT DE VOISINS, Comte de l'Empire, 1773-1843.

Above Anna -
Anne Marthe GILBERT DE VOISINS (Anne GILBERT DE VOISINS) born about 1770, d. 1801. Married in 1795 to Joseph Eustache D'OSMOND, Vicomte D'OSMOND, 1756-1839.
Remember!
Robert Maurice D'ARGOUT, 1760-ca 1800; died in London + Anne Elisabeth Rose D'OSMOND.

Anne Elisabeth Rose D'OSMOND had the brother Joseph Eustache D'OSMOND, Vicomte D'OSMOND, 1756- 1839, married 1st about 1790 to VIGEE, ca 1770-1794.
Joseph Eustache D'OSMOND, Vicomte D'OSMOND, 1756-1839, married 2nd in 1795 to Anne Marthe GILBERT DE VOISINS, ca 1770-1801.

Compare with:
Alexander Troubetzkoy, born 14 July 1813, General Major,
his parents:
Vassily Troubetzkoy b. 1776, died in 1841, and Sophia Marianna von Weiss b. 1795
[see below !];

above Alexander married on 24 November 1852 to Marie Eugenie Gilbert de Voisins / Voisin, b. 1835, and his children:
Margarita Troubetzkoy b. 1857
and Alexei b. 1866.

Above Vassily mother -
Elena Nesvizky / Helena Nieswiz b. 1746 died 1831 and his father Serguei / Siergiej Troubetzkoy died 1782,
grandfather Alexey TRUBECKI born 1700 and grandmother Anna Naryshkine / NARYSHKIN b. 1704;
great-grandfather Youri Troubetzkoy by wife Elena Tcherkasskaia / Tcherkassky.

Above
Marie Eugenie Gilbert de Voisins / Voisin b. 1835, d. 1901, Trubeckaya.
Daughter of Jean Pierre, comte Gilbert de Voisins, d. June 1863 + Maria Sophie Taglioni.
Granddaughter of Pierre Paul Alexandre Gilbert de Voisins, born in 1773.
Great-granddaughter of Pierre Gilbert, seigneur de Voisins, born 1749, killed in 1792,
acc. to George J. Homs.

Above TAGLIONI:

Russian prince Alexander Troubetzkoy in 1846 bought a property for Maria Taglioni, a prima ballerina. Marie Taglioni transferred much of her activity to Saint Petersburg, where she and her father spent a season from 1836 till 1842;
her husband, Jean Pierre Victor Alfred Gilbert de Voisins / Count Alfred Gilbert de Voisins m. 1832, separated in 1835 and divorced in 1844;
but she has a daughter in 1835 and the second a son in 1843, probably illegitimate, but he has the title Comte Gilbert de Voisins.

Marie's daughter Marie Eugenie married Alexander Troubetzkoy, born 14 July 1813, and her next of kin was Windischgratz.

During the 1870's Marie Taglioni resided in London. Later she moved with her son and his family to Marseilles, where she died in 1884.

Marie Eugenie Gilbert de Voisins died 1901,
her brother Georges Philippe Gilbert de Voisins died 1893,
his son Augusto died 1939 in Paris;
husband of above Marie - Alexander Troubetzkoy b. 1813.

Marie's father - Jean Pierre Victor Alfred Gilbert de Voisins died 1863, with wife Marie Taglioni died 1884.

Grandfather Pierre Paul Alexandre GILBERT DE VOISINS, born 1773.
His sister Anne Marie Marthe, died 1801, with husband Marie Joseph d'Osmont, Lieutenant General [Anne Marthe GILBERT DE VOISINS / Anne GILBERT DE VOISINS, ca 1770 - 1801. Married in 1795 to Joseph Eustache D'OSMOND, Vicomte D'OSMOND, 1756-1839].

Great-grandfather Pierre Paul second Gilbert de Voisins with wife de Beauchamps.

Note to WEISS:

Andreas junior [Sergei / Andreas Otto Georg von Weiss b. 1760] was the husband of Anna Marie.
Father of
1.
Gustav Johann Alexander von Weiss [Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss / Alexander Gustav Johann von Weiss m. in 1820 in Warsaw to Josephine nee Mercier];
2.
Sophia Marianna (Sophia Andreevna) Princess Trubetskaya, b. 1795;
3.
Andreas Franziskus von Weiss;
4. Clemens von Weiss
and
5. Katharina Antoniette von Weiss.

Note to Sergey or Andreas Otto Georg von Weiss b. 1760 d. 1821, married Anna Maria Albrecht b. ca 1768; Andreas had also son KLEMENS von Weiss, b. 1799, d. 1895.

Andreas Otto Georg von Weiss genealogy -
Andreas Otto Georg (Andrej Andr.) von Weiss (1760 - 1821), junior, born in Riga, Latvia. Died, 17 Oct 1821 in Dresden, Germany.
Son of Andreas Weiss senior
[Andreas senior b. 1734 in Saint Petersburg, d. 1767 in Dorpat. Son of Andreas (Andrej) von Weiss oldest {b. ca 1680 ?, d. 1735, husband of Agafia / Agafja von Weiss} and Agafja. Husband of Sophie Dorothea Gyllenfalk {Sophie Dorothea Gyllenfalk (von Goldenfalck), b. 1741 in St Petersburg, Russia; d. 1796. Daughter of Otto Georg Gyllenfalk and Dorothea Elisabeth von Bussen. Mother of Andreas Otto Georg (Andrej Andr.) von Weiss}]
and Sophie Dorothea Gyllenfalk.

Josephine nee Mercier:
compare!

Jacqueline Lee Kennedy Onassis (Bouvier) (1929 - 1994) come from Michel Bouvier b. 1792 in Pont-Saint-Esprit, Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrenees, France, died in Philadelphia.
Son of Eustache Bouvier and Therese Mercier [see MERCIER in Russia !].

Therese Mercier b. AUG 1766 in France, d. 1828 / or 1850 in France, was the daughter of Joseph Mercier and Anne Trintignant;
wife of Eustache Bouvier and mother of Michel Bouvier.
Above Joseph Mercier b. circa 1740 was the son of Melkior Mercier.

Michel married Sarah Anne Pearson and had 2 children. Michel married 2nd to Louise C. Vernou and had 8 children. He died in 1874 in Massachusetts, USA [or Philadelphia].

The MERCIER family - Paris, London, St Petersburg:

JOSEPH MERCIER / Josephine Friedrichs, born Mercier (1778 - April 5, 1824) - a favorite of the Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich, with whom in 1806-1820, she was in cohabitation. Since 1816, after the award of the Russian nobility, she was called Ulyana Mikhailovna Alexandrova.
Mother of the only son of the Grand Duke KONSTANTIN,
Pavel Alexandrov (1808-1857) ROMANOV.

Maybe she was the daughter of Jean Guillaume MERCIER, 1741-1796, m. in 1773 to Catherine SCHMITS, 1740- 1796,
and granddaughter of Jean Jacques MERCIER 1698-1774 + Marguerite GUILLAUME b. ca 1718/1720 [see below !].

The life of Josephine / Josephine Friedrichs, born Mercier was full of romance adventures for the first time when she was 14 years old!
She was born in 1778 or ca 1780 in Paris in the family of artisan Mercier.
Very young Josephine entered the service in the fashionable Parisian store of Madame Boudet de Terre / Mrs. Budde de Terre. "Juju", as everyone called her, at the age of 14 she gone to England.
After spending four years in one of the London boarding houses, the next two years, Josephine lived with her patron, who then suddenly died without a will, and not marrying her.

Josephine, in 1798, met in London a German [married him ca 1803] who came from Russia, who was called Colonel Baron Alexander von Friedrichs, a wealthy landowner from the Baltic region;
in fact - Eustache Ivanovich Friederichs (about 1772 - after 1834), the son of Revel's bourgeois.
Her husband back to Russia, leaving his wife temporarily in London. Josephine decided to go to Russia in 1805 to St. Petersburg. Here she learned that Friedrichs was a simple courier who had recently traveled to England with the dispatches of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs!
She was welcomed by an old acquaintance, Mrs. Budde de Terre, who now lived in Petersburg and had a fashion store! She went to her shop in the manager's office.
Soon Alexander Friedrichs returned from the Caucasus and persuaded Josephine to return to him.
After living with him for two years in poverty [1806-1807], in a rented small apartment, she decided to divorce him. Josephine met Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich [1807].
Josephine found a lover, friend and patron: in 1807, she divorced her husband and settled in the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, and in 1808 she had a son named Pavel Konstantinovich Alexandrov.
Interesting details left in the memories of the famous Denis Davydov. Denis Vasilyevich Davydov (b. 1784, Moscow) is a Russian poet.
Konstantin Pavlovich missed them and in 1813 he wrote to Count Vasilyev. Count Vladimir Fedorovich Vasilyev (1782 - 1839, Moscow) - nephew of the Minister of Finance Alexei Ivanovich Vasiliev, the son-in-law of Ivan Kutaisov, in 1820-23, the Tula governor.

Ulyana (Josephine) Mikhailovna Aleksandrova, nee Mercier, m. Friderichs, in the second - Weiss (1788 - 1824).
According to the memoirs, Josephine was charming.
In 1815, Josephine followed, along with her 8-year-old son, to Warsaw, where she lived with KONSTANTIN in the same house.
Josephine began to be called Ulyana Mikhailovna Alexandrova, in Warsaw, but at this time Konstantin Pavlovich fell in love with the young Polish countess Jeanette Grudzinskaya (1795-1831) and Countess Anna Potocka wrote on this love in her memoirs.

Shortly before his marriage (May 27, 1820) Konstantin Pavlovich took care of the future fate of Josephine. On March 22, 1820, she married his adjutant, Colonel of the Guards Regiment, Alexander Sergeevich WEISS.

Josephine Mercier (Friderichs, Aleksandrova, Weiss) b. 1778 d. 1824; she married second time in 1820 to Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss / Alexander Gustav Johann von Weiss
(son of Sergei / Andreas Otto Georg von Weiss b. 1760);
her stepson Constantine Reinhold von Weiss b. 1839 d. 1917;
her grandson Aleksandr von Weiss b. 1870.
Above mentioned Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss / Alexander Gustav Johann von Weiss / Alexander Sergeevich b. 1792 d. 1845,
his father
Sergey or Andreas Otto Georg von Weiss b. 1760 d. 1821, and his mother Anna Maria Albrecht b. ca 1768.

Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss / Alexander Gustav Johann von Weiss was married 2nd [here was my mistake] to Anna Elisabeth von Wrangel / Anna Elisabeth Wrangell, b. 1804,
1st time in 1820 married to Josephine le Mercier or Lemercier b. 1778 d. 1824;
his children:
Nikolay von Weis b. 1833,
Alexandrina Elizabeth von Weiss b. 1837,
Constantine Alexandrovich / Konstantin Reinhold von Weiss b. 1839,
Alexander Karl Clemens / Alexander Alexandrovich b. 1840.

Anna Elisabeth von Wrangel / Anna Elisabeth Wrangell Betsy b. 1804. Marriage with Alexander Gustav Johann von Weiss b. 1792;
her children:
Nikolay von Weis b. 1833,
Alexandrine Elizabeth Delingshausen b. 1837,
mentioned Konstantin Reinhold b. 1839,
and last Alexander Carl Clemens b. 1840 d. 1921.

She died 1875 in Uchten.
Her father Georg Johan von Wrangell from Uchten (1760 in Reval - 1836, his brother Karl Magnus von Wrangell);
grandfather Reinhold Johann von Wrangell (1721 - 1767) from Koddil / Kodila, Raplamaa, Estland;
great-grandfather Karl Johann von Wrangell b. 1691, by Peter Trefilov at geni.com.

Mentioned Aleksandrov Pavel Konstantinovich / Aleksandrov Pavel K., Adjutant-General, son of Grand Duke Konstantin / Constantine Pavlovich and Ulyana Mikhailovna Aleksandrova / Josephine Fridriks / Ulyana Mikhailovna Alexandrova / Friedrichs Josephine; he was born 1808.
Godfather was the Emperor Alexander I.
His mother Josephine Friedrichs nee Mercier b. 1778 - d. 1824; 1805, she arrived to St. Petersburg, as an actress, in search of her husband.
In London she married to Colonel Alexander von Friedrichs, a personal aide-adjutant Emperor!
She found her husband and divorced.
Constantine Pavlovich / Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov met her 1807; in 1816, she taken name Juliana M. / Ulyana Mihajlovna Alexandrova. In 1820, Juliana M. married Colonel Weiss.

Her son Alexandrov in 1829 was appointed aide-adjutant to His Imperial Majesty, and in 1831 took part in the war against the Polish insurgents. 1846 - a major general; 1855 was appointed adjutant-general, and 1856 lieutenant general. Alexandrov Pavel Konstantinovich / Aleksandrov Pavel K. married in 1833 to Shcherbatov, Princess Anna Alexandrovna;
Pavel K. Alexandrov died 1857.

Note to Sergey or Andreas Otto Georg von Weiss b. 1760 d. 1821, married Anna Maria Albrecht b. ca 1768; Andreas had also son KLEMENS von Weiss, b. 1799, d. 1895.
Andreas Otto Georg von Weiss genealogy - Andreas Otto Georg (Andrej Andr.) von Weiss (1760 - 1821) junior, born in Riga, Latvia. Died, 17 Oct 1821 in Dresden, Germany.
Son of Andreas Weiss senior and Sophie Dorothea Gyllenfalk.

Andreas junior [Sergei / Andreas Otto Georg von Weiss b. 1760] was the husband of Anna Marie. Father of
Gustav Johann Alexander von Weiss [Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss / Alexander Gustav Johann von Weiss m. in 1820 in Warsaw to Josephine nee Mercier];
Sophia Marianna (Sophia Andreevna) Princess Trubetskaya;
Andreas Franziskus von Weiss; Clemens von Weiss and Katharina Antoniette von Weiss.

Note:
Marguerite GUILLAUME, b. ca 1718/1720:
maybe as Marie with parents
Charles GUILLAUME, born 12 December 1688;
and Gabrielle NOGARET.


2.

A strongest organization in the region of Napoli / Naples was the Carbonari movement in 1820; they proclaimed a constitutional monarchy in Naples.

King Ferdinand I accepted vision of social revolution political changes. Vienna and the Holy Alliance directed intervention against the revolution in 1821. Reintroduced the absolute rule of Ferdinand I.

There are many theories about the creation of the Carbonari movement; creators were to be French Freemasons in opposition to the Masonic Swedish Rite or officers who came to Italy with Joseph Bonaparte and Murat to propagate fighting with the reign of Ferdinand IV; there is also a view that English created in Sicily the Carbonari movement, either Queen Maria Carolina of Austria or the Italian Illuminati at the end of the eighteenth century.

Giuseppe Garibaldi b. 1807 in Nice, politician, and fighter for the unification of Italy, was a Freemason, Grand Master of the lodge Grande Oriente d'Italia, but his grandfather and father were shipowners, owners and captains of small vessels in the northern and western Italy; he joined the revolutionary Carbonari. In February 1834 he took part in a failed uprising led by Mazzini in Piedmont, in Genoa.

Giuseppe Mazzini b. 1805 in Genoa, a journalist, a fighter for freedom together with Garibaldi, also Mazzini was a Freemason; maintained close contacts with Albert Pike, also a Freemason.


We must back now to Napoli / Naples / Neapol:

Silvati, Joseph b. in Naples 1791, lieutenant of the Bourbon cavalry, former officer of Murat, affiliated with the Carbonari, together with M. Morelli stationed in Nola (1-2 July 1820), and started the riots of 1820-21;

after the revolution failed he fled to Ancona; arrested by the papal authorities and handed over to the Bourbon government, was sentenced to death and executed.

In Naples, the conspiracy, which was not intended to overthrow King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies but only to ask a constitution, was growing rapidly and involved senior officers. In March 1820 the message from Spain across quickly in the Kingdom of Naples to strengthen the Carbonari and Masonic movements.
Lt. M. Morelli, head of the section of the Carbonari in Nola, decided to involve his cavalry regiment in the conspiracy. He was joined by Giuseppe Silvati, also lieutenant, and Luigi Minichini, anarchist and priest from Nola.
In the night of 1 to 2 July 1820, head of the Carbonari, Morelli and Silvati gives the kick off of the conspiracy by deserting with about 130 men and 20 officers. Quickly, Minichini joined and he wants to come the countryside to recruit peasants; Morelli, meanwhile, wants to go directly to Avellino where General Pepe was in command; Minichini leaves the expedition; the young officer Michele Morelli, supported by his troops, headed Avellino; on 2 July, in Monteforte, he was welcomed triumphantly. The next day, Morelli, Minichini and Silvati are entering in Avellino. Welcomed by the municipal authorities, and the constitution on the Spanish model is proclamed;

Morelli passes the power in the hands of Colonel De Concilij, Chief of Staff to General Pepe.
Minichini goes back to Nola; on July 5, the insurgency extends to Naples, where General Guglielmo Pepe gathered around him many military units.
King Ferdinand I was forced to give Constitution. Elections are held and parliament seat for the first time on 1 October 1820.

But the first spark of uprising was in Nola in the night between 1 and July 2, 1820; Lieutenant Michele Morelli 30 years, was a native of Monteleone Galasso (near Foggia) and Lieutenant Joseph Silvati was from Naples; it's a list of 21 conspirators who journeyed from Nola, on the night between 1 and July 2, 1820: Luigi Minichini from Nola, priest; Dominic Gentile of Nola; Antonio Montano from Naples, coffee makers; Camillo Sepe from Nola, pharmacist; Rossi Giovanni of Nola; others from:
Santa Maria a Vico, Armigeri, San Giovanni in Teduccio, Pozzo Ceravolo, and Piazzolla Nola.

The Revolutions of 1820 was a revolutionary wave in Europe: in Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Italy for constitutional monarchies; and in Greece. The 1820 revolution began in Naples against King Ferdinand I; this success inspired Carbonari in the north of Italy to revolt too. In October 1820 and in February, 1821, Austria send an army to crush the revolution in Naples. The King of Sardinia also called for Austrian intervention. The Neapolitans, commanded by General Pepe, made no attempt to defend, and were defeated at Rieti on 7 March 1821. The Austrians entered Naples.


In 1823 or 1822, Michal Kleofas Oginski traveled with relatives in Italy, lived in Florence, where he died on October 15, 1833 in Florence; his main business was a literary and musical editorial work. He was buried at the monastery cemetery close to the Church of Santa Maria Novella, and later reburied in the Pantheon of Santa Croce.

The father of Michal Kleofas Oginski b. 1765, was Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.

Michal Kleofas Ogiński, owner of the Helenow palace, Otrębusy, Komorow, Helenow and Opacz, was born as Michal Kleofas Ogiski in Guzow close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765; was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer; his father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paulina nee Szembek.

Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 / 1730 or in Warsaw in 1731, d. on May 31, 1800 Slonim or Warszawa, in 1755 was landowner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800, next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow) was Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833, and after Helenow village of the Oginski family, in ca 1800 come to hands of Tadeusz Ostrowski (ca 1800 to 1817 Tomasz Adam Ostrowski, 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki and Jakub Ksawery Potocki).

In 1781 above named Michal Kazimierz Oginski was appointed deputy of the Lithuanian provinces, and a year later went abroad. He was in Brussels, Amsterdam, Berlin, Vienna, traveled to England. Visiting Prussia, asked for help of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm II, to regain their estates in Russia.

Michal Kazimierz Oginski, General lieutenant, provincial governor since 1764, composer, writer, poet, cousin of Andrzej Ignacy Oginski / Andrew Ignatius, who was the father of the composer Michael Cleophas Oginski.

His parents:
Joseph Tadeusz Oginski and Anna Korybut-Wiśniowiecka;
marriage with Aleksandra Czartoryska.

Countess Olga Kalinowski born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in (1840 acc. to Russians) 1844 and her son:
Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1848 or 1849.
We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow.

Countess Olga Kalinowski was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818.

This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women:
with unknown princess Lubomirska ca 1867
and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki.


Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.

Дузи Козрое / Хозрой / Cosroe Dusi b. 1808, was an Italian painter, active for many years in St Petersburg, Russia; Cosroe was born in Venice, his mentor was the painter Teodoro Matteini, in 1838, he painted for the Fenice Theater. He traveled through Monaco, Germany, and Russia. In 1838, Dusi designed prints celebrating the visit of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. Dusi had briefly lived in Munich, Bavaria, but around 1839 / 1840, the Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia, after visiting his Venetian studio, invited Dusi to St Petersburg. In Russia, he painted portraits of the Grand Duke and members of the imperial family and the court; he had over the years periodically revisited his native Venice. He returned to Venice in 1856, and died in 1859 / 1860 near Vicenza.

Dusi become best friends of the Earl and Countess Orlov (Orlov !), and they introduced him to families Laval, Branicki, Potocki, Buturlin,
with artists Bryullov, Whigs, Vendramin, architect Cavos, Count Tolstoy, the Secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts, with Olenin, director;
on the pages of his diary known Stackenschneider, Montferrand, Rossi, Bruno, Grech, Bulgarin; the Grand Duke Alexander, Countess Kalynovska / Kalinowski, merchant Gromov, Countess Orlova.

He wrote down:
1840, on 27 June, the family Branicki with Countess Kalinovsky leaves Petersburg; they ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. July, 12: I went to Tsarskoye Selo, where the Countess Kalynovska-Plautin / Plautyn first posed for me and paid 3500 rubles for two portraits of her sisters Olga Kalinowska and Josephine / Jozefina Kalinowska.

Olga Kalinouski / Kalinowska first love Crown Prince Alexander. Olga Kalynovska born to a noble Polish family. Her mother was from a noble family Potocki, her father served as a cavalry general. Olga was at the Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna's / Nikolayevna court. Soon Olga met the Crown Prince Alexander - young people are often seen in the palace, dancing on shiny balls and masquerades; Olga became the first lover of Alexander Nikolayevich Romanov.

Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna wrote of her beloved brother;

Countess A. A. Tolstay / Tolstoj also noted Kalinovskaya eyes; ... the beautiful eyes of Olga Kalinouski; this young lady, Polish descent, grew up in one of the schools of St. Petersburg. However, Emperor Nicholas I would never agree with such a choice son. Olga Kalynovska was not a princess, she still was not Orthodox.

L. V. Dubbelt recalls about Olga Kalinouski: it was scary!

However, on the Crown Prince Alexander return to St. Petersburg, romance with Olga Kalinovskaya erupts with renewed vigor.

In St. Petersburg Olga Kalynovska lived in the house of his sister Seweryna Kalinowska / Severina, who was married to General Nikolai Fedorovich Plautin / Plautyn;
this is probably why sometimes mistakenly called her as wife of N. F. Plautin.

In fact Kalynovska in 1840 (?) was married to the former spouse of her sister, rich Polish, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski (1808 - 1863). He was the son of the composer, author of the famous polonaise, M. K. Oginski.

The eldest son Ogiński will argue later that he was the son of Alexander II.

We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow.

Ольга Калиновская / Olga Kalynovska was lover since January 1837 on the so-called Chinese masquerade in which Kalynovska shows a first court lady. Tsarevich was then 19 years old. Then he was the Russian Emperor Alexander II (1818 - 1881 St. Petersburg), imperator all-Russian, and Polish king, Grand Duke of Finland (1855-1881) of the Romanov dynasty.

1837: Alexander was ready to abdicate, to marry her. in late April, Alexander once again went on a long journey. For a year, he visited Scandinavia, Austria, has traveled all the Italian and German states.

June 23, 1839, he returned to St. Petersburg and again met Olga Kalinovskaya, then, on March 4, 1840, Alexander went for his bride in Darmstadt. He returned to Russia with her in early September. December 5th, Grand Duchess of Hesse-Darmstadt Maximilian-Wilhelmina-Augusta Sophia Maria was baptized in the Orthodox rite and became Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna (1824-1880).

1839: Alexander spent the month of May in London, where he was warmly received by English aristocracy, was in Parliament, in Oxford, the Tower, the Bank of England and Westminster Abbey.
June 23, 1839 he returned to St. Petersburg to Olga Kalinovska.

A Diaries of 1840 by Zhukovsky / ZUKOWSKI:

November 1840: Glazunov and Zaikin, then Ungern. Visits: Nesselrode, Kalinovsky. I dined with Velgorskih. 1840, May, 9 - my doctor Schildbach ... Talk about the Empress and the Grand Duke. Grancy and Ricour. In the evening ... Bariatinskii. Talk about Strauss and Orlov. Kalynovska, the evening.

From the book by Leonid Lyashenko "Alexander II ... history of three solitudes":

... the heir to the throne has fallen in love for the first time in a serious way. The object of his passion became again a maid of honor ... of the Empress Alexandra Fiedorovna, Olga Kalynovska. Love heir to Kalinovskaya was for the royal family even more unacceptable than flirting with Borozdina. ... she also was a Catholic.

1840 acc. to Cosroe Dusi:
May 30. This morning began the portrait of Countess Josephine Kalinovskaya / Jozefina Kalinowska ... 1840, June, the 27. This morning the family Branicki leaves with Countess Kalinovsky. They ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. Then I went to Tsarskoye Selo, where the Countess Kalynovska-Plautin first posed for me and paid 3500 rubles for two portraits of her sisters Olga and Josephine. ...
Vladimir Korf's masquerade ball:
Korf invites to dance the beautiful Olga Kalinowski - first lady of the Empress and the beloved of heir Alexander, ... Vladimir Korf causing Alexander to a duel. ... but rumors of duel reach the emperor, ... Vladimir and his friend, an adjutant of the Crown Prince - Mikhail Repnin, miraculously escaped the shooting, deprived of all ranks and come under close observation of the head of the Third Division, Alexander Benkendorf.

And Olga Kalynovska goes away from court, to his native Poland, where she get married; Alexander agrees to marry Mary Hesse-Darmstadt.

Oginski, Michal Bogdan, 10 October 1848 - 25 March 1909 in Retow / Reutov, married to Countess Maria Gabriella Potulitskoy (b. 1855). Michael-Bogdan Oginski, Prince Oginski was the son of Aleksandr II Nikolaievich Romanov, Tsar of Russia and Olga Kalinovskya, Countess Kalinovskya.


I check my mistake with the ORLOV family and now it is correct:

Grigori Ivanovich Orlov (b. 1685 - see below !) m. Ljukeria Ivanovna Zinoviev (b. 1710) and had issue:

1. Ivan ORLOV, in 1762 as Count Orlov (b. 1728); m. Jelisaveta Feodorovna Rtistschev;

2. Grigori ORLOV, younger, in 1762 - Count Orlov, 1763 Furst von Orlov in Holy Roman Empire (b. 1734); m. 1776, Jekaterina Nikolaevna Zinoviev. Named above GRIGORI ORLOV, younger, had a son by Empress Catherine II of Russia, ie. Ct Alexis Bobrinsky, d. in Bogoroditsk in 1813; m. in 1796 to Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg.

"Alexei Grigorievitch Bobrinskoy, born in 1762 in Saint Petersburg; Count. Natural son of Catherine the Great and Grigori Orlov, secretly born in the Winter Palace at St. Petersburg and secretly raised at an estate in Bobriki until ... 1781 when Catherine wrote him a letter acknowledging her maternity. He was made a Count of the Russian Empire by his half-brother Emperor Paul III ... promoted to General-Major. He married Baroness Anna Dorothea von Ungern- Sternberg. Died at his estate at Bogoroditsk near Tula".

Cosroe Dusi, the painter, was very friendly with mentioned above the ORLOV family.

COSROE Dusi become best friends of the Earl and Countess Orlov (Orlov - here was my mistake !), and they introduced him to families
Laval,
Branicki,
Potocki,
Buturlin.

Inter alia Dusi known young Count NIKOLAI ORLOV, Alekseevich (1827 - 1885). Nikolay Alekseyevich Orlov was a Russian Ambassador to Belgium from 1859 to 1869. From 1869 to May 1870 he was the Ambassador of the Russian Empire to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Above
Nikolai Alexeyevich Orlov b. 1827, was the son of
Aleksei Orlov, Fedorovich, b. 1786 in Moscow.

The grandson of Fedor / FIODOR ORLOV, Grigorievich, [1741 - 1796].

The great-grandson of Grigori Ivanovich Orlov / GRIGORIJ ORLOV, Ivanovich, b. 1685 in Kaluga; the governor of Great Novgorod. Owner of the Salmi-county, in Karelia, after year 1777 to his dead.

Cosroe Dusi, the painter, was very friendly with
Count Aleksei Orlov, Fiodorovich [Aleksei Orlov, Fedorovich, b. 1786 in Moscow],
and with his wife OLGA Aleksandrovna,
and with her son NIKOLAI ORLOV [a painting in 1845].


Branicki - Kalinowski in 1840 in St Petersburg. Then in Warsaw, but Maria Kalinowska TRUBECKA moved to CRACOW in 1840. The line: Poniatowski - Tyszkiewicz in Berezyna and Lubuszany - Potocki - Branicki - Kalinowski in St Petersburg [the branch of Tadeusz Grabianka and the Bystrzanowski family] - Walewski of Wola Pszczolecka:

ANDRZEJ POTOCKI of Krzeszowice,
the son of Adam Jozef Mateusz Potocki; Andrzej died in Krzeszowice in 1872 - acted in STASZOW;
the grandson of Artur Potocki, 1787-1832, the Freemason-TEMPLAR and Zofia Branicka, 1790- 1879.

Wojciech Paszkowski was Commissioner General to Artur Potocki.

ARTUR POTOCKI married to Zofia Countess Branicka, probably granddaughter of Empress Katarzyna II. He bought a Palace in Cracow; and in Krzeszowice he built a summer residence

{the cousin of named General Franciszek Paszkowski - Paszkowski Franciszek (1818-1883), painter, landowner, deputy to the Galician parliament, economic activist. He was the son of Dominik Paszkowski and Anna Niemojewska (died 1872), the younger brother of Jozef Edmund. He learned painting with Rafal Hadziewicz, and then with Wojciech K. Stattler in Cracow, where he lived with his uncles Franciszek PASZKOWSKI, general, and Wojciech PASZKOWSKI, junior, a member of the Galician government in 1809, the manager of the Trzebniow estate and Krzeszowice. Franciszek Paszkowski - painter - went to Dusseldorf (1838), Dresden and Rome for further studies. He painted religious paintings, and many portraits: his father, brother and uncle, General Franciszek PASZKOWSKI in 1814 [in Warsaw], Tytus Chalubinski, and Antonina Jachowicz}.

In 1818, Artur Potocki became an adept of the 33rd degree of the Scottish Masonic Lodge.
ARTUR POTOCKI was married to Zofia Branicki Potocka born on 11 January 1790 in Warsaw, whom she married in 1816, a philanthropist.
She was the daughter of Franciszek Ksawery BRANICKI and Aleksandra.

Zofia Branicki Potocka was an art lover
[compare the above Countess Giulia Samayloff / Julia von der Pahlen (1803-1875), Julia Samoilova / Yuliya Pavlovna Samoilova],
collected, among others Italian painting.
She founded a hospital and shelter for the poor in Krzeszowice and named him husband Artur Potocki. She helped the wounded in the January Uprising in 1863.
She was the initiator of the reconstruction of the chapel of Saint Leonard in Wawel. She was buried in Krzeszowice on January 9, 1879.

Mentioned above
Franciszek Ksawery Branicki b. ca 1730 in Barwald; the first general royal adjutant in 1764; Minister of War; general of Lithuanian artillery in 1768-1773, Lieutenant General of the Crown Forces since 1764, General of the Russian Empire in 1795, MP in 1752 and in 1764.

The classicist Yusupov Palace until 1830 was in the hands of Branicki. Catherine II gave him the dowry of Aleksandra Engelhardt (1754-1838), who in 1781 married Franciszek Ksawery BRANICKI, from 1795 the Russian general. Franciszek Ksawery Branicki (about 1730-1819).

In the eighteenth century, a palace was erected for Senator Piotr Trubiecki.
The next reconstruction was made in 1835 for the new owner - count Wladyslaw Grzegorz Branicki (1783-1843), Russian general and senator, son of Franciszek Ksawery Branicki (ca. 1730-1819) and Aleksandra von Engelhardt (1754-1838), considered to be the unhappy daughter of Catherine II. For the Russian Empire Branicki served both during the Napoleonic campaign in 1812-1813, and in 1830, when he strongly condemned the November Uprising. He became a senator. He died in Warsaw.

Wladyslaw Grzegorz Branicki.
In childhood, a favorite of Tsarina Katarzyna. In 1838, after the death of his mother, he became the owner of the Branicki's estates; 1839, he received confirmation of the count's title in Russia.
1840-1843 in Warsaw, with the Trubecki family.
His wife in 1813 was the daughter of Szczesny Potocki - Roza Potocki.

Aleksander Branicki b. 1821, d. 1877 in Nice / Nicea, the owner of Sucha.
The son of named Wladyslaw Branicki and Roza Potocki.
The brother of Ksawery; Konstanty; Wladyslaw Branicki.
1821-1840 in St Petersburg; in Warsaw / Warszawa in 1840, he known Maria Kalergis.
He was sent to Saratov by the tsarist authorities for supporting the January Uprising and financing the insurrection activities, and then, even in 1863, he was displaced outside of Russia and leaving hereditary estates near Kiev in Ukraine: Stawiszcz and Janiszowka.

Aleksandra Potocka, Aleksandryna (1818-1892), born in Petersburg, as a child of Stanislaw Septym POTOCKI + Katarzyna Branicki;
the granddaughter of Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki.

Stanislaw Potocki died in 1831; then Aleksandryna Potocka was living under care of Zofia Branicki Potocki, the wife of Artur Potocki - the Templar - in Biala Cerkiew, St Petersburg and Krzeszowice. ARTUR married to Zofia Countess Branicka, probably granddaughter of Empress Katarzyna II.

Aleksandryna Potocka was the owner of LUBUSZANY, 13 km to Miezonka.

Aleksandryna Potocka became friends with her cousin, Eliza Branicka, the later Eliza was the wife of Zygmunt Krasinski, in 1835 until 1876. Miss Potocka formally remained under the care of Tsar Nicholas I. Around 1836, she became the lady of the imperial court [see above on Kalinowski - Branicki fate in 1840 !]. On her marriage with her cousin August Potocki from Wilanow recalled Jadwiga Dzialynski Zamoyska years later.

Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Tyszkiewicz, I voto Potocka, II voto Dunin-Wasowicz, was the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, and Konstancja Poniatowski, the king's niece

[Konstancja Poniatowska Tyszkiewicz, 1759-1830; was the niece to the King, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, who had a brother KAZIMIERZ Poniatowski born 1721].

Konstancja PONIATOWSKA was the daughter of Apolonia Ustrzycka, 1736-1814, and Duke Kazimierz Poniatowski (1721-1800), General, the brother of named King, Stanislaw August Poniatowski.

The brother of mentioned Konstancja was Stanislaw Poniatowski (1754 - 1833); the sister - Katarzyna Poniatowska b. 1760.

Konstancja in 1775 married Ludwik Tyszkiewicz (1750-1808), MP, the Lithuanian Marshal in 1793.
Interesing network:
Aleksander Pociej d. 1770 the owner of Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce close to SLUCK - BARTLOMIEJ Niepokojczycki [the grandfather of General ARTUR Niepokojczycki] -
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army, d. 1808 the owner of BEREZYNA and [with his wife] of LUBUSZANY [13 km to MIEZONKA of the Konstantynowiczs after 1842], with Ludwik's daughter -
Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776-1867. Anna Tyszkiewicz, the owner of the BEREZYNO - Luboszany estate, married to Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845.

Konstancja's daughter:

Anna Tyszkiewicz (1776-1867), m. Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki in 1805 in Wilno [1805 - Anna Potocka, Dunin- Wasowicz, nee Tyszkiewicz gave her ex-husband Aleksander Potocki, the estate of ZATOR],
with 3 children:
Natalia Potocka,
Maurycy Potocki and
August Potocki.

Anna Tyszkiewicz (1776-1867), grew up in Bialystok under the care of a French governess at the court of her cousin, Izabela Branicka, the sister of King Stanislaw August PONIATOWSKI.

Anna Tyszkiewicz married Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki, the son of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki. Her second marriage with Dunin-Wasowicz, Adjutant of Emperor Napoleon I.
Above Stanislaw Wasowicz - Dunin b. in 1785 in Wolyn / Volhynia, died in 1864 in Paris, General in 1831, Count. In 1831 - moved out to ZATOR.

We back to Kazimierz Poniatowski:
Acc. to Carlos Federico Cantarito Bunge Molina y Vedia:

above mentioned Stanislaw Poniatowski b. 1676 in Chojnik / Gromnik, son of Franciszek Poniatowski,
father to
Kazimierz Jakub Poniatowski,
Franciszek,
Aleksander,
Ludwika Maria Zamojska,
Izabela Antonina Mokronowska - Branicka,
Stanislaw II August Poniatowski King of Poland,
Andrzej Poniatowski,
Michal Jerzy Ludwik Poniatowski [see MALESZEWSKI and Venture de Paradise + Jozef Sulkowski + Marshal MURAT !].


3.

Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899.

Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Swiatopelk Mirski took part in the Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878; he studied at the General Staff Academy to 1881, in 1887 he was the commander of staff of 3rd Grenadier division; 1895 the Governor of Penza, and in 1897 the Governor of Yekaterinoslav. 1900 Sipiagin appointed him Assistant Minister of the Interior and Commander of the Imperial Corps of Gendarmes. 1902 Governor-General of the North-Western province: Vilna, Kovno and Grodno; was credited with successful liberal reforms, stopping pogroms against the Jews. 1904 Minister of the Interior after Plehve's assassination. His appointment was seen as a victory of liberals, as a victory of the party of widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna who supported the liberal reforms; the Sviatopelk-Mirski's plan included transferring more power to the State Council of Imperial Russia.

On January 22 / January 9, 1905 occurred the massacre known as Bloody Sunday; he never had authorised the shooting of the demonstrators, but his opponents said that he not only did authorise the shooting but also in order to push his own political agenda actively encouraged the demonstration.
He was replaced (on 18 January) as Minister of the Interior by Bulygin in February 1905.

Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski 1857 - 1914, married to Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska;
she was from a branch of Wassili Bobrinsky, b. 1804, d. Moscow in 1874, son of Alexei Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1752, who married 1796 to Anna Dorotea / Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg (1769 Tallinn - St. Petersburg in 1846) daughter of the Tallinn commendant Woldemar Conrad von Ungern-Sternberg b. 1739;

Wassili Bobrinsky 1 m. 1824 to Pss Lydia Gortschakova b. 1807, 2 m. 1830 to Sofia Sokownina b. 1812, 3 m. 1869 to Alexandra Utschakova
(his brothers:

A. Alexei Bobrinsky, 1800 - 1868, m. 1821 to Css Sophia Samojlowa b. 1799,

B. Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899 ?).

Her daughter was
Julia Pawlowna Bobryńska / Julia Broel - Plater, Gołąbek - Jezierska, nee Bobrinski / Bobryńska, 1823 - 1899, married Waldemar Gołąbek-Jezierski Count, b. 1822, died 1855 in Warsaw.
He was son of Jan Nepomucen Paweł Gołąbek-Jezierski Count and Karolina.

Julia 2nd time married Cezar August Broel - Plater in 1859; Cezar / Cezary August Plater was born on September 8, 1810, in Wilno. They had 2 sons including Cezary Broel-Plater.
Julia 1st married Waldemar Gołąbek - Jezierski in 1851; Waldemar was born in 1822. They had one son Aleksander Gołąbek - Jezierski.

The father of mentioned above Julia was above named Pavel Alekseevich Bobrinski / Paweł Aleksiejewicz Bobryński and Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska Junosza, Countess, nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska.

Paweł Bobrynski / Bobrinski was born on October 27, 1801, in Saint Petersburg; Julia Sonocka Bielińska was born in 1790 or 1804. Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska, ca 1790 / 1804 - 1892; m. 1822, after death of husband she moved to Paris;
her father Stanisław Kostka Bieliński died 1812 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, served on the court of the King Stanisław August Poniatowski; Marshal of the Parliament in 1793, m. Katarzyna nee Golicyn, b. 1775, d. 1825 in Saratow.

The family of above Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
a.
Elżbieta Bielińska m. 1779 in Mogilany to Franciszek Wielopolski,
b.
Franciszek Bieliński 1740 - 1809, 1776 Nat. Educ. Com., 1794 the Kosciuszko Uprising, owner of Kozłowka to 1799, and the Otwock palace, m. Krystyna Sanguszko.

The father of above named Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:

Michał Bieliński died 1747, the Chelmno province governor, Sztum office, 1725 the King court, 1736-42 Kozłowka palace near by Lubartow;

m. 1st to Aurora Maria Rutowska daughter of Fryderyk August II and Fatima, grand-daughter of Jan Jerzy II Saxon / Sas and Anna Zofia of Danmark, 2-v. Claude Marie de Bellegarde;

m. 2nd time to Tekla Pepłowski grand-daughter of Jadwiga Niemyski, of the Kozłowka estate.

Wassili Bobrinsky / Wasyl Bobrzynski had 2 children:

I. Alexei Bobrinsky 1831 - 1888, 1st m. 1855 to Pss Catherine Lvova b. 1834, 2nd m. 1859 Sofia Cheremeteva b. 1842.

He had 4 children:

1. Wassili Bobrinsky 1860 - 1861,
2. Ct Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937, he m. twice,
3. Ct Wladimir Bobrinsky 1862 - 1938, married to a French woman,

4. Css Catherine Bobrinsky / Ekaterina Alexeiievna 1864 - 1926 m. 1886 to Pr Peter Swiatopolk-Mirski / Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski d. 1914;

II. Css Sofia Bobrinsky 1837 - 1891 m. Viktor von Keller d. 1906.

The father of Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
Michał Bieliński / Michael Belinsky, coat Junosza, d. 1746, the provincial governor of Chelmno. Son of Casimir Louis Bielinski, a Polish diplomat and Louisa Maria Morsztyn (d. 1730),
daughter of the poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn / John Andrew Morsztyn.
Brother of Franciszek / Francis Bielinski, also the governor of Chelmno and the Grand Marshal of the Crown.

Michal's 1st wife Aurora Maria Rutowska (d. 1750), illegitimate daughter of the Polish king Augustus II the Strong Saxon, divorced.
The second wife was Tekla Popłowska (d. 1774) with son Franciszek Bielinski / Francis (d. 1809), the writer of the Crown and Stanislaus Kostka (d. 1812), Marshal of the Grodno Parliament. Michal was in 1738-1746, the voivode / governor of Chelmno.

Above mentioned Franciszek Bielinski / Francis Belinsky, coat Junosza, b. 1683, d. 1766 in Warsaw, the Grand Marshal of the Crown 1742 to 1766, the court marshal of the Crown 1732 to 1742, the provincial governor of Chelmno 1725-1732, treasurer of Prussia 1714 -1738.

Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski 1788-1868, Duke in 1861.
His son: Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron back to Russia in 1840, 1841 served at Caucasus -
his brothers and sisters:
1. Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, wife of Wilhelm Rodys, mother of Pelagia Joanna Findeisen

[Pelagia Joanna b. 1849 in Lublin - 1875 in Smilowice, wife of Gustaw Adolf Findeisen, and she was mother of
a.
Jadwiga Pawinska
(1868-1924, married in 1886, social activist, had a son Thaddeus, philologist; her husband Pawiński Joseph (1851-1925), a doctor of the Hospital of the Infant Jesus and St. Spirit in Warsaw, the Polish co-founder of cardiology. Born in Zgierz, was the son of John and Amalia Krohn and was brother of Adolf; schools in Łęczycy and in Warsaw, studied medicine at Imperial Univ. in Warsaw 1869-1874. He worked then at the clinic of diagnostic under Ignacy Baranowski; His brother was Adolf Stanisław Pawiński b. 1840 in Zgierz, d. 1896 in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Polish historian, archivist and assistant professor of the Warsaw School of Economics and professor of general history of the Imperial University of Warsaw. In 1862 Pawiński moved to the University of Dorpat in Estonia, 1864 he received the degree of Candidate of Sciences. Theodore Witte from Dorpat, admitted Pawiński to study abroad. First, he moved to Berlin, where he met Ranke. Later, he attended lectures of Jaffe and Droysen. He then went to Gottingen, 1868, after returning to Polish has been an associate professor at the Warsaw School of Economics and the Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw),
b.
Stanislaw Findeisen (1873-1970) + Alicja Paulina Handke 1896 - 1994
(her parents Hugo Handke and Matylda Zalern; Alicja Paulina Handke born in Pultusk and died in Warszawa; her son:
Wladyslaw Findeisen b. January 28, 1926 in Poznań, Polish engineer, a professor of technical sciences, rector of the Technical University of Warsaw (1981-1985), automatic, co-founder of systems theory in the context of the wider science of control / adjustment, the chairman of the Primate Social Council, a senator I and II term in Warsaw. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle);
c. and
Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 + Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt - Jastrzebiec 1889-1975: his children:
Gustaw Findeisen b. 1912 Smilowice, d. 1992 in Warszawa;
Andrzej Findeisen 1915 - 1944 with daughters:
c1. Bellert Zieleniewska,
c2. Grocholska;
Tomasz Findeisen 1919 - 2004 + Aniela had 3 children;

and last son of Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 and
Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1889-1975 was
Krystyn Tadeusz Findeisen 1924-1944]

and next daughter of above Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, was
Zofia Joanna Saturnina Sliwicka;
and next brothers and sister of above Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron:
2. Ekaterina d. 1879;
3. Vladymir 1823 - 1861, and

4. Dmitri / Dmitry Ivanovich / Dmitrij 1824 or 1825 - 1899, Infantry General and politician, Caucasus and Russo-Turkish wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia;
his son Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857 - 1914), the governor of Penza and Vilna governments, Minister of Interior of Russia;

5. Mikolaj / Nicholas Ivanovitch Sviatopolk-Mirski 1833 - 1898; a godson of Tsar Nicolas II, and was "aide de camp" of the Tsar, General-Adjutant 1874 (1877-1878 war), the Caucasus wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia, 1881-1898 The Don Cossack chief;
1891 he bought at Princess Mary Lvovna Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst the estate of Zamir, located in the Minsk government, the Novogrudek county, after death of Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg; 1898 Member of the State Council; he died at his estate Mir;
1st m. Princess Vera Ilyitchnina Gruzinsky / Grouzinzky in Tiflis, Georgia on 4 May 1860; 1842-1861 or 1863, daughter of Ilija Georgijevich, with son Ilija;
2nd m. in St. Petersburg in 14 April 1868 to Cleopatre Mikhailovna Khanykov, 1845-1910.

4.

Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937.

5.

John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig, and Caroline Margaret Clayton. His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt.

Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas.

Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green, Scotland - on border of England. Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.
Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas. Gretna is 1 / 2 km south of Gretna Green! After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison.

6.

NERI MICHELE (born 16 OCTOBER 1750, Firenze / FLORENCE, ITALY, died ca. 1822 in Firenze).

7.

Ancestors of Johann Laval Anton Maria Viktor, count Nugent-Pallavicini-Centurioni-Fibbia b. 1877 in Graz - died 1930;
parents:
Laval Jeremias Anton, count Nugent b. 1843 in Triest (d. 1923 in Florence: 1st m. to Baroness Emma von Zahony b. 1847 in Triest, 2nd to Maria Pallavicini Fibbia of Centurioni, 3rd to Karoline von Steininger), and Maria Pallavicini Fibbia, marquise of Centurioni b. 1850.
The parents of above Jeremias:
Johann, count Nugent b. 1796 in Dublin, died in Brescia, and Regina Contessa Abriani b. 1813.
The father of above Johann b. 1796:
Michael Anton Nugent b. ca 1750, who was also father of above:

Laval Graf Nugent von Westmeath 1777 - 1862, served the armies of Austria and the Two Sicilies; born at Ballynacor, Ireland.

8.

Jozef Hieronim Retinger (17 April 1888 - 12 June 1960) was a Polish political adviser. Since 1906 in Paris, among his new friends was the Marquis de Castellane, and an artists from Left Bank cafes; 1908 docteur of Sorbonne, next Univ. of Munich,
Florence ca 1907?,
1908 met masonry in London,
1911 Cracow under protection of Count Zamoyski and the Godebski family, and
again in 1911 or 1912 to London,
1912 return to Cracow,
married Otylia Zubrzycka;

sometimes to Paris and again London where Jozef Hieronim Retinger opened a bureau of the Supreme National Council; met with Joseph Conrad, 1914 ? and next he fled to Spain and met L. N. Morones and P. E. Calles, moved in 1917 to Mexico; Jozef Hieronim Retinger travelled to USA and met Felix Frankfurter and Sir Edward Bedington-Behrens.

9.

Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, b. 1784 in Livorno, west of Firenze / Florence, banker,
his grandfather, Moses Vita Haim Montefiore had emigrated from Livorno to London in the 1740s,
but had close contact with Livorno;

his parents, Joseph Elias Montefiore and Rachel Mocatta, were in Italy on a business journeys;

Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet began his career as tea merchants, was Jew broker in the City;
married Judith Cohen and her sister,
Henriette / Hannah married Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777 - 1836),
for whom Montefiore's firm acted as stockbrokers.

Nathan Rothschild was a London banker, but was born in Frankfurt am Main, as child of Mayer Amschel Rothschild;
1806 in London he married Hannah Barent-Cohen (next of kin with Karl Marx).

10.
The Bobrinsky family and the Demidov di San Donato:

Andrei SCHUVALOV b. 1802, m. Fekla Valentinovich or Tekla daughter of Walenty b. 1801,

(Andrei was son of Pjotr SCHUVALOV b. 1771, and grandson of Andrei b. 1743);

his daughter and son:
a.
Sophia (b. 1829), m. in 1850 to Ct Aleksander Bobrinsky (d. 1903);
b.
Pawel SCHUVALOV (Schouwalov; Schuwalov) b. 1830, m. 1st in 1855 to Pss Olga Belosselsky-Belozersky and m. 2nd to Maria Aleksandrovna Komarov;
his son
Aleksander b. in Vartemiagui in 1881, m. 1st in 1903 (div) Pss Jelena Demidov di San Donato / Elena Demidov b. St.Petersburg 1884 - died in Florence in 1959,
m. 2nd in 1916 to Sophia Gfn von Fersen;

Jelena / Elena b. Switzerland, Vevey in 1864 - d. Paris 1932,
m. in Batignolles 1881 to Ct Andrei Bobrinsky (d. Paris);
she was daughter of Pjotr (b. 1819),
and grand-daughter of Pawel SCHUVALOV (b. 1776) m. Pss Barbara Szachowska / Warwara Shakhovsky (b. 1796),
the great grand-daughter of Andrei (b. 1743 - above mentioned!) m. Css Jekaterina Petrovna Saltykov (d. Rome 1816).

11.
Николай Никитич Демидов / Nikolay N. Demidov (1773 - 1828 in Florence) in 1822 moved to Florence (1815?); he was one of the richest people in the Russian Empire;
Demidov, was living in San Nicolo in Oltrarno, a poor part of Florence; immediately after the death of Nicholas Nikitich, his children Anatoly and Peter ordered the sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini to marble monument; with family Demidov closely related two buildings in Florence - Villa San Donato and Villa Pratolino (also called Villa Demidoff).

Villa San Donato is located half a kilometer to the north-east of the park Kashin, outside the historic part of Florence, was built in 1822 - 1831;
a grandson of Nicholas Nikitich Demidov - Paul II did not like San Donato, preferring Villas Pratolino - the estate of the Medicis;
1881, the villa San Donato and the collection of art and minerals were auctioned.
Villa Pratolino (now often called the Villa Demidoff) was built on the ruins in 1822 in Pratolino town, 15 km north of the historic part of Florence.

12.
Павел / Паоло Трубецкoй / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866, Intra, north-west of Milano, south-east of Saanen in Switzerland; son of Петр Петрович Трубецки (1822-1892) and Ада Винанс / Ada Winans, 1835-1917, who lived in Florence; his half-brothers:
Пётр Николаевич Трубецкой (1858-1911), and Сергей Николаевич Трубецкой (1862-1905) of the Moscow Univ.; Paolo in 1914 - 1921 lived in USA.

Above Pyotr Trubetskoy / Петр Петрович Трубецкой / Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy was a Russian diplomat, administrator and general.

He was born in Tulcin / Tulchyn, Ukraine, died in Menton, France; son of Пётр Иванович Трубецкой and Emilia Petrovna, husband of Varvara Yuryevna 1828 - 1901, governor of Smolensk and Orel in 1844, friend of Tolstoi.

He has 3 daughters:

Мария b. 1863, m. to Александр Александрович Прозоровски - Голицын (1853 - 1914).

Prince P. Troubetzkoy, was attached to the Russian royal court; in 1863, he came to Italy as a diplomat of the Russian embassy in Florence, known the pianist Ada Winans 1835 - died 1917 / 1918 in Intra, who came to Florence to study singing. In 1865 he went again to Florence (Italy) on a diplomatic mission which included the supervision of the Russian church there.

Ada / Ада was daughter of Anthony Van Arsdale Winans and Mrs Jay, from New York; Ada in 1853 started work at the Doane Academy in Berlington, the New Jersey; moved to Florence to learn of bel canto (and to Spain). 1864 Ada finished a work in Milano and Florence; moved to Ghiffa / Ghifa in Lombard, in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 120 km northeast of Turin and about 7 km northeast of Verbania on the western shore of the Lake Maggiore. 1870 he was divorced, but were living in Intra;

Ada had 3 sons:

Пьер, Паоло and Луиджи / Luigi:

Pierre / Пьер / Петр b. 1864, m. in 1896, to the American writer Louise Amelie Rives (or Amelie Louisa Reeve 1863-1945, an American novelist and poet, her novel, World's End, became a bestseller in New York in 1914), he died in Charlotesville, VA;

Павел / Паоло / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866;
Луиджи 1867-1959, Navy military engineer (electricity), d. in Ghiffa 1957.

Ada's friends -
Аchille Tominetti, Leonardo Bazzaro, Paolo Sala, Augusto Laforet, Ulisse Grant, Stefano Turr, Cesare Correnti, the Cairolis;

1884 moved to via Borghetto, close to Porta Venezia, Venice. 1887 Ada and Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy separated, Pyotr lived in Milano with Marianna Chan / Han (?), and had son Питер Хан / Piotr Han (?) in 1886.


Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Neri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children
Amelia Zaluska,
Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka,
Ireneusz and
Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski.

Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children:
Tomasz Antoni Ogiński, Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński, Franciszek Ksawery Ogiński, Amelia Załuska, Ida Ogińska, Emma Ogińska.


Above mentioned Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata Count (b. Venice, 1877 - d. Rome, 1947), was an entrepreneur and Italian politician. Become rich by exporting tobacco from Montenegro, invested the gains acquired in the emerging electrical industry and in 1905, returned to his homeland, formed the Adriatic Society of Electricity.


Mr. Peter Wodzinski wrote in February 2013:

"...signals in 1939, that the German-Soviet pact is approaching, called then Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact (23rd August 1939/28th September 1939), Polish Intelligence service received much earlier from the British (they knew from listening and decryption of German diplomatic codes) via Colin Gubbins, operating in Poland under the guise of a sales representative in Bielsko-Biala (near the border of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, where the factory, next to the border of Germany, produced a version of Enigma).

Colin Gubbins, later head of the SOE, acted within the deep intelligence organization, informally co-operating with our II Department of the General Staff, outside the official structures of MI-6, an organization based on the private relationship between various influential personalities. Stephenson was a Canadian multi-billionaire , having interests in the whole world, including Germany, which served as 'cover'. He was closely associated with the Admiral Reginald Hall, head of the Royal Navy intelligence at the Great War 1914-1918, which has not ceased its activities after the war, and Bill Donovan, later head of the OSS.

The organization eludes historians, because there is no written sources. It work outside, and sometimes contrary, the governments of Britain and MI-6 (the latter was too bureaucratic), so do not could leave traces. It also had its anti-Soviet blade. There is one thing ... on the basis of age-old tradition:
'The King was the ultimate authority in secret-intelligence matters. He made the top intelligence appointments. The British had worked out their own system of checks and balances to prevent the monarch abusing such power - and to prevent a governing party exploiting secret agencies to serve its own ends'.

In other words, in addition to what is seen (also in the papers, even undisclosed) the second channel was still completely invisible, acting with 'blessing' of King George V and George VI, like Gubbins, or Major Desmond Morton, head of the structure for 'wet work'. (Republican opponent of Roosevelt in the 1940s? Darlan in 1942? De Gaulle, who was nearly been 'deleted' in May-June 1943? Or maybe Sikorski?).
The ignorance of the 'invisible channel' can lead to completely erroneous applications.

On the other hand, 'arson of Europe' made by Gubbins was not his idea; founder, theoretician and experimentator (on the small scale) was a Major Edmund Charaszkiewicz, the figure in Poland at all unknown ...

There are two important considerations:
1. Colin Gubbins gave it unofficially, because he and the entire organization so just acted on the basis of the King, Admiral Hall, Churchill, Donovan and Roosevelt.
2. The information submitted with a certain manner before the Ribbentrop - Molotow treaty was signed".

More: 'The Polish Underground Army, the Western Allies, and the Failure of...', by Michael Alfred Peszke:

The British were already thinking of helping the Poles develop guerilla forces in 1939, and this all evolved from a visit to London in late June 1939 General L. Rayski, then Stanislaw Wlodzimierz Pawel Gano, head of the Technical Section of the II Bureau, Mieczyslaw Frankowski in London, Charaszkiewicz - his contacts in London were
Col. Holland and Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins, who was seconded by the British War Office MI R, and who always had warm relations with the Poles.

Colin Gubbins, (1896 - 1976), head of the Special Operations Executive 1943 - 1946; October 1939 - Charaszkiewicz received a letter from his British colleague, Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins in which he informed Charasziewicz that he had been personally searching for him; Gubbins was also responsible for setting up the secret Auxiliary Units, a civilian force to operate behind the German lines if the United Kingdom was invaded during Operation Sea Lion, Germany's planned invasion.

Gubbins was born in Scotland (or in Japan) on 2 July 1896, the younger son and third child of John Harington Gubbins (1852 - 1929), Oriental Secretary at the British Legation. He was educated at Cheltenham College and at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.

Colin was half Scottish - his mother was a McVean

(inf. under copyright by Colin Houston:
Colin's full name was Major-General Sir Colin McVean Gubbins - a wiry Scots Highlander;
his mother's father Colin McVean had been Chief Surveyor of Japan;
the third child in the family, Colin McVean Gubbins was born in Japan in 1896 to Noni and Jack Gubbins.

His father Jack / John Harington Gubbins had been born in Agra, India in 1852 and worked in the British consular service as Oriental Secretary in the Tokio Legation.

His mother Noni / Helen Brodie McVean had been born in Japan in 1868, and was the eldest child of
Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan.

This clan come among others of Glen Lochy, Perthshire, Scotland and in 1753 in Killin, Perthshire.
The McVean clan from Glen Lochy, in Killin, and DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland;

that is Glen Lochay / Gleann Lochaidh ca 73 km west of Perth, and 60 km north-west of Stirling. Killin, Perthshire ca 60 km north-west of Sirling, and north of Callander and of Thornhill.

We remember on the governors of British Ceylon:

James Campbell, 1822 to 1824, Major general, was succeeded by Edward Barnes.

Colin Campbell b. 1776 d. 1847, Governor of British Ceylon 1841 to 1847 under Queen Victoria; 1792, ran away from the Perth Academy, returned to Scotland to enter a Navigation Academy in Perth, 1792 sailed for India, he was the fifth son of John Campbell of Melfort
(Colonel John Campbell, laird of Melfort - western Scotland and north-west of Glasgow, Kilninver - close to Melfort, and Kilmelfort - close to Melfort, in Argyllshire, Scotland, born 1730, his children:
1. Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell, b. 1767, Killin - half way from Melfort to Perth and west of Perth, in Perthshire, Scotland,
2. John Campbell, b. 1769, Killin, Perthshire,
3. Allan Campbell, b. 1770, Killin, and others children)

and Colina, daughter of John Campbell of Achallader - west-north-west of Perth, whose mother Katherine was a daughter of Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel - southern Glasgow.
His brother was Vice-Admiral Sir Patrick Campbell.

See in Bengal:
Latour and Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill.

Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling!
Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.

Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.

George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of the Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.

Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. was the son of Sir Henry Stirling of Ardoch, 3rd Bt.;
he married Christian Erskine, daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling, in 1762; died 1799. Children of Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. and Christian Erskine:

Mary Stirling d. 1847, Margaret Stirling, unknown daughter Stirling.

Above Mary Stirling married Ebenezer Oliphant, son of Laurence Oliphant, 6th of Condie and Margaret Murray, in 1790.

Children of Mary Stirling and Ebenezer Oliphant:
Laurence Oliphant, 8th of Condie b. 1791; William Oliphant b. 1792; Anthony Oliphant b. 1793; Christian Oliphant b. 1795; Lt. Col. James Oliphant b. 1796; Thomas Oliphant b. 1799.

Above Christian Erskine was the daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling.

Above John Erskine was born 1695, was the son of Lt. Col. John Edmund Erskine and Anna Dundas.

When the Oliphant family left Ceylon, the estate sold to Sir Harry Dias. Sir Anthony Oliphant's tea estate, the Oliphant Estate, situated in the hill country in Nuwara Eliya - 55 km south-east-south of Kandy, east of Colombo, 26 km east of Hatton, close to Lindula and Meepilimana - was the first estate to grow tea in Ceylon;
Anthony and his son Laurence are the first people to grow tea in Ceylon.

Sir Anthony's son, Laurence Oliphant, went on become a Member of the House of Commons.

Laurence Oliphant was the only child of Sir Anthony Oliphant (1793 - 1859), a member of the Scottish landed gentry. Laurence spent his early childhood in Colombo, and the Oliphant Estate in Nuwara Eliya.
In 1848 - 1849, he was in Europe,
1851 to Nepal, returned to Ceylon,
travel in Russia at the Black Sea in 1853
(Odessa ?; see below in 1855 on Adam Mickiewicz and Bednarczyk / Hudzik / Chudzik; Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople, then in 1858 he returned to London),
next - to 1861 Oliphant was secretary to Lord Elgin;
visited the Circassian coast during the Crimean War.
1861 Oliphant was appointed First Secretary of the British Legation in Japan, a visit to Korea, where he discovered a Russian force;
met Alice le Strange, married in London, 1872.


The Haraszkiewicz / Charaszkiewicz family:

Lithuania -
Mieszkuciszki (1834-1843);
Kozłowszczyzna (1812) in the Holszany parish;
Bohuszki (1804-1840);
Nowodworcy (1847),
Podbałwaniszki (1837),
Stodolniki (1836-1838) in the Oszmiany parish.

Named Holszany close to Oszmiany.

But Poniec is situated in the Gostyń county; 9 km to Rydzyna; 9 km to Bojanowo; 20 km to Gostyn.
The Lady owner was Css Mielzynska Mycielska. The wife of Stanisław Mycielski (b. 1767 in Nowa Wies close to Wronki, died in 1813, Poznan), the Polish independence activist, colonel of the Napoleonic army.

He was the son of Jozef MYCIELSKI, the governor of Inowrocław, and Franciszka Koźmiński Mycielska.

Żytowiecko was the part of the Rokosowo landestate, owned by (1846) Jozef Mycielski.
Jozef Roman Stanisław Mycielski b. 1801, died in 1885, Count, insurgent in 1831, the member of the MALTA ORDER.
Jozef Mycielski was the son of Stanisław Mycielski (General) and Anna Mielżyński Mycielska [see PONIEC].
Jozef Mycielski owned Spławie and Kobylepole. Studied in Poznan and in Berlin, in Italy, moved to Warsaw, emigrated, and back in 1831.

Stanislaw MYCIELSKI took his first studies at home under the guidance of priests from Gostyń; then studied natural sciences, geography and medicine in Paris. In 1789 he inherited the estates after his father's death. He established the main residence in Kobylempol, where he rebuilt the mansion. He continued activities after the Third Partition, and
maintained contact with General Stanisław Fiszer.
In November 1806 General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski sent a special letter to Mycielski, calling for him to take up the action.

Above
Jozef Mycielski (1733 in Leszno; d. 1789 in Breslau / Wrocław), general lieutenant in 1761, commander of the 1st Lithuanian Division, the Lithuanian general-adjutant in 1755, the governor of Inowrocław in 1784-1789, the Konin official in 1756.
He was the son of Maciej MYCIELSKI and Weronika Konarzewska of Konin (died in 1762).

Jozef was the owner of the palace in Pępow, which he expanded. Pępowo is a village in the district of Pępowo, within the Gostyń County, in the Greater Poland province.

The Konarzewski family owned Pępowo until the 18th century, when Weronika Konarzewska married Maciej Mycielski. Pepowo = Pampowo belonged to the county of Krobsk, and was a part of the Chociszewice estate, which was owned by (1846) Teodor Mycielski.

Mentioned
Stanisław Mycielski b. 1767, Colonel, the son of Jozef Mycielski 1733-1789.
The grandson of
Maciej Koźmiński, the Kalisz governor, lived 1690-1748.

The great-grandson of
Adam Mycielski, 1663-1723.
That is grandson of Maciej Mycielski 1690-1747, who was the son of named above Adam Mycielski 1663-1723 and Anne Niegolewska.
Anna Tuczyńska born Niegolewska, ca 1664, was the daughter of Maciej Niegolewski and Urszula Niegolewska born Żegocka. Maciej Niegolewski was born in 1640. Anna had a sister Ludwika Działyńska Niegolewska.
Anna married 1st Adam Jan Mycielski born in 1663. They had 3 children: Maciej Mycielski.
Anna died in 1723. Anna married 2nd to Andrzej Tuczyński. She lived in Szamotuły.


Now on
Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) married Katarzyna MYCIELSKA GORZYCKA MIELZYNSKA. MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki.

MACIEJ's Mielzynski children:
1. Elzbieta Mielzynska, m. Franciszek Wessel, official in Zakroczym;
2.
Urszula MIELZYNSKA + Antoni Walknowski

{[BRYGIDA BARDZKA was the daughter of Wojciech Marek Bardzki d. 1770] - see Jakub KIEDRZYNSKI junior}.

On above junior, Jakub Kiedrzynski:

Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798]. Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.

Brygida's father Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770, mother Helena Teresa Kozminska, 1706-1792.
Brygida's brothers:
Augustyn Bardzki of Wrzesnia, died in 1793, and Rafal Tadeusz Jan Bardzki, 1739-1758.
Her children:
Franciszek Wierusz Walknowski b. 1769 or before, and Teresa Wierusz Walknowska;
and BRYGIDA had with JAKUB Kiedrzynski:
Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska ARNOLD, b. 1770

{in Sobotka, 1798, Jan Arnold 1751-1840, the owner of Pecherzow, married Juljanna Kiedrzynski [2nd], b. ca 1770 / or in 1772-1811; he was 1st married Ruszkowska, widowed, the owner of Wierzchoslaw. Witness Maciej Bogdanski, official in KALISZ},

and Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.

Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski [compare the Pradzynskis and the Kiedrzynskis of WOLA WIAZOWA ! - the family of the author to this domain].

3. Marianna Krystyna;

4. and son Krzysztof Ignacy Mielzynski b. 1670, d. in Pawlowice in 1721, in 1693 official in KCYNIA; 1717 governor of Przemet.

Maciej / Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) married in 1667 to Elzbieta Baranowska - she died in 1682.

Above
Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI married in 1682 to Anna Goszycka / Gorzycka - she died in 1733, the daughter of Andrzej Goszycki / GORZYCKI and KATARZYNA MYCIELSKA, d. 1712.

MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska Gorzycka, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki or Andrzej Gorzycki.

Above
Krzysztof Mielzynski had the son Andrzej Walenty Mielzynski, 1698-1771; born in 1698 in Goscieszyn close to Wolsztyn (Wollstein); 9 km south-east to WOLSZTYN, 8 km north-east to WRONIAWY; north-west to PRZEMET; 18 km north-west to WILKOWO POLSKIE of Kiedrzyski-Zamoyski family. See Pradzynski-Kiedrzynski line. Compare Wola Wiazowa.

Above named
Andrzej Mielzynski d. 1771 in Pawlowice. Married in 1734 to Anna Petronella Bninska, b. before 1720 in GLOGOW - d. 1770, the daughter of Stanislaw Bninski + JOANNA Krzycka.

Andrzej's son -
Maksymilian Antoni Mielzynski, 1738-1799, born in Laszczyn - Cieladz [close to RAWA MAZOWIECKA]; d. in Pawlowice. Married in 1771 in Mierzeszyn (Meisterswalde) close to Trabki Wielkie, the Gdansk Pomeranie, to Konstancja Czapska, 1749-1813.
Her daughter:
Katarzyna Regina Barbara Cecylia Mielzynski, b. in 1775 in Rabin (Rombin), close to Koscian; d. 1817 in the Chobienice - Siedlec estate near Wolsztyn, and the PRUSSIAN border. Married in 1793 in Pawlowice (Pawlowitz) to Prokop Rufin Jozef Mielzynski, 1763-1800, the son of Hipolit Maciej Jozef Mielzynski 1733-1797 + Seweryna Lipska d. 1801,
with daughter
Gabriela Maria Konstancja Jozefa Mielzynski POTULICKA OGINSKA, b. 1798 in Kotowo - Granowo, close to Grodzisk Wielkopolski and south-west to Poznan; d. 1822 in Nice, France.

Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849.

She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki
[compare above mentioned MIELZYNSKI of PAWLOWICE and the WOLSZTYN district].

We back to MYCIELSKI:

Stanislaw's MYCIELSKI father - JOZEF MYCIELSKI, 1733-1789, born in Leszno, d. in Breslau / Wroclaw, General lieutenant in 1761, commander of the 1st Lithuanian Division, general-adjutant in 1755, official in Inowroclaw in 1784-1789, in Konin in 1756.

Jozef was the son of Maciej Mycielski and Weronika Konarzewski, d. 1762.
Jozef Mycielski was the deputy of the Starodub county to Parliament in 1754, of Kalisz in 1761. On May 7, 1764, in Poznan, he signed a manifesto recognizing the presence of Russian troops as illegal during king's election.

JOZEF's father - Maciej Mycielski b. 1690, died 1747 in Szubin, official in Poznan in 1737-1747, in KALISZ in 1732 -1737; the son of
Adam Jan Mycielski born in 1663,
and
grandson of MIKOLAJ Mycielski d. 1686.

MIKOLAJ MYCIELSKI was the brother of Katarzyna Radolinska (wife of ANDRZEJ RADOLINSKI) and Krzysztof Mycielski

(Krzysztof was the father of Andrzej Mycielski ca 1650-1707, official in KALISZ

[Andrzej Mycielski was the father of Jozef Mycielski; Teresa Skoroszewska; Krzysztof Maksymilian Mycielski; Stanislaw Adam Mycielski; Jan Ignacy Mycielski b. after 1690 / in 1696 - died in 1790

(Jan MYCIELSKI, a lieutenant of the royal army and Domicella Horodynski had the son Aleksander Mycielski 1723 - 1818, the Crown Army lieutenant general, envoy; and grandson, Erazm Mycielski b. 1769 in Kamieniec Podolski, died 1800 Kalisz, Colonel in 1794)];

and Krzysztof was the father of Katarzyna Mielzynska and Zofia Miaskowska).

Mentioned
MACIEJ Mycielski b. ca 1690
was the brother of Zofia Mycielska and Katarzyna Lacka

{compare: Jan MYCIELSKI / John Mycielski, a lieutenant of the royal army, m. Domicella Horodynski. Jan was the grandfather of famous mason and conspirator ERAZM - Erasmus Mycielski}.

MACIEJ Mycielski ca 1715 married Weronika Konarzewska (1699-1762), from Konin. In 1715 he secured her dowry and wrote down a mutual life sentence with her. As the last of her family, she brought great possessions to her husband and brother. Maciej owned Szamotuly and Gostyn in the Poznan province, Szubin south-west to Bydgoszcz, and Tuliszkow north-west to TUREK, in the Kalisz province; Hrynki in the Nowogrodek prov. and Kulikowicze in Volhynia / Wolyn. He died in Szubin, he was buried in Gostyn.

The conspiracy created in May 1793 reached the roots to the Freemasonry organization and of the club of the "Society of Friends of the Constitution of May 3". A part of the Masons stood in a moderate, liberal position - the preservation of the monarchy with King Stanislaw August and the implementation of the Constitution of May 3. Among the moderate activists of the conspiracy found themselves:
Ignacy Dzialynski, Andrzej Kapostas, Michal Kochanowski, Alexander Linowski, Stanislaw Woyczynski, Ludwik Gutakowski, Antoni Bazyli Dzieduszycki, Kazimierz Nestor Sapiecha.

To the second group belonged radical activists of conspiracy, among whom we find Freemasons as:
Eliasz Aloe, Piotr Grosmani, Joachim Muszynski,
Erazm Mycielski,
Jozef Herman Pawlikowski, Stanislaw Wegrzecki i Wojciech Boguslawski.

The Warsaw leftists, the activists of the conspiracy founded on April 21, 1794, the Jacobin club. On January 1, 1808, the "Brothers of the United France and Poles" camp was established in Poznan. The lodge in 1814 had 233 brothers.

The master was Gen. Wincenty Axamitowski, and also, for some time, Prince Jozef Poniatowski.

Axamitowski was a military commander of Poznan.

Among the brothers were:
Col. Stanislaw Mycielski,
prefect of the department Jozef Poninski,
president of Poznan Bernard Rose,
count Kacper Skarbek,
general Jan Henryk Dabrowski,
general Kazimierz Turno,
general Antoni "Amilkar" Kosinski,
count Aleksander Bninski,
count Melchior Lacki and others.

Near PONIEC
is situated
Żytowiecko / Seide, in the Gostyń county.
Here Mikołaj Mycielski founded a church in the 17th cent.; next church in 1777 Maksymilian Mielżyński founded.
Żytowiecko was the part of the Rokosowo landestate, owned by (1846) Jozef Mycielski.

Jozef Roman Stanisław Mycielski b. 1801, died in 1885, Count, insurgent in 1831, the member of the MALTA ORDER.
Jozef Mycielski was the son of Stanisław Mycielski (General) and Anna Mielżyński Mycielska [see PONIEC].

Jozef Mycielski owned Spławie and Kobylepole. Studied in Poznan and in Berlin, in Italy, moved to Warsaw, emigrated, and back in 1831.

Drzewce
- at way from Poniec to Gostyń. The manor of Żołtowski.

Łęka Wielka -
in 1870 Leon Mielżyński built a palace.

We back to
Haraszkiewicz in Lithuania:
Bohuszki, Niwki, Pietkowszczyzna, Mieszkuciszki (1834-1843), Kozłowszczyzna (1812).


Emil (Emilian) Bednarczyk (1812-1888) - he studied at the Polytechnic Institute in Warsaw. He fought in the Greater Poland during the Uprising of 1848, and the January Uprising of 1863-1864; in 1866 he fought as a lieutenant. Since 1832 in France, worked close to Paris, he was one of the first members of the Polish Democratic Society. In the years 1833 - 1835 he was as an emissary in Galicia.

In 1853 stayed in Constantinople, where he helped to General J. Wysocki. And he was a friend of Adam Mickiewicz and witnessed his mysterious death. "November 26, 1855 Mickiewicz woke up in the morning, he asked to give a cup of tea and fell asleep. When at approx. 10 came to him Colonel Emil Bednarczyk, saw...".

See:
Dłużyna - a village in the Przemęcki Park. Here in the mid-nineteenth century began the history of the House of Bednarczyk, ancestors of Anna Hudzik / Chudzik.

Czeslaw Bednarczyku 1889 - 1980 ran the family chronicle, was born in Radomicko;
his parents Stephen Bednarczyk and Anastasia Skorupiński;

Stefan / Stephen was involved in trade and moved (back probably!) from the central Polish - around Lodz - to Radomicko ca 1888. Here he met Anastasia Skorupińska. She was born 1860 in Radomicko.
Dluzyna is located 7 km east of Radomierz and north-west of Leszno, close to ex-Polish border before 1793.

ALEXANDER JOSEPH SULKOWSKI, was b. 1695 in Cracow, and died 1762 in Leszno.

Radomicko north of Leszno, and 14 km east of above named Dluzyna.
Rydzyna of the Sulkowskis is located around 10 km south-east of above mentioned Leszno.

In the tradition of the family of Czeslaw Bednarczyk, he was a close relative of Colonel Emilian Bednarczyk 1812 - 1888.

Emilian Bednarczyk 1812-1888, a soldier of the uprisings 1830/1 and 1848/9, 1863/4 insurgent, a volunteer in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. An eyewitness to the death of Adam Mickiewicz, buried in the cemetery in Krakow at Rakowice, acc. to 'sowa.website.pl/cmentarium/Cmentarze/spisRakow'.

Emilian Bednarczyk was born around 1810 / 1812; awarded the Military Virtue.
The captain and commander in Pleszew in 1848; the Baden infantry regiment of 1849; the Turkish troops in 1853. The January Uprising in 1863. He died in Krakow in 1888.


At archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com:

DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland; in 1851 he was living in Kinlochscridain / Kinloch Scridain, and died 1880;
Kinloch Scridain is located on east of Bunessan.

he married SUSAN MC LEAN in 1836; stayed in 1837 in Kilfinchen, and 1837 at Iona, minster;
Susan was daughter of DUGALD MC LEAN and SUSANNA MC LEOD, she was born 1808 in Ardfinaig
[Ardfenaig is located at the Isle of Mull, west of Scotland, ca 9 km east of Iona Island, 4 km west of Bunessan; Ardfinaig / Ardfenaig / Ardfinnaig. Kinlochscridain, Isle of Mull, Argyllshire: Isle of Mull is east of Iona. That is Loch Scridain (5 km north-east of Bunessan), Isle of Mull],
and died 1883;
children of DONALD MCVEAN and SUSAN MCLEAN are:
1. COLIN ALEXANDER MCVEAN, b. 1838, 2. HELEN SUSAN MCVEAN, b. 1839; 3. ANN CATHERINE MCVEAN, b. 1840, 4. SUSAN ISABEL, 5. MARY HELEN MCVEAN, 6. DUGALD HECTOR MCLEAN, b. 1845, 7. ISABEL MERRIAM; 8. ARCHIBALD ARTHUR MCLEAN, 9. DONALD HECTOR MCLEAN, b. 1855, Iona.

Descendants of Colin Alexander McVean b. 1838, and surveyor in Japan, returned to Scotland 1886;
in 1891 Killimore House,
m. Mary Wood Cowan b. 1837 in Edinburgh, 1868 (1862 ?) in Edinburgh, with children:
Helen Brodie McVean b. 1869 in Japan;
Donald Archibald Dugald McVean b. 1870 in Yokohama;
Susan McLean McVean b. 1872 in Japan; Alexander Gillies McVean b. 1873, Flora Ann Phoebe; Colin Arthur Campbell McVean b. 1877; Elizabeth Josephine 1878 in Oban; Norman Neil George Cowan, Janet Lucretia Catriona m. Arthur Manson Huston in 1909.
Note under copyright by Merle & Ida King at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/.

At margin:
In Japan, a public telegraph service was inaugurated using Breguet's one; Louis Francois Clement Breguet b. 1804, d. 1883, was a French physicist and watchmaker, acted in the early days of telegraphy.
Educated in Switzerland, Breguet was the grandson of Abraham-Louis Breguet, founder of the watch manufacturing company Breguet.

He became manager of Breguet et Fils watchmakers in 1833 after his father Louis Antoine Breguet retired. With Alphonse Foy, in 1842 he developed an electrical needle telegraph, and his telegraph system (1847) was applied to French railways and exported to Japan. Four Breguet dial telegraph devices is in the museum's collection in Japan;
the Breguet ABC telegraph was first put into commercial use in 1870;
but in 1869 a telegraph service was started between Tokyo and Yokohama (December 25, 1869) with the assistance of an English expert named G. M. Gilbert.

The telegraph apparatus used at that time was called the Breguet letter-point telegraph, and was operated by moving a handle over a disc on which letters were written. This telegraph was operated by pointing to letters on the disc, and was easy for novices to work. The foreign expert then was an Englishman named G. M. Gilbert. In those days, many hired foreigners were invited to Japan to introduce the Western system and technology. The Meiji Government had 300 foreigners at the Industry Ministry; one of these foreigners was an English engineer Gilbert, who in Sept. 1869 adopted a dual instrument; Jan. 1870 the first message was send.


The famous Richard Henry Brunton (1841 - 1901), so-called "Father of Japanese lighthouses", was born in Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland.
He was a foreign advisor to build lighthouses in Japan.

Muchalls is a small village in Kincardineshire, Scotland, south of Newtonhill and north of Stonehaven, south of Aberdeen - is the birthplace of Richard Henry Brunton;
he was a railway engineer, joined the Stevenson brothers (David and Thomas Stevenson) who were engaged by the British government to build lighthouses.

Japan hired the Edinburgh-based firm of D. and T. Stevenson to chart coastal waters and to build lighthouses, what begun under French foreign advisor Leonce Verny;
Brunton was sent from Edinburgh in August 1868 to head the project.

Francois Leonce Verny / Leonce Verny born in Aubenas in Ardeche, 1837, d. 1908, a French officer and naval engineer of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in Japan, from 1865 to 1876;
studied at Lyon and Ecole Polytechnique. Verny was sent to Ningbo and Shanghai in China from 1862 - 1864, he was also French Vice-Consul in Ningbo. Verny was persuaded to go to Japan by his distant relative, French ambassador Leon Roches in September 1865; 1865 he briefly returned to France helped in the negotiations for the First French Military Mission to Japan.

Mentioned Leon Roches b. 1809, Grenoble, was a representative of the French government in Japan from 1864 to 1868, then assist friends of his father as a trader in Marseilles!

Under Bugeaud's recommendation, Roches joined the French Foreign Ministry as an interpreter in 1845. 1863, Roches was nominated Consul General of France in Edo, Japan. His great rival was the British consul Harry Parkes.

Francois Leonce Verny cooperated with Jules Brunet b. 1838, a French officer who played an active role in Mexico and Japan, and later became a General and Chief of Staff of the French Minister of War in 1898. He was sent to Japan with the French military mission of 1867.
Francois Leonce Verny also built four lighthouses in the Tokyo area, and managed the building of the shipyard at Nagasaki.

Above Thomas Stevenson (1818 - 1887) was a Scottish lighthouse designer, was a president of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1884 - 1886); he was the youngest son of engineer Robert Stevenson, and brother of the lighthouse engineers Alan and David Stevenson;
James Melville Balfour was trained under D. & T. Stevenson and then emigrated to New Zealand;

Thomas Stevenson married Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour in 1848 with son, the writer Robert Louis Stevenson; Maggie Balfour was the older sister of James Balfour.

James Melville Balfour (1831 - 1869) was a Scottish-born New Zealand marine engineer, built the network of lighthouses; among his siblings were the physician George William Balfour (1823-1903), and Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour (1829 - 1897) who in 1848 married the lighthouse builder Thomas Stevenson.
Balfour was born in Colinton near Edinburgh, Scotland in 1831. He was the youngest son of Rev. Lewis Balfour (1774 - 1860; but we know on James Balfour Mackintosh 1774 - 1860), a minister for the Colinton parish.

The philosopher James Balfour was his father's paternal grandfather
(James Balfour b. 1705 !, d. 1795, a Scottish philosopher, was born at Pilrig, near Edinburgh; he was studying at Edinburgh and at Leyden, his great-grandsons - brothers George William Balfour and James Balfour were a heart specialist in Scotland, and a marine engineer in New Zealand),

and the physician Robert Whytt was his father's maternal grandfather

(Robert Whytt b. 1714 in Edinburgh, was a Scottish physician, on "unconscious reflexes, tubercular meningitis, urinary bladder stones, and hysteria", acc. to Wikipedia; College of Physicians of Edinburgh; he was the second son of Robert Whytt of Bennochie, advocate, and Jean, daughter of Antony Murray of Woodend, Perthshire).

Above mentioned James Balfour 1774 in Edinburgh, Midlothian, d. 1860, father of Margaret Paul; John Mackintosh Balfour-Melville of Pilrig and Strathkinness; Jane Balfour; James Balfour; Robert Balfour; and Anne Balfour;
he was brother of Lewis Balfour, Minister of Sorn and Melville Balfour.

Above named Brunton travelled all over Japan making a survey of sites suitable for lighthouses, and advised the government on their actual construction.
He was a Scotsman, and he introduced a fellow countryman, George Miles Gilbert.

The Gilbert family at present in Aberdeen; we know about: Mollie Gilbert 1706 Baniffshire, Scotland; Jobina Gilbert b. 1853 Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland;
main area of this family is the CENTRAL DISTRICT, GLASGOW, LANARK; samples:
1822 Old Monkland, Lanark, in 1856 OLD MONKLAND, LANARK, SCOTLAND.

LANARK - 42 km south-east of Glasgow, SCOTLAND, and
Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland - 16 km east of Glasgow.

Under the superintendence of an English engineer named George Miles Gilbert, wires were put up to connect Tokyo with Yokohama, a distance of eighteen miles, in 1870. George Miles Gilbert, was a telegraphic technician.

Acc to http://www.kosmoid.net/lives/mcvean:

Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan married in Edinburgh in mid 1862 (1868 ?), come for a long voyage and life together in Japan.

Rev. Donald McVean of Iona, Scotland, and Susan MacLean of the Moy Castle clan,
were living together with Colin's younger siblings Mary, Dougald, Ann, Isabella and Archie McVean. Mary Wood Cowan's sister in 1857 married to the Reverend Boog Watson.
Her father Alexander Cowan was the papermaker but died in 1859. Mary's mother Helen Brodie, was Alexander's second wife, died in 1863. Alexander Cowan and his first and second spouses had twenty children, Mary was the seventeenth.
Mary and Colin sailed to Japan after their wedding, in the company of Richard Henry Brunton, the father of Japanese lighthouses, to the Japanese Imperial service.

In Japan, Colin and Mary McVean had a first children, Helen / Noni, later Mrs Gubbins, and Donald / Dondo in 1869 and 1870. Helen Brodie Noni McVean later Mrs Gubbins born 22 March 1869),

but his father was born in India, educated in England;
he was Irish by an ancestor Joseph - George Gubbins, a Captain of Dragoons who campaigned for Oliver Cromwell in Ireland, in 1649 moved to County Limerick
(Limerick / Luimneach is a city in Ireland, located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster);
the family prospered; next soldier in the family was
Colin's great-grandfather Joseph born in 1775;
and next soldier was in 1896 when Colins was born;
but above Joseph Gubbins in 1802 returned from service abroad and spent 3 years fortifying the southern counties of England against French invasion;

Joseph b. 1775 died 1832, married Charlotte Bathoe of Bath; he served in Santo Domingo with the South Hampshire Regiment, in Holland, Malta, and Egypt with the 2nd Somersetshires and in 1810 he went to Nova Scotia as Inspecting Field Officer of Militia, then in New Brunswick in Canada; was living in Fredericton with 3 children; 1816 returned to England as retirement; his wife Charlotte died 1824, he was now major-general, died 1832;

their third son was Martin Richard Gubbins, 1812 - 1863, Colin's grandfather, joined the Bengal Civil Service of Bombay; in 1856 Martin was Financial Commissioner for the Oudh Province in India; adviser of Sir Henry Lawrence, Chief Commissioner.

Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence b. 1806, d. 1857, a British soldier and statesman in India, who died defending Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny; he was born into an Irish family at Matara, Ceylon, as the eldest son of Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander William Lawrence and was the brother of John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence. Educated at Foyle College, Derry in Ireland, and then Addiscombe, next in 1823 he joined the Bengal Artillery at the Calcutta, where Henry Havelock was also stationed.

Above John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, 1811 - 1879, 1858 to 1869, was the British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Lawrence came from Richmond, North Yorkshire, but spent his early years in Derry, Ulster, then the East India Company College, went to India in 1829 to Delhi with Henry Montgomery Lawrence.

We back to Colins:
in 1919 joined the staff of General Sir Edmund Ironside in the North Russia Campaign serving as his ADC in Murmansk from 13 April to 27 September 1919.
His father John Harington Gubbins was a British linguist, consular official and diplomat: he was appointed to the British Japan Consular Service in 1871
- see 'Collected Writings of Ian Nish', by Ian Hill Nish; then to the Conference at Tokyo in 1883; 1889, became Japanese Secretary at Tokyo; in London at the Foreign Office in 1894, a close friend of Satow's.

He wrote among others things 'The civil code of Japan', Tokio 1897-1899.
By Peter Wilkinson and Joan Astley:

in 1857 Martin Gubbins at siege of Lucknow, in 1858, Martin Gubbins was a Judge of the Supreme Court in Agra, he returned to England in January 1863, to his brother's house in Leamington Spa.

A grandmother of Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins had five sons, another had died very young in India; and a daughter;
his father going to Harrow's school, then Cambridge;
Colin's father John was the youngest of Harriet's five sons.


The Illuminati district? Poniec - Przemet - Wroniawy - Wilkowo Polskie.

PONIEC

- at half way from Rokosowo [Rokossowski and Wola Pszczolecka] to Rydzyna [Sulkowski - the Malta Order];
23 south-east to LESZNO;
27 km west-south to GOSTYN;
15 km west to KROBIA.

Przemęt / Przemet
- 14 km south-west to WILKOWO POLSKIE [Kiedrzynski and Pradzynski from Wola Wiazowa];
29 km north-west to named LESZNO;
around 34 km south-east to Chobienice [MIELZYNSKI].


Before Cagliostro arrived in St Petersburg in 1779 [until 1780], he visited some important people and places in the following order:

Adam Poninski in Poland [maybe in Wilkowo Polskie - the land of the SZOLDRSKI family, his next of kin] in about September 1778 - February 1779;
Konigsberg / Krolewiec on 25th February 1779;

Mitau / Mitawa in Courland about 01st March 1779 [to von Medem and von Recke].

Cagliostro met in Mitau in March 1779, Charlotte Elisabeth Konstantia v. Recke, ie. Elisa von der Recke (1754 - 1833); she will be the future author, German writer and poet.

Elisabeth Charlotte Constanzia von der Recke born in Schunberg, Courland;
was the daughter of the Imperial Count Frederick of Medem and his wife Louise.

After her father had remarried in 1767, Elisa lived again in his house, where her stepmother Agnes Elisabeth von Brukken (1718-1784) tried to give her a general education.
In 1771, Elisa von Medem married the chamberlain Georg Magnus von der Recke, for reasons of status; she was divorced in 1781. She worked as a diplomat for her half-sister, the Duchess Dorothea of Courland.

Above Georg Magnus von der Recke [come from Neuenburg / Jaunpils in Western Lettlands / Latvia, south-west to RIGA] -
born in 1739 in Schnepeln [SNEPELE in western Courland, south to Kuldiga; ie. Snepeles / Schnepeln] and died in Mitau.

In 1787 a small document appeared in Berlin and caused a sensation: "News of ... Cagliostro stay in Mitau in 1779 and its magical operations." By Charlotta Elisabeth Konstantia von der Recke, nee Countess of Medem. "To my friends in Kurland and Germany." So it was on the front page. It was the unmasking of Cagliostro as "a gross deceiver", "to use the weaknesses and inclinations of people, with crafty cunning, ... though rather clumsy, but also know how to play mischievously" (Treger, p. 397).

Elisa von der Recke (1754-1833), the daughter of Friedrich von Medem (1722-1785) and 17 years old married to Georg Peter Magnus von der Recke (1739-1795), the nephew of her second stepmother. However, at the time of writing, she had been divorced for six years. In 1778 she had published for the first time. Later she traveled a lot through Europe, leaving four volumes of travel diaries.
The Russian Empress Catherine was reading with interest.

In 1787, it appeared news of the notorious Cagliostro stay in Mitau in 1779 and its magical operations;
Catherine the Great, as a reward for the book, gave her lands near Mitau. This was financially independent of von Recke.

Cagliostro in 1779 in Courland, and Elisa who was the Freemason, were very close to people like [all Freemasons]:

her cousin LOUISE
[acc. to me: Louisa Elisabeth von Nolde, b. 1754, the daughter of Luise Charlotte von Manteuffel-Szoege-von NOLDE; Luise Charlotte was the wife of Gerhard Christopher von Nolde, of Kalleten and Georg Johann Friedrich baron von Medem !];

her cousin Charles;

her aunt Madame von Medem nee von Keyserling / de Kayserling
[Anna Rgfin. von Keyserling (ca 1732 - 1793 in MITAU). The wife of Christoph Dietrich George von Medem, b. 1721, who was the son of Georg Christoffer von Medem, 1684-1746. Christoph's brother - Georg Johann Friedrich baron von Medem, b. 1722, was the father of Charlotte Elisabeth Konstanze von der Recke (von Medem), b. 1754. Count Hermann Karl von Keyserling (1697-1764) was a Russian diplomat from the Keyserlingk family of Baltic German nobility based in the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. Hermann Karl's daughter was named above Anna von Medem];

her stepmother AGNES
[the father of Elisa von RECKE, was the husband of Luisa Dorothea von Medem; Luise Charlotte von Manteuffel - Szoege - Platon, and 3rd to Agnes];

her friend Otto von HOVEN, the governor of Mitau

[Otto Hermann von der Howen, b. 1740 in Fockenhof, Courland / Kurland, Latvia; died in 1806 in Gulben (Livl.). The son of Otto Christopher von der Howen and Elisabeth Dorothea von der Howen. Brother of Ernst von der Howen; Anna von der Howen; Georg Heinrich von der Howen and Maria Elisabeth von der Howen {copyright by geni.com}. Occupation: Senator, of Neu-Bergfried, Alauen, Weesit, Lubben, Essern, Tingern, Iwen, Fockenhof, Suhrs];

major von Korff - chancellor
[Russian spy ! Besides, a high official, the Chancellor von Korff, was hostile to Cagliostro. The eminent Mason in Mitau];

Sigismund von Schwander.
All above under the influence of the wife of Cagliostro - Seraphina, on the 29th March 1779 in Mitau.

Elisa's father was Freemason [husband of Luisa Dorothea von Medem; Luise Charlotte von Manteuffel - Szoege - Platon, and 3rd to Agnes]
and her uncle - OTTO von Medem, the brother of her father. They together [ca 1740/1745] in Strasbourg learned alchemists. Members of the Strict Observance lodge in MITAU [the Rite of Strict Observance was a Rite of Freemasonry].

Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Medem, b. 1761 at Mezotne, now Latvia, d. 1821, became Duchess of Courland; married to Peter von Biron, the last Duke of Courland; she had a salon in Berlin and performed various diplomatic duties. Mother of Princess Wilhelmine, Duchess of Sagan, and others children.
"Her elder half sister from her father's previous marriage was the poet Elisa von der Recke.
Her younger brother was Russian diplomat Christoph Johann von Medem, who built Villa Medem in Mitau / Jelgava".
Her father Georg Johann Friedrich baron von Medem / Georg Johann Friedrich Medem, b. 1722, d. 1785, son of Georg Christoffer von Medem and Sibylle Charlotte.

Chancellor von KORFF in Konigsberg on 25th February 1779 thought Cagliostro is the secret Jesuit agent on a mission.

German writer and poet from Courland - Elisa von der Recke (1754-1833) wrote in 1787 on an alchemist and an adventurer, Count Alessandro di Cagliostro. He was in Mitau on 01st MARCH 1779.

In October 1789, Elisa and her sister, Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Biron / Dorota von Medem (1761 - 1821), went for a diplomatic mission to the court of Stanislaw August. She arrived in Wilanow along with her sister on October 25, at the invitation of Prince Kazimierz Nestor Sapieha (1757-1798), who gave a large feast to the honor of the princesses. Beautiful ladies visited the Lubomirski family palace in Mokotow and Krolikarnia.

About above Nestor Sapieha:

The conspiracy created in May 1793 reached the roots to the Freemasonry organization and of the club of the "Society of Friends of the Constitution of May 3". A part of the Masons stood in a moderate, liberal position - the preservation of the monarchy with King Stanislaw August and the implementation of the Constitution of May 3. Among the moderate activists of the conspiracy found themselves:
Ignacy Dzialynski, Andrzej Kapostas, Michal Kochanowski, Alexander Linowski, Stanislaw Woyczynski, Ludwik Gutakowski, Antoni Bazyli Dzieduszycki,
Kazimierz Nestor Sapiecha.

To the second group belonged radical activists of conspiracy, among whom we find Freemasons as:
Eliasz Aloe, Piotr Grosmani, Joachim Muszynski,
Erazm Mycielski,
Jozef Herman Pawlikowski,
Stanislaw Wegrzecki i
Wojciech Boguslawski.

The Warsaw leftists, the activists of the conspiracy founded on April 21, 1794, the Jacobin club. On January 1, 1808, the "Brothers of the United France and Poles" camp was established in Poznan. The lodge in 1814 had 233 brothers. The master was Gen. Wincenty Axamitowski, and also, for some time, Prince Jozef Poniatowski. Axamitowski was a military commander of Poznan.

Georg Johann Friedrich baron von Medem, GENERAL and FREEMASON. Born in 1722, d. 1785.
Son of Georg Christoffer von Medem and Sibylle von Knigge.
Husband of Luisa Dorothea von Korff; Luise Charlotte von Manteuffel Szoege, and Agnes von Medem.
Father of
Charlotte Elisabeth Konstanze von Medem, RECKE;
Anna Charlotte Dorothea von Biron;
Johann Friedrich Graf von Medem;
Karl Graf von Medem
and Christoph Johann Friedrich von Medem.


You will look at interesting connections and not only, genealogical:

von Korff family from Courland; the Armand family from Moscow; here is a known step towards general Franciszek Paszkowski [+ Artur Potocki, the Templar] and Apolon Konstantynowicz, together with Lenin [+ Inessa Armand] and Anna Konstantynowicz; and Cagliostro in Konigsberg and Mitau in Courland in February - March 1779, and St Petersburg in 1779-1780. And Cagliostro - a visit of Tadeusz Grabianka in London - and again the Breguet family and Edward Brown of London appear: and we have just returned to the air-telegraph-military company Duflon & Konstantinovich in St Petersburg and Zaporozhe in Russia.

So the main thought of the Illuminati Order is the work of Tadeusz Grabianka. The thought of taking power in Russia was a central idea guiding the Polish underground from the 80s of the 18th century until 1917. The continuator of the main thought of Tadeusz Grabianka about taking power in the tsar state - in the Russian Empire - was Jozef Pilsudski.

The Armand family, who since 1799 wanted to settle in Moscow, met with General Franciszek Paszkowski, through the family Alexandre de Bauffremont-Courtenay and his son - Alphonse de Bauffremont / prince de Bauffremont Courtenay.

Named Alphonse de Bauffremont and General Franciszek Paszkowski were together adjutants / aide-de-camp of Marshal Joachim Murat.
Murat and Jozef Sulkowski were adjutants of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Mentioned Alexandre de Bauffremont-Courtenay and [then he was Baron] General Armand were in Russia in 1791. So, 29 year-old general Paul Armand [Paul 1st] came from Paris together with Alexandre, the Marquis de Courtenay.

Paul Armand [Paul 2nd, wine merchant], 1760 - 1835, or was born in 1762, was the first in Russia in 1791 [Paul the 1st = Paul the 2nd ?].
General Paul Armand [Baron, the 1st], in Russia in 1791, but Jean-Louis Armand [he was the son of Paul Armand, the 2nd] was the first in Russia in 1799.

Mentioned Alexandre de Bauffremont [de Bauffremont-Courtenay], born in 1773 and died in 1833, prince de Bauffremont, emigrated to Koblenz but rallied to Napoleon I who made him count Empire.

Mentioned above Alphonse de Bauffremont, born in 1792 and died in 1860, duke of Bauffremont, prince of Bauffremont, was created count by Napoleon and became aide-de-camp of Murat [see JOZEF SULKOWSKI and General FRANCISZEK PASZKOWSKI !].

Alphonse de Bauffremont distinguished himself at the Battle of the Moskowa, in 1812, under MURAT as his aide- de-camp, as well as in the Saxony campaign in 1813 [Dresde / Dresden / Drezno in 1813]. During the Hundred Days, Alphonse de Bauffremont was instructed by Murat to bring Napoleon confidential dispatches.

Also, the merchant Paul Armand / Pavel Armand was entered into the 3rd Guild (arrived in 1808, March) from foreigners of the French nation; resident of the Butcher's part in the house of Tolbukhin. He has wife Angelica Karlova, 44 years old.

It was expulsion of a group of foreigners (including Armand-father: PAUL ARMAND) from Moscow in 1812.

When the French and Russian troops stayed near Moscow, according to the writer N. Dubrovin in the book "1812 in the letters ...",
"General Korff (Fedor Karlovich, baron, Russian adjutant general, 1774 - 1826), a man worthy of respect ... met at outposts with General Armand.
This conversation ...:
'We are really very tired of this war', give us a passport (meaning the document on concluding peace on the specific conditions...), ... said General Armand. 'No general,' answered Korf, 'you have invited uninvited people to us'...
[then] said General Armand - 'is it not a pity that two nations respecting one another ... we will apologize for being the instigators...'. 'So,' replied General Korf, 'we believe that you have learned to respect us lately, but could you, the general, respect us, if we allowed you to leave with a weapon in hand?' Armand - 'it is clear there is nothing to talk with you more about the world and it will not be possible for us to agree'."

Fyodor Karlovich Korf or Korff (1773 - 1823) led a Russian cavalry corps in 1812-1814 during the Napoleonic Wars. He was talking with general Paul ARMAND close to Moscow.

At the same time [or after this talk ...] Paul Armand was exiled to Nizhny Novgorod.

Inf. on General Armand, acc. to the General Armorial of the French Empire, published in Paris in early 1812: Armand - Colonel of the 22nd Infantry Regiment of Line Troops. Evidently during the Russian campaign he was promoted to the rank of General. The Chevalier of the Order of the Legion of Honor. The Baron of the Empire. Here is the description of the coat of arms of Baron Armand.

Eugene Ivanovich (Louis-Eugene) Armand (1809 - 1890, in Pushkino), the grandson of Paul Armand, was the first of the family to produce for trade a fashionable goods, and created a technological line for the production of components of chemical agents used in the process finishing and dyeing fabrics.

Mentioned
Fedor = Fyodor Karlovich Korf or Korff in 1807 led a cavalry brigade in the 4th Division at Eylau. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812 he commanded the II Cavalry Corps at Borodino. In 1813 he led the I Cavalry Corps at the Katzbach and Leipzig. In 1814 he led his horsemen at Laon, Fere-Champenoise and Paris.

Friedrich Nikolai Georg (Fedor Karlovich) Baron Korff (1773 - 1823) was born in Virginahlen in Courland, the son of Nikolaus Karl von Korff, of Preekuln and Juliane Jakobine von Behr. Husband of Ekaterina Grigor'evna. Father of PAVEL KORFF [1812 - 1831]. Brother of Hermann Korff.

Above Nikolaus Karl von Korff, of Preekuln - b. 1748 in Kreuzburg, the Polish Livland,
was the son of Benjamin Christian von Korff and Julianne Louise von Korff (born Keyserling).

NIKOLAUS married Constantia Sibylla von Keyserlingk and Juliane Jakobine von Behr; and Nikolaus was the father of Hermann Korff and Friedrich Nikolai Georg (Fedor Karlovich) Korff [acc. to Timo Antero].

Above
Carl Nicolaus Korff, Baron, b. in Kreuzburg in 1748. Kreutzburg = Jekabpils, Latvia. Jekabpils / Jakubow, is a city in southeastern Latvia, at halfway between Riga and Daugavpils.
He died in 1814. Father - Benjamin Christian, of Preekuln in Courland, died in 1749; mother: Julianne = Julianna Lowisa, nee Keyserling.

Carl Nicolaus Korff, Baron, m. 1st Constantia Sibylla v. Keyserling; 2nd to Julianna Jacobina v. Behr.

Carl Nicolaus in 1764 studied; Nikolaus Karl von Korff in 1770 was Chamberlain [chancellor]. 1790-1796 country representative. Deputat in 1790, 1791 until 1795. In Grodno, Warsaw and in St. Petersburg. 1795 in St. Petersburg. 1796-97 Governor of Courland / Kurland.

Above
Benjamin Christian Korff, of Preekuln, 1724 - 1748, the son of Nicolaus VII von Korff, Baron and Constantia Ursula. Husband of Julianne Louise Keyserling. Father of Nikolaus Karl von Korff.
Brother of Emerentia Eleonore; Margaretha Constantia; Friedrich Sigismund von Korff of Schonberg and Nerfft; Nicolaus Ernst Baron von Korff; Luisa Dorothea. Acc. to Peter Trefilov.

Vencavu / Vencavai with Pazemiu and Juozapava and many of the surrounding villages (in 1823) for the 13,760 rubles acquired Count Krzysztof Wereszczynski / Verescinskas Christopher and
his wife Honorata Oskierkaite / Honorata Oskierko nee Benislawska = Honorata Oskierka Wereszczynska Benislawska.

Honorata Benislawska born ca 1780, married 1 st in 1800 to Jan Oskierka b. ca 1780, son of Ludwik Oskierka / Oskierko b. ca 1760

{Ludwik Oskierka's grandparents:
Antoni Oskierka 1670-1734 [see below on MIEZONKA of the Konstantynowiczs]; Zofia Stadnicka-Kolenda; Michal Jerzy Tyzenhauz; Anna Barbara Bychowiec}

and Ludwika Niemirowicz-Szczytt

{Ludwika Niemirowicz's grandparents:
Jan Krzysztof Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1700-1756/1771;
Ludwika Pac 1710-1789;
Count Jozef Butler 1710-1749;
Teresa Urbanska};

with children:

1. Dominik Oskierka of Wolkowysk, b. 1810 m. Anna Wollowicz

(Anna WOLLOWICZ was daughter of Kazimierz Wollowicz 1779-1849 and Maria Felkerzamb born 1788

[Anna had brother Michal Wollowicz 1805 - 1833];

granddaughter of Michal Wincenty Wollowicz b. ca 1740
[Kazimierz Wollowicz senior - the Slonim Marshal, b. ca 1720 ?, died November 1790 in Slonim, with wife Ludwika, had above son Michal Wincenty Wollowicz with wife Petronella]
with Petronela / Petronella Swiecicka, and
Adam Ewald Felkerzamb 1734-1794 the Inflanty governor 1790-1794, the Witebsk governor 1787-1790, the chamberlain of the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski,
with
Ewa Marianna Oskierka 1753-1825;

the great-granddaughter of Henryk Ewald Felkerzamb 1690-1758 with his wife Elisabeth Helene Witten / Elzbieta Helena von Witten b. ca 1700)

and above ANNA WOLLOWICZ was born 1809;

2.
Pamela OSKIERKA, b. 1810 m. Konstanty Krzywicki 1805-1865.

Above mentioned Eva Oskierko / Ewa Oskierka / Ewa Marianna Oskierka 1753-1825, died in Essern west of Hannover, wife of Adam Ewald Felkersam / Adam Ewald Felkerzamb 1734-1794;

mother of Adam von Felkersam;
Anton von Felkersam

[Anton Felkersam b. 1784 d. 1832 in Saint Petersburg, husband of Rosalie;

father of Xavera Bsse. von Korff

{Xavera Korff 1809 - 1874, wife of
Carl Wilhelm Friedrich Ferdinand Paridon Baron von Korff
and mother of
Rosalie Drugowin;
Marie Somerset-Rosetter
(wife of Fyodor Somerset-Rosetter / Fedor, 1782 officer, in 1793 served the Tver regiment as Colonel - inf. 1796);
Modest Korff; Eugene Korff; Paul Carl Korff; Alexander Bar. von Korff and Victor Alexander; inf. by Peter Trefilov in 2015 at www.geni.com}];

Marianna von Felkersam / Maria Felkerzamb born 1788
and Benedicta von Felkersam;
inf. under copyright by Elle Kiiker at geni.com.

Above
Marianna von Felkersam b. circa 1788, was wife of Stefan Mikulski / Stephan Mikulski b. ca 1780, and mentioned above Kazimierz / Kasimir Wollowicz;
mother of
Michal / Michail Wollowicz 1805-1833 {Michal Wollowicz fought close to Grodno - see the Wollowicz family and the area close to Wola Pszczolecka. More below !};
Paulina Wollowicz (b. 1806, d. 1881, m. Stanislaw Jagmin, the Kobryn Marshal, 1796-1864, with children: Maria Jezierska b. 1840, and Kazimierz Jagmin b. 1841)
and Anna Wollowicz Oskierka
- Anna b. 1809 was daughter of Kazimierz Wollowicz 1779-1849 and Marianna / Maria Felkerzamb born 1788.

Above
Paridon Carl Wilhelm Friedrich Ferdinand Baron von Korff, 1801 - 1867, the son of Adam Wilhelm Ernst Friedrich Sigismund Baron Korff and Wilhelmine Antoinette Dorothea Ernestine.
Husband of Xavera. Father of Rosalie Drugowin; Marie Somerset-Rosetter; Modest von Korff; Eugen von Korff; Paul Carl.
Brother of
Nicolaus Friedrich Wilhelm Sigismund Baron Korff; Alexander Nicolaus Heinrich Friedrich;
Leopold Friedrich Cazimir Karl; and Julius Wilhelm Friedrich.
Half brother of Olga; Elisaveta Fedorovna Kuhler; and Fyodor - copyright by Peter Trefilov in 2017.

Above
Adam Wilhelm Ernst Friedrich Sigismund Korff b. 1760, d. 1813 in Jelgava.
Son of Friedrich Sigismund von Korff.

Above
Friedrich Sigismund von Korff of Schonberg and Nerfft, b. 1730 in Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Berlin.
Son of Nicolaus VII von Korff, Baron [b. 1682, the son of Nicolaus VI Baron Korff / Mikalojus Fon Korfas, b. 1648].
Brother of
Benjamin Christian Korff, of Preekuln.

Above Benjamin Christian Korff,
was the father of Nikolaus Karl von Korff.

Above
Nikolaus Karl von Korff, b. 1748, husband of Constantia Sibylla von Keyserlingk and Juliane Jakobine von Behr.
Father of Hermann Korff and
Friedrich Nikolai Georg (Fedor Karlovich) Korff.

Nicolaus V Korff was the heir of the landed property. His eldest son Christian III (b. 1676), died without descendants.

His brother Nicolaus VI.
He had three sons,
Benjamin Christian, Friedrich Siegmund and Nicolaus Ernst, progenitor of three other lines.

The line of Benjamin Christian (1724-1748) went out with the death of his grandson Hermann (1773-1834). Frederick Sigmund (1730-1797), imperial Russian Privy Council, founded the branch Brucken-Schoenberg. Nicolaus Ernst (1734-1787), a royal Polish chamberlain, founded the Kreutzburger line, which remained until 1920 in the possession of Kreutzburg.



The palace in Wroniawy
was built in 1820; Wroniawy belonged to Adam Gajewski of Wolsztyn, who given Wroniawy to his daughter Antonina, married Count Plater; in 1885 or 1895 Count Plater sold Wroniawy to hands of Baron Goldschmidt - Rotschild;
name Goldschmidt - Rotschild Maksymilian from Franfurt / Maximilian von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (1843 - 1940) was a German banker and art collector.

The son of Benedict Hayum Salomon Goldschmidt, he was the co-inheritor of the Goldschmidt family bank along with his brother Adolphe Goldschmidt [copyright by Wikipedia].
He married Minna Karoline Freiin von Rothschild, the daughter of Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild.
He was the richest person in the German Empire.
After the death of his father-in-law, the last male of the Frankfurt Rothschilds, Maximilian Goldschmidt and his wife adopted Rothschild's name.

Emperor William I gave him the title of Baron de Goldschmidt-Rothschild.

His son was Albert Maximilian von Goldschmidt-Rothschild b. 1879 in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1941 in Lausanne, the Vaud County [see Duflon, Anna Konstantynowicz nee ARMAND, Lenin...], Switzerland.

Above Minna Caroline "Minka" von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (von Rothschild) b. 1857, daughter of Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild and
Hannah Mathilde nee Rothschild b. 1832, who was the daughter of
Anselm Salomon von Rothschild b. 1803

[ANSELM - son of Salomon Mayer von Rothschild b. 1774

{Salomon Mayer - was the son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild / Mosche Meir, b. 1743 or 1744 in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1812 in Frankfurt am Main; Mayer Amschel Bauer, an Ashkenazi Jew,
the son of Moses Amschel Bauer, a proprietor of a counting house.

In 1770, "Mayer Amschel Rothschild draws up plans for the creation of the Illuminati and entrusts ... Adam Weishaupt, ... with its organization and development...". Mayer Amschel Rothschild marries Gutle Schnaper. In 1773, was born
Amschel Mayer Rothschild, the first of Mayer Amschel Rothschild's sons.

"...He like all his brothers who follow him, will enter the family business at the age of 12".

1774, Salomon Mayer Rothschild born.

In 1776, "Adam Weishaupt officially completes his organisation of the Illuminati on May 1 of this year. The purpose of the Illuminati is to ... fight amongst themselves; destroy national governments; destroy religious institutions... Weishaupt soon infiltrates the Continental Order of Freemasons with this Illuminati doctrine and establishes lodges of the Grand Orient to be their secret headquarters..."},

and Caroline STERN],

and Charlotte Nathan nee Rothschild b. 1807.

Apollon (Apollo, Apellon) Wasylewicz Konstantynowicz who b. ca 1862, was the son of Wasilij / Wasyl Konstantynowicz who was born ca 1835 / 1840. The wife of Apollon was Anna Armand, oldest - Anna nee Armand was born on 19 August 1866 in Moscow - daughter of Evgenii / Eugeniusz Armand - Eugene born about 1842.
Eugene Konstantynowicz - son of above mentioned Apollon Konstantynowicz, Polish, and Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand, Polish roots - and his children were living in Switzerland and Paris, France, that is grandchildren of Anna nee Armand, and great-grandchildren of Varvara Karlovna Demonsi / Demonets or DEMONTET.
Eugene Konstantynowicz, as a patient, was treated in Switzerland, there he became acquainted with Marusya, who cared for her uncle Leon Bakst, along with Sophia, Bertha, Paul and Emily.
Eugene Konstantynowicz / Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinowitz (1890 - 1977) had two sons, architects - Nikolai and Pyotr Constantinowitz

(Mikolaj Konstantynowicz and Piotr Konstantynowicz; but also is inf. about 3 children of Maria nee Klaczko / Maria Markovna Klyachko and Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinovich / Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz),

acc. to correspondence of Howard D. Rothschild to Constantinowitz Marie in 1976-1980; Howard Rothschild born 1907 and died 1989 in New York.

Constantinowitz, Pyotr Yevgenievich (Kanstantinovich / Constantinowitz Pierre was born 1928 and
address: Oree du Bois Brule, 78380 Bougival) and Constantinowitz Nikolai Yevgenievich (born 1931 - Nicolas, 45B Route des Gardes, Meudon).

Constantinowitz, Yevgeny Apollonovich (Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz son of Apollon Konstantynowicz; born 1890 - died 1977) was a cello and piano player.

Mentioned above Howard D. Rothschild / Howard Rothschild born 1907, d. 1989, "...was an artist and a major collector of art work related to Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. His fascination with Ballets Russes began in 1915 ... he became a close friend and an anonymous benefactor of many aging Ballets Russes dancers...".

Howard D. Rothschild b. in New York, United States, d. in London. Son of Frederick William Rothschild

["Fred" b. 1867 in New York, died 1940 in New York. Son of William "Wolf" Rothschild

{"Wolf" b. 1829 in Goppingen, Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. Son of Marx ben Herz Rothschild

(born in 1789 in Jebenhausen, Goppingen, Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, d. 1851 in Goppingen. Son of Herz Marx Rothschild {{"Naphtali" b. 1738 in Bad Mergentheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. Son of Marx Herz Rothschild born ca 1700, and Gudele}} and Frommet OTTENHEIMER)

and Braendel KATZ daughter of Weil}

and Matilda ROSENHEIM]

and Sarah B. Rothschild nee ADLER.
Copyright by Thomas Fohl in 2015 at geni.com.

Marx Herz Rothschild and Gudele - b. ca 1690/1700 ?

Moses Kalmann Rothschild / Moses Bauer / Mosche ben Kalman Rothschild, b. in Frankfurt am Main; he was the son of Kalman Herz Rothschild, zur Hinter Pfann and Gotle;
husband of Schonche (Schonle);
father of Herz Moses Rothschild b. ca 1690 ?
[compare above named Marx Herz Rothschild b. ca 1690/1700 ?, and his wife Gudele]
and Amschel Moses Rothschild [b. 1710; see below].

Above Herz Moses Rothschild / Hirsch Hirz / Hertz / Hersch, b. ca 1690 ?, in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1728 in Frankfurt am Main.

Named above Frommet Rothschild (nee Ottenheimer) [nee Oppenheimer?], b. 1754 in Jebenhausen, Goppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany; d. 1821 in Goppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg.
Daughter of Salomo Ottenheimer and Jette.
Wife of Herz Marx Rothschild.
Mother of Sara Lindauer; Isidor Isaak Rothschild; Hindle Dettelbacher;
above Marx ben Herz Rothschild
and Simon Naphtali Herz Rothschild.

Sister of Jacob Ottenheimer; Maier Ottenheimer; Behle Kaufmann and Isak Ottenheimer, by geni.com.

Above Salomo Ottenheimer b. 1725 in Mohringen, Horb am Neckar, Baden-Wurttemberg; d. 1791 in Goppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg. Son of Josle Isai Odenheimer or Ottenheimer from Haigerloch, Tubingen, Baden- Wurttemberg, and Zettlin.

Mentioned
Sarah B. Rothschild (Adler) b. 1879 in New York, daughter of Samuel Adler and Caroline nee ABRAHAM.

Above Samuel Adler b. 1827 in Germany, died 1918 in New York. Mentioned Caroline Adler (Abraham) / "Carrie Abraham" b. 1848. Daughter of Judah Abraham and Sara Abraham.

Named above Judah Abraham born in 1810 in Bavaria, Germany, d. 1888 in New York. Son of Abraham.

Acc. to 'michaeljournal.org/nwo1.htm'
in 1773 - Mayer Amschel Rothschild assembles twelve of his most influential friends, and convinces them that if they all pool their resources together, they can rule the world. This meeting takes place in Frankfurt, Germany. Rothschild also informs his friends that he has found the perfect candidate, an individual of incredible intellect and ingenuity, to lead the organization he has planned - Adam Weishaupt.

May 1, 1776 - Adam Weishaupt (code named Spartacus) establishes a secret society called the Order of the Illuminati.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild, written also Anschel (1744 - 1812), was a German Jewish banker and the founder of the Rothschild dynasty.
Meyer Amschel Rothschild was born in 1744 in Frankfurt am Main, as one of eight children of Amschel Moses Rothschild (d. 1755) and his wife Schonche nee Lechnich, d. 1756.

Above Amschel Moses Rothschild / Anschel ben Mosche Rothschild, b. 1710 in Frankfurt am Main, Hessen- Nassau. Son of Moses Kalmann Rothschild - born ca 1670 ?

Above Moses Kalmann Rothschild / Moses Bauer / Mosche ben Kalman Rothschild, b. in Frankfurt am Main; he was the son of Kalman Herz Rothschild, zur Hinter Pfann and Gotle; husband of Schonche (Schonle);
he was the father of Herz Moses Rothschild b. ca 1690 ?
[compare above named Marx Herz Rothschild b. ca 1690/1700 ?, and his wife Gudele]
and Amschel Moses Rothschild [b. 1710; see above].

Above Herz Moses Rothschild / Hirsch Hirz / Hertz / Hersch, b. ca 1690 ?, in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1728 in Frankfurt am Main.

The illuminati were apparently founded in Bavaria in 1770 [1776] by one Adam Weishaupt. In 1744, Mayer Amschel Bauer / Mayer Rothschild was born in the free city of Frankfurt, Germany, to an Ashkenazi Jew who ran a counting house and also worked as a money exchanger. Mayer Rothschild started working for a bank owned by the Oppenheimer family in Hanover, Germany. Following the death of his father, he returned to Frankfurt in order to take over his father's business. It was during this time that he changed his last name from Bauer to Rothschild.
Mayer married Gutle Schnaper, the daughter of an influential and respected merchant, Wolf Salomon Schnaper.

By 1785, the Illuminati was banned and all of the Bavarian lodges of the Grand Orient were closed down. Around the same time, Mayer Rothschild moved with his family to a five story house in Frankfurt, which he shared with the Schiff family.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744 - 1812) was also a financial advisor of Landgrave of Hesse Hanau - Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (1747 - 1837). Landgrave was born as the youngest son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (the future Landgrave Frederick II - see below) and Princess Mary of Great Britain. He was the last surviving grandchild of George II of Great Britain.

Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel married Maria Princess of Hanover, cousin of Frederick II the Great King of Prussia, and the daughter of [mentioned above] George II King of England.
In December 1745, Frederick [Frederick of Hesse] landed in Scotland with 6000 Hessian troops to support his father-in-law, [named above] George II of Great Britain, in dealing with the Jacobite rising.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, his [Mayer Amschel Rothschild] five sons began expanding the family business:
1809, Nathan Mayer Rothschild 1st (1777-1836) in London;
1812, Jakob Rothschild (1792-1868) in Paris; 1820,
Salomon Rothschild (1774-1855) in Vien;
in 1821, Kalman Rothschild or Carl Mayer von Rothschild (1788-1855) in Naples;
oldest Amschel Mayer Rothschild (1773-1855) in Frankfurt.

The family supported the creation of the state of Israel. Edmond James de Rothschild is the patron of the first settlements in Palestine in Riszon le-Cijjon, ca 1887 (see Oliphant and Odessa).

Baron Solomon Benedict de Worms (1801 - 1882) was an Austrian aristocrat, plantation owner in Ceylon [see tea and Azbelev - Duflon and Konstantynowicz family; Pilsudski and Sieroszewski in Japan]; stockbroker in London. His father was Benedikt Moses Worms (1769 - 1824) and his mother,
Schonche Jeannette Rothschild.
He had two brothers, Maurice Benedict de Worms (1805-1867) and Gabriel Benedict de Worms (1802-1881).

His maternal grandfather was Mayer Amschel Rothschild.

Samuel Oppenheimer (born 1630, Heidelberg - 1703, Vienna) was a Ashkenazi Jewish banker, imperial court diplomat. Oppenheimer's son, Simon Wolf Oppenheimer, established a banking house in Hanover. Simon Wolff's [d. 1726] son, Jakob Wolf Oppenheimer continued the family banking house.

"It was there, from 1757 to 1763, that Mayer Amschel Rothschild apprenticed and learned the banking business that would become synonymous with that family name".

1.
Johanna Oppenheimer (Rothschild) b. 1833 in Hochhausen, Karlsruhe, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany; d. 1901 in Hesse / HESSEN, Germany; wife of Moritz Oppenheimer; sister of William Rothschild.
2.
Ida Rothschild (nee Oppenheimer) 1853 - 1910, daughter of Sigmund Salomon Oppenheimer [come from Emanuel Oppenheimer b. 1787 in Bavaria, Germany, d. 1840 in Bavaria; son of Joseph Lob Oppenheimer of Burgkunstadt, Upper Franconia, Bavaria] and Babette.
She was 1st time married to Salomon Julius Rothschild son of Isaak
[he come from Herz Marx Rothschild and Frommet, daughter of Jacob Simon Wolf Oppenheimer / Wolf Oppenheimer; he was born in 1759 - died in 1797 in Hannover],
and 2nd to Salomon Rothschild son of WOLF [come from Wolf (Wolf-Gang) Rothschild b. 1810].

See:

Marx ben Herz Rothschild b. 1789 in Jebenhausen, Goppingen, Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg; died 1851 in Goppingen.
Son of Herz Marx Rothschild and above Frommet.

Mentioned above Wolf Jacob Simon Oppenheim / Wolf Oppenheimer, b. 1759, died April 12, 1797 in Hannover. Son of Jacob Simon Wolf Oppenheimer b. ca ?, died July 6, 1760 in Hannover.
His father was Simon Wolf Oppenheimer b. ca 1650 in Vienna, Austria; d. 1726 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany.
And grandfather was Samuel Wolf Oppenheimer b. 1630 in Heidelberg, Germany; d. 1703 in Vienna, Austria.


WRONIAWY and the Illuminati:

Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI married in 1682 to Anna Goszycka / Gorzycka - she died in 1733, the daughter of Andrzej Goszycki / GORZYCKI and KATARZYNA MYCIELSKA, d. 1712.
MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska Gorzycka, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki or Andrzej Gorzycki.

Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI had the son Andrzej Walenty Mielzynski, 1698-1771; born in 1698 in Goscieszyn close to Wolsztyn (Wollstein); that is 9 km south-east to WOLSZTYN, 8 km north-east to WRONIAWY; north-west to PRZEMET; 18 km north-west to WILKOWO POLSKIE of Kiedrzyski-Zamoyski family.

See Pradzynski-Kiedrzynski line. Compare Wola Wiazowa.

Andrzej Mielzynski d. 1771 in Pawlowice. Married in 1734 to Anna Petronella Bninska, b. before 1720 in GLOGOW - d. 1770, the daughter of Stanislaw Bninski + JOANNA Krzycka.
Andrzej's son -
Maksymilian Antoni Mielzynski, 1738-1799, born in Laszczyn - Cieladz [close to RAWA MAZOWIECKA]; d. in Pawlowice. Married in 1771 in Mierzeszyn (Meisterswalde) close to Trabki Wielkie, the Gdansk Pomeranie, to Konstancja Czapska, 1749-1813.
Her daughter:
Katarzyna Regina Barbara Cecylia Mielzynski, b. in 1775 in Rabin (Rombin), close to Koscian; d. 1817 in the Chobienice - Siedlec estate near Wolsztyn, and the PRUSSIAN border.
Married in 1793 in Pawlowice (Pawlowitz) to Prokop Rufin Jozef Mielzynski, 1763-1800, the son of Hipolit Maciej Jozef Mielzynski 1733-1797 + Seweryna Lipska d. 1801,
with daughter
Gabriela Maria Konstancja Jozefa Mielzynski POTULICKA OGINSKA, b. 1798 in Kotowo - Granowo,
close to Grodzisk Wielkopolski and south-west to Poznan; d. 1822 in Nice, France.

Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849.
She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son
Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki
[compare above mentioned MIELZYNSKI of PAWLOWICE and the WOLSZTYN district].



Edmund Charaszkiewicz, was born in 1895 in Punitz / Poniec, in the Province of Posen, the German Empire; the son of Stanisław Charaszkiewicz; on 15 November 1918, Charaszkiewicz joined the Polish Army in the rank of sublieutenant.

1919-1921 he participated in battles against Soviets and was taken prisoner by the Lithuanians; 15 December 1920 was assigned to the Second Division of the General Staff.

Edmund Charaszkiewicz in 1922 was assigned to Division II of the General Staff, with intelligence and counterintelligence offensive against the neighboring countries of Poland - later became head of the Branch No. 2 in Warsaw - so-called "Promethean action".

Eugene Edmund Charaszkiewicz specialized in clandestine warfare, coordinated Marshal Jozef Piłsudski's Promethean movement, aimed at liberating the non-Russian peoples of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union; the Promethean concept was based on the fight against the Soviet imperial state by supporting the activities of independence among the nations belonging to the Soviet state. In 1928 (?) took over the management of the Branch No. 2 of the Division II, with the organization of sabotage.

1931 - 1939, Charaszkiewicz served, last in the rank of major, as chief of "Office 2" of the General Staff's Section II: with the planning, preparation and execution of clandestine-warfare operations, and was also responsible for "Promethean operations," conceived by Jozef Piłsudski.

"...The idea was to combat Soviet imperialism by supporting irredentist movements among the non-Russian peoples of the Soviet Union. Thus the Prometheists' ultimate goal was nothing less than the dismemberment of the Soviet Union. The movement's leaders included ... Colonel Walery Sławek, and ... Tadeusz Hołowko. Great importance was attached to Prometheism by Section II's successive chiefs, Colonel Tadeusz Schaetzel and Colonel Tadeusz Pełczyński, and by deputy chief Lieutenant Colonel Jozef Englicht. The movement's intelligence operations were directed by Edmund Charaszkiewicz. Contacts were maintained with Ukrainians and Cossacks, and with representatives of several peoples of the Caucasus: Azeris, Armenians and Georgians" - under copyright by Wikipedia.

"...In its prosecution of the Promethean agenda, Office 2 worked with official institutions such as the Institute for Study of Nationality Affairs ... and the Polish-Ukrainian Society ... and its Polish-Ukrainian Bulletin ... as Leon Wasilewski, Stanisław Łoś and Stanisław Stempowski, ... Włodzimierz Bączkowski, a leading figure in the "Promethean movement." ... From March 1934 Charaszkiewicz was a member of the Commission for Scientific Study of [Poland's] Eastern Lands ... and the Committee on [Poland's] Eastern Lands and Nationalities ... at the Council of Ministers...".

At the conference of the Central Committee of the Polish Socialist Party held on 17-20 October 1904 in Cracow, Jozef Pilsudski spoke on the new tactics as the results of discussions with the Japanese.

No one expected to overthrow of the tsarist regime in Russia, but had to use the new elements related to the internal situation in the country.

Jozef Pilsudski advocated the use of the tactics of action, involving the creation of national events and to force society to action; he believed that the new tactics must even led to the blood. On November 13, 1904 a manifestation at the Grzybowski Square in Warsaw was the first organized with arms against the government in Congress Poland since the fall of the January Uprising in 1863/1864; it gave a signal to the revolution of 1905.

During these events, Pilsudski was in Zakopane in Austria-Hungary. It was in September 1904. Pilsudski with Mrs. Maria came to Bukovina Tatrzanska, highland village near Zakopane, where his close friend, the poet Andrzej Strug had a hut, acc. to Landau; this is the only source from which we get to know more details on the visit of Pilsudski in Bukowina; it is not known how long he stayed here, and who else was among the guests invited by the poet.

Then Jozef Pilsudski in April 1905 took part in a conference of socialist and revolutionary parties of Russia in Geneva. Here was also Vladimir Lenin, representative of the Social Democratic Party of Bolsheviks.

The house in Bukowina, where Pilsudski arrived was located on Olczanski Peak.

Kazimierz Dłuski in 1897 visited Zakopane, and Kościelisko village was a part of the city; 1898 Bronisława and Kazimierz went to Zakopane, but 1900 permamently because Kazimierz was without the right to return to the Russia; they created a sanatorium in Kościelisko in 1902;

the ville 'Dyrektorowka' of Bronisława and Kazimierz Dłuski was here; the board of directors:
Maria Curie-Skłodowska,
Ignacy Paderewski,
Henryk Sienkiewicz.

Close to the sanatorium in Koscielisko was the 'President's House' of the Dluski family. In 1904 Jozef Pilsudski visited Bukowina Tatrzanska close to Koscielisko and Zakopane; ville 'Za bramką II' at the Nowotarska street in Zakopane, belonged to Kazimierz Dłuski; in Zakopane 1899 were together Piotr Curie, Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Erazm Dłuski a brother of Kazimierz, Jozef Skłodowski, Jozef Dłuski a brother of Kazimierz.

Kazimierz Dłuski got married a sister of famous Maria Sklodowska. Bronislawa Dłuska b. 1865, d. 1939, the Polish doctor, the older sister of Maria Sklodowska-Curie, the first director of the Radium Institute,
the wife of Kazimierz Dłuski (see on the Breguet family genealogy).

Joseph Skłodowski grandfather was a teacher in Lublin. Father Wladyslaw Skłodowski was a teacher of mathematics and physics and director in Warsaw;
father was an atheist;

Bronislawa went to Paris to study medicine, and her sister Mary was in the country and tried to help her financially;
Bronislawa in 1890 married to Casimir Dłuski, political exile and invited Maria to himself; Kazimierz Dluski was graduated in Paris with political science and medicine; the Paris apartment of Dłuski was open to the Polish political emigrants, among others, later Presidents of Poland:
Ignacy Moscicki and Stanislaw Wojciechowski; in 1892 was born a daughter, Helena, later known mountain-climber. After returning home in 1902, Dluski created in Zakopane a hospital of tuberculosis; in 1919, he was send by the Head of State Jozef Pilsudski to the Polish National Committee and was a member of the Polish delegation to the peace conference at Versailles.

Kazimierz Dłuski b. 1855 in Sosnowka near Mohylow Podolski; 1878 emigrated to Switzerland, where he met with Polish socialists staying there.
Published to the "Equality", was the author accused of anarchist sympathies and had conflict with Boleslaw Limanowski; 1881, Dłuski took part in the convention in Coire, replaced Louis Waryński there. In 1882 Kazimierz Dłuski went to Paris with a letter of recommendation from Johann Philipp Becker, where he had contact with Karl Marx.

Dłuski remained in Paris, and was a member of the National League, a secret political organization, established on April 1, 1893 from the Polish League - the center of the national movement; see Milkowski / Jez. In 1894, the National League held a series of demonstrations across the country.

"Piłsudski's elaboration of Prometheism had been aided by an intimate knowledge of the Russian Empire gained while exiled by its government to eastern Siberia. The term "Prometheism" was suggested by the Greek myth of Prometheus...",
at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheism.
And a text below also from Wikipedia:

"...A brief history of Poland's Promethean endeavor was set down on February 12, 1940, by Edmund Charaszkiewicz, ... Charaszkiewicz wrote his paper in Paris...

The creator and soul of the Promethean concept [wrote Charaszkiewicz] was Marshal Piłsudski, who as early as 1904, in a memorandum to the Japanese government, pointed out the need to employ, in the struggle against Russia, the numerous non-Russian nations that inhabited the basins of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas, and emphasized that the Polish nation, by virtue of its history, love of freedom, and uncompromising stance toward [the three empires that had partitioned Poland out of political existence at the end of the 18th century] would, in that struggle, doubtless take a leading place and help work the emancipation of other nations oppressed by Russia.

A key excerpt from Piłsudski's 1904 memorandum declared:

Poland's strength and importance among the constituent parts of the Russian state embolden us to set ourselves the political goal of breaking up the Russian state into its main constituents and emancipating the countries that have been forcibly incorporated into that empire. We regard this not only as the fulfilment of our country's cultural strivings for independent existence, but also as a guarantee of that existence, since a Russia divested of her conquests will be sufficiently weakened that she will cease to be a formidable and dangerous neighbour.

The Promethean movement, according to Charaszkiewicz, took its genesis from a national renaissance that began in the late 19th century among many peoples of the Russian Empire. ... this was so in Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia and Azerbaijan. These socialist parties would take the lead in their respective peoples' independence movements. ... Ultimately the peoples of the Baltic Sea basin - Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania - won and, until World War II, all kept their independence. The peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins - Ukraine, Don Cossacks, Kuban, Crimea, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Northern Caucasus - emancipated themselves politically in 1919-1921 but then lost their independence to Soviet Russia.

In 1917-21, according to Charaszkiewicz, as the nations of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins were freeing themselves from Russia's tutelage,

Poland was the only country that worked actively together with those peoples.
... Immediately after the loss of independence by the peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins and the annexation of those lands in 1921 by Soviet Russia, Poland was the only country in Europe that gave material and moral support to the political aspirations of their Promethean (pro-independence) emigres.

... Throughout the years 1918-1939, according to Charaszkiewicz, the Polish Promethean leadership consistently observed several principles. The purpose of the Promethean enterprise was to liberate from imperialist Russia, of whatever political stripe, the peoples of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins and to create a series of independent states as a common defensive front against Russian aggression.
Each Promethean party respected the political sovereigny of the others.

... Poland's role in the Promethean process was marked by the conclusion of a Polish-Ukrainian political and military alliance (the Warsaw Agreement, April 1920) with Symon Petlura's Ukrainian People's Republic, Piłsudski's expedition to Kiev (begun April 25, 1920), the designation (February 1919) of Bohdan Kutylowski as Polish minister to the Ukrainian People's Republic, the accreditation of a Polish minister to Caucasus, the naming of a military mission to Caucasus, and the Crimean Republic's motion at the League of Nations (May 17, 1920) that Crimea be made a protectorate of Poland.

Marshal Piłsudski's immediate collaborators in this period included Witold Jodko, Tytus Filipowicz, Gen. Julian Stachiewicz, Col. Walery Sławek, Col. Tadeusz Schaetzel, a Maj. Czarnecki, August Zaleski, Leon Wasilewski, Henryk Jozewski, Juliusz Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz Hołowko, Marian Szumlakowski, Jan Dąbski, Mirosław Arciszewski, Maj. Wacław Jędrzejewicz and Roman Knoll.
...
1922, the first group of Georgian officers, recommended by the Georgian government, were accepted into the Polish Army.

... Polish contacts with the Promethean emigres were continued, ... by Col. Schaetzel, Maj. Czarnecki and Captain Henryk Suchanek-Suchecki, chief of the Nationalities Department in the Ministry of Internal Affairs; and at the Foreign Ministry, by the chief of the Eastern Department, Juliusz Łukasiewicz.
An exception to the Polish government's official attitude pertained to Georgian Prometheism, which enjoyed support with both the foreign minister, Aleksander Skrzyński, and the chief of the General Staff, Gen. Stanisław Haller.

... Since 1927, Wasilewski, Sławek, Schaetzel and Hołowko had been laying foundations for Promethean movements in Paris, Warsaw and Istanbul. They had been studying questions involving national self-determination and federative polities with help from academic experts at institutions such as the Eastern Institute in Warsaw and an analogous one in Vilnius...(under copyright by Wikipedia)".
Office "B" (responsible for the East), headed in 1937-39 by Major Dąbrowski, prepared clandestine actions against the Soviet Union, conducting "Promethean operations" among non-Russian peoples (e.g. Caucasus, Tatar, Ukrainian and Cossack emigres) and creating covert organizations at Poland's borders with Soviet Belarus and Ukraine.

Charaszkiewicz suggested to an old Polish Legions comrade, Wiktor Tomir Drymmer - from 15 September 1933 to the outbreak of World War II, director of the Polish Foreign Ministry's Consular Department - the creation of an organization covering all countries that harbored substantial Polish communities.

They agreed that this would be necessary due to the inevitability of war with Nazi Germany.
It was decided that the organization should be run by a "Committee of Seven" (K-7) comprising half Foreign Ministry personnel - Drymmer, his political deputy Dr. Władysław Jozef Zaleski, Tadeusz Kowalski, and the latter's deputy Tadeusz Kawalec - and half Office 2 personnel: Charaszkiewicz, Ankerstein and the latter's deputy, Captain Wojciech Lipiński. Later, Lieutenant Colonel Ludwik Zych, chief of staff of Poland's Border Guard.
All data at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Charaszkiewicz.

During his career as an intelligence and covert-operations officer, Charaszkiewicz helped pioneer modern techniques of asymmetric warfare. Just before World War II, during a week's visit to London, he shared information on these with Britain's Colonel Holland, Lt. Colonel Gubbins (future leader of the Special Operations Executive), and technical specialists. In his reports about these meetings, Charaszkiewicz noted how far Poland's techniques outstripped Britain's.

"...In Bucharest, in October 1939, Charaszkiewicz received from his British colleague, Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins - soon to become the prime mover of the Special Operations Executive (S.O.E.) - a very warm letter informing him that Gubbins had been personally searching for him, and offering every possible assistance, including financial ... In Scotland he was accommodated at the Douglas officers' camp (July-August 1940), ... In exile continued operations in Promethean movement, also belonged to the League of Polish Independence exile".

At margin on
the Balfour Declaration of 1917:
Acc. to www.history.com:

"On November 2, 1917, Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour writes a letter to Britain's most illustrious Jewish citizen, Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild, expressing the British government's support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. ... The government of Prime Minister David Lloyd George - elected in December 1916 - made the decision to publicly support Zionism, a movement led in Britain by Chaim Weizmann, a Russian Jewish chemist who had settled in Manchester.

(on 02 Nov. 1917 Lenin secretly returned from Finland - the house of Bruievich - to Petrograd. 02 Nov. - to evening of 06th Nov. Lenin was in Petrograd in unknown place)

... On November 2, Balfour sent a letter to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a prominent Zionist and a friend of Chaim Weizmann, stating that:

'His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home (The phrase "national home" was intentionally used instead of "state" because of opposition to the Zionist program within the British Cabinet) for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country'

... (Nov. 5 the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks assumed Resolution of armed uprising and created the first 'Politburo'.

On 5 November, the Parliament of Finland declared itself to be the possessor of supreme State power in Finland, based on Finland's Constitution;

On 5 November 1917, Bolshevik Jaan Anvelt taken Tallinn; 6 Nov. were made attempts to close the writings of the Bolsheviks, but 06th Nov. evening the Bolsheviks hastily assembled meeting where it was decided the revolution - Lenin was in the Smolny - set the date 6th / 7th November for uprising; in the night November 6th/7th, the Petrograd Soviet was meeting in the Smolny Institute; in this night:
the Winter Palace was guarded by Cossacks;

telephone and telegraph buildings were taken over, the power stations, and bridges; also railway stations; throughout the 7th Nov. the Red Guards kept on occupying important buildings;

Nov. 07th, 1917, Petrograd Council has established the Military Revolutionary Committee, officially to defend the capital against the Germans - in fact, as the staff preparing the coup; by mid-afternoon of the 07th Nov., the only building not held by the Bolsheviks was the Winter Palace;
at 9:40/9:45 p.m. 07 Nov. shot from the cruiser Aurora; the Palace was taken at about 2 a.m. 08 Nov.;

night 07/08 Nov. in the Smolny Institute, those politicians who did not agree with what had happened and did not want the Bolsheviks in power walked out of the building; at 1 a.m. on November 8th, Lenin told in the Smolny Institute that he was forming a government of Bolsheviks; by the end of the day 8th Nov. the members of the Provisional Government were under arrest, the tsar and his family were also under house arrest.)

By the time the statement - James Balfour letter - was published in British (on 9 November 1917) and international newspapers one week later (command of publication of this letter had fallen on 08th Nov.), one of its major objectives had been rendered obsolete:

Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks had gained power (night 07th/08th Nov.) in Russia, and one of their first actions was to call for an immediate armistice.

Russia was out of the war, and no amount of persuasion from Zionist Jews ... could reverse the outcome

(Both the Zionist Organization and the British government devoted efforts over the following decades, including Winston Churchill's 1922 White Paper, to denying that a state was the intention, by Wikipedia)...".

In book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' (ed. 1981), Carroll Quigley explained that the Balfour Declaration was actually drafted by Lord Alfred Milner;

William D. Rubinstein wrote that Leo Amery was the main author of the Balfour Declaration.

Parvus arrived in Switzerland in May 1915;
Parvus met Lenin in Bern in May 1915 and agreed to collaboration;
1915 - the Austrian intelligence through Parvus gave money to Russian emigre newspapers in Paris;

the British Secret Intelligence Service traced Hanecki / Ganetsky to Parvus; 1916 - Parvus went for support to the German Navy, working as their advisor;

March 1917, in a plan strategized together with Parvus, the German intelligence sent Vladimir Lenin from Switzerland through Germany, under supervision of Fritz Platten, to Petersburg / Petrograd;

on April 13, 1917 met Lenin in Stockholm;
November 1917 he retreated to a German island near Berlin.


Let us now consider parental genealogies of Colonel Edmund Charaszkiewicz / Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz born in Poniec in 1895. Two names of Edmund Charaszkiewicz's parents - Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz and his wife Bronisława Rajewska indicate that they could be refugees from Russia [for example the Oshmiana county or from the ex-province of MSCISLAV] after the defeat of the Uprising of 1831. After short emigration in Prussia in 1831-1832, many returned to the Grand Poland in Prussia.

Edmund Charaszkiewicz was born on October 14, 1895, in Punitz (Poniec), in the Province of POZNAN.

His father - Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz born ca 1850.

I hypothetically assume that Stanislaw's father maybe back with Mielzynski from Lithuania.

The Polish troops under Giełgud, Dembiński, and General Chłapowski [and Włodzimierz Gadon, Onufry Jacewicz] fought near Wilno, Ponary on 13 June 1831, Kiejdany, Rosienie, Szawle, to Nowe Miasto Żmudzkie on 13 July 1831 [58 km south-east-south to Gorżdy / Gargzdai of MIELZYNSKI and von RONNE]; an east part of the Oszmmiany county, Zdzieciol close to Nowogrodek, LIDA.

Maybe in 1832/1833 named Charaszkiewicz emigrated - this obviously requires proof; the Stanislaw's Charaszkiewicz father maybe was born ca 1810. Maybe in 1831 he acted together with Paweł Rajewski born ca 1810 [maybe in Lithuania ?].

In 1830 Count Maciej Mielzynski of Chobienice [see his genealogy !] was insurrgent of the November Uprising of 1831 under gen. Dezydery Chlapowski in Lithuania. Major Maciej Mielzynski was the Adjutant of general Chlapowski, like Gustaw Potworowski. Then he was jailed on 9 months by Prussians.

In 1848, Chobienice, was the center of Uprising with Jozef Mielzynski (son of Maciej), Ignacy Bobrowski, Jan Adamczak, Ignacy Szumski, and landlord of Wroniawa / WRONIAWY - Stanislaw Plater.

Ca 1900 acted here Maciej Mielzynski [junior] of Chobienice.

We back to the Rajewski family from the Grand Poland:

Anna Rajewska (nee Gniotowska) b. 1849 in Koebnitz (Chobienice), the daughter of Jan Gniotowski and Marianna Krawczyk. Wife of Andrzej Srot; 2nd to unknown, and 3rd to Franciszek Rajewski.
Above
Franciszek Rajewski b. 1857 in Karna, the son of Paweł Rajewski and Julianna. Husband of Jadwiga Rajewska and Anna Rajewska. Father of Franciszek Rajewski; Agnieszka Rau; Jadwiga Rajewska and Marianna.
Brother of BRONISLAWA Charaszkiewicz Rajewska b. ca 1860?

Above Franciszek Rajewski b. in Karna, the son of Paweł Rajewski born ca 1810 [maybe at Lithuania ?] and Julianna PUTERCZYK, Rajewska. Husband of Jadwiga
[Jadwiga Paździor b. 1854. She came from Wawrzyn Paździor b. 1775 in Pakosław, in the Nowy Tomyśl County, the Greater Poland, 3 km east to GOLEJEWO; 18 km east to RAWICZ]
and Anna Rajewska.

Maybe the brother of BRONISLAWA RAJEWSKA CHARASZKIEWICZ - the wife of Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz.

Named
KARNA
- in the Wolsztyn county, close to Siedlec. Karna was owned by
Prot Mielęcki (1792-1867), Major in 1831;
His son was born in Karna, Colonel Kazimierz Mielęcki (1837-1863), fought in Kujawy in 1863; he was wounded in Mikorzyn, but he died in Mamlicz near Szubin; buried in Łabiszyn.

Around 1815-1848 named Karna belonged to Jan Bniński.

Grojec close to above Siedlec owned by Mielzynski family - the part of Chobienice owned by Konstancja Mielżyński;
Belecin to Mielecki, 7 km north-west to Stara TUCHORZA and 10 km north-east to CHOBIENICE;
Wielka Wies owned by Bloch.

Karna, is situated 5 km east to Chobienice

[Wirydianna Fiszerowa / Fiszer / Wirydianna Radolinska, Kwilecka b. in Wyszyny, d. in Dzialyn in 1826 (Dzialyn - a village in the administrative district of Klecko, in west-central Poland, at way from Klecko to Gniezno); she known Frederick II of Prussia, Izabela Czartoryska, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, Jozef Poniatowski, Jan Henryk Dabrowski, and Tadeusz Kosciuszko; her sisters: Katarzyna b. 1762, and Antonina b. 1770.

Chobienice appear for the first time in the diaries of Wirydianna due to the changes in the live of her family after the Prussian annexation.

The parents decided to move from Lobzenica to Winnogora, but the kids were send to grandmother. Later, along with her mother and sister, Wirydianna a lot of time spent in Chobienice's mansion; Chobienice belonged at that time to
the second husband of grandmother - the governor Joseph / JOZEF Mielzynski

[Jozef Klemens Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI, the owner of CHOBIENICE, governor of Kalisz (1758-1763), Poznan (1763-1782), Kalisz (1782-1786), Poznan (1786-1792), 1729-1792; m. Wirydianna / Wirydiana Bninska- Mielzynska-Raczynska, 1718-1797].

His father Franciszek Mielzynski / Francis [Franciszek Walenty Mielzynski, 1682-1738, the owner of CHOBIENICE] in the 30s and 40s of the eighteenth century built a new residence by Adam Stier.

When Wirydianna Radolinska-Kwilecka, already the wife of Anthony / Antoni Kwilecki, spent time in Winnogora, her mother moved to Chobienice.

The construction of classicist palace of Catherine Radolinska [Katarzyna Raczynska-RADOLINSKA, 1744-1792; Katarzyna born Raczynska in 1744, to Leon Raczynski b. in 1698, and Wirydianna Raczynska-Mielzynska-Bninska b. in 1718. Katarzyna had sister Estera; Katarzyna married Jozef Radolinski] began in 1786-1788, by Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer, under the direction of Antoni Hohne.

In 1793, Wirydianna Radolinska-Kwilecka moved to Chobienice, with independence from her husband; after her divorce from first husband Wirydianna left with two children and settled in Warsaw. It was there that she met General Stanislaw Fiszer, to whom she married in 1806];

5 km north to Siedlec

[the part of Chobienice estate -
Jan Nepomucen Uminski, the officer of the Polish army; service ended in the rank of Major General; participant of the 1794 Insurrection; adjutant of General Antoni Jozef Madalinski;
Napoleonic Wars and November Uprising 1830 - 1831 (Chief of Staff on September 23, 1831).
In 1820 was meeting of General Jan Nepomucen Uminski with Colonel Dobrogoyski, envoy of Kalisz. Dobrogoyski informed on the secret network in Cracow, and Uminski was claiming to be a branch in Great Poland; he had a confidential relationship with Lieutenant Colonel Ludwik Sczaniecki.

His parents:
Hilary Uminski / Hilarion Uminski, 1730/1735/1760-1792 + Franciszka Ryszewska b. ca 1740

[HILARY Uminski (b. ca 1730 - d. 1792), the son of Antoni UMINSKI b. ca 1700, and Teresa Rogalinski;
Hilary Uminski was the owner of Czeluscin close to GOSTYN in 1778;
m. in 1767 in Biechowo to Franciszka Ryszewska];

Czeluscin - close to PEPOWO, 4 km; 20 km west to KROTOSZYN the city [it has nothing to do with Krotoszyn close to Wloclawek!]; 14 km east to KROBIA; sout-east to SIEDLEC !];

5 km west to Stara Tuchorza

[Kazimierz Brzezinski junior studied in Zloczow, then in Lwow; 1889 back home to Zolkiew; 1894-1897 worked in Zloczow; married in 1894 in Zolkiew or in Zloczow, to Zofia Woroniecka daughter of Maksymilian WORONIECKI and Ernestyna Kropaczek. In 1896 was born son - above mentioned Tadeusz.

Tadeusz in 1928-1931, lived in Lille, then 1931-1935 in Lipsk, 1936 - 1937 in Charkow; 1938, Tadeusz and Leonia b. 1896 in Brzeziny close to Lodz, with sons: Adam, Zbigniew, Lech and Jerzy Zylinski, moved to New York, and Montreal.

Mentioned above wife of Kazimierz Brzezinski - Zofia, after death of her husband in 1924 in Przemysl, was living in BORUJA / Broruja / Borui in the Wolsztyn county; d. June 1941,
and buried in KROSNO [Laczki Jagiellonskie ?; now in Przemysl]; Laczki Jagiellonskie - village in the Krosno county.

Named above Ernestyna Woroniecka nee Kropaczek, b. ca 1850, was the wife of Maksymilian Woroniecki [born ca 1840; a branch of the Galicia Woroniecki clan from - ?? - Brzezany, Zloczow, Zbaraz], and the mother of Zofia Brzezinska.

Duke Dymitr Wisniowiecki restored the castle in ZBARAZ; after the death of Michal, voivode of Wilno, the last of the dukes Wisniowiecki (died 1774), Zbaraz and estates came under the ownership of the house of Potocki.

Above Zofia Brzezinska nee Woroniecka, maybe come from Wincenty Woroniecki (ca 1780 - 1826), Colonel [with dauhters Anna Woroniecka m. 1825 to Zygmunt Piotr Los, and Ignacja Woroniecka, m. Piotr Stadnicki of Zmigrod], or from Jozef Woroniecki (ca 1807 - 1885, insurrgent of 1830 - 1831, Hungaria in 1848 - 1849, then in Turkey).

Mentioned above Zofia Brzezinska b. circa 1866 / 1870, died 1941 in BORUJA, west border of Poland,
buried in Laczki Jagiellonskie, close to Krosno.
Mother of Tadeusz Brzezinski and Bogdan Brzezinski.

Above Bogdan Brzezinski was the father of Bronislaw Brzezinski b. 1909 in Krematorow, died 1990 in Gora Kalwaria.

Above Kazimierz Brzezinski, Jr. b. 1866 in Zolkiew, died 1924 in Przemysl.

Named Boruja / Boruia / Borui - village in the Wolsztyn county; 1776, Kuznica was owned by Ludwik Mielecki; Boruja Kuznicka was named Boruja Koscielna [Kirchplatz-Borui]; Chobienice and Grojec to Mielzynski family !, Belecin to Mielecki; Wielka Wies owned by Bloch; Tuchorza to Kotwitz / Kottvitz.

In 1830 Maciej Mielzynski of Chobienice [see below his genealogy !] was insurrgent of the November Uprising under gen. Chlapowski in Lithuania.

In 1848, Chobienice, was the center of Uprising with Jozef Mielzynski (son of Maciej), Ignacy Bobrowski, Jan Adamczak, Ignacy Szumski, and landlord of Wroniawa - Stanislaw Plater. Ca 1900 acted here Maciej Mielzynski [junior] of Chobienice].

Grojec Wielki 3 km west to Chobienice.

BORUJA is situated 9 km north to Stara Tuchorza; 13 south-east-south to ZBASZYN; 14 north-east to Chobienice; 7 km north-east to Belecin. 39 south to Milostowo of von UNRUH [Milostowo - west to Pniewy, south-east to Miedzychod].

We back to the Rajewskis:

Anna Borowczak (born Gniotowska), born 1849, to Jan Gniotowski and Marianna Adamczak; her sister was Anna Rajewska (born Gmiotowska). Anna married Marcin Borowczak in 1891, born in 1839, in Chobienice.
Mentioned
Marcin Borowczak, 1839 - 1893, married 1st Marcjanna Matysiak in 1885; Marcjanna was born in 1852, in Poświętno.
Named
Poświętno, Polska - 1 km south to Popowo Stare and 7 km south to Wilkowo Polskie; 1 km east to PRZEMET. 25 south-east to WRONIAWY. 26 km north-west to LESZNO.

KARNA and some data about the area to the west of KUJAWY:
1.
Kuśnierz
- a village in Poland located in the Mogilno County, in the municipality of Jeziora Wielkie. In 1863, Mierosławski withdrew to the Duchy of Poznań, and Mielęcki went to the forests near Kazimierz Biskupi.

Colonel Kazimierz Mielęcki under the protection of Julian Wieniawski, got across the border and found himself in Kuśnierz, the property of Bolesław Moszczeński.
2.
Freemasonry in Poznań -
Maksymilian Moszczenski and Adam Moszczeński + Spława - Neyman; Umiński; Mierosławski.
3.
Mentioned Kazimierz Mielęcki born in 1837 in KARNA close to Wolsztyn. Karna - 5 / 7 km east to CHOBIENICE; 5 km west to TUCHORZA; north-west to Wolsztyn and WRONIAWY; near Siedlec.

Prot Mielęcki (1792-1867), Major, was the landlord; his son - Colonel Kazimierz Mielęcki (1837-1863), fought in Kujawy.
Karna then belonged to Jan Bniński.
4.
Mielęcki Prot was the officer in 1812, Major in 1831; married Wanda Sokołowski.
Colonel Kazimierz Mielęcki (1837-1863) married Salomea Pągowska, and then moved home to the Polish Kingdom. He was the owner of Nowa Wieś, near Włocławek.
Nowa Wieś - 8 km east to BRZESC KUJAWSKI; north to CHOCEN; 15 km north-east to LUBRANIEC.
5.
Kościelna Wieś near Osięciny, and Radziejow; the owners:
Kościelski;
Moszczeński
and Zakrzewski.
Next to Zieliński and
in 1913 Jan Franciszek Mierosławski bought the estate - 5 km south to RUSZKI; 5 km west to Krotoszyn Kujawski; south-west to BADKOWO.
6.
Kuśnierz - 14 km south to Strzelno; 3 km north-west to Jeziora Wielkie.
Kazimierz Mielęcki - 1863 stayed in Kuśnierz, of Bolesław Moszczeński.

Moszczeński Bolesław Jozef Wincenty (1826-1900), member of the insurrection of 1848, activist in Poznań and commissioner in 1863. Born in Stępuchow (officially Stempuchow) in the area of Wągrowiec - was the son of Wincenty and Aniela Radońska (1804-1829).

He settled in his home town of Wiatrow near Wągrowiec. In the Greater Poland Uprising of 1848, he distinguished himself with courage at the attack on the palace in Miłosław.

After 1848, he managed Kożuszkowo and Wapno in Kujawy.

He settled with his son in Srebrna Gora for some time, then he moved to a family in Poznań, where he died on October 25, 1900.

Wapno, located in Greater Poland (Pałuki); WAPNO - 24 km north-west to ZNIN.

KARGOWA and Angela Merkel's ancestors on her mother's side:

acc. to Brandenburg, Germany, Transcripts of Church Records -
Emil Richard Drange was son of Carl Gottfried Drange b. in the Lubuskie province, Poland. That is Emil Richard Drange b. 1866 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa, Provinz Posen / the Poznan prov., Prussia; died 1913 in Elbing / Elblag, Deutschland / Germany - now Poland.

He was the son of Carl Gottlieb Drange and Christiane Emilie Drange, and husband of Emma Drange with daughter Gertrud Alma Jentzsch.

Above Christiane Emilie Drange nee Gunther, b. 1835 in above Unruhstadt 18 km south-west of Wolsztyn and ca 20 / 22 km south-west of STARA TUCHORZA - see genealogy of ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI.

Christiane Emilie was the daughter of Samuel Gottlob Gunther and Johanne Christiane; she was the mother of named above Emil Richard Drange.

Named above Johanne Christiane Gunther nee Kadach, born ca 1793, and died 1863 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa south of BABIMOST [the Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland].
Mentioned above Samuel Gottlob Gunther b. ca 1783, died 1860 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa.

Named above Gertrud Alma Jentzsch (Drange) b. 1891 in Elbing / Elblag, Westpreusen, Germany [Poland], to Emil Richard Drange and Emma Drange. Gertrud Alma was the wife of Willi Jentzsch - he was born 1886 in Bitterfeld- Wolfen to Wilhelm Jentzsch.


Western Borderlands of Poland.

PRZEMET - 28 km east-south-east to KARGOWA [Kargowa in 1541 to Zychlinski; it served as a customs chamber of POLAND at way to Brandenburg and north Silesia of the Czech Kingdom. But Trzebiechow was situated in Brandenburg / Prussia in 1482 to 1945].

PRZEMET - 16 km south-west to Wilkowo Polskie [Wilkowo Polskie - 27 km north-east to ex-border of Silesia and the Czech Kingdom]; and 16 km north-west to ex-border of Silesia [Silesia in 1742 to Prussia].

Jezierzyce Koscielne - 14 north-east to WSCHOWA [Wschowa in 1343 to Poland]; 14 km south-east to GORSKO. 4 km west to Golanice and Krzycko Male. 5 km to ex-border of Bohemia - Czech / Silesia [1348-1742].

GORSKO, 10 km south-west to PRZEMET; 13 km north-west to Jezierzyce Koscielne.

Wilkowo Polskie 23 km north to KRZYCKO WIELKIE.
In 1815-1848, Wilkowo Polskie belonged to the Kosten county; and Wilkowo Polskie was owned by Marceli Czarnecki, including Siekowo, Siekowko, Ziemin and Bielawy in 1841. At the beginning Osowski in 1644 put away the dowry to his daughter, who married a Catholic, Radomicki. In the 17th cent. owned by Szoldrski, inf. 1679.

Popowo Stare was the part of the parish of Wilkowo Polskie until 1660; the distance is 3 km.

Wschowa - Kunowo - Wilkowo Polskie:

1. Lukasz Kiedrzynski married to (1st time ?) Franciszka Buczynski / Buczynska, he was owner of Kunowo / Kunow in 1767 (from hands of his mother), he was son of Ludwika nee Sitnicka or Sielinski - 6 km north of Gostyn and 31 km south-east of Koscian. This is Kunow / Kunowo 6 / 8 km north of Gostyn, that is east of Leszno of the Sulkowskis. See: Koszkowo - 13 km north-east of Gostyn; Noskow / Noskowo - 9 km south-west of Jarocin and 16 km east of above Koszkowo; Gostyn / Gostingen, is a town in Greater Poland Voivodeship, in Gostyn County.

2. In WSCHOWA in 1775 Marianna Zamoyska [widowed after death of Stanislaw Rembowski of Dobrzyn {marriage in 1752}, and after Stanislaw Kostka Kiedrzynski, writer in Wschowa], after receipt of payment from Ignacy Szoldrski of Smolensk, formally recognized the case is closed about Wilkowo Polskie and the Bielawy farm, since 1768 in hands of Jakub Szoldrski. Wilkowo Polskie, 25 km east of Wolsztyn; north of Leszno [see Sulkowski]; 15 km north-east of PRZEMET / Przemet [see in named Przemet a father of Andrzej Mielzynski of Kcynia, 1698-1771 + Anna Petronela Bninska, 1720-1771].

3. Jozef Klemens Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI [see Radziejow] of Kalisz (1758-1763) and Poznan (1763-1782), 1729- 1792, m. Wirydianna Bninska, 1718-1797

{her second husband before 1744: Leon Raczynski 1698-1755 with daughter Katarzyna Raczynska 1744-1792 who married in 1757 to Jozef Stanislaw Radolinski - officer in Wschowa (1776-1777) (they had daughter Wiridianna / Wiridiana Radolinska, 1761 - 1826 + ca 1780, to Antoni Maciej Konstanty Kwilecki, and 2nd + in 1806 to General Stanislaw Fiszer [see Jefferson and Kosciuszko with Paszkowski] 1759-1812)}.

Jozef Stanislaw Radolinski born 1730 - died in 1781 in Winnogora.

His father was Jozef Stefan Radolinski of Wschowa b. 1680 - died in 1740, who was brother of Zofia Walewska 1677 - 1723 who married Kazimierz Walewski.

Kazimierz Walewski was son of Stanislaw Walewski and Katarzyna Lanckoronska.
Named above Stanislaw Rembowski
[1691-1768; son of Wojciech Rembowski and Marianna Przedzynska / PRADZYNSKA !; Stanislaw had sister Katarzyna Konarska and a brother Jan Rembowski]
and Marianna Zamoyska
[daughter of Michal Zamoyski b. 1690 {or before !}, and Konstancja Zamoyska nee Rozen]
had son Klemens Rembowski b. 1752, and grandchildren:
Katarzyna Rembowska / Rembowska b. 1780, Maciej Rembowski 1780-1833, Stanislaw Rembowski 1780-1849, and Antoni Jan Rembowski 1785-1858
[landowner of Szczytniki, in the Kalisz county; died in Nowa Wies; married in 1810 to Marcjanna Marianna Wolska b. 1793].

Michal Zamoyski b. 1690 or acc. to me: born ca 1679, and Konstancja Zamoyska nee Rozen - that is Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski the 6th landlord of ZAMOSC, b. ca 1679 or after 1679, died 1735 - Zamosc;

he married three times; 3rd time to unknown with two daughters born ca 1720

{above Marianna Zamoyska [? = Marjanna nee Zamoyska]}

and the second daughter after 1720.

Stanislaw Rembowski b. 1691 or born in 1696-1768 married two times: in 1733 [with son Jan REMBOWSKI] and 2nd time in ca 1750; he had granddaughter Marianna Rembowska married to Andrzej Kurowski (b. 1750 Mrowiniec - d. after 1799) officer in Poznan in 1791 to ca 1795, who was
in 1798 landowner of Gorsko / Gorsko close to Przemet - Przemet / Priment, in the Wolsztyn county, 5 km to ex-Prussian border, 19 north of WSCHOWA, south-east of Wolsztyn [see Mielzynski and Sulkowski !] - marriage before 1797.

Above Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski was the father of
Ludwina Wielhorska;
Tomasz Antoni Zamoyski;
Jan Jakub Zamoyski [married Ludwika Maria Zamojska nee Poniatowska, 1728 - 1781];
Andrzej Zamoyski, Count;
Helena Potocka;
Teresa Anna Hutten-Czapska,
and Katarzyna Wandalin-Mniszech born 1722, married Jan Karol Wandalin Mniszech 1716-1759, General.

Ludwika Maria Zamojska nee Poniatowska, 1728 - 1781, was wife of Jan Jakub Zamoyski; and was mother of Urszula Maria Wandalin-Mniszech
[wife of Michal Jerzy Wandalin-Mniszech born 1742, son of above Jan Karol Wandalin-Mniszech and Katarzyna Wandalin-Mniszech 1722-1771, daughter of Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski]
and Brygida / Maria Brygida Galecki / Brygida Galecka.

In 1775 Florian / Florjan Kiedrzynski, a clark in KALISZ, and his relatives: Pawel Kiedrzynski [heirs], son of Marcin KIEDRZYNSKI with Wiktoria nee Pstrokonska; with Stanislaw Kiedrzynski, the writer of the customs chamber in WSCHOWA [see Sulkowski]; and his brother Jozef Kiedrzynski - heirs.
Stanislaw Kiedrzynski, ? - 1774 [married Marjanna nee Zamoyska].

Stanislaw Kiedrzynski / Stanislaw Kostka Kiedrzynski, was the son of Marcin Kiedrzynski [ca 1700- 1788], born ca 1730 / 1739,
married to Marjanna nee Zamoyska [b. ca 1720 / 1730]. Stanislaw died in 1773 / 1774 or after 1775.

Stanislaw Kiedrzynski / Stanislaw Kostka Kiedrzynski, son of Marcin Kiedrzynski [ca 1715/1720-1788], born ca 1730 / 1739, married to Marjanna nee Zamoyska [b. ca 1720 / 1730]. Stanislaw died in 1773 / 1774 or after 1775.

Jeseritz / Jezierzyce Koscielne:

In 1566, Jezierzyce Koscielne

[Golanice - 4 km south to Krzycko Wielkie; at half way from Leszno to Gorsko. 4 km south-east to Jezierzyce Koscielne]

along with Golanice belonged to Mr Golanicki. In 1670 the church was subordinated to the parish in Golanice. By the end of the 19th century the name Jezierzyce Niemieckie / Jeseritz Deutsch, was used. Anhalt- Coethen Fryderyk Erdman, owner of Pszczyna / Isenburg, General, bought in 1785 Wloszakowice, Bukowiec, Grotniki, Ujazdowo, Dominice / Domianice, Miastko, and Jezierzyce;
Jezierzyce Koscielne belonged to Teodor Bilewicz,
before him to Stanislaw Krzycki; Fryderyk bought it in 1782.

Wloszakowice - at half way from Gorsko to Krzycko Wielkie; 14 km south-east to PRZEMET.

Miastko - 1 km south to Gorsko.

DOMINICE / Domianice - 4 km east to Gorsko.

Golanice - 4 km south to Krzycko Wielkie; at half way from Leszno to Gorsko. 4 km south-east to Jezierzyce Koscielne.

Named
Stanislawa Krzycki -
in Golanice, 1776, Stanislaw Kostka Franciszek Ksawery Bartlomiej, was born - son of Stanislaw Krzycki and Weronika, owners of Golanice, Jezierzyce Koscielne, Krzycko Wielkie;
godparents: Bartlomiej Stecki, the Maltese knight,
and young Weronika Gurowska.

Golanice, 1757, [wedding in Rogowo close to Krobia], Jerzy Twardowski younger married Krystyna Konstancja Bronikowska, owner of Lukow, widowed after death of the owner of Rogowo in the Krobia parish;
witnesses:
Andrzej Twardowski, the Chamberlain of the Prussian king, owner of Golanice and Jezierzyce Koscielne;
and Zygmunt Unrug / Zygmunt UNRUH, the owner of a part of Drzewce - 4 km west to ROKOSOWO.

Golanice, 1781, Jozef Kazimierz was born - son of Andrzej Korsini owner of Golanice and Jezierzyce Koscielne, and Anna Gruszczynska; witnesses:
Kazimierz Korsini, owner of Ruchocice - 7 km south-west to Grodzisk Wielkopolski - and Ludwika Jablonowska - Niezychowska, widow after Ignacy, official in Wschowa, owner of Dlugie.

Maria Jarzebowska (born Krzycka), 1768 - 1815, was the daughter of Stanislaw Krzycki and Anna Weronika Krzycka nee Niezychowska; Stanislaw b. 1731. Anna was born in 1750. Maria married Jozef Jarzebowski b. 1763 with the son Stanislaw Jarzebowski.

Above Stanislaw Kostka Krzycki b. ca 1731, died 1794, son of Wladyslaw Krzycki and Teresa; Above Weronika Krzycka (Niezychowska) b. ca 1750, died 1807.
Mentioned above Wladyslaw Krzycki died 1746, was the son of Jan Krzycki.

KARGOWA and von UNRUH:

Unrug family came to Poland very long ago, because in 1579 from Thuringia and settled in Silesia. Initially, they called themselves Unruh, they received from the Polish King Zygmunt II August the "right of homeland", that is citizenship of the country [in Poland in 1594].

CHRISTOPH VON UNRUH (1550-1622) bought MIEDZYCHOD.

This is a branch of Tadeusz Gustaw Unrug, born in 1834 - died in 1907, in the Sielec estate near Znin, Major General of the Prussian Guard. Tadeusz came from a Polish Calvinist family derived from count Jerzy Unrug / UNRUH, the official in Gniezno

{Christoph von Unruh was in Gniezno in 1641, and traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh. BOGUSLAW was the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705. Boguslaw married to Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski}

and JERZY UNRUH was the founder of the city of Kargowa in 1641, then called "Unrugov".

Tadeusz UNRUH was the son of Henryk Kajetan Unrug

(Henryk Kajetan = Kajetan Unruh died 1884 - Henryk was the son of
Fryderyk Sebastian Unrug 1734 - 1802
{Unruh sold Miedzychod in 1785 to Adam MIELECKI};

grandson of Aleksander Unrug / von Unruh, 1704 - 1773

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof who bought Trzciel and Wytomysl. Aleksander Unruh bought Kobylka in 1772 from hands of Duke August Sulkowski, who had this estate after August Poniatowski. Kobylka is situated close to Wolomin. Here was a mint};

the great-grandson of Georg Sebastian von Unruh = JERZY Unruh, ca 1666 - 1723

{JERZY Unruh bought Kargowa; Jerzy born ca 1666, had a brother Christian von Unruh = Christoph von Unruh, auf Pieske born 1666, d. 1723, the owner of Pieski / Pieske near Miedzychod, and Nowy Gorzyck = Nowe Gorzycko. Christoph was the father of Sophie Catharina von Unruh, and Urszula Marianna Brudzewska};

the great-great-grandson of Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628

{Aleksander Unruh had a brother Krzysztof founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689, the official in WALCZ and in GNIEZNO; Krzysztof had a son Jerzy 1652-1710, the official in POZNAN and WALCZ})

and his wife Anna Kurnatowski (died 1884). In the 1850s [or in 1849], Tadeusz and some of his siblings converted to Catholicism.

In a marriage with the Saxon countess Izydora von Bunau (1851-1923) he had two sons, including Vice-Admiral Jozef Unrug. Tadeusz after 1870 settled near Znin, died in 1907.

Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628, had a brother
Krzysztof - the founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689.

The son of named Aleksander:
JERZY SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1666-1723);
the grandson
ALEKSANDER UNRUG (1704-1773);
the great-grandson
FRYDERYK SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1734-1802),

the great-great-grandson HENRYK KAJETAN MAURYCY UNRUG (1791-1849), the owner of Szolow, Dzieczyn and Skrzydlew,
had 8 children.

Heinrich Kajetan von Unruh, passed in 1849 on Catholicism [his son Jozef Bartlomiej Unrug / Jozef Baltazar Unrug, b. 1825]. He also changed the spelling of his last name from Unruh to Unrug. Two of his sons died in the uprisings in April 1848 near Miloslaw in the Wrzesnia district. He fought against Prussia. Kazimierz, the second son, died in May 1863 in the January Uprising. He fought against the Russians.


We must back to Russia, to the Romanovs:

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, born 1832, served 1862 - 1882 as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi.
Despot Zenovich Stanislav Ivanovich, son of Jan Despot Zenowicz / Jan Despot-Zenowicz (b. ca 1800) was born in 1833 or 1835, education in France,
he settled in the Caucasus, 1856 with the rank of titular counselor, served as an officer of the Caucasus Governor, the Baku District Court, was appointed by the Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France.

Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies.

Mason, and called himself Philalethes.

Receiving education at home in Georgia, often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909; the funeral was in Russia; Field Marshal.

Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene.

Children of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich:

1. Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia;
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia, b. 1859, d. 1919, the eldest son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich, and a first cousin of Alexander III;
he urged the Tsar to implement reforms, and he even participated in discussions of a palace coup.

Nicholas spent his childhood and youth in Georgia, a socialist, he often visited Paris, the south of France; Francophile, he offended Germany during a visit to Paris when he expressed his anti-German political views; critic of most of his male cousins, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikholaievich in particular; a pacifist and was against the war in a time of uppermost patriotism.

Above Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856 - 1929) was the eldest son to Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia (1831 - 1891) and Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg (1838 - 1900).

His father was the sixth child to Nicholas I of Russia and his Empress consort Alexandra Fedorovna of Prussia (1798 - 1860).
Alexandra Fedorovna was a daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
His maternal grandfather was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Wurttemberg.

Grand Duke Nicholas played a main role during the Revolution of 1905, from 1905 was commander-in-chief of the St. Petersburg Military District.

1907, Nicholas married Princess Anastasia of Montenegro, who reinforced the Pan-Slavic tendencies of Nicholas.

The Grand Duke had no part in the planning and preparations for World War I.
The February Revolution found Nicholas in the Caucasus, next two years in the Crimean Peninsula, 1922, Nicholas was proclaimed as the emperor of all Russia.

Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich or Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov (1856 - 1929) served in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 1878 and was inspector general of the cavalry for ten years from 1895;
was Commander in Chief of the Russian army during the first year of the First World War and, for the briefest moment, at the end of Tsar Nicholas II's reign.

I said that the maternal grandfather of Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov of Russia was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Wurttemberg.
Duke George of Oldenburg (1784 - 1812) was a younger son of Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg and his wife Duchess Frederica of Wurttemberg.

He had two sons:

Peter Georg Paul Alexander Georgievich of Oldenburg,

and Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg (1812 - 1881).
Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich von Holstein-Gottorp of Oldenburg was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I.
Konstantin Friedrich Peter Oldenburg or Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg began a flirtation with Agrippina; Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel 'Daniel' Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command;
Dadiani were a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty; Agrippina was Tariel Dadiani's second wife but Agrippina in 1882 divorced Dadiani.
1882, Constantine entered into a morganatic marriage with Agrippina Japaridze; by the early 1890s, they were doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).
See the Armands and Konstantynowiczs in Moscow and Alexandrovsk.

"...Georgian nationalist, Prince Viktor Nakachidze, was convicted in late 1885 for participating in a nihilist bomb plot to kill the Tsar. Through his Mingrelian relatives, Prince Nakachidze had connections to Agrippina Japaridze, the wife of Constantine Petrovich, and to the Dadiani family - Salome, Niko / Nikolai DADIANI, and Andria Dadiani - the Georgian royal family then living in exile at Nice ...

For his role in the bomb plot, Prince Victor Nakachidze was sentenced to death and sent to Siberia. However, with the aid of his wife, Roedel, he managed to escape, travelling across the Pacific to the United States. The couple eventually resurfaced in London...

Shortly after the marriage of Prince George Yurievsky to Countess Alexandra von Zarnekau at Nice in 1901, a connection between Prince Viktor Nakachidze and the Yurievsky circle in Nice became clear...".


Nikoloz "Niko" Dadiani [Nikolai Dadiani b. 1846, d. 1903 by 'geneanet'], b. 1847, d. 1903, the son of DAVID DADIANI, Prince.

Niko / Nikolai married Countess Maria Alexandrovna Adlerberg, b. 1849, the daughter of Count Aleksandr Adelberg / ADLERBERG, Minister of the Imperial Court

[van Adelberg - in Amsterdam.
But Alexandra Alexandrovna von ADLERBERG was the sister of named Maria.

Mother is unknown, but Maria's father was Alexandre Edvardovitch von ADLERBERG, 1818-1888; he died in Munchen. Alexandre married Ekaterina POLOVTZEV, b. 1822, the daughter of Nikolai Polovtzev.

Alexandre Adlerberg was the son of General Edward Adlerberg

{Edvard Ferdinand Woldemar / Vladimir Feodorovitch von ADLERBERG - SVEBELIUS, b. 1791 in VYBORG, died in 1884. Edvard married Maria Vassilievna NELIDOV, 1797-1870.
Edvard was the son of Gustav Friedrich von ADLERBERG SVEBELIUS, 1738-1794 and Dorothea Helena Juliana / Anna Charlotta Juliana / Julia Feodorovna von BAGGEHUFWUDT - BAGGOWUT, 1760-1839

(above Gustav Friedrich von Adlerberg b. 1738 in HANILA, Estland (close to Virtsu, western Estonia - ca 52 km south to HAAPSALU); burial in Vyborg.
The son of Erik Adlerberg b. 1690 in Jonkoping, SWEDEN / Sverige.
Erik married to Margareta Helena von Gersdorff b. 1693, died in TALLINN (Estonia) in 1770 -

the Gersdorf family of Estonia (and Poland at present), she was the daughter of Moritz Heinrich von Gersdorff, of Repshof, b. 1660 in Repshof - the family also in Konigsberg.

Repshof = Raabise, north to Tartu, 20 km north-east to JOGEVA, close to KUREMAA, Estonia)}].

Niko Dadiani and Maria Adlerberg Dadiani had a son Nikolay, killed by Bolshevik in March 1919; and they had a daughter

Salomea Dadiani, b. 1878, d. 1961 in France,
m. Major General Aleksandr Nikolayevich Obolensky, b. 1872 [St Petersburg's governor in 1914-1916 - burial in Paris in 1924].


The Saparov family:
Saparov Gerasim had children:

a. Saparov Mariam was married to Arutyunov,
b.
Saparov Bagdasar / Baghdasar was married to Taliko daughter of Sarkisov with children: Saparov Ivan (d. 1912), Saparova Eugene was married to NN Karganova, Saparova Tamara;
c.
Saparov Gaspar married to Catherine Yenikolopov with children:
Saparova married to George G. Ambardanov,
Saparova Maria was married to Markar'yan,
Nina married to Nikolai Shadinov,
and last Sofia married to Prince Cherkezov / Czerkasow;
d.
Saparov Peter married to Yarovoy with children :
Nicholas married Melikova, Michael Mary Mirimanova, and Darius married to Vakhtang Jalalov;
e.
Saparova Tatela was married to Kalabekov,

f. Saparov Pavel Gerasimov (1820 - 1878), was married to Sophia Grigorevne Paat (d. 1866)
with children:
1. Anna b. before 1845,
2. Saparov Gerasim (1845 - 1869),
3. Elizabeth (ca 1854 - 1919), was married to Sergei Teimurazovich Melik-Beglarov (d. 1905),

and 4. Saparov Arkady (1854 - before 1921), was married to Varvara Maypariani with children:

Elena,
Tamara Arkadevna SAPAROV was married 1st to Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and
2nd marriage to Lev / Lion Emilievich Armand (Inessa Armand relatives);
Saparova Nina Arkadevna d. before 1920;
Saparov Paul;
Catherine Arkadevna d. 1916;
Saparova Maria;

5. Saparova Olga Salome / Olga Saparian / Ольга Сапарова Сапарьян (born March 25 / April 6, 1859 in Signach 100 km of Tbilisi - died in 1951; mentioned Signach that is maybe Гыццыл Сихиат / პატარა ციხიათა - close to Didi Tsikhiata / Styr Sichiat; ca 18 km north-west of Cchinwal / Chinval on way to Oni), was married to Alexander Ivanovich Florensky (30 September / October 12, 1850 - 1908),
with children:
A.
Pavel Florensky (9 / 21 January 1882 - December 8, 1937), was married to Anna Mikhailovna daughter of Hiacynt (1889 or 1883 - 1973) with 5 children, 12 grandchildren, 24 great-grandchildren:

Florensky Vasily Pavlovich (1911 - 1956),
Cyril P. Florensky (December 27, 1915 - 1982),
Michael P. Florensky (1921/22 - 1961), was married to Helena daughter of Ivan;
B.
Florenskaya Julia A. (1 / 13 July 1884 - 1947), was married to Mikhail Mikhailovich Asatiani (1881 - 1938) founder of scientific school of psychiatrists in Georgia;
C.
Florenskaya Elizabeth A. (7 / 19 May 1886 - 1959),
D.
Florenskaya Raisa Alexandrovna (16 / 28 April, 1894 - 1932).
6.
Saparova Barbara (1861-1891),
7.
Saparova Ripsime / Repsimiya P. (1865 to 1930), married the 1st to Tavrizov and 2nd to Leonid G. Konovalov;
8.
Saparova Sofia P. (1866-1939), was married to Nicholas Romanovich Karamyan (d. 1930).

2. Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna,
3. Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich b. 1861 and in 1891 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie of Merenberg (relatives of the Pushkin family / Puskin/ Alexander S. Puszkin - family was near by military counterintelligence headquarters),

4. Grand Duke George Mikhailovich,

5. Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) b. 1866 - freemason, and near by military intelligence headquarters,
6.
Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich
7. and last
Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich.

Above named Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia; in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus; Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years; served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel.

In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg, acc. to Wikipedia. In 1888, he had an affair with Princess Walewski; later, with Countess Catherine Nikolaevna Ignatieva daughter of Minister of Interior, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev. In 1900, moved to Keele Hall, in Staffordshire, close to Newcastle-under-Lyme; visitor of North Berwick in Scotland, and in the south of France, Cannes where he met his sister Anastasia and in 1903 his father, also brother Alexander and his family;

he moved with his family to Hampstead in 1909 and every year Grand Duke Michael would visit Edward VII at Windsor Castle, Sandringham and Buckingham Palace. 1912, Grand Duke Michael was with a visit in Russia. 1914 as an agent for Russian loans in France.
On 31 October 1916 he "...wrote to Tsar Nicholas II warning him that British secret agents in Russia were expecting a revolution".

And (by Wikipedia) "General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort, stated that Russian communist elements working against the Tsar had betrayed Kitchener's travel plans to Germany. He stated that Kitchener was killed 'because of his ability', as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover...".

Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia after November 1917 moved to Regent's Park. In 1916 his youngest daughter, Nadejda (Nada) married Prince George of Battenberg, eldest son of Prince Louis by Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Anastasia (Zia), the eldest daughter, in 1917 married Sir Harold Wernher.

Michael Mikhailovich and his wife returned to Cannes in 1923, and died in 1929.


Von Unruh [Niepokojczycki in Russia] + Ludendorff and Kruszewnia:

Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (1865 - 1937), a German general; in August 1916 he was appointed to the post as Quartermaster general. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen / Poznan. His father - August Wilhelm Ludendorff (1833-1905).
Erich's mother, Klara Jeanette Henriette von Tempelhoff (1840-1914), was the daughter of Friedrich August Napoleon von Tempelhoff (1804-1868) and his wife Jeannette Wilhelmine von Dziembowska (1816-1854), the daughter of
Stefan Dziembowski / Stephan von Dziembowski (born in 1779 - died in 1859 in POWODOWO, 5 km south-east to Siedlec; 13 km south-east to CHOBIENICE of Mielzynski. 7 km south to Stara Tuchorza).

Through Dziembowski's wife
Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh (1793-1862),
Erich was a descendant of the Counts of Denhoff, the Dukes of Legnica and Brzeg.

Above
Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh (1793-1862; married Stephan von Dziembowski, 1779-1859)
- was the daughter of
Stefan Unruh / Stephan von UNRUH [born ca 1745] + Helene von OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI born ca 1755 or ca 1765.

[born ca 1745 ?? - maybe from Nojewo close to Pniewy, and Szamotuly. 10 kilometres north of Pniewy, 19 km west of Szamotuly. East to Miedzychod].


Brief note to Helena Bronikowska married Stephan von UNRUH [born ca 1745]:

Chlastawa belonged to Bronikowski, who was the owner of Kosieczyn.
CHLASTAWA is situated 2 km west to Zbaszynek, on a way to Babimost.
In 1623 the daughter of Melchior Brudzewski - Malgorzata married to Radislaw Mietschik, who took Chlastawa;
Chlastawa owned by the Bronikowskis, in the second half of the 17th and 18th cent., including Kosieczyn, then to Zakrzewski.

Kosieczyn (4 km south to CHLASTAWA; 12 km north-west to CHOBIENICE ! - uuntil 1945 as Kuschten) - close to Zbaszynek - in the Chlastawa parish;
owners:
von Luck, von Prittwitz, von Lossow, von Schlichling and Bronikowski; Dziembowski.

New coat of arms for Bronikowski in 1743 to Count Jan Zygmunt Bronikowski
- his father was Zygmunt Aleksander Bronikowski / Sigismund Aleksander von Oppeln-Bronikowski, auf Chlastawe, Kuschten, Kursko und Placzowo bei Meseritz, born in 1672 in Kurzig Martini, died in 1724.

Grandfather - Zygmunt Bronikowski 1628-1732;

great-grandfather was Dobrogast Bronikowski ca 1600-1676, of NEUDORF;

the great-great-grandfather was Jan Bronikowski, ca 1560 - ca 1614.

Mentioned above
Hans Sigmund von Bronikowski or Jan Zygmunt Bronikowski / von Oppeln-Bronikowski
{b. ca 1700 - died ca 1776; the father of
Aleksander Antoni Bronikowski / von Oppeln-Bronikowski,
and Joanna Maria Ludwika Bronikowska}
was the brother of Eva Charlotte von Kalckreurh; Christina Constantia von Lucke und Kursko;
Helena Beata Unrug;
Joanna Unrug
and 3 others.


Brief explanation:

1.
Joanna Krystyna UNRUG / von Unruh, Bronikowski married to Zygmunt Wladyslaw Bronikowski / Zygmunt Wladyslaw Oppeln-Bronikowski, b. ca 1760 - d. 1838 in Dresden, the son of Aleksander BRONIKOWSKI, 1730- 1780 [and Joanna Unrug ?] = Aleksander Antoni Oppeln-Bronikowski [see below !].

2.
Duke Sulkowski sold in 1772 Kobylka to Count Aleksander Unruh / Unrug, 1704 - 1773, the son of Jerzy Von Unruh = Georg Sebastian von Unruh and Anna Helena. Aleksander UNRUH was the husband of Helena Beata Oppeln Bronikowska Unruh, and Joanna Krystyna Charlotta, the daughter of Zygmunt Fryderyk Troschke de Rosenwerth. Father of Fryderyk Sebastian Unrug.

3.
Dziembowski's wife was Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh (1793-1862). Jeannette Von Unruh b. ca 1783
[she had the sister - Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh 1793-1862 m. Stefan Dziembowski / Stephan von Dziembowski, 1779-1859, with the daughter - Jeannette Wilhelmine Dziembowska, 1816-1854, married in 1835 to Friedrich August Napoleon von Tempelhoff, 1804-1868],
was the daughter of
Stephan Von Unruh and Helene Von Oppeln-Bronikowski.

4.
Stefan Unruh / Stephan von UNRUH [born ca 1745] + Helene von OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI born ca 1755 or ca 1765

[maybe she was born ca 1745 ?? - maybe from Nojewo close to Pniewy, and Szamotuly. 10 kilometres north of Pniewy].

Jeannette Von Unruh b. ca 1783, not ca 1775, was the daughter of Stephan Von Unruh and Helene Von Oppeln-Bronikowski. Jeanette married Stephan von Dziembowski born in 1779. They had one daughter Jeannette Wilhelmine von Tempelhoff born von Dziembowska. Stephan von Unruh was the son of Georg Bogislaw von UNRUH and Charlotte BOJANOWSKI. Above mentioned Boguslaw UNRUH was the son of Peter von UNRUH. Count Zygmunt Wladyslaw Bronikowski b. ca 1760/1764 - 1838 in DRESDEN, maybe was the brother to Helene von OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI born ca 1755/1765; they were children of Aleksander Antoni Bronikowski / Aleksander BRONIKOWSKI, 1730-1780, who married in 1764, to Joanna Unrug, 1725/1730-1788.

5.
Mentioned above
Aleksander Antoni Bronikowski / Aleksander BRONIKOWSKI 1730-1780, m. in 1764, to Joanna Unrug, 1725/1730-1788

[but geni.com faultyly inf. - Joanna Krystyna Bronikowski (Unrug) d. 1788, was the wife of Zygmunt Władysław Bronikowski and she was the mother of Ludwik Oppeln-Bronikowski b. 1799, d. 1864 in Chlastawa].

6.
Boguslaw UNRUH, junior, was the son of
Peter von UNRUH
[= Piotr Unruh had a brother Konstantin von Unruh / Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh b. 1689, d. 1763, the Saxon diplomat. That is Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, auf Birnbaum, also known as "Piotr Unrug" - died in 1766. "Piotr Unrug" was the son of
Bogusław (Bogislaus) von Unruh, auf Birnbaum, also known as "Bogusław Unrug"
b. 1661 in Birnbaum, died in 1725]
+ Johanna Marianna von Unruh nee von Oppeln-Bronikowska, the daughter of ZYGMUNT ALEKSANDER OPPEL-BRONIKOWSKI
{Zygmunt Aleksander Bronikowski b. 1672 in Kurzig Martini, died in 1724}.

7.
But we know also that Charlotte von Unruh born von Schaumberg, born ca 1690, was the wife of Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, auf Birnbaum, known as "Piotr Unrug" died in 1766, the son of Bogusław (Bogislaus) von Unruh, auf Birnbaum and Ludwika Konstancja Anna Unrug.


Count Jan Zygmunt Bronikowski - the owner of
Radowice and Oblaty in Brandenburg / Brandenburgia;
Kosieczyn; Kursk; Chlastawa in Poland;
his great-grandson was Ludwik Bronikowski (1799-1864), the owner of Kosieczyn, Chlastawa and Wilkowo [WILKOWO POLSKIE ?!], the father of [born in Chlastawa] Hipolit Bronikowski (1829-1890).

Ludwik Bronikowski (1799 - 1864) - died in Chlastawa, the Swiebodzin County.
Son of Zygmunt Wladyslaw Bronikowski and Joanna Krystyna UNRUG / von Unruh, Bronikowski.

Zygmunt Wladyslaw Oppeln-Bronikowski, b. ca 1760 - d. 1838 in Dresden;
the son of Aleksander BRONIKOWSKI 1730-1780 [and Joanna Unrug ?] = Aleksander Antoni Oppeln-Bronikowski;
the grandson of mentioned Hans Sigmund von Bronikowski = Jan Zygmunt Bronikowski / von Oppeln-Bronikowski b. ca 1700 - died ca 1776.
New coat of arms for Bronikowski in 1743 to Count Jan Zygmunt Bronikowski - his father was
Zygmunt Aleksander Bronikowski / Sigismund Aleksander von Oppeln-Bronikowski, auf Chlastawe, Kuschten, Kursko {west to Miedzyrzecz} und Placzowo bei Meseritz, born in 1672 in Kurzig Martini, died in 1724.

Grandfather - Zygmunt Bronikowski 1628-1732;

great-grandfather was Dobrogast Bronikowski ca 1600-1676, the owner of NEUDORF;
the great-great-grandfather was Jan Bronikowski, ca 1560 - ca 1614.

Hipolit Bronikowski - the Polish branch -

[his father -
Ludwik Bronikowski 1799-1864 in CHLASTAWA [owner of Wilkowo Polskie before death] + Henryka Zychlinska 1805-1879.

Grandfather -
Count Zygmunt Wladyslaw Bronikowski b. ca 1760/1764 - 1838 in DRESDEN [maybe a brother to Helene von OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI born ca 1755/1765 ?],
and
the great-grandfather was
Aleksander Antoni Bronikowski / Aleksander BRONIKOWSKI 1730-1780, m. in 1764, to Joanna Unrug, 1725/1730-1788].

Hipolit Bronikowski had 5 brothers:
oldest Stefan Bronikowski;
younger Telesfor;
Stanislaw;
Boleslaw;
Ludwik.
And a sister Zofia.

Hipolit Bronikowski was the successor of Wilkowo [Polskie];
Telesfor, the owner of Kosieczyn;

Stanislaw BRONIKOWSKI - took Karna [at half way from CHOBIENICE to Stara TUCHORZA; 5 km north to SIEDLEC !] and Reklin [2 km south-west to Tuchorza Stara];
Boleslaw Bronikowski in Chlastawa.
Kosieczyn, here with Telesfor were living his parents and Zofia and Ludwik.

Ca 1856 Hipolit Bronikowski [1829-1890] married to Wanda Radonska [1835-1914], the daughter of Tadeusz and Emilia Radonski from Kocialkowa Gorka close to Pobiedziska.
Hipolit was living in Wilkowo until 1859, and here was born in 1857, Tadeusz Bronikowski

[1857 - Wilkowo POLSKIE ?!, d. 1899 - Chotow; 14 km north-east to WLOSZCZOWA !; 28 km south-east to PRZEDBORZ in Russia].

But Hipolit Bronikowski was the tenant still after 1859 of named Wilkowo Polskie in Prussia.
Hipolit leased Mechlin close to Srem, 1859-1861, owned by Raczynski and then to Watt-Skrzydlewski.
Hipolit leased from hands of Mieczkowski, Belecin close to Gostyn [NOWY BELECIN is 5 km north to Krzemieniewo], and near to Krzemieniewo [16 km west to GOSTYN; 18 km south-west to KUNOWO].

Note:

Jan Oppeln-Bronikowski / Johann von Oppeln-Bronikowski / Bronikovsky, born in 1679, Kunowo / KUNOW, the Szamotuly county; d. in 1765, Poczdam; Swedish and Polish military; later Prussian general-major. The son of Zygmunt Oppeln - Bronikowski, the Swedish major, the owner of Kunow / KUNOWO - see KIEDRZYNSKI.

Compare:
in 1791 in Poznan, on Helene Gottliebe von Unruh / Gottliebe (Bogumila) von Unruh - a witness in Strychy / Striche, 9 km south-west to Miedzychod; 5 km north to Nowe Gorzycko.

And Juliane Helene von Unruh nee von Stosch, 1755 - 1831, wife of Friedrich Ernst August von Unruh.

Helene von OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI born ca 1755 or maybe ca 1765.

See: Jeannette Von Unruh b. ca 1775/1783 [she had the sister - Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh 1793-1862 m. Stephan von Dziembowski, 1779-1859, with the daughter - Jeannette Wilhelmine Dziembowska, 1816-1854, married in 1835 to Friedrich August Napoleon von Tempelhoff, 1804-1868], was the daughter of
Stephan Von Unruh and Helene Von Oppeln-Bronikowski

[von Oppelins = Bronikowski = von Oppeln-Bronikowski.
Compare:
1.
Golanice, 1757, [wedding in Rogowo close to Krobia], Jerzy Twardowski younger married Krystyna Konstancja Bronikowska, owner of Lukow, widowed after death of the owner of Rogowo in the Krobia parish;
witnesses:
Andrzej Twardowski, the Chamberlain of the Prussian king, owner of Golanice and Jezierzyce Koscielne; and Zygmunt Unrug / Zygmunt UNRUH, the owner of a part of Drzewce - 4 km west to ROKOSOWO.
2.
Melchior Pradzynski was the son of Antoni Pradzynski b. 1710, and Marianna Czaplicka.

Melchior's brother was Stanislaw Kostka Jozef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo,
who was the father of famous Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - commander-in-chief of the Polish Army.

Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
above Stanislaw Kostka Jozef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847
{the daughter of Ignacy Bronikowski 1750-1782;
the granddaughter of Stefan Bronikowski 1708-1771;
the great-granddaughter of Katarzyna Sczaniecka + Wojciech Bronikowski
who came from Marcin Bronikowski}

[note: Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association].
3.
Antoni Wankowicz, Michal duke Puzyna, Ignacy Moniuszko, Jan Chodzko and Xawery Lipski signed Act of Temporary Administration of the Minsk Province on 19 July 1812 under general Oppeln Bronikowski.
4.
Count Christoph von Unruh was the official in Oborniki, the Vice President of the Electoral Saxon War Council and General of the Infantry.
His brother Peter von Unruh - see below!
Next his brother Konstantin (died 1763), also raised to the rank of the Imperial Count, had taken a wife from the Gdansk patriciate and settled there. Both brothers were childless, so that his nephew Bogislaw Unruh inherited the Birnbaum estate in 1763, but in 1779 bequeathed to his son Stephan Peter Unruh.
Named above Georg Bogislaw von UNRUH married Charlotte BOJANOWSKI. Boguslaw UNRUH was the son of Peter von UNRUH / Piotr Unruh].


Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska Pradzynska / Marcjanna Bronikowska / Oppeln-Bronikowska, 1770-1847:

Melchior Pradzynski was the son of Antoni Pradzynski b. 1710, and Marianna Czaplicka.

Melchior's brother was Stanislaw Kostka Jozef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, who was the father of famous Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - commander-in-chief of the Polish Army.

Nepomucena Pradzynska SULIMIERSKA, 1790-1858 - her parents:
above Stanislaw Kostka Jozef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA - remember on the Kiedrzynskis] and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska / Marcjanna Oppeln-Bronikowska, 1770-1847

{the daughter of Ignacy Bronikowski 1750-1782;

the granddaughter of Stefan Bronikowski 1708-1771
[Marcjanna Marszewska b. 1713, died in 1771 + Stefan Bronikowski, b. 1708, d. 1771 - Stefan had a brother Aleksander Bronikowski];

the great-granddaughter of Katarzyna Sczaniecka + Wojciech Bronikowski born ca 1660
[Wojciech Bronikowski died in 1740, m. in 1695 to Katarzyna Sczaniecka, d. 1741],
who came from
Marcin Bronikowski = Marcjan Bronikowski, b. ca 1630, d. 1683, m. 1662 to Zofia Koszutska d. 1686;
the son of
Jan Bronikowski b. ca 1600, d. 1648, m. 1631 to Zofia Sadowska d. 1664;

and grandson of
Piotr Bronikowski b. ca 1570, d. in 1608, m. in 1593 to Malgorzata Mierzewska d. 1603;
and great-grandson of Wojciech Bronikowski "Senior", b. ca 1530, died 1594, m. 1554 to Zofia Kakolewska died in 1588 -
from Wincenty Bronikowski b. ca 1500, d. 1549, m. 1520 to Malgorzata Gutowska / Gulatowska, d. 1534}.

Note 1:
Aleksander Bronikowski was born to Wojciech Bronikowski and Katarzyna Sczaniecka. Aleksander had the brother Stefan Bronikowski. Aleksander married Dorota Kotarbska in 1741. They had 2 children: Michal Bronikowski. Aleksander died in 1761.
Note 2:
Bronikowski Ksawery (born in 1796 in MOGILNO or Mogilna - died in exile in 1852 in PARIS), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association. In 1817 moved home on Warsaw. 1823-1824 jailed by Russians. He acted together with Maurycy Mochnacki and Piotr Wysocki. Bronikowski was a co-founder and vice-president of the Patriotic Society, which was established on December 1, 1830. In 1831 he left Warsaw and joined the army as a volunteer (to capitulate vice-president of Warsaw). He was originally associated with Joachim Lelewel in exile.
The grandson of Jan Bronikowski died in 1752, and Barbara Rogowska d. 1738;
Mentioned
Jan Bronikowski b. ca 1690, d. 1752, junior,
the son of Hieronim Bronikowski and Ewa Elzbieta.
Husband in 1714 to Barbara ROGOWSKI, Bronikowska and Malgorzata in 1712. Father of Marianna Moszczenska; Piotr Bronikowski and Teresa Pomorska.
Named
Hieronim Bronikowski b. ca 1660, died in 1701. Husband of Ewa Elzbieta = Elzbieta von UNRUH, Bronikowska in 1679; the father of Jan Bronikowski.
Above named
Hieronim was the son of Jan Bronikowski, senior, b. ca 1625, died in 1672; and Katarzyna Broniewska m. in 1645.
JAN was the brother of Aleksander Bronikowski, senior, b. ca 1625 / 1630 - d. 1692.
Maybe
Jan was the brother of Zygmunt Bronikowski 1628-1699 [or in 1732 ?].

Zygmunt Bronikowski, d. 1699, m. in 1661 to Anna Dziembowska d. 1687;
Zygmunt was the son of Dobrogast Bronikowski, ca 1600-1676/1682, the owner of NEUDORF.
Dobrogost Bronikowski died in 1682, married in 1628 to Marianna Nowowiejska d. 1659;
and grandson of
Jan Bronikowski, ca 1560 - ca 1614.
Jan Bronikowski d. 1614, m. 1st in 1585 to Jadwiga Wlociejewska;
Jan Bronikowski m. 2nd in 1592 to Ewa Brodzka d. 1608.

Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
above Stanislaw Kostka Jozef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847.

Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. 1797/1798, of Wesola / WIESIOLKA, and Tyczyn, official in SZADEK, m. mentioned Nepomucena Pradzynska b. ca 1790 - it was her second marriage ca 1825.

Acc. to Nejman:
Wojciech Sulimierski [b. ca 1695/1700 ?]
[maybe the brother of mentioned MICHAL Sulimierski born ca 1705, d. ca 1780. Michal Sulimierski was the son of Marianna Stokowska + SULIMIERSKI Sebastian born ca 1675],
the owner in 1728 of Losieniec, married to Dorota Trzebnicka,
with son:
Jozef Sulimierski [born ca 1720 ?] d. 1787, m. Antonina Przeradzka;
with children:
1. Jan died 1809,
2. Salomea;
3. Agnieszka m. Jan Kossobudzki;
4. Ludwik Sulimierski born ca 1758, died ca 1826, owner of Stronsko, m. to Marianna Julianna Kempista, daughter of Maciej Kempista and Joanna Szeliska,
with children:
a) Faustyna Sulimierska, born ca 1799, in Stronsko; m. Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki;
b) Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski of Wesola and Tyczyn, m. Nepomucena Pradzynska
[Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. 1797/1798, of Wesola / WIESIOLKA, and Tyczyn, official in SZADEK, m. mentioned Nepomucena Pradzynska b. ca 1790];
with daughter Ewa Jozefa Sulimierska, born 1836 in Zielecice;
c) Feliks Bonawentura Sulimierski married in 1829 to Petronela SZANIAWSKA - she was b. 1810 in Gromadzice, daughter of Jan Kanty SZANIAWSKI b. ca 1764, owner of above Gromadzice, and Ochle, and Agnieszka Psarska [see below].

Jan Kanty Szaniawski (ca 1764 - 1839) had sons:

1. Jozef Gabriel Szaniawski (born in 1805 in Gromadzice close to Wielun - d. 1879) married in 1841 to Aniela Zbijewska (b. 1816);

2. Jan Chryzostom Ignacy Szaniawski (born 1813, Gromadzice), owner of Chodaki in the Szadek county, and also owner of Kraszyn, and Zwiasty;

3. Ludwik Bartlomiej Szaniawski (b. 1816 in Gronow, the Sieradz county), owner of Kroczyce in the Lelow county and Malowana Wola (see on Ignacy KIEDRZYNSKI)
and married in 1844 in Redziny to Aniela Rotkiewicz from Kroczyce (b. in 1824, Kroczyce - died 1860, Piotrkow) daughter of Marianna Dobinska (Dabinska, Drabinska).

And again on the Oppeln-Bronikowskis:

Teresa Rydzynska married Piotr Bronikowski in 1758. Teresa Bronikowska (Rydzynska) of Werbno, b. ca 1730, d. ca 1779. Daughter of Mikolaj Rydzynski. Wife of Piotr Bronikowski. Mother of Karol Bronikowski;
Mikolaj Deodat Kajetan Oppeln-Bronikowski - General;
and Ksawera Bienkowska.

Above
Piotr Bronikowski = Piotr Ignacy Bronikowski, 1725-1775,
the son of Jan Bronikowski and Barbara. Husband of Teresa. Brother of Marianna Moszczenska and Teresa Pomorska.

Mentioned
Jan Bronikowski b. ca 1690, d. 1752, junior,
the son of Hieronim Bronikowski and Ewa Elzbieta. Husband in 1714 to Barbara ROGOWSKI, Bronikowska and Malgorzata in 1712. Father of Marianna Moszczenska; Piotr Bronikowski and Teresa Pomorska.

Named
Hieronim Bronikowski b. ca 1660, died in 1701.
Husband of Ewa Elzbieta = Elzbieta von UNRUH, Bronikowska in 1679;
the father of Jan Bronikowski.

Above named
Hieronim was the son of Jan Bronikowski, senior, b. ca 1625, died in 1672; and Katarzyna Broniewska m. in 1645.
JAN was the brother of Aleksander Bronikowski, b. ca 1625 / 1630 - d. 1692.
Maybe Jan was the brother of Zygmunt Bronikowski 1628-1699, not in 1732 ?

Zygmunt Bronikowski d. 1699, m. in 1661, Anna Dziembowska d. 1687;
was the son of Dobrogast Bronikowski ca 1600-16761682, the owner of NEUDORF.
Dobrogost Bronikowski m. in 1628, Marianna Nowowiejska;
and grandson of
Jan Bronikowski, ca 1560 - ca 1614, m. Jadwiga Wociejewska and 2nd married to Ewa Brodzka.



Named Helene von OPPELN-BRONIKOWSKI married to Stephan von UNRUH

[different source:
Jeanette Dziembowska born von Unruh, the daughter of Georg Bogislaw von Unruh and Helene von Unruh born von Oppeln-Bronikowski. Jeanette married Stephan von Dziembowski born in 1779. They had one daughter Jeannette Wilhelmine von Tempelhoff born von Dziembowska],

the son of
Georg Bogislaw von UNRUH and Charlotte BOJANOWSKI.

Above mentioned
Boguslaw UNRUH was the son of Peter von UNRUH

[= Piotr Unruh had a brother Konstantin von Unruh / Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh b. 1689, d. 1763, the Saxon diplomat]

+ Johanna Marianna von Unruh nee von Oppeln-Bronikowska, the daughter of ZYGMUNT ALEKSANDER OPPEL-BRONIKOWSKI
{Zygmunt Aleksander Bronikowski b. 1672 in Kurzig Martini, died in 1724};

and the grandson of Bogislaw von UNRUH 1st

[Bogislaw the 1st = Boguslaw von Unruh / Unrug, born in 1661 in Birnbaum, died in 1725 in Birnbaum; the son of Christoph von Unruh, of Birnbaum / Miedzychod {32 km north to Trzciel - see below !}, PONIEC / Punitz {23 km south-east to Leszno}, Unruhstadt / KARGOWA {14 km south to CHOBIENICE}, Tirschtiegel / Trzciel {18 km north to Zbaszyn}, Karge, and Marie Anna von Unruh]

and Ludwika ZYCHLINSKA
[Ludwika Konstancja Anna Zychlinska - the daughter of PIOTR ZYCHLINSKI].

We back to
Klara Jeanette Henriette von TEMPELHOFF 1840-1914.
Above KLARA:
married in 1860 to August Wilhelm LUDENDORFF 1833-1905 with
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm LUDENDORFF 1865-1937.

We back to
Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh (1793-1862) -
her father was named
Stephan von UNRUH b. ca 1745 / 1750 ?

[Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh born 1689, died 1763 - diplomat of Saxony. Konstantin von Unruh served as a Saxon resident in Gdansk (1738-1750) and the Polish General Commissioner there in 1736-1750. He had taken a wife from the Gdansk patriciate and settled there.
Konstantin's nephew - Bogislaw Unruh / Boguslaw von UNRUH
{Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh / Jerzy Boguslaw von Unruh / Boguslaw Unruh, born ca 1720 ?; d. 1779}
inherited the Birnbaum - Miedzychod estates in 1763, but in 1779 bequeathed to his son Stephan von UNRUH = Stephan Peter UNRUH, b. ca 1750].

We have question here:

who is Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki vel von Unruh? Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, born ca 1760 / 1763, the Sluck official. Maybe Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki von Unruh was the brother of above Stephan von UNRUH = Stephan Peter UNRUH, b. ca 1750.

I wrote formerly with mistakes regarding dates of birth but at present everything is correctly -
Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, born ca 1760 / 1763, the Sluck official, was the legal guardian for Kajetan Kraszewski. Kajetan Kraszewski b. 1827 in Dolhe, the Pruzany county. Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, of Boloczyce, the father of ADAM Niepokojczycki;

Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej, lived and acted in Sluck, Nieswiez and in Boloczyce. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official,

was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. Bartlomiej was in Sluck in 1763 - 1795.

Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce. Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI, b. ca 1760/1763, had a son Adam Niepokojczycki [born ca 1785], the Sluck Marshal of nobility; Adam's son was General ARTUR Niepokojczycki [born on 8 Dec 1813 - d. 11 Nov 1881]!

Interesing network:
Aleksander Pociej d. 1770 the owner of Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce close to SLUCK - BARTLOMIEJ Niepokojczycki [the grandfather of General ARTUR Niepokojczycki] - Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army, d. 1808 the owner of BEREZYNA and [with his wife] of LUBUSZANY [13 km to MIEZONKA of the Konstantynowiczs after 1842], with Ludwik's daughter - Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776-1867.
Anna Tyszkiewicz, the owner of the BEREZYNO - Luboszany estate, married to Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845.


Count Alessandro di Cagliostro / Giuseppe Balsamo (born 1743 in Palermo, died 1795 in San Leo), was the founder of the Order of Egyptian Freemasonry and his Great Kopta; he was the ILLUMINATI.
He left the fatherland, Sicily, and with Armenian named Altotas, he went on a journey through the East: Greece, to Egypt, they came to Malta, but Altotas disappears -
Altotas was German name Kolmer, who from Malta came to the German, and there he built the first lodges of the well-known Illuminati Order.

Balsamo appeared again in 1775 and in 1776, came to Naples, Florence, Rome. He was expelled from the Papal State in 1776. Earlier in Rome he married Lorenza Feliciani. Cagliostro moved in Spain in 1776, then in England in July 1776; he stopped in France, Holland, Germany,
entered Masonry [1776-1777], and became a member of the Illuminati Order [1778 ?].

In 1776 Giuseppe Balsamo came to London. He learned about Freemasonry. He was admitted to the London 'Expectation' lodge on April 12, 1777 thanks to his influential friends. In England, he took the name of Count di Cagliostro. He wanted to reform this movement. In 1777 he was sent to prison for a short time; from London in 1778, went to the Netherlands, came to Paris in 1778. He found there a patron - Cardinal Louis de Rohan.
From Paris in 1778, came to Germany, and the Great Poland to ADAM PONINSKI.
He went to Konigsberg and in COURLAND, Mitau / Mitava, and went to Saint Petersburg. In Mitava, at the court of the Duke of Courland, he met Miss Eliza von der Recke, sister of the duchess of Courland.
Cagliostro back to WARSAW - in June 1780, Cagliostro had a performance at the Bogusławski Palace.
In this year, he founded the Egyptian Masonic Lodge in Warsaw.
Cagliostro came to Warsaw in the first days of May 1780.
He got introduced to Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski, chamberlain, and count AUGUST Moszyński.
His younger brother, Fryderyk Jozef Moszynski, was a calculating and saving man.

Prince KAZIMIERZ Poniatowski, chamberlain
- Stanisław younger, was the son of Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski (b. 1721), a Deputy Chamberlain of Lithuania (1742-1773), Commander of the Royal Army. Kazimierz was the brother of the last King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Stanisław II Augustus, who saw in his nephew a possible successor and heir to the throne of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Both, Kazimierz and the KING were born to Konstancja Czartoryska (b. 1700).

Luboszany - 13 km to Miezonka of the Konstantynowiczs -
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, born 1748 in Vilnius, d. 1808, Field Lithuanian Commander in 1780 to 1791, Great Lithuanian Treasurer in 1791, Great Lithuanian Marshal from 1793. Stanislaw August Poniatowski had a niece Konstancja Poniatowska, the daughter of mentioned Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski, and Konstancja married in Warsaw on April 4, 1775 to Ludwik Tyszkiewicz.
They took in 1793 Berezyna - Luboszany / LUBUSZANY. Their daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz married Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki.

Remember - Aleksandra Potocka, with nick-name Aleksandryna

(1818-1892, born in St Petersburg, the daughter of Stanislaw Septym Potocki;
the granddaughter of Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki 1751-1805;
the great-granddaughter of Franciszek Salezy Potocki, 1700-1772,
who was the son of Jozef Potocki (died 1723),
and grandson of Feliks Kazimierz "Szczesny" Potocki (1630-1702),
the great-grandson of Stanislaw "Rewera" Potocki, 1589-1667),

married her cousin August Potocki

(= August Aleksander Potocki b. 1805; the son of named above Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778;
the grandson of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki b. 1755; the great-grandson of Eustachy Potocki born in 1720; the great-great-grandson of Jerzy Potocki who was the son of Feliks Kazimierz Potocki 1630-1702, and grandson of Stanislaw Rewera Potocki).

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR [she died in 1892] to AUGUST POTOCKI, 1847-1905; then, in 1905, it belonged to widowed Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka Potocka, the widow after death of AUGUST POTOCKI. Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka, 1870-1925. And ca 1908/1909, Eugenia sold the estate Zator to Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, of Krzeszowice.

Colonel Marcin Tarnowski, died in ZATOR in 1862, the CONSPIRATOR and the ILLUMINATI, who was closest friend of TADEUSZ GRABIANKA, the Illuminati.

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold [? ca 1887/1890] Luboszany / LUBUSZANY [she died in 1892] to hands of Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz

(born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN;
the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA;
the great-granddaughter of Michal Tyszkiewicz Count, b. 1761 in BIRZAI / Birze;
the great-great-granddaughter of Jozef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in Valozyn),

the wife of the Galicja governor - Andrzej Potocki.
And here are very strange events in 1908-1911-1914.
Andrzej Potocki is murdered in 1908 while he fulfills the duties of the Governor of Galicia. The murderer uses the nationalist-Ukrainian ideology. But the widow Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, asks the Austrian authorities to exchange the death sentence for this offender, for a prison sentence. And of course, the prisoner escapes in 1911 from the Stanislawow prison. Where? To Sweden! And here he lives peacefully until 1914 - with what passport? In 1914 he left for the USA and there he lives peacefully until death in the 70s of the 20th century! How did he get a visa if he was a criminal?

Andrzej Potocki was born in 1861. He attended the High School in Krakow and at the Jagiellonian University, graduated in 1884 with a PhD degree. Ca 1885 he devoted himself to the diplomatic service and became attache at the Austrian-Hungarian embassy in Madrid. That is intelligence service.

Andrzej Potocki died in 1908 = Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861, died in LWOW, the owner of Krzeszowice, the orderly officer of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria.

Andrzej's wife KRYSTYNA Tyszkiewicz Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of ZATOR, ca 1908/1909, and ca 1887/1890 {?} of LUBOSZANY / Lubuszany - 13 km to MIEZONKA.
Above
ANDRZEJ POTOCKI of Krzeszowice,
the son of Adam Jozef Mateusz Potocki; died in Krzeszowice in 1872 - acted in STASZOW;
the grandson of Artur Potocki, 1787-1832, the Freemason-TEMPLAR
and Zofia Branicka 1790- 1879.

The great-grandson of Jan Nepomucen Potocki 1761-1815, who was the son of Jozef Potocki 1735-1802, and the grandson of Stanislaw Potocki 1698-1760 and Helena Zamoyska 1717-1760
and the great-grandson of
Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski - the Smolensk governor, 1679-1735 {see Wilkowo Polskie - Kiedrzynski - Pradzynski - Szoldrski};
Jozef Stanislaw Potocki (1673-1751) = Jozef Potocki in Cracow in 1748
- who was the son of Andrzej Potocki died in 1691 in Stanislawow;
and the grandson of Stanislaw Potocki Rewera b. 1589 in Podhajce, d. 1667.

Moszyński August Fryderyk (1731 - 1786), Freemason, Rosicrucian and economist, manager of artistic and theater matters at the court of Stanisław August.
He was the son of Jan Kanty and Fryderyka Augusta, Countess Cosel, the natural daughter of August II. August II gave his daughter the title of Count. He was under the protection of Henryk Bruhl.
He married Teofila Potocka, the daughter of Stanisław Potocki, the granddaughter of Jozef Potocki.

August Fryderyk Moszyński in 1755 married Teofila Potocki, but a divorce was in 1764.
Above Stanisław Potocki 1698-1760 m. Helena Zamoyska 1717-1760;
Teofila the granddaughter of
Michał Zdzisław Saryusz Zamoyski, the Smoleńsk governor, 1679-1735.

Above Stanisław Potocki was the father, with the 1st wife, of
Anna Potocka 1723-1772 + Franciszek Salezy Potocki 1700-1772,
and grandfather of
Szczęsny Stanisław Feliks Potocki 1751-1805 + Gertruda Komorowska 1754-1771 + Jozefa Amelia Wandalin-Mniszech.

Stanisław Potocki, 1698-1760 with HELENA ZAMOYSKA, 2nd wife, had a son:
Wincenty 1740-1825 + Urszula Maria Zamoyska 1750-1806 + Anna Mycielska.

URSZULA was the daughter of
Jan Jakub Saryusz Zamoyski, the Podolia governor, 1716-1790 + Ludwika Maria Poniatowska 1728-1781.
And she was the granddaughter of
Michał Zdzisław Saryusz Zamoyski of SMOLENSK, 1679-1735.

Teofila Potocka, 1740-1800.
August Fryderyk Moszyński b. 1731 in Dresden, the Crown official in 1752.

Cagliostro's enemy was the crown official, August Fryderyk Moszyński; chemist, who ridiculed and denounced Cagliostra. Moszyński August Fryderyk on the 7th June, 1780, poured thirty drops of the Extract of Saturn.

From Warsaw, in a few months Cagliostro appears in Strazburg in 1780; he met Cardinal Rohan, to play a prominent role in Paris in 1781.
In 1782, he founded the Order of Egyptian Masonry and stood at its head. As the Great Kopta he organized the Egyptian rite lodges in: England, France, Germany and Russia.
However, he failed to unify Freemasonry in Europe.

Di Cagliostro was expelled from France. He went to England in 1785-1789.


"Althotas was clearly the basis for the later Kolmer legend added to Weishaupt's fictional biography".

Johann Adam Weishaupt was a German philosopher, and founder of the Order of the Illuminati, a secret society.
Johann Adam Weishaupt b. 1748, d. 1830, in 1770, made the acquaintance of Franz Kolmer, a Danish merchant. The following year, 1771, Adam WEISHAUPT decided to found a secret society.
By Joseph Trainor:

"... Beginning around 1768, Adam began 'the collection of a large library for the purpose of establishing an academy of scholars'. He read every ancient manuscript and text he and his associates could lay hands on. Adam grew interested in the occult, becoming obsessed with the Great Pyramid of Giza. ... He was convinced that the edifice was a prehistoric temple of initiation. In 1770, he made the acquaintance of Franz Kolmer, a Danish merchant who had lived for many years in Alexandria and had made several trips to Giza. The following year, 1771, Adam decided to found a secret society aimed at "transforming" the human race. He devoted five years to thinking out the plan, borrowing from many different occult sources...".

Peter Fotis Kapnistos wrote:
"... According to a trumped-up tale, in 1771 Adam Weishaupt met a mysterious seafaring Danish merchant called Franz Kolmer who had recently returned from Egypt."

Franz Kolmer was born ca 1733, acc. to Alex Christopher Bickle.

I said, in 1770 or in 1771 Weishaupt met [in Ingolstadt ?] a Danish trader named Franz Kolmer = ALTOTAS, who initiated him into Egyptian magical practices and the doctrines of antireligious Manichaeism.
Franz Kolmer had recently returned from Egypt, acc. to Peter Fotis Kapnistos.
Weishaupt, in 1771, and Franz Kolmer - "Althotas", thought about the hermetic doctrine of the Egyptians, Persians and Syrians, acc. to Wendelin von Winckelstein.

In Switzerland, Weishaupt reorganized the Illuminati to appear on the surface to be. Kolmer gave instruction in magic to Weishaupt, the founder of the Illuminati. Weishaupt formulated a plan, all secret systems be reduced to a single powerful organization. Cagliostro with Althotas, the member of the Knights of St. John, visited MALTA.


The Order of St John of Jerusalem in MALTA - Sweden - Stanislaw August Poniatowski:

Peter Forsskal / Pehr Forskaol / Petrus Forsskahl,
was born in Helsinki in Finland (then a part of Sweden), but in 1741 moved to Uppland in Sweden. In the 18th century, a war between Sweden and Russia led to the occupation of Finland by Russian forces, during times of the Greater Wrath (1714-1721). Pehr Forsskahl, was a Swedish explorer and orientalist, studied at the University of Gottingen in 1753 until 1756.

On Michaelis' recommendation, and with Linnaeus's approval, Forsskal was appointed by king Frederick V of Denmark to join Carsten Niebuhr on an expedition to Arabia:

Niebuhr in BASRA in September 1765; a visiting in INDIA -
Niebuhr had gathered information on 'new religion' in Persia and Basra in 1765.

Above
FREDERICK V / Frederik V, married in 1743 to Princess Louise of Great Britain, daughter of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach.
Frederik V as crown prince was included in the Copenhagen Masonic Lodge St. Martin in 1744, "and inspired by the Prussian king Frederick the Great who was also included in a masonic lodge in his youth. They both had fathers who were violently opposed to the Masons, but unlike the Prussian king, Frederik V never published his membership of the lodge. As an active Freemason, he set up on 24 June 1749 the first Masonic lodge in Norway ...", by Wikipedia.

Forsskal died in Arabia / Yemen in July 1763.

On 10 March 1761 they started trip: the Shetland Islands and Iceland; southwards towards Gibraltar, entering the Mediterranean and anchoring near Marseilles (13 May).
Their next stop was Malta (June 14-20), followed by the Greek Islands, Smyrna, Constantinople on 30 July. Malta's Grand Harbour on 14 June 1761.
Carsten Niebuhr had visited Malta in June 1761 - with Forsskal. The last threat came from a British warship that on 6 June 1761 was refused permission to inspect the merchant vessels in the Danish convoy.
The MALTA Island was under the rule of the Order of St John of Jerusalem and had the Portuguese Fra Emmanuel Pinto as Grand Master (1741 - 1773). In 1762-1766, Cagliostro in Malta in the Pinto's laboratory. Acc. to Freller,
the Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta from 1741, was considered by Count Cagliostro as a true Illuminati.

Forsskal met a Maltese doctor-naturalisl, De Giorgio Giovan Baltista LOCANO from Senglea, one of the most prominent physicians of his day.
Then they moved to Istanbul and Alexandria.
They visited Cairo and Sinai, traversing the Red Sea via Jiddah to Yemen, in Mocha, on 25 May 1763, the expedition's philologist, Frederik Christian von Haven, died, and on 11 July 1763, on the way to Sana, the capital of Yemen, its naturalist Peter Forsskal also died. In Sana they had an audience with the Imam of Yemen al-Mahdi Abbas (1719-1775), but returned to Mocha.

Niebuhr continued his way to Bombay, he was now the only surviving member. He stayed in Bombay for fourteen months in 1763/1764, and then returned home by way of Muscat, Bushire, Shiraz and Persepolis.

After a visit to Cyprus he made a tour through Palestine, and he reached Constantinople in February 1767.

Turkey and Eastern Europe was done by Niebuhr alone [Constantinopole in February 1767. Via Bucharest, Kamieniec Podolski, Lemberg (Lwow), Lublin, Warsaw, the Germen border on 10 September 1767 - maybe by the Wieruszow / Bralin gate; then in Breslau (Wroclaw), Dresden, passed through Gottingen, the place of his education - acc. to Han F. Vermeulen].

In the middle of July Niebuhr arrived in Poland in 1767, which he took in his route: Chocim, Kamieniec Podolski, Zwaniec, Skala, Okopy Swietej Trojcy, Warsaw - Carsten Niebuhr met the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski - on 18 August 1767 in WARSAW until 06 September 1767.

On the 8th of August, Niebuhr left for Lublin and then Warsaw. He reached the Danish capital on the 20th of November 1767 - acc. to Roger H. Guichard.
Carsten Niebuhr, born 1733, close to Hanover [Germany],
went to Egypt where they stayed for about a year, with Forsskal studied in Arabic dialects, and arrived in South Arabia (Arabia Felix, present-day Yemen) at the end of December 1762.

In his pamphlet, Thoughts on Civil Liberty (1759), Peter Forsskal argues the case for civil liberties. The reason for the discussion in January 1722 was an application from Emanuel Swedenborg, to be allowed to print a pamphlet about the economic crisis.


Karsten Niebuhr in 1767 was also in Skala Podolska
- the property of Stanislaw Kossakowski, died 1761, and then Slala belonged to his wife - Katarzyna Kossakowska [until 1787 and in 1799/1801].
Skala Podolska - see the FRANKIST movement!
Austria had seized areas of Podole in 1772.

Karsten Niebuhr (b. 1733, d. 1815), is renowned for his participation in the Royal Danish Arabia Expedition (1761 in Malta - 1767 in Kamieniec Podolski and Warsaw).
Skala - belonged to the Lanckoronski family until 1706; then owned by Tarlo.

Above Katarzyna Kossakowska made a layout with the Austria government in 1799/1801. Katarzyna Kossakowska was the heiress after a death of Stanislaw Kossakowski in 1761. Her estates taken by Austria:
Bohorodczany, Lissowice; Nowoszyn, Bania, Rosulna, Kosmacz, Dzwiniacz, Chmielowka, Gleboka, Sadzawka, Hlebowa, Hryniowka, Lesniowa, Grabowiec and Horocholina; Lachowce and Sochowka; Niniow.

Katarzyna Kossakowska took over in 1801 from Austria [1787 belonged to Austria] - Jadowniki and Maszkienice, Ludwinow, Katarzynsko; Podobiensko; Cietrzewina (Trzetrzewina); Dzwinogrod, Wolkowice; Skala Podolska, with Iwankow, Losiacz, Kusztyn, Berezanka, Dawidkowce, Slobodka, Kolodrubka and Sienków.
Skala was owned by Austria since 1787 until 1801.

Named Katarzyna Kossakowska, nee Potocka, was born 1722, d. 1803 in Krystynopol; political activist of the second half of the eighteenth century, she was the daughter of Jerzy Potocki and Konstancja Podbereska, I voto Zamoyska. In 1744, she married a cousin, Stanisław Kossakowski (1721-1761), a governor of Podlasie, and in 1748 the governor of Kamieniec Podolski.

Stanislaw Kossakowski, the governor of Kamieniec Podolski in 1748 until death in 1761?
Stanislaw was the son of Piotr Dominik Kossakowski, d. 1730 in Lwow.
The grandson of Mikolaj Stanislaw Kossakowski, died in 1706, the Kiev governor.

Katarzyna Kossakowska, nee Potocka, in the 1750s, together with her husband, was one of the leading protector of Jakub Frank and Frankists.
She looked after Ignacy Potocki and actively supported the interests of the Potocki family. In 1777, she received from the Empress of Austria, Maria Teresa, the title of Count and the Order of the Cross of Star. In the last years of Poland, she was active in anti-Russian circles.

Above
Jakub Jozef von Frank-Dobrucki / Jaakow Josef ben Juda Lejb Frank / Jakub Frank, b. 1726 in Korolowka in Podolia [50 km west to Kamieniec Podolski; 23 km south-west to Skala Podolska], or in Buczacz; d. 1791 in Offenbach near to Frankfurt by Men; Baron;
the creator of the Jewish Frankist sect and a merchant, a Kabbalist, rabbi, philosopher, astrologer and alchemist.

In 1755, two Sabbatans from Podolia, Nachman from Busko and Eliza Szor from Rohatyn came to him. They persuaded Jakub Frank Lejbowicz to start a messianic mission in Poland.
In 1756, he arrived in Zareczanka / Lanckorun, 40 km north-west to Kamieniec Podolski [Lanckoron / Zariczanka / Lanckorunia]. Zariczanka was owned by Lanckoronski; then to Dwernicki and ZUKOTYNSKI.

January 1756, Jakub Frank, was caught practicing sectarian rites in Lanckoron and got arrested, but Bishop Mikolaj Dembowski decided to be brought to his town. In Lanckoron a history of Frankists began on 27 January 1756.

In 1758, the Polish King August III decided to grant Jakub Frank the iron letter.
The King was persuaded to do by bishop Kajetan Soltyk.
Thanks to this help, Frank came to Poland and lived in the village of Iwanie near Chocim [?], in the
estate of Antoni Sebastian Dembowski [Antoni Sebastian Dembowski b. 1682, Polish Roman Catholic Bishop of Plock, the Crown Office regent until 1730, journalist and playwright, had 2 or maybe 3 sons], brother of the bishop.

After arriving in Warsaw, Jakub Frank, along with some of his followers, was baptized again, getting the name Jozef Dobrucki. Little is known about Frank's way of life when
he was in the Jasna Gora monastery, 1760-1773. He was constantly supported by Kajetan Soltyk [see Kalinowski and Bystrzanowski !], who supported financially his and the members of the sect. Frank's followers settled around Czestochowa
[see Kiedrzynski family aroun Czestochowa].

The "Messiah" sent the couriers in 1768 and 1769 to Podole, to Moldavia, Hungary and Moravia, and to German countries. He was also to negotiate with the Russians; in Warsaw, the Frankists talked with prince Nikola Repnin.

Above Iwanie Zlote / Iwane-Zolote, is situated close to Zaleszczyki.

Zwaniec - 7 km north to Chocim.

Okopy Swietej Trojcy - 8 km west to Zwaniec.

Zwaniec - 22 km south-west to Kamieniec Podolski.

Stanislaw Kossakowski died in 1761. He was buried in the Dominican church in Bogorodchany. His wife Katarzyna Potocki Kossakowski (1722-1803) was the daughter of an interpreter Jerzy Potocki.


Acc. to "Arabia Felix. The Danish Expedition of 1761 - 1767":

Niebuhr was in Turkey until 18th July 1767,
"when he crossed the river Dniester near CHOCIM / Khotin ...
Here he left his servant and his guide, and took a short break in Kamieniec Podolski / Kamenetz Podolski. After about ten days [19 July - 30 July ?] the crisis was past and
he moved alone to Lemberg (Lwow), reaching it on 1st August 1767.
Now his way led through ... on 8th August he passed through Lublin, and ten days later he reached Warsaw [18 August 1767 - 6 September], where he was received by the Polish King, Stanislaus Poniatowski, a great literary and scientific scholar, who gathered information about the expedition in a series of conversations, subsequently continued in an exchange of letters over many years.
Niebuhr did not wish to stay longer in Warsaw ... By 6th September he was on his way again, and after a further ten days' journey he crossed the German border ..."; then he was in Breslau / Wroclaw.


Kamieniec Podolski - a governor of the Podole province [Podolia] in 1767:

Michal Jozef Rzewuski b. 1699, died in 1769/1770, the governor of Podolia / PODOLE in 1762 until 1769/1770

[before him was Waclaw Piotr Rzewuski b. 1706, in 1736 - the Podolia governor, ie. in 1736-1750 and again in 1756-1762; died in 1779],

in Podlasie in 1752;
the son of Adam Rzewuski. Foster father was Stanislaw Mateusz Rzewuski.

Michal Jozef Rzewuski had 3 sons:
Franciszek; Kazimierz; Jan.

Above Adam Michal Rzewuski died in 1717, was the son of Michal Florian RZEWUSKI.

Next Governors of Podolia -

Jan Jakub Zamoyski b. 1716, d. 1790, the governor of Podolia / Podole in 1770; the IX landowner.
And
Seweryn Rzewuski b. 1743 in Podhorce, d. 1811, General in 1760; writer, poet, the Governor / Voivode of Podolian Province, 1790-1793 ?

The IX owner of the Zamoyski estates in 1767-1777, was Jan Jakub Zamoyski, the Podolia / Podole province governor [the son of the VI owner, Michal Zdzislaw Zamoyski, of Smolensk]; then in 1777 the owner was his younger brother Andrzej Zamoyski. Named Jan Jakub Zamoyski, the Podolia / Podole province governor. Voivodeship Governor seat: Kamieniec Podolski.

Mentioned Michal Jozef Rzewuski (d. 1769/1770), Colonel, the governor of Podolia in 1762 - 1769/1770, the son of Adam / Adam Michal Rzewuski d. 1717;
the grandson of Michal Florian.

Above Michal Florian had 4 sons:
Stanislaw Mateusz Rzewuski;
Adam Michal Rzewuski;
Maurycy Rzewuski;
Jozef Rzewuski.

Above Stanislaw Mateusz Rzewuski had sons
Seweryn Jozef Rzewuski [b. ca 1700 ?; died in 1754; 1750-1754 he was the Volhynia governor],
and
Waclaw Piotr Rzewuski [b. 1706, the Podolia governor; exiled to KALUGA together with Kajetan Soltyk; Jozef Andrzej Zaluski; and with his son Seweryn Rzewuski - younger, b. 1743].
Above
Waclaw Piotr Rzewuski, General [because of his opposition to the Russian ambassador there, Seweryn and his father, Waclaw Rzewuski were kidnapped on the night of 13/14 October 1767 by Russian forces under the command of General Iosif Igelstrom and imprisoned in Kaluga. He returned to Poland in 1773],
had 3 sons:
Stanislaw Ferdynand;
Jozef;
Seweryn - younger.

Above
Seweryn Rzewuski, b. 1743 in Podhorce, d. 1811, General in 1760; writer, poet, the Governor / Voivode of Podolian Province.

His father - Waclaw Rzewuski, senior.

Seweryn Rzewuski b. 1743 in Podhorce, d. 1811, m. Konstancja Malgorzata Lubomirska, with:
Waclaw Rzewuski, younger.

Above
Waclaw Seweryn Rzewuski / Emir Tadz el faher Abd-el-Niszan; b. 1784 in Lwow, the son of Seweryn Rzewuski.
1825-1826 the CONSPIRATOR.
1831 fought against Russians and died.


Kamieniec Podolski and Niebuhr in July - August 1767:

Carsten Niebuhr, born 1733, close to Hanover [Germany],
went to Egypt where they stayed for about a year, with Forsskal studied in Arabic dialects, and arrived in South Arabia (Arabia Felix, present-day Yemen, a drugs area) at the end of December 1762.

Turkey and Eastern Europe was done by Niebuhr alone [Constantinopole in February 1767. Via Bucharest, Kamieniec Podolski, Lemberg (Lwow), Lublin, Warsaw, the Germen border on 10 September 1767 - maybe by the Wieruszow / Bralin gate; then in Breslau (Wroclaw), Dresden, passed through Gottingen, the place of his education - acc. to Han F. Vermeulen].
In the middle of July he arrived in Poland in 1767, which he took in his route:
Chocim,
Kamieniec Podolski,
Zwaniec,
Skala,
Okopy Swietej Trojcy,
Warsaw - Carsten Niebuhr met the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski - on 18 August 1767 in WARSAW until 06 September 1767.

On the 8th of August 1767, Niebuhr left KAMIENIEC PODOLSKI for Lublin and then Warsaw.
He reached the Danish capital on the 20th of November 1767 - acc. to Roger H. Guichard.

Michał Kuczyński, born ca 1715, died in 1778; in June 1763 became the commander of the borderlands of the Commonwealth: Kamieniec Podolski, Okopy Świętej Trojcy and Biała Cerkiew [until 1778].

In 1764, commandant Kuczyński defended Kamieniec Podolski against the Russian army. During the Bar Confederation in 1768-1771 he remained faithful to Stanisław August Poniatowski.

Kuczynski co-operated with Mikolaj Maciej Stadnicki, the governor of Kamieniec Podolski [1765-1768].

Wincenty Aksamitowski born 1760 in Nagorzany / Nahoryany near Kamieniec Podolski
[Nagoriani - 14 km south-west to Kamieniec Podolski; north to Chocim],
died in 1828 in Warsaw.

The General of division of the army of the Warsaw Duchy. One of the most important masonic lodges operating at the French army was "Brothers from the Great Army."

Wincenty Aksamitowski performed function in the office of the First Caretaker. Les Freres Anglais et Francais Reunis was founded in 1807 in Poznan, and it was subordinated to the French Grand Orient; consisted of numerous military and civilian dignitaries and prominent citizens; General Wincenty Axamitowski / Wincenty Aksamitowski was the champion for a long time.
General Wincenty Axamitowski / Wincenty Aksamitowski was the son of Ignacy Aksamitowski (Ignacy Aksamitowski died in 1810 or 1771 ?), of Podole {b. 1715, d. 1810; the official in Podole in 1773; MP in 1764}

[see Kajetan Bystrzanowski and Jan Paszkowski], and Tekla de Witte; GENERAL WAS THE GRANDSON OF General Jan de Witte.

{Jan de Witte senior, b. 1709, d. 1785, in Kamieniec Podolski; Polish military engineer; Dutch origin,
architect, representative of the Baroque, from 1781 general-lieutenant of the Crown troops; father of Joseph Witte.
Jan de Witte and his wife Marianna Lubonski were buried in the Catacombs of the Cathedral in Kamienec Podolsky.
Jan de Witte (1705-1785) - Commandant of the fortress and border strongholds in 1768-1785.
Builder and defender of Kamienec Podolski; co-operated with Lubomirski in Lviv, and in Rivne}.

Wincenty Aksamitowski in 1774 served the Polish army, a cadet at the School of Crown Artillery in Warsaw.

General Witt
[Iwan Osipowicz de Witt, Jan de Witte junior, b. 1781, Kamieniec Podolski, d. 1840 in St Petersburg; General and Count; the son of named Jozef Zefiryn de Witte / Joseph WITTE + Zofia Glavani]

was appointed martial law governor of Warsaw in 1831. General Witt was appointed as the military governor, while Nikolai Korff, one of the Baltic German generals, took over as the city commandant.

Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki d. 1775, the Latyczow official, and in Podolia; MP. He was the son of Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Peplowska

[remember - Teresa Stadnicka, 1749-1826, the ILLUMINATI, the daughter of Stanislaw Stadnicki and Marta Lanckoronski, was the wife of Tadeusz Grabianka - the ILLUMINATI; they owned Sutkowice, Ostapkowice and Rajkowice at Podole / Podolia. Named Stanislaw Stadnicki was the son of mentioned Jan Stadnicki and Katarzyna Peplowska - Stadnicka].

Franciszek Stadnicki / Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki d. 1775, military, bef. 1747 as Lieutenant; MP in 1746, and in 1750 the Latyczow official;
1754 in Kamieniec Podolski;
1757 - Colonel. 1758 and 1761, MP; also in 1764 and in 1775.

Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki [b. ca 1700/1710], d. 1775, had a siblings:

Stanislaw Stadnicki, the Kamieniec Podolski governor in 1753-1765; the Latyczow clark, acted in Podolia in 1754! [b. ca 1720, d. ca 1777];

Mikolaj Maciej Stadnicki, the governor of Kamieniec Podolski [1765-bef. March 1768] - MP in 1740 to 1764; the Kamieniec Podolski official in 1748, and again 1754, 1760;
the supporter of the Czartoryskis in 1764, and the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski, 1764-1765.
Mikolaj married Salomea Luszczewska - no children.

Franciszek Ksawery Stadnicki d. 1775, married Jadwiga Kumanowska, with 7 children:
Piotr Stadnicki, the ILLUMINATI in Berlin.

Compare
Skeliwka = FELSZTYN of Kalinowski-Grabianka, and of BERNARD Grabianka

[close to Stary Sambor - 1772 in Austria.
In 1753 new church was founded by Marianna Grabianka nee Kalinowska; the wife of Jozef Grabianka, the Latyczow official.
Then FELSZTYN + Rajkowce belonged to Jozef's son - TADEUSZ GRABIANKA, the ILLUMINATI.
Tadeusz sold in 1781 the half of Felsztyn + Rajkowce to Onufry Morski, the Kamieniec Podolski governor.
But again Onufry Morski sold Felsztyn to hands of TERESA GRABIANKA nee Stadnicka bef. 1791.
1784 - Tadeusz Grabianka divorced his wife Teresa Stadnicki. Later, he left Poland and settled in French Avignon, where he set up his own "New Israel" Order of the Illuminati. In 1782, Tadeusz Grabianka in LIW built a baroque mansion that was burnt down in the middle of the 19th century, as the headquarters of his office and court.
They were the friends of the Kamieniec Podolski bishop KRASINSKI.
Then, to MARTYNA GRABIANKA Czarnecka and next to Martyna Zieleniewska nee Myslowska].

Felsztyn is situted 4/5 km north-east to LASZKI MUROWANE - see Krasicki.

Onufry MORSKI
- b. 1752, d. 1789 [?] or died after 1792, the Kamieniec Podolski governor,
but Onufry Morski 2nd, in 1792 took part in a guerrilla fight against the Russians - Onufry 2nd was also the governor of Kamieniec Podolski. Onufry Morski, the Kamieniec Podolski governor, sold Felsztyn again to hands of TERESA GRABIANKA nee Stadnicka bef. 1791.

Probably Tadeusz Grabianka also brought di Cagliostro to Sutkowce and Grabianka set up an alchemical workshop - laboratory for Cagliostro in July-August 1780. Tadeusz Grabianka was living in the Latyczow county, in Rajkowce and Sutkowce.

Grabianka - like with Cagliostro - with count Michal Aleksander Ronikier

[in 1773 the owner of Kryniczany / KRYNYCHANY, 39 km north to Kamieniec Podolski, in the Kamieniec Podolski county, at Podolia]

and Brumer, in accordance with the method set by Pernety, led the work to create a homunculus.

Michal Aleksander Ronikier
- in 1773 the owner of Kryniczany in the Kamieniec Podolski county, at Podole. Until 1785/1787 he lived mainly in Zalozce / Zalizci, in Podolia [47 km north-west to Tarnopol], and he took in 1783/1785 the Count title in Austria.
Zalozce - in the hands of Potocki.
In 1768, together with the castle, belonged to Michal Alexander Ronikier, general-lieutenant. The wife of Ronikier was Teresa Miaczynska.

We back to Tadeusz Grabianka / Grabianko:

he was the son of the Latyczow official - Jozef Kajetan Grabianka and Marianna Kalinowski of RAJKOWCE. Thanks to the efforts of the mother from the youngest years, he grew up in France. He spent his childhood in Lorraine at the court of King Stanisław Leszczynski. He studied in Paris. There probably for the first time he met with esoteric associations and freemasonry.

His father
Jozef GRABIANKA, married Marianna Kalinowska the daughter of Ludwik KALINOWSKI, the Winnica official;
she was the granddaughter of the Kamieniec official [see Bystrzanowski] (1712-1738).
Tadeusz Grabianka was living in the Latyczow county, in Rajkowce and Sutkowce.
Tadeusz's daughter was Anna Grabianka Raciborowska.
Anna's new aspirant, promoted by mentioned Piotr Stadnicki {Piotr Kajetan Stadnicki died in 1791, the Lieutenant of the 5 Brigade; the son of Franciszek Ksawery STADNICKI}, ie. Leon Raciborowski of BRZEZANY [or Ludwik Raciborowski ?], was later her husband.
The first child of Tadeusz Grabianka was Anna Grabianka, born 1772, as NANETA = ZANETA Grabianka = Anna GRABIANKA. She had 2 brothers.
In 1781 her father moved to Europe from Rajkowice / Rajkowce; Rajkowce took Onufry Morski the son of Antoni MORSKI.
They moved home to Ostapkowce;
Anna's mother was very activ in Kamieniec Podolski in 1782. In 1786 Anna's mother took letters from the King Poniatowski.
Anna had private tutor Ms Blanche; and priest Korzeniowski, of Jarmoliniec.

Augustyn Ulinski b. 1720 / 1728, m. Barbara Kalinowska b. 1725 / 1730, he was son of Jan Ulinski, of Podolia; Count in Austria in 1779;
Jan Ulinski b. ca 1690 and died in 1761, Colonel,
Kamieniec Podolski 1714-1751,
MP 1728, 1729 - 1732 and 1733, m. 2nd in 1720 with son Augustyn Ulinski

Jan MYCIELSKI, a lieutenant of the royal army and Domicella Horodynski had the son
Aleksander Mycielski born before 1723 - died in 1818
[died in Wyszki {Aleksander was living in Wyszki in 1790-1818}, close to KOTLIN {at half way from PLESZEW to Jarocin} and south-east to JAROCIN, and 10 km north to Dobrzyca; 9 km north-west to ORPISZEWEK of the Kiedrzynskis],
the Crown Army lieutenant general in 1791 [in 1778 - General major], envoy, MP in 1780 of the Poznan province;
very close to Jozef Aleksander Sułkowski, b. 1695, of RYDZYNA

[but Franciszek Sułkowski b. 1733 in Dresden, was in January 1776 established a treasurer, collector, and administrator of the Polish Priory, and from October became the superior of the commandery of Saint John the Baptist, from hands of the Grand Master of the Order of Malta. He did not join to Rydzyna estate, created by his brother August Kazimierz Sułkowski, b. 1729 in Dresden.
ANTONI Sulkowski b. 1735 {the member of the Malta Order}, Franciszek Sulkowski and August Sulkowski were the sons of Aleksander Jozef Sułkowski b. 1695 + Maria Franciszka Stein zu Jettingen].

Aleksander Mycielski served in 1758 - 1771 in Kamieniec Podolski;
and the grandson,
Erazm Mycielski b. 1769 in Kamieniec Podolski, died 1800 Kalisz, Colonel in 1794 - a top CONSPIRATOR [see: Bardzki and Kiedrzynski].


The grandparents of named Johanna Wilhelmine von Unruh (1793-1862):
Georg Bogislaw von UNRUH / Jerzy Boguslaw UNRUH {Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh / Jerzy Boguslaw von Unruh / Boguslaw Unruh, born ca 1720 ?; d. 1779}; and Charlotte von BOJANOWSKI.

The great-grandparents:
Peter von UNRUH {= Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, of Miedzychod / Birnbaum (b. ca 1695 ?; died in 1766; the father of Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh / Jerzy Boguslaw von Unruh / Boguslaw Unruh, born ca 1720 ?; d. 1779)}; and Charlotte von SCHAUMBERG.

The great-great-grandparents:
Bogislaw von UNRUH / Boguslaw von Unruh;
and Ludwika ZYCHLINSKA = Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska.

[see above - Anna Zychlinska was the mother of
Christoph IV von Unruh, Count, the official in MIEDZYCHOD (died in 1763) and OBORNIKI, General;
Wladyslaw / Ladislaus von Unruh;
Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, of Miedzychod / Birnbaum (died in 1766; the father of Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh d. 1779);
Konstantin von Unruh, Count (Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh, born 1689, died 1763 - diplomat of Saxony)].


Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) and Polish officers:

Army commandant in 1877:

Nikolaj Nikolajevic senior, Romanov; that is Mikolaj Mikolajewicz Romanow, b. 1831, d. 1891; Grand Duke, General Adjutant - 1856, General Field Marshal - 1878. Third son of Tsar Nicholas I and Tsarina Aleksandra Fedorovna, born as Charlotte / Charlotta Princess of Prussia. His older brothers were Tsar Alexander II and Grand Duke of Russia, Konstanty Mikolajewicz.

"... The Knights of the Order of the Garter are the leaders of the Illuminati hierarchy ...

[Queen Victoria, Alexandrina Victoria b. 1819 was daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent

(son of George III {his father Frederick, Prince of Wales and mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha} + Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1744 - 1818 {her father Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow, and mother Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen})

and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1786 - 1861

(1803 at Coburg, she married 1st to Charles, Prince of Leiningen; 2nd to Prince Edward, Duke of Kent {the TEMPLARS} and Strathearn, in 1818 at Amorbach. Victoria's father was Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and mother Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf daughter of Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schonberg)]

... [mentioned above] Charlotte was the grandmother of Queen Victoria {Maltese Orders}, and whose son married the daughter of Frederick III of Hessen-Kassell {Frederick III of Hessen-Kassel / Friedrich III von Hessen- Kassel, born in 1747, the father of Auguste Wilhelmine Luise von Hessen-Kassel b. 1797 married Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the son, of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg- Strelitz}.

Charlotte's brother was Charles II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whose daughter married the heir of the Prussian crown, Frederick William III.

Frederick II of Prussia was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, who married Louise of Brunswick- Wolfenbuettel.

She was the sister of Frederick Duke of Brunswick, the Grand Master of the Strict Templar Observance, and who had convened the great Masonic convention at Wilhelmsbad in Hessen-Kassel.

Frederick Wilhelm II of Prussia was the father of Frederick William III, who became a member of the Order of the Garter.

Of Frederick William III and Louise' four children, three married the brothers and sisters of Csar Alexander I. Frederick William III's daughter, Charlotte of Prussia, married Paul's son, Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander I, and who also belonged to the Order of the Garter.
Frederick's son Wilhelm I married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the daughter of Nicholas' sister Maria Romanov.

A third child of Frederick, Friedrich Karl Alexander of Prussia, married Maria's Romanov other daughter, Marie Luisa Alexandrina von Saxe-Weimar.

The son of Csar Nicholas, Constantine Nicholaievitch Romanov, Grand Duke of Russia, fathered Olga Constantinovna Romanov, who married George I King of Greece. George was a member of the Order of the Garter, as was his father, Christian IX of Denmark. ...".

Mikolaj Mikolajewicz married his cousin Aleksandra Oldenburg

[see Oldenburg in St Petersburg and the Duflon & Konstantynowicz Company. She was the daughter of Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich Oldenburg (1812-1881).
Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg, 1812-1881, m. Therese Wilhelmine Friederike Isabella Charlotte von Nassau, 1815-1871, with children:
1. Alexandra Friederike Wilhelmine von Oldenburg, m. Nikolaj Nikolajewitsch of Russia, 1831-1891

[Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia / Nicholas Nicolaievich the Elder, 1831 - 1891, was the third son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Alexandra Feodorovna. Field Marshal and the commander of the Russian army of the Danube in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878]
with son: Peter Nikolajewitsch, 1864-1931;

2. Alexander Friedrich Konstantin von Oldenburg, 1844-1932, with son Peter Friedrich Georg von Oldenburg, 1868- 1924;

3.
Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg, 1850-1906 m. in 1882, Agrippina Djaparidse / Agrippina JAPARIDZE, 1855-1926,
with daughter Alexandra von Oldenburg, Grafin von Zarnekau, 1883-1957.

The JAPARIDZES - see Armand - PASZKOWSKI - DEMONSI home in Moscow and Konstantynowicz line of Moscow- Swolna-Miezonka-Lida.

Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich von Holstein-Gottorp of Oldenburg was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I.
Above
Konstantin Friedrich Peter Oldenburg or Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg began a flirtation with Agrippina; Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel 'Daniel' Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command; Dadiani were a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty;

Agrippina was Tariel Dadiani's second wife but Agrippina in 1882 divorced Dadiani. 1882, Constantine entered into a morganatic marriage with Agrippina Japaridze; by the early 1890s, they were doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).
See the Armands and Konstantynowiczs in Moscow and Alexandrovsk.
Prince Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani, b. 1842, m. first to Princess Sopio Dadiani b. 1838 daughter of Prince Levanti Shervashidze of the Guria. On June 28, 1882, Agrippina divorced Dadiani.
His father:
Prince Aleksandri Manuchari Dadiani.
And his grandfather:
Major-General H. E. Prince Nichola Giorgi Dadiani / Nikolai Georgievitch Dadianov / Bolshoi Niko, Lord of Kurdzu, b. 1764 - Duke of Mingrelia, fourth son of Katsia II Dadiani, Duke of Mingrelia.

Prince Aleksandri Kviti Niko Dadiani, b. 1864, m. Princess Nino Dadiani (b. 1868), younger daughter of Prince Tarieli Taia Dadiani, by his second wife, Princess Agrafina Countess von Zarnekau, daughter of Prince Konstantini Japaridze.

Eugene's ARMAND of Moscow brother - Emil E. ARMAND was married to Zofia Hacker / Sophia nee Osipovna Hecke (Hakker, Hacker, Hekke) from Estonia.
They had six children:
LEW ARMAND / Leo (1880 - 1942) + Japaridze-Saparov [Saparova Tamara Arkadevna - Japaridze married 2nd to Leo Emilievich ARMAND.

Saparov Arkady (1854 - before 1921), was married to Varvara Maypariani with the daughter
Tamara Arkadevna SAPAROV married 1st to Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and
TAMARA SAPAROV - JAPARIDZE was 2nd married to Lev ARMAND / Lion Emilievich Armand (Inessa Armand relatives).

Ivan Iaparidze was the son of Constantine Japaridze / Constantin Japaridze (Ivan b. ca 1860; his father Konstantyn died in 1860 !) from the upper Racha region of Georgia. Ivan Japaridze b. ca 1860, had sister Agrippina, Countess von Zarnekau, b. 1855, nee Agrippina Constantines Japaridze, and Ivan Japaridze's parents were Constantine and Melania Japaridze; named father Constantine died 1860].

His {Mikolaj Mikolajewicz} brother was Michal Mikolajewicz Romanow b. 1832, d. December 1909; Grand Duke of Russia, field marshal, chairman of the Council of State (1881-1905). In 1862-1882 he was the general-governor of the Caucasus. He worked in Tbilisi.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France.
Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia [Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company], on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies.

Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) was the Freemason, and he called himself Philalethes.

Receiving education at home in Georgia, Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909; the funeral was in Russia; Field Marshal.
Mentioned
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska [see Trubecki, Konstantynowicz, Oginski and Wola Pszczolecka] but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Oginski by name and Romanov by gene.


The Rajewski family:

Or Rajewskij, Rajauskas with Nalecz and Radwan arms in Belarus as early as 1509, here in 1528 and after 1595, 1623, owned Kislowicze and Fenowszczyzna in 1663, Perany in 1664, Stajow from the Ipacewicz family and Jurkowszczyzna [near the Konstantynowiczs, at the Russian border with Belarus at present] since 1858 - together with Polubinski; their neighbours: Komorowski from Mazyki, Ipacewicz, Strzyzewski, Zloczewski c. 1664.

A.
Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski b. 1771, died in 1829, the Russian General; fought in 1812.
Nikolaj Rajewski came from the Polish nobility with the Swan / Labedz coat of arms.

His father Nikolaj Siemionowicz RAJEWSKI / MIKOLAJ RAJEWSKI shortly before the birth of his son took part in the Russian-Turkish War of 1768-1774. He married Yekaterina Samojlov / SAMOJLOV, nieces of prince Grigorij Potiomkin, and the sister of prince Alexander Samojlov. He died a few months before his son Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski was born.

His grandfather - Siemion Rajewski [= Szymon Rajewski / Simon] was the prosecutor.

In 1794 Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski married Zofia Konstantinow, the granddaughter of Michail Lomonosow. They had 2 sons and 4 daughters:
Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Rajewski, junior, 1801 - 1843;
Marija Nikolajewna Wolkonskaja / Marija Nikolajevna Volkonskaja, b. 1805/1806, died in 1863, m. Sergei Grigorjewitsch Wolkonski.

B.
Rajewski and the Polish Conspirators -
Ignacy ZAWISZA of Kowno,
Duke Konstanty Radziwill of Nowogrodek,
and Count Aleksander POCIEJ

[Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, married Idalia Pociej b. 1801 {Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839}, the daughter of named above Aleksander Michal Pociej.

Leonard Pociej 1727 - 1774 - who was son of Aleksander Pociej senior, and Teresa Brzostowska - was the brother of Anna Tyszkiewicz; Karolina Radziwill and Ludwik Pociej.

Leonard had son -
Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846).

Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was the husband of Anna Korzeniowska;

he was the father of Teodor Pociej and named Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839 married Soltan.

Above Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was son of Maria Aleksandra Radziwill POCIEJ, b. 1753; his grandfather was Wojciech Albrycht Radziwill 1717-1762.

Aleksander Pociej senior, 1698 - 1770, was son of Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej. Above Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej 1666 - 1728, was son of Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina.
Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej was brother of Ludwik Konstanty Pociej.

Above Ludwik Konstanty Pociej b. 1664, d. 30 January 1730, in 1709 commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian army, his parents: Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina Oginska.
Ludwik Konstanty was father of Ludwika Marianna Pociej (b. ca 1715) who married to Franciszek Borzecki (ca 1693 - 1739)
with daughter
Justyna KALINOWSKA Borzecka (m. Ignacy Kalinowski born ca 1720 died 1782).
Her son was count Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.

Justyna nee Borzecka b. ca 1735 (1710 it's error).

Above named Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski was born 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760,
with children:
1. Jozef Kalinowski / Osip Kalinowski, the general of Polish Army, b. after 1780, died 1825 - his wife Emilia Potocka born 1790

{Marianna Elzbieta Uvarova nee Lubomirska, ca 1766 - d. 1810, was daughter of Kasper Lubomirski and Barbara Poninska; she was the wife of Protazy Antoni Potocki; Count Valerian Zubov, and Uvarov; she was the mother of above Emilia Kalinowska},

2. Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 and

3. Justyna Kalinowska married Russocka b. 1790 d. 1876.
Above Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 had son Wladyslaw Kalinowski.

Children of mentioned count Jozef Kalinowski:
1. Seweryna Kalinowska, b. 1814 d. 1852,
2. Jozefina Kalinowska married Oginska, born 1816 and died 1844;
3. Olga Kalinowska, born 1822, died 7 April 1899 in Retow;
4. M. Kalinowska (Maria Kalinowska Trubecka) married Troubetzkoy / Trubecki was sister of above Seweryna, Jozefina and Olga, but this data need to be check, of course (see the Konstantynowiczs in Estonia)!

Above countess Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to
Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki [compare MIELZYNSKI of PAWLOWICE and WOLSZTYN].

I wrote above that the grandfather of Olga, Jozefina and Seweryna {and Maria Trubecka} was Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.

The grandson of named above Seweryna Kalinowska was Mikolaj Plautin, b. 1868 who married to Maria Michajlowna Rajewska 1872 - 30 December 1942

[Nikolai Plautin / Mikolaj Plautin / Mikolai Sergeevich PLAUTIN, 1868-1918
{Nikolaj was the brother of Selina NEAME b. 1869 in Tsarskoe Selo, and she married George Neame from ENGLAND},
the son of SERGEY PLAUTIN, b. 1837, and Eleonora PRINGLE.
The grandson of NIKOLAJ PLAUTIN born in 1794, and SEWERYNA Kalinowska b. 1814,
the daughter of JOZEF Kalinowski].

Maria Rajewska PLAUTIN, died in ALGERIA in 1942, the daughter of Michail Nikolaevich Rajevskij, b. Feb. 1841 in KERCH, and Marija Grigorievna GAGARIN born 1851 in TBILISI.

Maria Rajewska b. 1872, had a brother Michail Michailovich Rajewskij, and a sister Anna Shipov

{Anna Rajewska SHIPOV, 1876 - 1967, married General Major Nikolai Nikolaevich SHIPOV born in February 1876 in Tsarskoe Selo.

They had 3 children:
Marija Nikolaevna SHIPOV married Hanut = Chanut, she was born in 1902, husband - Paul Chanut, 1885 - 1975 in United States. Marija Shipov Chanut had 2 brothers:
Nikolai Nikolaevich SHIPOV b. 1904, and
Michail Nikolaevich Shipov, b. 1908.

They were children of Nikolai Nikolaevich SHIPOV, junior, b. 1876 in TSARSKOE SIELO (died in Paris in 1958), and ANNA Rajewska / Anna Mikhaylovna Rajevskaja, 1876 - 1967.

Nikolai junior was the son of Nikolai Nikolaevich SHIPOV, senior, born in 1846 in St Petersburg, died in 1911 + Zofia LANSKA,
the daughter of Piotr LANSKI, b. 1799 in MOSCOW, the granddaughter of Piotr Lanski, senior, 1752-1805 + Izabella LEPARSKA

(named Nikolai Shipov, senior, b. 1846, was the son of
Nikolai Shipov, older, b. 1806 in Bielkovo, the son of PAVEL SHIPOV.
Colonel NIKOLAI SHIPOV b. 1806 was the owner of Александровское-Осташёво / OSTASCHEVO / Ostaszewo - see GENERAL ARTUR NIEPOKOJCZYCKI. Nikolai Shipov was the owner of Ostaschevo in 1854, in the Mozshajsk county, from hands of A. N. MURAVIEV - also BOTOVO in the Volokolamski county.
Nikolai married DARIA OKULOV in 1836.
They had also a son
FILIPP Shipov, 1848-1926, the owner of Ostashevo and the home in SIMBIRSK. Filipp divorced with Lidia Chomutov Shipov,
and moved to Niznij and then to Moscow)}.

General Artur A. Nepokojchitsky / Artur Niepokojczycki owned the estate Ostashevo [ca 1840 - 1854 or from hands of divorced SHIPOV ? - see below !]. Until 1861 it was called Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo; Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky was born in Slutsk [or in Niepokojczyce close to Zabianka and to Brzesc] in the family of Adam Niepokojczycki [von Unruh], the district leader of the nobility, on December 8, 1813, when the war with Napoleon rattled.

Maria Rajewska Plautin had 4 sons: Georgij Nikolaevich Plautin.

Maria's mother:
Marija Grigorievna nee Gagarin
had a sister Anastazja Grigorievna nee Gagarin b. 1853 died 1876 married to Piotr Michajlovich Orlov Denisov born 1852, who was the son of
Michail Vasilievich Orlov Denisov born 1823,
and named Michail ORLOV DENISOV was the brother of
Nadiezda Orlov Denisov married Katenin = Nadiezda KATENIN.

From the other hand we can look at the Orlov Denisov family from Vasily Orlov vel Orlov-Denisov, born 1775, count and his children:
1. Sophia Orlov Denisov b. 1817 and married to Vladimir Pietrovich Tolstoy, countess;
2. Mikhail Orlov-Denisov born 1823 with wife from the Chertkov family, graf;
3. Lyubov Orlova-Denisova / Orlov - Denisov married to Nikolai Trubetskoy, she b. 1828, d. 1860;
4. Fedor / Fiodor born 1802 or 1806 with wife from the Nikitin family;
5. Nadiezda / Nadjezda / Nadine Orlov-Denisov married to Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin, he born ? and died before 1868, Major-General, ataman Orenburg Cossacks.
His parents: father
Andrew / Andrej Katenin 'youngest' b. 1768 and d. 1835,
mother - Irina Lermontov.
His grandfather Fedor Katenin and his
great-grandfather Ivan Nikitich Katenin d. 4 December 1723.

Mother of above named Michail - Irina Lermontov b. 1771 d. 1818.

His brother Alexander A. Katenin, b. 1800 Kluseevo or Polovtsov in 1803 with wife Barbara I. Vadkovsky from Jan Wadkowski family.

Above Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin daughters:
1.
Sofia d. 1908 and married Martynov.
Sofia Katenin d. 1908 and married ca 1880 to Viktor Martynov b. 1858 d. 1915 - his father, Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich b. 1816
and his grandparents:
Solomon M. Martinov and Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya b. 1783.

Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich, 1815 / 1816 - 1875 / 1876, in 1841 killed Lermontov in a duel, his family related to Kolirovsky and Romeiko - Hurko (Polish); NIKOLAI's sister was Ekaterina Martynova Solomonovna married Rzewska (Polish) / Rzhevskij Michal.

2.
The second daughter Mary / Marija Michailovna Katenin b. ? and died 1903; married 1868 or 1869 to His Highness Prince Nikolaoz / Nikolai Ilyich Gruzinski / Nikolai Ilyich Bagration Gruzinskij of Georgia
(b. 1844, d. 1916, his father Elizbar / Ilija Bagration-Gruzinskij who was b. 1790 and died 1854, a son of Georgij XII Bagration - Kachietinskij who born 10 October 1746 and died 28 December 1800).

Grandfather of above Marija nee Rajewskaja was Mikolaj Mikolajevich Rajevskij Younger / RAJEWSKI MIKOLAJ from the Kiev government, Moscow and St Petersburg; b. 14 September 1801; and the second grandfather of above Maria nee Rajewska was Grigorij Grigorievich Gagarin b. 1810 d. 1893].

C.
In 1794 mentioned above Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski - senior - married Zofia Konstantinow, the granddaughter of Michail Lomonosow.
They had 2 sons and 4 daughters:
a. Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Rajewski, junior, 1801 - 1843
[Mikolaj Mikolajevich Rajevskij Younger / RAJEWSKI MIKOLAJ from the Kiev government, Moscow and St Petersburg; b. 14 September 1801];
b.
Marija Nikolajewna Wolkonskaja / Marija Nikolajevna Volkonskaja, b. 1805/1806, died in 1863, m. Sergei Grigorjewitsch Wolkonski.

D.
Bronislawa Rajewska married Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz.
Stanislaw was born in Poniec. Architekt. They had 5 children: Jozefa Maria Helena Bieniaszek; Maryla Charaszkiewicz; and
Colonel Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz, b. 1895 in Poniec, d. 1975 in London.
Bronislawa died in 1942.

Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz was a Polish military intelligence officer. He was the son of Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz, a building contractor, and Bronislawa Rajewska. Edmund completed his elementary school in Poniec [Mielzynska], then attended secondary schools successively in Krotoszyn [Mielzynski], and Katowice.

E.
Note:
David Dadiani of the House of Dadiani, was Prince of Mingrelia, in western Georgia, from 1846. David was sent to Tiflis to be educated under the guidance of the Russian generals Vasili Bebutov and Georg Andreas von Rosen.

Baron Rosen's son-in-law, Colonel Prince Alexander Dadiani.

Lydia Grigorievna Dadianov = DADIANI (von Rosen) b. 1817, married Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien, b. 1800
[Lydia Dadiani was the mother of Praskovya A. nee Dadiani married to FERDINAND Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg. She was born 1846 or 1847 = Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian 1847-1919];

LYDIA von ROSEN DADIANI was the daughter of Gregor (Grigori Vladimirovitch) von Rosen 2-nd
and granddaughter of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen, b. 1742 in Reval
[baron Vladimir I. Rosen, born 1742, died 1792, married Olympia Raevskaya / Olimpia RAJEWSKA / Olimpiada Rajewska born ca 1746];
and great-granddaughter of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, born in 1717 in Linden.

Above Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien b. 1800, was the son of Leon A. Dadiani and
the grandson of
Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753 and Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd ] born 1753 died 1812.

The parents of above Alexander DADIANI:
Peter G. Dadiani / PIOTR DADIANI and Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja [1st] died March 19, 1780.

F.
Wrangell von Gyubental Vladimir Leonidovich, 1918 - 1939 in Paris, the Page Corps in 1909, Cornet Guards, a Cavalry Regiment, in exile in France.
And his brother [?]
Wrangell von Gyubental Matthew Leonidovich, 1888 - 1965 in Paris, the Page Corps in 1908, Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards, a Cavalry Regiment, in exile in France, the owner of the machine shop and factory, a member of the Main Board of the Union of Pages.
Wife Antonina Mihailovna Rajewski / Raevskaya - she died 1970 in France, Artist.

G.
Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin b. May 26 / 6 June 1799 in Moscow, Russian poet; his paternal grandfather, Leo / Lev A. Pushkin was artillery colonel;
father - Sergei L. Pushkin (1767-1848), a Pushkin's mother was a granddaughter of Hannibal.

Brother of the poet - Lew vel Lev born 1805 [note - KONSTANTYNOWICZ].

Nikolai Leontievich / Nicholas DUBBELT (1819-1874) was also Lieutenant-General (1864), commander 1852 - 1856 Belarusian Hussar Regiment.
Brother of Leonti Vasilievich DUBBELT -
Peter V. Dubbelt (born 1794 in Mogilev, Belarus now), the Adjutant in 1822-26 of General N. N. Rajewski

[Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski b. 1771, died in 1829, the Russian General; fought in 1812. Nikolaj Rajewski came from the Polish nobility with the Swan / Labedz coat of arms. His father
Nikolaj Siemionowicz RAJEWSKI / MIKOLAJ RAJEWSKI shortly before the birth of his son took part in the Russian-Turkish War of 1768-1774. He married Yekaterina Samojlov / SAMOJLOV, nieces of prince Grigorij Potiomkin, and the sister of prince Alexander Samojlov. He died a few months before his son Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski was born].

A cousin of Leonti Vasilievich - Ivan M. Dubbelt (born 1805, Riga), served in the Estonian Jaeger Regiment, took part in suppressing the Polish uprising of 1863-64. His son Evgenii / Eugene I. Dubbelt, served from 1861 in Tiflis / Tbilisi.

H.
B. J. Rossinski, M. G. Lerch, A. J. Rajewski / A. E. Raievsky (the first Polish to fly in a Bleriot monoplane was a young student, RAJEWSKI = Raievsky) and G. W. Jankowski / Yankovsky (when Sikorsky started to build machines of his own, Yankovsky became his pilot) - experimental pilots (the Polish were 33 % of Russian pilots in 1911, and besides Lew Maciewicz died in 1910.

I.
In the Mscislav province:
Kurko in Jurkowszczyzna village, close by estates of the families Hurko, dukes Polubinski and Rajewski in the 19th cent.

Hurko
in Jurkowszczyzna - 1330 ha. - near to Soino [see KONSTANTYNOWICZ], Russia now;
the Hurko house related to Dabrowski family of the Abdank coat of arms, branch from the Siauliai and Kaunas territories; relations: the Konstantynowiczs;
Korzeniewski Jerzy + Konstancja nee Jablonski from the Mscislau province were owners of the Jurkowszczyzna farm in 1766
(Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth / Grand Principality of Lithuania i.e. a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania then, and Russia now; they verified themselves in Hrodna in 1835; related to Ulanowski family).



My research concerns many state intelligence networks created in the first half of the 18th century by Russia [and in 1937 by Soviet Union].
Let the example be an ominous figure of Jakob Johann von Sievers who has been active in the Russian intelligence since 1748.

His genealogy from Joachim Johann von Sievers, b. ca 1674 - d. 1753, SENIOR:
1.
His younger son Karl Eduard von Sievers, b. 1710 in Nybygard, Finnland, d. 1774 in St. Petersburg, the father of:
Elisabeth Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata [she was wife of Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808];
Johann Carl Sievers of Ropkoy b. Lais (Livl.) 1749 d. 1805 acc. to: Peter Trefilov;
Benedikte b. 1750;
Peter;
and Karl Gustaf Joachim of Waiwara b. 1758 in Petersburg.
2.
Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808,
the son of Joachim Johann von Sievers (b. 1699), JUNIOR;
the grandson of above Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753, SENIOR.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, the FREEMASON; Caunt in 1798, Extraordinary Ambassador to Poland. He was buried at the cementery in Wolmar in Livonia / Valmiera / Wolmar, is a town in northern Latvia, about 100 km north-east of Riga and 50 km from the border with Estonia. From 1749 to 1755 as a diplomat in London and Kopenhagen (links with the embassy of Prussia) in 1748

[in 1740 King Frederick II (Frederick the Great) came to the throne. In 1744 Frederick invaded Silesia again. He failed, but French pressure on Austria's ally Great Britain led to a series of treaties and compromises, culminating in the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that restored peace and left Prussia in possession of most of Silesia].

The Sievers family descended from Holstein.
The relative of Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers was Joachim Karl, born in Finland, a servant of Ernest Biron - the favorite of Empress Anna. In 1743, Karl took him to Saint Petersburg, then twelve-year-old boy.
He became a writer at the College of Foreign Affairs. The next level was reading the encrypted messages. Finally, in 1748 he was sent to the Russian diplomatic mission in Copenhagen. About ten months later, he was sent to London, where his uncle Karl had the friend - ambassador Piotr Czernyszew.
The stay in LONDON until 1755 was a real school for Sievers. He was a diplomat with the knowledge of foreign languages. During the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) he served Russian Army.
He took part in the siege of Kolobrzeg. In 1759-1760 he was the secretary of the Russian-Prussian commission appointed to exchange prisoners of war. He was promoted to general of the Guard. Catherine II appointed him governor of Novgorod in 1764, and in 1776 also Pskov and Tver, and thus the general-governor of these three provinces.
In 1767 he married his cousin Elzbieta Sievers Puciata, Lisinka, a childhood companion. As the administrator of the lands entrusted to him, he showed great energy. In May 1781 he wrote a request for resignation.
He moved back to Bauenhoff.
Platon Zubov send a letter of November 13, 1792 and he announced that the Empress's wish was to go to Poland as her extraordinary ambassador to the king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Aleksander Chrapowicki - Katarzyna's personal secretary - noted that Sievers' departure to Poland was being prepared by Zubow and Morkow, and Bezborodko.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, Count Jacob Sivers b. 1731, in Wesenberg / Rakvere, Estonia; died 1808, in Bauenhof, Governorate of Livonia, near WOLMAR = Valmiera; he was appointed general governor of Novgorod (1764-1776), Tver (1776 - 1781 as governor of Tver and Novgorod - Viceroy) and Pskov; son of Joachim Johann von Sievers, JUNIOR;
he was gifted with great possessions:
several villages near Minsk in Belarus
[Dec. 1792 in Grodno. He acted in Belarus in 1799-1803; the Minsk governorate was reorganized in 1795],
in Estonia (Heimar, Rasik and Kampen),
Livonia / LIVLAND (Bauenhof, Neuhall, Zarnau and Ostrominsky),
Ingria (Gadebusch, Lopatino, Selco / Seltso, and Muratovo),
the province of Polotsk (Kasian in 1781, and Dobra Rudnia),
in Finland (Sackala).

In Poland SIEVERS was in the company of
the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski,
King's sister,
Lady Zaluska,
Css Mniszech;
Bishop Michal Jerzy Poniatowski,
Lady Radziwill,
Count UNRUH / Aleksander Unrug, of the Great Poland
[director of the royal mint, previously in the army of Saxony and friend of Igelstrom, Stackelberg and Madalinski; Stanislaw August brought him to Warsaw as the leadership of the mint. He was jailed in Warsaw on 18 May 1794];
Kazimierz Poniatowski;
Lady Tyszkiewicz

[Maria Teresa Tyszkiewicz (1760 - 1834) - the sister of Duke Jozef Poniatowski;
Maria Teresa Antonina Jozefina Poniatowski married Tyszkiewicz, born in Austria, the Lady of the Maltese Order; the daughter of General Andrzej Poniatowski - the brother of the KING. She was taken under guardianship by her father's brother, King Stanislaw August Poniatowski.
She married Wincenty Tyszkiewicz (1757 - 1816) of LOHOJSK and SWISLOCZ.
He was the son of Antoni Kazimierz TYSZKIEWICZ, 1723-1778;
the grandson of Michal Jan TYSZKIEWICZ, 1692-1762];

and widowed Lady Grabowska the lover of the KING Poniatowski.

In 1794 Holowczyce [in 1793 in Russia] - the estate of Oskierka - was taken by Russians, then the estate belonged to General JAKOB Sievers;
and next of Stanislaw Horwatt in 1825 [then to his cousin Maurycy; and Maurycy's son - Stanislaw Horwatt].
Holowczyce is situated 14 km south-west to Narowla, close to Ukraine. Holowczyce in 1764 owned by Oskierko = Oskierka.

Ludwik Tyszkiewicz born 1748 in Vilnius, d. 1808, Field Lithuanian Commander in 1780 to 1791, Great Lithuanian Treasurer in 1791, Great Lithuanian Marshal from 1793. Stanislaw August Poniatowski had a niece Konstancja Poniatowska, the daughter of mentioned Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski, and Konstancja married in Warsaw on April 4, 1775 to Ludwik Tyszkiewicz. They took in 1793 Berezyna - Luboszany.
Their daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz married Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki.

During the Grodno Sejm, Ludwik Tyszkiewicz was chosen as a negotiator with the Russian ambassador Jacob Sievers, and so on 22 July 1793 he signed the treaty of the cession of lands to Russia, and then on 25 September to Prussia, as part of the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, married mentioned Elisabeth Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata SIEVERS, b. 1746 in St. Petersburg, Russia, died in 1818. Daughter of Karl Eduard von Sievers, of Lagena and Waiwara; the granddaughter of Joachim Johan von Sievers / Johann, b. 1677, d. 1753 in Rujen-Grosshof;
the great-granddaughter of
Joachim Sievers died March 1700 in Tallinn.
ELZBIETA was also wife of Nikolai Abramovich Putjatin. Above Nikolai Abramovich Putjatin b. 1749 in Kiev.
He was the family of ARTEMIJ Vasilievich PUCIATA / Putjatin, the landowner in 1706 of RZEW.



I am presenting here below several Poles fighting in the Russian army during the war 1877-78:

Artur Niepokojczycki / Niepokojczycki (1813-1881)
- Russian general. Pole. After graduating for some time he served in the General Staff.
NIEPOKOJCZYCKI Artur, born in 1813 in the Niepokojczyce estate close to ZABINKA, died in Petersburg.

Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky wasn't born in Slutsk.
His father ADAM NIEPOKOJCZYCKI / Niepokojczycki was the district leader of the nobility - the Sluck marshal of nobility.
Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky was born when the war with Napoleon rattled. Originated from the old German clan von UNRUH [not von-Upru], who moved to Poland.
The Niepokojczyce chapel of the Helvetic congregation was operated under the auspices of the family Rayski
[Evangelische Kirche Helvetischen Bekenntnisses / Evangelische Kirche, is the Calvinist church of the reformed trend; Calvinism is the dominant confession in Scotland and in the many cantons of Switzerland].

Niepokojczyce, is situated near Jamna / Jamno / Yamno [east district in BRZESC], the Kobryn county, Polesie; rural commune of Zbirohi / ZBIROGI [18 km north-east to the center of BRZESC] by the Muchawiec river; near Zabianka.


Compare:
Rasna

- in the second half of the nineteenth century, RASNA was bought by Calvinist Count Jan Grabowski born in 1827.

Already from the beginning of the nineteenth century, a small Calvinist church in the village stood where the mausoleum of the Grabowski family was located. Count Adam Jan Pius Waclaw Goetzendorf-Grabowski b. in 1827 in Lukow close to Oborniki, as the oldest son of Jozef Goetzendorf-Grabowski the owner of Lukow [OBORNIKI - compare Plater and von Unruh].

Jozef Grabowski was Napoleon's officer, director of the Credit Bank in Poznan. Jozef GRABOWSKI married Klementyna Wyganowski. Jozef's father - Adam Mateusz Grabowski the owner of Welno and Parkow, the Royal Court official of August III.

Adam Jan Pius Waclaw Goetzendorf-Grabowski b. 1827, married 1853 to Jadwiga, the daughter of Duke Konstanty Lubomirski. His daughter Maria m. Duke Hieronim Drucki-Lubecki.

The Grabowskis came from Grabowki, in the Sieradz county: here Elzbieta the wife of Mikolaj Hanczel of Mokrsko, close to WIELUN - inf. in 1508;
Jan Grabowski, the zealous Calvin, moved to Lithuania, where he left a few sons, of whom Krystyan Grabowski, the official in Lithuanian Brest, and Marcin Grabowski, a Vitebsk official; they acted in the Kaunas county, and Jan signed the choice of the king Jan III. Stefan Antoni Grabowski, the official in Brzesc Litewski in 1696.

Albert GRABOWSKI, the Prussian Count in 1816, Major, died in 1819 [or in 1799 ?], married Wilhelmina von Winterfeld,
with the son Wilhelm Grabowski and the daughter Albertyna Grabowska ROSEN [b. 1784 or 1786 - Wartenburg, d. 1856 - Warszawa].
The great-grandparents of Albertyna / ALBERTINA ROSEN:
Stefan Grabowski 1680-1756; and Teodora Stryjenska.
Stefan Grabowski was the son of a Brzesc Litewski official.

Albertina Grabowska married to Aleksander Rosen, baron, b. ca 1780; Alexander Vladimirovich von Rosen 3rd, born in 1780 in Ostrogorsk, was the son of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen born in 1742;
the grandson of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, b. 1717 in Linden.

Albertina had children:
Woldemar von Rosen;
Alexei von Rosen;
Maria Ledochowski b. 1814 married PAWEL LEDOCHOWSKI / Paul count Ledochowski;
Elisabeth von Muller and
Grigori von Rosen.

Note:

David Dadiani of the House of Dadiani, was Prince of Mingrelia, in western Georgia, from 1846. David was sent to Tiflis to be educated under the guidance of the Russian generals Vasili Bebutov and Georg Andreas von Rosen.
Baron Rosen's son-in-law, Colonel Prince Alexander Dadiani.

Lydia Grigorievna Dadianov (von Rosen) b. 1817, married Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien, b. 1800
[Lydia Dadiani was the mother of Praskovya A. nee Dadiani married to FERDINAND Sayn-Wittgenstein- Berleburg. She was born 1846 or 1847 = Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian 1847-1919];

LYDIA von ROSEN DADIANI was the daughter of
Gregor (Grigori Vladimirovitch) von Rosen 2-nd
and granddaughter of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen, b. 1742 in Reval
[baron Vladimir I. Rosen, born 1742, died 1792, married Olympia Raevskaya / Olimpia / Olimpiada Rajewska born ca 1746];
and great-granddaughter of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, born in 1717 in Linden.

Above Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien b. 1800, was the son of Leon A. Dadiani and the grandson of Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753 and
Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd ] born 1753 died 1812.
The parents of above Alexander:
Peter G. Dadiani and Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja [1st] died March 19, 1780.

Parents of above Piotr / Peter:
George / Egor Levanovich Dadiani b. 1683 and
Sophia A. Imereti of Mukhrani b. 1691 died 1747.

Above mentioned Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, b. 1834, died 1888, married in 1868 to Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian, 1847-1919.
Praskovya A. nee Dadiani / Paraskewa Alexandrovna married to Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg; she was born 1846 or 1847; her father was Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800.

Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1834, the son of August Ludwig zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg; and Ferdinand was grandchild of Christian Heinrich Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, 1753-1800 (married 1775 Charlotte Friederike countess of Leiningen-Westerburg 1759-1831),
great-grandchild of Ludwig Ferdinand 1712-1773, and
great-great-grandchild of Casimir 1687-1741.
His father Ludwig Franz Sayn-Wittgenstein, 1660 - 1694.


Note on the Rosen family:

From Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791:

Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn and died 1884 in Reval,
her father -
Karl Johann von Gernet 1776 Lehhola / Lehola - 1857 in Lauenhof / Love, Podrala, Valdamaa, Estland;
and her grandfather -
Carl Gustav von Gernet 1747 - 1812,
and her great-grandfather -
Carl Gottlieb von Gernet b. on March 18, 1700 and died on May 4, 1791 in Lehhola.

Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn married
Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus / Woldemar von Rosen 1813 - 1892
and his father -
Hans Wilhelm Gustav von Rosen 1780 - 1862;
grandfather
Robert Friedrich von Rosen b. 1748 in SONORM, Estland;
great-grandfather was
Hans Christian von Rosen b. 1717 in LINDEN, Estland.

Above Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus von Rosen, b. 12 Jan 1813 at Resna, m. 1844 at Hapsal / Haapsalu to Hedwig Charlotte von Gernet b. at Reval,
the daughter of Johann von Gernet and his wife Hedwig Elisabeth von Patkul of Habbinem.

Sons of above named Hedwig:
1. Johann Wilhelm Fabian Richard von Rosen, b. at Neuenhof near Hapsal, m. at St. Petersburg to Sophie Valentine Schottlender d. 28 Sep 1912 at Reval,
2. Leo Felix Karl von Rosen, b. in St. Petersburg, m. 2ndly in 1927 at London to Magna Smith daughter of Nadeschda Kowalewskaja Smith / Kowalewski.

The palace of Herrenhaus Neuenhof that is Uuemoisa mois east part of Haapsalu at present.

The noble Schillings / Schilling family moved to Estonia / Estland from Courland (Kurland). Karl Gebhard von Schilling began his service in the Russian army, married to Helene Charlotte von Romer of Moosleri / Seinigal and Orina / Orgena - 2 km north-east of Jarva-Jaani (Orina, Jerva-Jaani vald).
Moosleri (Seinigal by German) is a village in the rural community Kareda - ca 80 km east-south of Saku, close to Jarva-Jaani.

Pauline Amalie Sophie von Schilling b. 1806 in Reval / Tallinn, Estland / Eesti, her mother Anna Juliane von Rosen b. 1770.

Explanation to
Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753:
he married Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd] born 1753 died 1812.

Above named Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani born 1753, died in Moscow, February of 1812, married Alexander Petrovich Dadiani b. 1753/54, died in Moscow on 26 Jan. 1811.
Her father Levan Bagration-Gruzinsky, born Moscow 1739, or 1730 acc. to me!
He was in 1753 married to Alexandra Yakovlevna Sibirsky b. 1728.
Her grandfather Bakar I King of Kartli, born Kutaisi in 1700, married Anna Eristavi of Aragvi b. 1706.
Her great-grandfather Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675.

Brief to Georgian genealogy:

Alexander [son of Bakar] or Aleksandr Bakarovich Gruzinsky, born 1726 died 1791, was a Russian-born Georgian prince of the Mukhrani branch of the Bagrationi royal dynasty. Aleksandre was born ca 1724 / 1728, in Moscow. Alexander was married to Princess Daria Aleksandrovna nee Menshikov, d.1817.
Named
BAKAR, 1699 / 1700 - 1750, was the son of Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675 - died on March 26, 1737.

Vakhtang VI married in Imereti, in 1696, a princess Rusudan (died in Moscow, on December 30, 1740). They had children:
named above Prince Bakar (1699 / 1700 - 1750), ruler of Kartli;
Prince George (1712 - 1786), general of the Russian Empire;
Princess Tamar (1696) married, in 1712, Prince Teimuraz, the future king of Kakheti and Kartli;
Princess Anna (Anuka) (1698), married, in 1712, Prince Vakhushti Abashidze;
Princess Tuta (1699), married the Imeretian nobleman of the ducal family of Racha, Gedevan, Duke of the Lowlands.

We back to the Grabowskis:

Count Wilhelm GRABOWSKI, the son of Albert Grabowski, d. 1851, m. Zofia Zawisza, Count in Russia in 1840. He had 8 sons:
Count Karol Oktawian GRABOWSKI, d. 1893, the owner of Rasna, Szymonowicze and Eustaszyn, m. Zofia Horwat.
Zofia HORWAT GRABOWSKA had daughter Zofia m. Count Konstanty Broel - Plater,
and Zofia Horwat had a son Aleksander Grabowski, b. 1852, the owner of Tolkaczewicze, in the MINSK governorate, m. Maria Reytan, with a daughter
Magdalena Grabowska m. Antoni Kieniewicz.

The Calvinist chapel of the RASNA parish was in Niepokojczyce under the patronage of the Rayskis.
Here in RASNA / Rasna, 1765 Tadeusz Matuszewicz was born - Polish politician, Minister of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Poland and Minister of Treasury of the Warsaw Duchy

{Tadeusz Wiktoryn Matuszewicz - born 1765 in Rasnia, died 1819 in Bologna, Polish speaker, publicist, translator, poet and theater critic. Minister of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815-1817, member of the Provisional Government of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815. A member of the Central Military Government of the Galicia in 1809, a Freemason. He was the son of Marcin Matuszewicz, of Brest, and Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt, daughter of Jozef, and Petronella Wolodkowicz}.

Niepokojczyce - in the Kobryn county, near Zabinka.


Grabanow close to Biala Podlaska;

in 1818, Grabanow is already the court property of Adam Niepokojczycki, the father of GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki

[Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780
{see also: 1.
Karol Niepokojczycki the son of Piotr Niepokojczycki and Zofia Wierczak; Karol Niepokojczycki was the Lieutenant of the Lithuanian regiment in 1827, born 1800, in 1839 widowed and married 2nd to Dorota Puzewicz, the daughter of Ludwik.
2. Benedykt Wilhelm Niepokojczycki, 1796 - 1865, the President of the Polish Bank}].

Adam Niepokojczycki had wooden residential building made of oak tree.
1822, Grabanow farm was bought from the Radziwills by Poplawski. Shortly thereafter, these estate passed on to the property of the Grabowski family.
Kozula's mill in the Grabanow farm in 1781, belonged to the Radziwills, who had a hunting lodge here - near BIALA PODLASKA.

GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki in 1841, was sent to the Caucasus under General Grabbe.
Artur A. Nepokojchitsky owned the estate Ostashevo. Until 1861 it was called Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo on the left bank of the Ruza Reservoir, 21 km from the Volokolamsk suburb near Moscow.

The Polish origin had the actual commander-in-chief of the 1877/1878 Army, the Chief of Staff, General Artur Niepokojczycki and his deputy, General Karol Lewicki, and two leaders of the Bulgarian uprising, dictator and commander-in-chief - Stanislaw StClair, and major Ludwik Wojtkiewicz.

Artur A. Nepokojchitsky was next of kin to the KRUPSKI family.
Krupski Bonifacy, the son of Urban Krupski and Katarzyna Antoniewicz, was born in 1822 in Ihnatow in the MINSK county in Belarus; he studied in SLUCK; then Bonifacy lived in the BOBRUJSK county in the Wittgenstein estate [see SZUMSKI]. 1856, his father Urban bought from Korsak the Mieciawicze estate in the Sluck county, and in 1861 from Ratyski bought Nowosioki in the IHUMEN county.

Bonifacy Krupski in 1861 was married Stefanja widow, born ca 1830, the daughter of Florjan SWIDA, and Konstancja Niepokojczycki Swida, b. ca 1805.

{Erazm Swida-Polny, b. 1882 - Mieciawicze, d. 1928 - Malecz; a brother of his father was Wladyslaw Swida-Polny b. 1842, d. 1924 - Siechniewicze near Pruzany. Wladyslaw Swida was the son of Florian Jakub Swida-Polny and named Konstancja Niepokojczycka born ca 1805. Wladyslaw Swida-Polny 1842-1924 m. Jadwiga Rewkowska, 1850-1922}.
In Nowosiolki was a folk school, under Ligenza from Kiev.
B. Krupski fought in 1863 in the Ihumen county.


Niepokojczycki had the WAGA coat of arms - together with Abramowicz, Korzeniowski, Pociej.


Freemasons in RUSSIA and Scotland:

The Grand Lodge of Russia:

1731, when the Grand Lodge of England appointed a Captain John Phillips as Provincial Grand Master of Russia and Germany, masonry in Russia was mainly the preserve of foreign residents;
in 1741 a Scots Jacobite, James Keith (1696-1758), who fought in the Russian and Prussian service, was Master under the English system;
At St. Petersburg in 1771; in 1772 the first native Provincial Grand Master, Ivan Yelagin (1725-94), secretary to Catherine.
Novikov was imprisoned in 1792, and by 1794 all lodges were forced to close.
The Grand Lodge Astrea, founded at St. Petersburg in 1815.

Above James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, a Scottish soldier and Prussian field marshal, a Jacobite, was born at Inverugie Castle near Peterhead - north of Aberdeen in eastern Scotland,
the second son of
William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland [= Sir William Keith, 8th Earl Marischal], who b. ca 1664, and was also a Jacobite politician of Scotland.
WILLIAM's parents were the army officer George Keith, 8th Earl Marischal (born ca 1614, d. 1694 = 7th Lord Keith, 7th Earl Marischal, Privy Counsellor) [= George Keith, 7th Earl Marischal] and the courtier Lady Mary Hay, the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Kinnoull - 2 km east of Perth.

William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland

[Sir William Keith, 8th Earl Marischal, also known as "9th Earl Marischal", "8th Earl of Marischal", "KT"]

b. ca 1664,
married Mary Drummond / MARIE DRUMMOND, born ca 1670 in PERTH, d. 1729

[her brother was James Drummond, 2nd Duke of Perth born 1673, in DRUMMOND, the father of James Drummond, 3rd Duke of Perth born in 1713 in the Drummond Castle; and of John Drummond, 4th Duke of Perth born in 1714 in FRANCE],

the daughter of James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth, SENIOR

[4th Earl of Perth, Sir James Drummond b. 1648, died in France, Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1716 - he was the son of James Drummond, 3rd Earl of Perth b. ca 1615, died 1675; the grandson of John Drummond born ca 1584],

born in 1648, and his first wife, Lady Jane Douglas
(died in 1676 or 1678 - the daughter of William Douglas, 1st Marquis of Douglas and Mary Gordon)

[compare:
Agatha Drummond, 1711 - 1795, the daughter of James Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond born in 1673, died in 1739

(his father George Drummond, 5th of Blair, 1st of Blair-Drummond, b. 29 Nov 1638, Blair, Stormount, Perthshire, Scotland, died in 1717; grandfather was George Drummond, 4th Laird of Blair; great-grandfather was George Drummond, 2nd Laird of Blair),

and Jean Carre born in 1681.
Wife of Henry Home, Lord Kames.
Mother of George Drummond-Home, Laird of Blair-Drummond and Jean Home.
Sister of George Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond born in 1705],

the fourth daughter of
William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Douglas - ca 58 km south-east of Glasgow.

Above named Inverugie is north of Aberdeen, in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, in 1728 set out for service in Russia, where he spent nearly twenty years, in 1747 Keith joined the army of Frederick the Great of Prussia.
He was also one of the first Freemasons active in Russia. In the Russo-Swedish War 1741 - 1743, Keith was Vice-Roy of Finland.

A French trader, Estienne Morin, of the Masonry in Bordeaux since 1744, in 1747, founded an Scots Masters Lodge in the French colony of Saint-Domingue; next 1764 at New Orleans, Mother Supreme Council at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1801.
John Mitchell, born in Ireland in 1741, the first Grand Commander of above Supreme Council.

The Grand Lodge of Antient, Free and Accepted Masons of Scotland was founded in 1736 - members:

William Amherst, 3rd Earl Amherst (1836 - 1910), British nobleman and politician;

John Arbuthnot (born in Kincardineshire, 30 km south of Aberdeen, in 1667 - died in 1735), a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London, the Scriblerus Club;

1739: John Keith, 3rd Earl of Kintore;

1740: James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton, b. 1702, was a Scottish astronomer, President of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh;

1746: Henry Erskine, 10th Earl of Buchan;

1750: Thomas Erskine, Lord Erskine;

1757: Sholto Douglas, Lord Aberdour;

1765: Thomas Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie;

1788: Francis Douglas, Lord Elcho;

1792: George Douglas, 16th Earl of Morton;

1800: Sir James Stirling, 1st Bt., Lord Provost of Edinburgh, (b. 1740 - d. 1805)
his wife was Alison Mansfield, b. 1750, children:
1. Sir Gilbert Stirling, Baronet, b. ca 1779, of Uppal, Midlothian, Scotland,
2. Janet Stirling, of Midlothian, married Livingstone;

Mentioned above Sir James Stirling in the West Indies had made his fortune,
Secretary to Archibald Stirling of Keir,
Secretary of Sir Charles Dalling, Governor of Jamaica.
Acted for the banking house of Mansfield, Ramsay, & Co.;

1833: Henry Erskine, 12th Earl of Buchan.

Note:
1.
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet born on 30 December 1864 in Sellenkull, Poenal, Laanemaa, (Sellenkull = Seljakula,

Seljakula close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km and south-west of Lehola) Estonia. A doctor, who was latterly appointed by the Boer authorities to superintend the hospital, by
James Francis Harry St. Clair-Erskine Rosslyn.
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet, migrated to South Africa in the late nineteen nineties together with his wife Olga Antoinette Vera von Dehn.

2.
Jane Wilhelmina Stirling 1804 - 1859 was a Scottish amateur pianist, took Chopin on a tour of England and Scotland in 1848; her father John Stirling, Laird of Kippendavie, at Kippenross House, near Dunblane in Perthshire, and was descended from a noble Scottish family. She was placed under the charge of her widowed sister, Mrs Katherine Erskine - from 1826, she and her sister divided their life between Scotland and Paris; met Chopin in 1840 / 1842 / 1843.

The Stirlings of Kippendavie, Perthshire, and Carden in the Stirlingshire, are cadets of the Keir family. The ancestor of the Kippendavie branch was Archibald Stirling, son of Archibald Stirling of Keir, to whom his father gave the lands of Kippendavie in 1594.

John Stirling of Kippendavie married Mary, the 2d daughter of William Graham, b. 1712 [not ca 1730], and had a son, Patrick, who married in 1810, Catherine Georgina, 2d daughter of John Wedderburn, Esq. of Spring Garden, Jamaica. He died 1860, leaving the elder son, John Stirling, Esq. of Kippendavie, born in 1811.
Children of Mary Graham and John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie, b. 1742, m. 1781:
1. Katherine, 2. Ann Stirling, 3. Mary, 4. Margaret Douglas,
5. William Stirling, of Kenmure and Jamaica, b. 1787,
6. John Stirling, of Grogar and Blackgrane, b. 1788,
7. James Stirling, of Glentyan,
8. Charles Stirling, 1st of Gargunnock, b. 1796,
9. Sylvester Douglas Stirling, of Glenbervie / Woodside, b. 1803, and
10. Jean Wilhelmina Stirling, b. 1804
[Jane Wilhelmina Stirling, 1804 - 1859 was a Scottish amateur pianist, took Chopin on a tour of England and Scotland in 1848].

Above mentioned John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie 1742 - 1816, his parents:

Patrick Stirling, 4th of Kippendavie, b. 1704 and
mother Margaret Douglas.

Patrick Stirling, 4th of Kippendavie b. 1704 - 1745: his children
1.
Patrick Stirling, 5th of Kippendavie, b. 1734, and
2.
John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie, b. 1742.

His father: Charles Stirling, 3rd of Kippendavie, b. 1680 - 1736.


Mentioned above

James Francis Harry St. Clair-Erskine, 5th Earl of Rosslyn, 1869 - 1939, the son of Robert Francis St. Clair- Erskine, 4th Earl of Rosslyn and Blanche Adeliza St. Clair-Erskine.
He come from
James St Clair-Erskine, 2nd Earl of Rosslyn, 1762 - 1837,
who gone from
John Erskine, ca 1675 in Tillicoultry, Scotland, died in 1739. Son of Sir Charles Erskine, 1st Baronet of Alva and Christian Dundas.
Husband of Catherine St Clair.

And this is a branch of
Charles Erskine, of Alva, born in 1611 in Stirling, Scotland, died in 1663; the son of Sir John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar and Lady Marie Stewart;
husband of Mary Hope.

That is
Sir John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar, born in 1556 in Stirling, near DRUMMOND, died in 1634, Stirling, Scotland. Son of Sir John Erskine, 18th Earl of Mar and Annabelle Murray;
husband of Lady Marie Stewart and Anne Erskine.

See also:
Charles Erskine, Earl of Mar (1650 - 1689), a Scottish nobleman. He is regarded as both the 22nd earl (in the 1st creation) and the 5th earl (in the 7th) [= the 21st Earl of Mar (who died in 1689)].
On 2 April 1674 he married Mary Maule, daughter of George Maule, 2nd Earl of Panmure.
Their son
John Erskine succeeded to the title [John Erskine, 22nd and de jure 6th Earl of Mar, (1675 - May 1732), Scottish Jacobite].

Charles was the son of
Sir John Erskine, 21st Earl of Mar, 9th Lord Erskine, b. 1605 in Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, died in 1668.
John 21st was the son of John, Earl of Mar and Lady Jean Hay.
That is
John Erskine, Earl of Mar, b. ca 1580, the son of Sir John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar and Anne Erskine

[Sir John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar, born in 1556 in Stirling, near DRUMMOND, died in 1634, Stirling, Scotland. Son of Sir John Erskine, 18th Earl of Mar and Annabelle Murray; husband of Lady Marie Stewart and Anne Erskine].

John Erskine, Earl of Mar, b. ca 1580 was the husband of Lady Jean Hay.

Note:

"Andrew Michael Ramsay (1686 - 1743), commonly called the Chevalier Ramsay, was a Scottish-born writer who lived most of his adult life in France. He was a Baronet in the Jacobite Peerage.
Ramsay was born in Ayr, Scotland, the son of a baker. In 1710 he visited Francois Fenelon in the Netherlands ... remained in France until 1724 ... 1724, Ramsay was sent to Rome ... Ramsay was associated with
the court party of John Erskine, Duke of Mar
... 1724 Ramsay was back in Paris. Ramsay was in England in 1730 ... died at St Germain-en-Laye ... 1743. ...

Ramsay was associated with Freemasonry from its introduction in France (1725 - 1726).
Charles Radclyffe, Earl of Derwentwater, who acted as Grand Master for France beginning in 1736, was present at Ramsay's funeral.

It is presumed that Ramsay's being a Mason facilitated his introduction into the Gentleman's Club of Spalding, of which the prominent Masonic propagator John Theophilus Desaguliers was then also a member.

In 1737 Ramsay wrote his: Discourse pronounced at the reception of Freemasons by Monsieur de Ramsay, Grand Orator of the Order,
in which he connected Freemasonry with the Crusader knights [TEMPLARS and the Knights Hospitaller].
His own stature as a Knight of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem may have inspired him, or perhaps even his zeal to propagate an alleged tradition linked to the house of Bouillon. ... To Ramsay's letter of 20 March 1737 came Cardinal Fleury's reply at the end of March interdicting all Masonic reunions.
It is frequently mistakenly repeated that Ramsey mentioned the Knights Templar in his Discourse, when in fact he did not mention the Order at all - he mentioned the Knights Hospitaller.

But perceptive listeners would have understood his mention of the Crusader knights to be an indirect reference to the Knights Templar, the memory of whom was still controversial in France and may have led to the Pope's indictment of the organization a year later" [copyright by Wikipedia].

Above John Theophilus Desaguliers - b. 1683, d. 1744, was a French-born British natural philosopher, engineer and freemason who was elected to the Royal Society in 1714 as assistant to Isaac Newton.
"...As a Freemason, Desaguliers was instrumental in the establishment of the first Grand Lodge formed in London in 1717 and served as their third Grand Master.
He helped James Anderson draw up the rules in the "Constitutions of the Freemasons", published in 1723
... trip to the Netherlands in 1731 Desaguliers initiated into Freemasonry - Francis, Duke of Lorraine (1708 - 1765) who later became Holy Roman Emperor. Desaguliers also presided when
Frederick, Prince of Wales, became a Freemason in 1737,
and he additionally became a chaplain to the Prince".

Charles Radclyffe, Earl of Derwentwater - b. 1693, d. 1746,
was the youngest son of Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater and Lady Mary Tudor.

"...Charles Radclyffe was allegedly Grand Master of the Priory of Sion, succeeding Sir Isaac Newton in that role.
Lawrence Gardner asserts that he was linked to the bloodline of the Grail through his mother, Lady Mary Tudor, the illegitimate daughter of King Charles II of England. The Radclyffes were, however, also descended from Ivo de Tailbois, an illegitimate son of the Count of Anjou, and therefore descended from the Merovingian bloodline directly.

Charles Radclyffe along with the Chevalier Andrew Michael Ramsay was responsible of the introduction of Scottish Rite Freemasonry to continental Europe".

John Erskine, 22nd / 6th Duke of Mar - (1675 - 1732), Scottish Jacobite, was the eldest son of the Charles, 21st Earl of Mar [= Charles Erskine, 22nd/5th Earl of Mar (1650-1689)],
from whom he inherited estates;
"...meeting many Highland chieftains at Aboyne, Mar avowed an earnest desire for the independence of Scotland. At Braemar on 6 September 1715, he proclaimed James VIII King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland, thus beginning the Jacobite rising of 1715.
... Mar first married Lady Margaret Hay on 6 April 1703, daughter of Thomas Hay, 7th Earl of Kinnoull. She bore him a son, Thomas [he died without issue], in 1705. ... Mar married for his second wife Lady Frances Pierrepont, daughter of the 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull".

The chief of Clan Erskine, John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar had traveled to London in 1714 expecting the post of Secretary of State of Scotland. However he was not given the job and as a result he became a Jacobite. The Earl of Mar then fled Scotland to Saint-Germain in France, whereupon he betrayed his Jacobite associates. He lost his line of the Earldom of Mar and it was not restored until 1824.

Kildrummy Castle was the seat of the Clan Erskine until it was abandoned after the failed Jacobite Uprisings in 1716. And also Corgarff Castle, Kellie Castle, and
the Rosslyn Castle - Roslin Castle near the village of Roslin in Midlothian, Scotland. It is located around 9 miles south of Edinburgh; only a few hundred metres from the famous Rosslyn Chapel.

Rosslyn Chapel, formally known as the Collegiate Chapel of St Matthew;

"...the chapel has also featured in speculative theories concerning a connection of Freemasonry, the Knights Templar and the Holy Grail. ... The chapel has been a burial place for several generations of the Sinclairs ... containing (variously) ... the Holy Grail, the treasure of the Templars, or the original crown jewels of Scotland. The chapel became the subject of speculation regarding its supposed connection with the Knights Templar or Freemasonry beginning in the 1980s. ... Numerous books were published after 2003 to cater to the popular interest in supposed connections between Rosslyn Chapel, Freemasonry, the Templars and the Holy Grail generated by Brown's novel. ... has many Templar symbols, such as the "Two riders on a single horse" that appear on the Seal of the Knights Templar.

William Sinclair 3rd Earl of Orkney, Baron of Roslin and 1st Earl of Caithness, claimed by novelists to be a hereditary Grand Master of the Scottish stonemasons, built Rosslyn Chapel. A later
William Sinclair of Roslin became the first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland
and, subsequently, several other members of the Sinclair family have held this position".



For the first time in the world in November 2015, more than 50 years after the death of Kennedy, I present connections between structures in Europe that I was researching, and the most important figures of American history, Thomas Jefferson b. 1743, and John Fitzgerald Kennedy born 1917, that is a group of German noble clans from Estonia and Polish families from the province of Minsk in Belarus, which led to the disintegration of Russia in 1917 and among other things, to independence of the Baltic states and Poland in 1918.

Now we come to US in 1961 - 1963:

The operation named the Bay of Pigs was launched in April 1961; the Cuban armed forces destroyed the invading force within three days;
this failed action has caused repercussions among the leaders of the CIA, and were dismissed in autumn 1961, among others, Director Allen Dulles, also CIA Deputy Director Charles Cabell, and Deputy Director for Plans Richard Mervin Bissell Jr.; on November 29th, 1961, the White House released about a resignation letter signed by Dulles.
Interesting note:
Work on the Apollo spacecraft stretched from 28 November 1961, when the prime contract for its development was let to North American Aviation, to 22 October 1968 when the last test flight took place.
Two years later, on November 29, 1963, President Lyndon Johnson appointed Dulles as one of seven commissioners of the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of the U.S. President John F. Kennedy. The appointment was later criticized, have noted that Kennedy had fired him;
on January 10, 1961 there was a publication of the 'New York Times' article under title: "The United States will help train forces against Castro in a secret air-land base in Guatemala"; the Cuban security apparatus knew of the invasion, thanks to their secret intelligence networks, and reports in the US and foreign newspapers. The Cuban government has been warned by two senior officers of the KGB, Osvaldo Cabrera Sanchez and "Aragon"; the first of whom died violently before and one after the invasion; on April 18, 1961 at the beach of Playa Larga came to the biggest battle of the invasion;
fighting finally ended on 21 April 1961;
and then President Kennedy referred the words to the American Newspaper Publishers Association at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City on April 27, 1961.
In his speech President Kennedy addresses his discontent with the press's news coverage before, and during, and after the Bay of Pigs incident, suggesting there is a need for "far greater public information" and "far greater official secrecy".


The Chrapowicki family - SWOLNA and MIEZONKA - Kennedy and BOUVIER

- I explain mistakes, which appeared in other sources; my brief explanation in Nov. 2017 -

Siemon Y. Khrapovitsky / Семён Яковлевич Храповицки / Chrapowicki (1752 - 1819), was a nobility marshal of the Yukhnovsky district
[Lieutenant Nikolai Sergeyevich Khrapovitsky / Khrapovitsky Nikolai Sergeevich / Храповицкий Николай Сергеевич died 1905.05.15 close to Cushima / Tsushima or in Port Arthur, China. He was the son of Sergei Yasonovich Khrapovitsky b. 1829, the husband of Alexandra Pavlovna Khrapovitsky, staff captain retired in 1879.
SERGEI Chrapowicki was the son of Jason S. Khrapovitsky / Ясон, and the grandson of named above Siemon Y. Khrapovitsky / Chrapowicki and Maria Lvovna Chernysheva.
Mentioned above NIKOLAJ Chrapowicki / Nikolay Chrapovytsky had a daughter Maya de Chrapovitsky's.
Count NIKOLAJ / Nicolas de Chrapovitsky Lieut. Col., born Sankt-Peterburg, Russia. NIKOLAJ / NIKOLAS Chrapowicki married to Margharita Taylor b. 07.02.1872, d. Los Angeles, 1942, with daughters: Olga de Chrapovitsky b. 1898 m. Edward R. Condon; and above
Maya de Chrapovitsky b. 1899 m. 1st Hugh Dudley Auchincloss Jr, 2nd Eldbridge Rand.

See John Fitzgerald KENNEDY, President of US, and the BOUVIER family - compare George de Mohrenschildt.

Named Olga de Chrapovitsky b. 1898, Saint Petersburg, d. 1991, Laguna Beach, CA].

Siemion Chrapowicki was the son of JAKOB Chrapowicki [see below].

Named JAKOB Chrapowicki was the son of DOMINIK CHRAPOWICKI / Dementij Chrapowicki who was a taskmaster. Named Dominik Chrapowicki born before 1700 [ca 1695], d. 1729, was the husband of Rozalia Rypińska.

Dominik Chrapowicki
[his branch come from KRYSTYNA Łowejko and JAN Chrapowicki, senior] was the father of
1.
Eustachy Chrapowicki senior

[Eustachy Jozef Chrapowicki, 1730-1791, senior, the judge in Polotsk, in
1765 the Swolna estate owner,
inf. in Starodub in 1765, 1775, married twice: in 1779, 2nd to Teresa Szczyt / Teresa Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1730-1778,

with a son
Jozef Chrapowicki {junior}, 1750-1812, who married 2nd Pss Magdalena Oginska, b. ca 1750 / 1760 {her brother was Ignacy Oginski b. 1755, d. 1787, m. Jozefa}. Jozef Chrapowicki junior, divorced with 1st wife Franciszka Hryniewiecka (she m. Woyniłłowicz).

JOZEF junior Chrapowicki + MAGDALENA's sons:

A.
Antoni Chrapowicki, b. ca 1780 {Anthony, 1775-1851}, married Ewelina SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI, b. ca 1790 / ? 1800 {Ewelina Kamilla Ewa Swiatopelk-Mirska}.
Antoni Chrapowicki married twice, 1st to unknown Wolska b. 1790; 2nd to Ewelina.
Ewelina SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI was a daughter of Stanislaw Wojciech SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI (1756-1805), the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Writer, and Stanislawa Koszczyc.
Named Antoni Chrapowicki was the son of Jozef Chrapowicki junior, 1750-1812, and Pss Magdalena Oginska b. ca 1750 / 1760; grandson of Eustachy Jozef Chrapowicki 1730-1791 and Teresa Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1730-1778.

ANTONI Chrapowicki was the great-grandson of Dominik Chrapowicki of Somilisko, 1700-1729.

B.
Michal Chrapowicki
{Michal Mikolaj Chrapowicki b. 1780 / Michał Chrapowicki, Marschall of Dzisna county, and Minsk Province, owner of Jasnogorki and Korolla in Zmudz, and Prozorok in the county of Dzisna, m. 1st Joanna Okuszkowna / Joanna Okuszko, with a son
Kazimierz Chrapowicki and a daughter. Named
Kazimierz Chrapowicki 1817-1881 married to Adela Ciechanowiecka 1823-1887. KAZIMIERZ's brother was Arkadiusz Chrapowicki / Arkady, m. to Stefania Radziwill.
Michał Chrapowicki with his second wife, Jozefa Korsak, had the son Arkadyusz married Stefania Julia Radziwiłł 1825-1896. STEFANIA RADZIWILL was the owner of MIEZONKA - see Dominik Konstantynowicz, his son Antoni Konstantynowicz, grandson Stanislaw Konstantynowicz + Anna Malkiewicz}.

C.
Eustachy Chrapowicki, jr., b. 1790
{Eustachy Chrapowicki junior, b. 1790, m. in 1810 to Amelia Gorska 1793-1866, daughter of Stanisław August Gorski b. 1745 and Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1767-1796}.

EUSTACHY Chrapowicki senior married 1st to Balbina PAKOSZ / Pakoszowna
{sometimes we have the wrong information that EUSTACHY CHRAPOWICKI was the father of Piotr Celestyn Chrapowicki. Piotr Celestyn Chrapowicki, born ca 1780, the Russian top officer}.

The above EUSTACHY's senior CHRAPOWICKI, and Eustachy's junior line:

MARIA CHRAPOWICKA the wife to Karol Epstein b. ca 1890, that is Maria Chrapowicka born to Marian Antoni Andrzej Chrapowicki 1864 -1930 and Maria Jaksa-Dębicka 1863-1909. Marian Antoni Andrzej Chrapowicki was the son of Ignacy Antoni Chrapowicki b. 1817 in Witebsk, Vitebsk; d. 1893; grandson of Eustachy Chrapowicki / Chrapovickis junior b. circa 1790. Eustachy Chrapowicki junior was the son of named above Jozef Chrapowicki 1750 - 1812 and Magdalena Ogińska b. 1760, daughter of Jozef Ogiński and Apolonija WYHOWSKA - Oginskiene];

2.
Jerzy Chrapowicki / Юрий (Георгий) Дементьевич Храповицкий;

3.
Иван Дементьевич Храповицкий / Jan Chrapowicki

[JAN CHRAPOWICKI was the father of named above Piotr Celestyn Chrapowicki. Piotr Celestyn Chrapowicki, born ca 1780, the Russian top officer, was grandson of Dominik Chrapowicki of Somilisko];
Jan Chrapowicki, b. ca 1730, official in POLOCK.

Piotr Celestine Chrapowicki bought Sielut in 1805, served the Russian Army, m. ca 1800 to Helena Gorecka b. ca 1790, with his son
Michał / MICHAL CHRAPOWICKI, Marshal of the province of Vitebsk {the Witebsk governorate Marshal}, who married to Countess Lidia Apraksin born 1820. Michal Chrapowicki, b. 1810, had 2 sons: Aleksander Chrapowicki m. unknown Teplow, and Dymitr Chrapowicki born ca 1840.

4.
JAKOB CHRAPOWICKI / Jakov - Colonel of Smolensk (1741), and a judge of Smolensk (1780) [see KENNEDY and BOUVIER in US];

5.
Jozef Chrapowicki b. ca 1729 [senior], the son of Dominik Chrapowicki. Jozef senior had brother Eustachy Chrapowicki.
JOZEF Chrapowicki was Major General; the member of Smolensk, and the Polotsk Province to the election of King Stanisław August. In 1765, a judge of the Smolensk land. Jozef Chrapowicki was the official in Mścisław in 1784; inf. of 1786, 1785, 1787, 1774 - owner of Dworzno. He married in 1791 to Helena Suffczynska, childless.


Note to EWELINA HURKO:

Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt / Szczyt / Szczyth, died in 1677, the official in POLOCK in 1666-1670; and in 1673-1677; MP, acted in Prozoroki. The son of Krzysztof Szczyt Niemirowicz and Zofia Lisowska / Lissowski, 2 voto married Jozef Skinder. Justynian was the grandson of Mikolaj Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the Polock top official, and the great-grandson of Mikolaj Niemirowicz Szczyt older, the Court Marshal.

Justynian Niemirowicz had 3 brothers:
Jan Szczyt; Mikolaj Szczyt younger, Aleksander Szczyt; and 2 sisters:
Anna; Halszka.

Justynian Szczyt married in 1648 to Anna Tukowicz, d. 1694, the daughter of Bazyli Tukowicz and Zofia Siehen.
Justynian had 6 sons:
Konstanty Marcjan Szczyt, the father of JAN Szczyt Niemirowicz - the governor in Inflanty; the grandfather of Justynian Niemirowicz SZCZYT junior;
Bronislaw Szczyt;
Krzysztof Benedykt Szczyt - the father of the governor of MSCISLAW, Jozef Szczyt; and the grandfather of the Brzesc Litewski official - Jozef Szczyt Niemirowicz and Jozef's brother - Krzysztof Szczyt Niemirowicz;
Samuel Karol Szczyt - the grandfather of Marcin Niemirowicz Szczyt;
Olbracht Szczyt, the Wenden official and in Smolensk.
Kazimierz Szczyt, the monk.

Justynian died in 1677, and he was buried in Prozoroki.

Above
Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt junior, b. 1740, died in 1824, MP; the son of the Inflanty governor, Jan Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt (1705-1767) and his second wife Barbara Chominski d. 1775, widow after death of Kazimierz Kociell. Barbara was the daughter of Ludwik Jakub Chominski and Anna Koziell-Poklewski of Oszmiany.
Anna Chominski, Koziell Poklewski, was the stepdaughter of Duke Leon Kazimierz Oginski.

Justynian Szczyt had 3 stepsibilings:
of his father and 1st wife, Helena Rypinski - Jozef Szczyt; and Dorota Szczyt m. Jan Szadurski

[Jan Szadurski d. 1771 in Pusza; the Inflanty official in 1766-1771, and in 1752-1766, 1758-1762, 1744-1748, 1759-1762, MP. Dorota and Jan Szadurski had a daughter Barbara Szadurska m. the son of Mikolaj Tadeusz Lopacinski, ie Tomasz Lopacinski; and
second daughter, Konstancja Szadurska married the Wilkomierz official, Jozef Marykoni / Jozef MORYKONI, General Major of 1794, ie. Jozef or Tomasz Morykoni b. 1751, the Wilkomierz official, in 1772 the Lithuanian Army Major, acted in 1789 and in 1794, together with Michala Oginski in Inflanty; then in Warszawa and Praga in 1794.

Note on the MORYKONI family -

KAZIMIERZ Tyzenhauz / Kazimieras Tyzenhauzas b. ca 1740 - son of Benedykt Tyzenhauz SENIOR - was the husband of Barbara Gielgud, and father of ZOFIA Tyzenhauziene.
Kazimierz Tyzenhauz was the brother of
Barbara Wawrzecka; Benedykta Niezabitowska;
Aleksandra Anna Morykoni;
Teresa Tyzenhauz, and
Magdalena Maria Ewa Walewska.

Kolyszko (Kolysko) Adam (1796-1870), insurgent in 1831, a member of the parliament; acted in the area of Wilkomierz;
his mother came from a noble Lithuanian family Morykoni, who came from Italy, farming in the property of Palisze in area of Wilkomierz.

Michal Lisiecki (1803-1882) was born in Porakiszki. He finished high school in Kiejdany. In 1818, he studied at the University of Wilno; he graduated with the degree of law candidate. He was an officer in the Russian army, he was dismissed and lived in Vilnius, where he participated in a secret youth organization. In 1831, he was ordered to organize an uprising in the region of Rakiszki and on the border with Courland.
The branch was organized in Solachy [?], in the court and with the help of Count Benedykt Marykoni

{Benedykt Beniamin Morykoni / Morykoni Pucini / Moriconi, the owner of Towiany, north to Wilkomierz, 1790-1812. Benedykt Morykoni, 1752-1812, married Maria Wiktoria Maja Radziwill (b. 1756), the daughter of Duke Michal Radziwill "Rybenko" (1702-1762). Benedykt Morykoni - a great Lithuanian writer in 1777, chamberlain of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski in 1771; MP. A member of the Andrzej Mokronowski confederation and a member of parliament in 1776 from the Wilkomierz county; member of Parliament in 1780. A member of the conspiracy in Lithuania, preparing the outbreak of Kosciuszko Uprising. Member of the Lithuanian Government. In 1794 he was a member of the Secret Deputation. Head of the Food Department of the Central Deputation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the Kosciuszko Uprising in 1794}.

ALEKSANDER BILEWICZ of the Rosienie county married Anna Romer with 4 sons:
1. Tadeusz Billewicz, senior, b. ca 1728, died in 1788; in 1783 - the Mscislau province
{TADEUSZ had daughter Helena Wazgird (Morykoni) and also he had son ADAM BILLEWICZ / Adomas Bilevicius, b. ca 1750, who was father of Kazimierz Tomasz; and Kaspar Bilewicz, and so on.
Above KASPAR - Kasparas Bilevicius, b. ca 1782, d. 1840, had son
Antoni Billewicz or Tadeusz BILEWICZ, b. ca 1815, + Helena Michalowska b. 1820, with:
Pranas Bilevicius;
Maria Pilsudska / Maria Billewicz (1842 - 1884; born 1842 in Adomava) + Jozef Wincenty Pilsudski

(1833 - 1902. Note:
Antoni Bulhak b. 1898, married to Wanda Bulhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and Maria Juchniewicz nee Pilsudska, b. 1873, d. 1921 -
her parents:
named above Maria Pilsudska nee Billewicz + Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833.

MARIA JUCHNIEWICZ had the brother - Jozef Klemens Pilsudski b. 1867);

Wiktor Billewicz and
Zofia Zubow b. ca 1860.

Above ZOFIA:
Zofia Zubow nee Billewicz, was born circa 1860, married Wlodzimierz Zubow before 1887, with son Wlodzimierz Zubow b. 1887 Szawle [Siauliai / Siaule north of Raseiniai] - d. 1959 in Kowno},

2. Jerzy BILEWICZ, studied in Krolewiec, known German, then in Nieswiez {Jerzy Bilewicz was the Judge of ROSIENIE in 1765};
3. Teodor Billewicz + Kozuchowska of Kalisz;
4. Mateusz Bilewicz also lived in Smorgonie and NIESWIEZ; Mateusz + Lopacinska had sons.

We back to
Jan Szadurski - the landowner of the father properties:
Inflanty - Pusza, with Dorotpol; Duksztygaly; Wolkimberg / Zielonpole; Zwirdzin / Zwierdzin / Zwirzydyn; Cecyny; Dunakla / Dunakle; Malnow / Malnowo / MALNAVA - see the Malkiewicz family; Poszmuciowo / Puszmuciowo / Poszmujciowo; Siedlikowszczyzna; Hofftenberg / Jozefow; Jasmujze.
In the POLOCK province: Zlotowo Kozadawlowo / Synkowo.

Jan's children:
Konstancja and Barbara - more above;
Jozef; Ludwika; Salomea;
Ignacy SZADURSKI;
Franciszek Ksawery SZADURSKI],

and Justynian Szczyt had a sibiling of the 1st marriage of his mother -
a brother, Tadeusz Kociell, m. Anna Tyszkiewicz, the daughter of Jozef Benedykt Tyszkiewicz and Teresa Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the daughter of the Smolensk governor, Krzysztof Benedykt Niemirowicz-Szczytt.

Justynian Szczyt in POLOCK was the envoy to Petersburg, with the help of Ivan ORLOV and Grigorij Orlov, for the maintenance of the Polish language in the judiciary of the POLOCK ex-province.
Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt was twice married; 1st to Kazimiera Barbara Lopacinski (1746-1773), the daughter of Mikolaj Tadeusz Lopacinski and Barbara Kopec, the daughter of Michal Antoni Kopec.

And named Justynian had a son - Feliks Szczyt, the noble Marshal in DRYSSA, who was the father of Jan Szczytt, exiled in Siberia. Also Justynian had 4 daughters:
Barbara m. Jozef Rudomin-Dusiatski the son of Mikolaj Rudomin Dusiatski, with children:
Elzbieta Rudomin m. Pakosz, the writer;
Anna + Stanislaw Gorski, with Kornela Gorska m. Count Karol Przezdziecki;
Jozefa m. Kajetan Swirski;
Tekla.

Justynian Szczyt married 2nd to Kazimiera Woyno-Jasienski d. 1783, the daughter of the Polock official, Jozef Woyno and Ludwika Sulistrowski.
With 4 children:
Jozef Szczyt, the Russian Court official, m. Franciszka Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki, the mother of
Ewelina Szczyt m. Stanislaw Chominski;
Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczyt, the POLOCK Marshal, married to the daughter of Jozef Hurko-Romejko, ie. Ewelina HURKO !
Jan Szczyt, d. 1851, the DRYSSA Marshal, m. Anna Bobrowski;
and Dorota m. Mikolaj Siostrzanek-Karnicki / Siestrzanek KARNICKI
with children:
Aniela m. Aleksander Wielhorski, Count, the son of Michal WIELHORSKI;
Adela m. Konstanty Radziwill, Duke, ie.
Konstanty Mikolaj Stanislaw Juliusz Franciszek Radziwill b. 1793 in Rome, d. 1869 in Poloneczka,
in 1800 Count in Szydlowiec, known as Maciej Konstanty RADZIWILL.
The son of Maciej Radziwill and Elzbieta Chodkiewicz, the daughter of Jan Mikolaj CHODKIEWICZ.
In 1840, Konstanty Radziwill married 3rd time to Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka, the daughter of the LUCYN marshal, Mikolaj KARNICKI, and Dorota Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the daughter of Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt.
Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka and Konstanty had 8 children:
Mikolaj Antoni Radziwill;
Maciej Jozef

{Maciej Jozef Konstanty Radziwill, b. 1842 in Poloneczka, d. 1907 in Konstanca,
the owner of Zegrze,
- see the von Gersdorff family in Pomiechowek !

Maciej Jozef Konstanty Radziwill, come from the branch of Dominik Mikolaj Radziwill, 1643-1697; Dominik was the owner of Kleck; the son of Aleksander Ludwik Radziwill.
Dominik Radziwill was the father of Jan Mikolaj Radziwill; and of Mikolaj Faustyn Radziwill.

Mikolaj Faustyn married in 1710 in Rohotna to Barbara Franciszka Zawisza - Kiezgajllo (1690 - 1746), with 15 children:
Albrecht Radziwill;
Udalryk Krzysztof; Jerzy;
Stanislaw Radziwill.
Stanislaw Radziwill b. 1722, d. 1787, the son of Mikolaj Faustyn. The father of Anna Olimpia Mostowski.
Stanislaw had the daughter Franciszka Teofila Radziwill.

Named Franciszka Teofila Soltan nee Radziwill, b. ca 1751, the mother of Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan;
Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka;
Helena Soltan
and Anna Soltan.

Named KAROLINA:
the mother of Emilija Augusta Justina Kublicka;
Adolf Kublicki;
Valentina Kublicka;
Anna Benislawska and
OKTAWIA Piottuch Kublicka, the daughter of JOZEF Kublicki and Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka. Oktawia was the wife of JOZEF SZUMSKI [with the son Wilhelm Szumski] and DOMINIK Konstantynowicz [sometimes as Vincentas Konstantinovicius] of MIEZONKA.

Note:

The Minsk Governorate Middle School {not in Volhynia!}, in June 1829, award to Wincenty Konstantynowicz together with: Julian Jacyna, Tadeusz Dybowski, Ignacy Kreyczman, Leon Mirecki, Alexander Bielecki, Antoni Godziewski. Acc. to Kuryer Litewski in August 1829; ie. 11 years old Wincenty Konstantynowicz was born in 1818}.

About above EWELINA HURKO:

Jozef HURKO JUNIOR, had 2 sons:
Leopold Hurko (1783-1860) the Russian Major General;
Wlodzimierz Hurko (1795-1852) the Russian General;
and the daughter
Ewelina HURKO (d. 1821 in ROMA) - the wife of Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the POLOCK official (1778-1840), the son of Justynian Niemirowicz.

Wlodzimierz Hurko [1795-1852], had a son {the grandson of Jozef HURKO [died in 1811]} the Russian Field Marshal and the Warsaw governor, Jozef Wladimirowicz Hurko / Romeiko-Gourko (1828-1901).

Above
Justynian Niemirowicz - Justynian Niemirowicz-Szczytt / Szczytt-Niemirowicz / Szczytt, b. 1740, d. 1824, MP.


1.
"... Hale Boggs sat on the Warren Commission, which concluded that President Kennedy was slain by a lone assassin. Later, in 1971 and '72, Boggs said that the Warren Report was false and that
J. Edgar Hoover's FBI not only helped cover up the JFK murder
but blackmailed Congress with massive wire-tapping and spying. He named
Warren Commission staff member Arlen Specter as a major cover-up artist. Congressman Boggs' plane disappeared on a flight to Alaska in 1972.
The press, the military, and the CIA publicly proclaimed the plane could not be located. Investigators later said that was a lie, that the plane had been found. On the plane were Nick Begich, a very popular Democratic Congressman, and Don Jonz, an aide to Mr. Boggs. All were killed.
2.
The architects for the Bay of Pigs were Vice President Richard Nixon and CIA director Allen Dulles. JFK inherited the plan from the Eisenhower administration. Nixon lost the race for the presidency to JFK and Dulles was fired by JFK for the failure of the Bay of Pigs. Yet Dulles is appointed by president Johnson as a Warren Commission member to "investigate" JFK's murder. The proof for Bush's lie about his CIA past can be found in a document, declassified in 1988. It's a
memorandum of FBI director J Edgar Hoover to the State department, dated 29 November 1963. It describes a meeting, one day after JFK's murder, between FBI and CIA officials talking about the reaction of the Cuban exile community to the Kennedy Assassination. The last paragraph states that the "the substance of the foregoing information was orally furnished to us and George Bush of the Central Intelligence agency".
Here we have the name of George Bush mentioned as a CIA official in direct connection to the Kennedy assassination. When asked by journalists, he initially stated "It's not me, must be another Bush!" This was checked and found to be NOT true. When asked again, a spokesperson for Bush declined to comment any further.
Copyright by http://jfkmurdersolved.com/bush3.htm
3.
In 1976, George H.W. Bush was appointed CIA director by president and former Warren Commission member Gerald Ford at the exact time that newly erected investigative committees were probing the possible role of the CIA into the assassination plots to kill Fidel Castro, Martin Luther King and John F. Kennedy. Bush appoints his old friend from JM / Wave and the Bay of Pigs, Theodore Shackley, as his deputy director for Special Operations, the CIA's most important division.
4.
During the preparations of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, pressure is applied to Texan
Bill Lord not to testify for the committee. Bill Lord was a fellow marine and roommate of Lee Harvey Oswald on a ship voyage to France. Lord expresses his concern in a letter to president Carter. He writes that Oswald was connected to the FBI and CIA and concludes that the CIA and the FBI are complicit in JFK's death and the coup d'etat that occurred on 11/22/1963. He also states that one of the Midland, TX politicians applying pressure to him, was Mr. George W. Bush junior.
This letter to President Carter was declassified some years ago. Here's a fragment:
"...One of the parties which has blitzed me with telephone calls trying to persuade me to tell them what I know about Oswald, is engaged in a very costly project which allows them to locate, interview, monitor, and influence every single available person who ever knew Lee Oswald - and this, just in advance of the new governmental investigation by the house select committee on Assassinations. I finally consented, not to grant an interview, but to allow the publication's representative to explain their project to me in person. After a lunch interview with this researcher, I was told that if I had refused even to meet with him, pressure was in the offing from two Midland men: Mr. Jim Allison, publisher of the ultra-conservative Reporter-Telegram, my employer (out of necessity, and for the moment!), and Mr. George Bush, Jr. ...".
5.
George H.W. Bush failed to disclose his friendship with George De Mohrenschildt, a renowned oil geologist and Lee Harvey Oswald's best friend in Dallas. They knew each other since 1942, probably even longer, because in 1939 he went to work for Humble Oil, a company founded by Prescott Bush.
In 1977, when De Mohrenschildt is located by investigators of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, who want to interview him, he allegedly commits suicide the following day. The last person to interview him on the day he died, is Jay Edward Epstein, a writer / historian and a known apologist for the Warren Report since day one. Epstein married a CIA agent and is the biographer of former CIA-director James Jesus Angleton, presumably in charge of Oswald's "defection" to Russia. Interestingly, Epstein is also the "consultant" that was suddenly hired by NBC in 1995, when NBC was making a program for national TV on the confession of James E. Files. The program was promptly cancelled.
6.
David Atlee Phillips was one of the planning CIA officials in the plot to kill JFK. He was a member of the Dallas Petroleum club, as was George Demohrenschildt / von Mohrenschildt, and George Bush. All three were CIA, and knew each other.
Yet time and again, during the Warren Commission, during the HSCA as a CIA director, and during the Assassinations Records Review Board as President, George Bush keeps his mouth shut about these liaisons, who were both CIA supervisors for Lee Harvey Oswald.
7.
James Files, the confessed assassin of JFK, also says that
Sturgis and Bosch were in Dealey Plaza on November 22, 1963. Some researchers believe that Orlando Bosch was the unidentified dark complexed man on the curb of Dealey Plaza.
...".
All above COPYRIGHT 2003 jfkmurdersolved.com - All Rights Reserved. Adres: Ruysdaelweg 14, 2051 EM Overveen, Holandia. Tefon: +31 23 526 8730.


Some quotes from studies on James Jesus Angleton (1917 - 1987):

James Jesus Angleton (1917 - 1987) was chief of CIA Counterintelligence from 1954 to 1975.
Angleton grew up mostly in Italy, where his father owned the National Cash Register subsidiary. He attended an English preparatory school before entering Yale in 1937. He entered Harvard Law School and then joined the Army in 1943.
Angleton was recruited into the Office of Strategic Services and first worked in the super-secret X-2 counterintelligence branch in London. In 1954, he became the head of the new Counterintelligence Staff.
"Among Mr. Petty's concerns was
Angleton's once-close relationship with Kim Philby, who rose to the highest levels of the British intelligence service before he was unmasked as a Soviet mole in the early 1960s.
... According to his unpublished memoir, Mr. Petty spent more than two years working secretly to investigate his supervisor. He gathered intricate details about Angleton's movements and close associates through the years, looking for - and finding, he thought -
evidence that Angleton could have collaborated with the Soviets.
... Mr. Petty admitted that it was a messy conclusion based largely on the circumstantial suggestion of guilt.
'It was not a clear-cut case,' he told David Martin for 'Wilderness of Mirrors,' Martin's 1980 book about the Cold War-era CIA. Whatever his misgivings, Mr. Petty reported concerns about Angleton to agency superiors in 1974. He delivered several drawers full of notes and documents supporting his view, then spent at least 26 hours over the course of a week explaining his work to a senior officer in tape-recorded interviews. The price of that move was Mr. Petty's job - he retired almost immediately - and his reputation.
His accusation against Angleton was dismissed in a CIA study,
and Mr. Petty remains one of the more controversial figures in the agency's history...".

Jefferson Morley on the new JFK files:

"... Did you consider the possibility that Angleton himself may have been the mole as Clare Petty and Douglas Valentine suspected ...
There were at least four internal CIA studies that look at the issue of the mole after Petty made his allegation (Cram, Goodpastur, Fischer, and Hart). None came to the conclusion that Angleton was not the mole, and all came to the conclusion that there was no mole during Angleton's tenure.
Petty's report has never been declassified so the details of his argument are unknown and impossible to judge. While Cleveland Cram's voluminous study of Angleton has not been made public, there is nothing in Cram's public comments to indicate that Cram saw evidence suggesting Angleton was the mole. Cram's personal papers on the subject were withdrawn from public view by the CIA when I began to research the issue. ...
In addition, I consulted the work of Christopher Andrew, semi-official historian of the British services and custodian of the Mitrokhin archive, the most complete collection of Soviet intelligence files available in the West. Andrew does not believe that Angleton was the mole. Nothing that has been published about the Mitrokhin archive supports the notion that Angleton was the mole. ..."

Angleton shaped CIA counterintelligence for 20 years from 1954 to 1974.

"... Angleton, some of them say, was a paranoid who effectively shut down Agency operations against the Soviet Union".

Tennent H. Bagley insists that Nosenko's first contact with CIA in 1962 was designed to conceal
the presence of Soviet penetration agents who had been operating in US intelligence since at least the late 1950s and that his reappearance barely two months after the JFK murder was a risky change in the operation.

Clare Edward Petty was born 1920, in Norman, Oklahoma. He was a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the University of Oklahoma. Clare Edward Petty investigation of Heinz Felfe caught the attention of James Jesus Angleton, the head of the CIA's counter-intelligence unit.
In 1966 Petty joined the Special Investigations Group (SIG) and was given the task by Angleton to find the Soviet mole that Anatoli Golitsin had suggested had penetrated the CIA. Angleton suggested that Petty should take a close look at David Edmund Murphy.
... Angleton's suspicions were increased by Murphy speaking fluent Russian and marrying a woman who had previously lived in the Soviet Union. Murphy had been accused of being a Soviet spy by one of his own officers, Peter Kapusta. Newton S. Miler, a member of SIG had investigated Murphy in the early 1960s.
Petty concluded that a phrase in a letter from Michal Goleniewski, the Polish intelligence officer who called himself Sniper ... the KGB had advance knowledge that could only have come from a mole in the CIA.
Angleton's mentor and friend, British intelligence officer Kim Philby, has been a longtime double agent for the Soviets.
As a result of this trauma, Angleton was about to become obsessed with searching for mole in the CIA itself, destroying the accomplishments and career of many agency officers.
Allegedly his long-term investigations led to the paralysis of the CIA, disrupted the team and introduced general distrust, which ended with no significant successes.

David Wise wrote:
"... Wise started a biography of Angleton ... on the search for 'Sasha' - the alleged Soviet mole inside the CIA. Wise drew on many of Martin's and Mangold's sources but also turned up new information from previously silent Agency officers and in formerly classified records, including about compensation provided to victims of the molehunt. Wise also revealed details about the penetration agent, who did not damage CIA nearly as much as Angleton feared or as the molehunt itself did - although he goes well beyond the facts to claim that the search 'shattered' the Agency. ...".
Angleton died in 1987.
In later articles, Epstein did become more skeptical of the Angleton-Golitsyn interpretation of Soviet foreign policy. Most recently, he noted that the observation of Aldrich Ames's KGB handler that Angleton's suspicions about a mole inside CIA 'has the exquisite irony of a stalker following his victim in order to tell him he is not being followed'...".
David C. Martin does not identify where he got much of his specific information.
Angleton initially cooperated with Martin but cut off contact when he learned that the author also was in touch with some of his critics. One of them was Clare Petty, an ex-CI Staff officer who had come to believe that Angleton was either a fraud or a KGB asset.
Five months before landing in Normandy, Angleton's first meeting with Kim Philby came to an end.
According to the historian Antony C. Brown "at the meeting Angleton had ambitions, and had no appointment. It was Philby who suggested he take up the job - counter-intelligence. ... It was Kim who taught Angleton the structure of secret service, explained to him how he was intercepted. ...
Kim [Philby] became a mentor to James and a teacher.
If that was the case, Angleton quickly became independent ... Kim was hired to work for the NKVD, and a few months later he became confident. ... At the beginning of April 1944, Angleton learned that Princess Maria Pignatelli, the wife of influential politician and conspirator ... crossed the border between Allied and German troops and paid a visit to several high-ranking Wehrmacht officers. According to Angleton's informant, the duchess was to inform the Nazis of the planned Allied offensive in Italy ... the Duchess was registered by OSS as their agent. ... double agents. ... Although the case came to light, and Poletti was shot by the British ... Angleton was about to use the Prince's connections. Immediately after the war he decided with Pignatelli create an organization fighting the Communist Party of Italy and supporting the right-wing forces of Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi. These actions were also supported by the British ... R5, its counterintelligence section also operating in Italy. Head of section in London was Kim Philby ...".
In September 1945, the Consul General of the USSR Konstanty Wolkow reported to the British consul in Istanbul, offering in exchange for asylum ... information about Soviet spying in Turkey and the Middle East. ... his information showed that the Foreign Office and the SIS counter-intelligence had three NKWD agents. ... Information ... was sent to the head of the SIS "C", and for the hearing of ...
Philby, head of the Soviet section of counterintelligence.
Kim was going to Istanbul for three weeks ...".
Even without the sensational New York Times front-page story by Seymour Hersh in December 1974 about CIA domestic operations that prompted Angleton's dismissal, it was more than time for him to go, as even his longtime defender Richard Helms came to admit.

Petty continued to search for the Soviet mole and eventually reached the conclusion that it was the man who had ordered the investigation, James Jesus Angleton, who had penetrated the CIA, and was in league with Anatoli Golitsin, who was not a genuine defector
... PETTY:
I began rethinking everything. If you turned the flip side it all made sense. Golitsin was sent to exploit Angleton. Then the next step, maybe not just an exploitation, and I had to extend it to Angleton. Golitsin might have been dispatched as the perfect man to manipulate Angleton ... Angleton was a mole, but he needed Golitsin to have a basis on which to act ... Golitsin was a support for things Angleton had wanted to do for years in terms of getting into foreign intelligence services. Golitsin's leads lent themselves to that. I concluded that logically Golitsin was the prime dispatched agent.
In 1971 Petty began "putting stuff on index cards, formulating my theory".
Petty later told David C. Martin: The case against Angleton was a great compilation of circumstantial material. It was not a clear-cut case. ...
Petty told James H. Critchfield, the CIA head of the Eastern European and Near East divisions about his theory.
As he later pointed out:
"I reviewed Angleton's entire career, going back through his relationships with Philby, his adherence to all of Golitsyn's wild theories, his false accusations against foreign services and the resulting damage to the liaison relationships, and finally his accusation against innocent Soviet Division officers."
As a result of his investigation, Petty concluded that there was an "80-85 percent probability" that Angleton was a Soviet mole.
Petty decided not to tell his boss, Jean M. Evans, about his investigation. "Petty worked in absolute secrecy, ... he was gathering information to accuse his own boss, James Angleton, as a Soviet spy.
By the spring of 1973, after toiling for some two years, Petty felt he could not develop his theory any further. He decided to retire."
Clare Edward Petty died in April, 2011. Mr. Petty joined the fledgling CIA in 1947. Within a few years, he played a key role in identifying and catching Heinz Felfe, one of the most successful Soviet agents of the Cold War.

Douglas Valentine (Author):
Valentine's research into CIA activities began when CIA Director William Colby gave him free access to interview CIA officials who had been involved in various aspects of the Phoenix program in South Vietnam. Angleton was key to understanding the CIA. Weiner hasn't detailed Angleton's relationship with the underworld through the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. ...
"Through Angleton's relationships with Italian royalty, Tibor Rosenbaum [Mossad agent], Charlie Siragusa [FBN agent], Hank Manfredi [FBN], and Mario Brod, he was certainly aware of Meyer Lansky's central role as the Mafia's banker in the Caribbean � where Lansky's mob associate from Las Vegas, Moe Dalitz, opened an account at Castle Bank - as well as in Mexico, where Angleton's friend, Winston M. Scott, was station chief, and certainly kept tabs on Lansky's associate, former Mexican president Miguel Aleman. As ever, Angleton and Lansky were the dark stars of the intelligence and financial aspects of international drug smuggling. Alan Block devotes some pages to this in his book, Masters of Paradise. ...
Angleton thought William Colby might be a mole.
Angleton exposed the divisions within the CIA after 1966, the Colby vs. Helms factions. He also represented the literary sensibility the CIA once had, where finding secrets was like teasing the meaning out of a poem. Now we have sledgehammer spies. ... Cord Meyer worked with Angleton and used people like labor leader Irving Brown and Jay Lovestone to travel around Europe in the early 1950s. Despite all the strum and drang about battling the Soviet Union, what the CIA was really trying to do was court Socialists away from Communists to form Social Democracy governments to counter the influence of the Soviet Union. Eventually that strategy worked. That was really what was going on behind the scenes.
... Angleton ran the CIA's narcotics operation, in league with the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, until 1971, when Helms put it under Tom Karamessines at operations; Karamessines was the former CIA Athens chief. I know for a fact that Angleton in the counterintelligence division of the CIA was in charge of its relations with law enforcement agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, which is one of the reasons organizationally that he ended up having relations with people like Charlie Siragusa, a high ranking official in the FBN. This is how Angleton enters into relationships with Corsican drug traffickers ...
Suzan Mazur: Speaking of affairs, Weiner's mention of Cord Meyer on the show had to do with Meyer's ex-wife (no name), who was one of JFK's lovers, being mysteriously murdered and Angleton turning up at her house to see if there was a diary. But as you illuminate in Strength of the Wolf, Mary Pinchot Meyer took LSD given to her by Timothy Leary and also distributed it to the Washington Establishment, possibly to JFK as well. ... You also say that Joseph Civello ran the heroin business in Dallas with John Ormento and the Magaddino family in Buffalo and that they were linked to Carlos Marcello, Santo Trafficante, Jr. and Jimmy Hoffa ... Jackie Kennedy in a kind of premonition of Dallas wrote in one of her letters to Clark Clifford that she was concerned about the 50 businessmen in Texas who said: 'Why should we do anything to help the Kennedys?'
... Valentine: First of all, I don't pretend to know who killed Kennedy. For all I know it could have been Lee Harvey Oswald. That chapter on JFK in my book is speculative... Jack Ruby went to Dallas in 1948 working for White and actually infiltrated Bugsy Siegel's Mafia drug connection with the Kuomintang in Mexico. As far as I know nobody was ever arrested. Bugsy Siegel was killed because he was getting a little out of control...".


James Angleton's supporters:

Frank Gardiner Wisner (1909 - 1965)
was head of Office of Strategic Services operations in southeastern Europe in 1944-1945.
He served as the 2nd Deputy Director of Plans in charge of the Directorate of Plans of the Central Intelligence Agency from August 23, 1951 to January 1, 1959.
He was also tapped for the Seven Society. The Seven Society is the most secretive of the University of Virginia's secret societies. Members [Edward Stettinius, Jr., secretary of state under Presidents Roosevelt and Truman] are only revealed after their death.
FRANK G. Wisner in Washington was associated with the 'Georgetown Set':
George Kennan, Dean Acheson, Richard Bissell, Walt Rostow, Eugene Rostow, Cord Meyer, James Angleton, William Averill Harriman, Felix Frankfurter, Allen W. Dulles and Paul Nitze. The Georgetown Ladies' Social Club included Mary Pinchot Meyer, Sally Reston, Polly Wisner, Cynthia Helms, Phyllis Nitze and Annie Bissell.
In 1948, the Office of Special Projects was unveiled as the renamed Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) with FRANK Wisner still in charge as Executive Director.
With James Angleton, Wisner ran Operation red sox.
JAMES ANGLETON was associated with Frank Wisner in Albania and Poland.
Frank Wisner worked closely with Kim Philby, the British agent who was a Soviet spy.
The FBI Director, J. Edgar Hoover, described the OPC as "Wisner's gang of weirdos" and had discovered that some of them had been active in left-wing politics in the 1930s. Hoover gave McCarthy inf. on an affair that Wisner had with Princess Caradja in Romania during the war; Caradja was a Soviet agent.

Princess Catherine Olympia Caradja born Ecaterina Olimpia Cretulescu in 1893, grew up in England and France, and lived
in Romania from 1908 to 1952, as "Angel of Ploieşti" in PLOESTI.
She resided in the U.S. since Dec. 1955, mainly in Comfort, in the Hill Country of Texas. In 1978 she befriended Ottomar Berbig, an antiques dealer in West Berlin.
FRANK WISNER was also involved in establishing the Lockheed U-2 spy plane program run by Richard M. Bissell, Jr.
On August 23, 1951, Frank Wisner succeeded Allen W. Dulles and became the 2nd Deputy Director of Plans; with
Richard Helms as his chief of operations.
This office had control of about 75% of the CIA budget.

Allen Dulles in September 1954 selected ANGLETON to be chief of a countrintelligence staff.

Angleton was greatly influenced by DONALD McLEAN and KIM PHILBY.

Donald Duart Maclean (1913 - 1983) was a British diplomat and member of the Cambridge Five who acted as spies for the Soviet Union.


Wisner's gang of weirdos: MEYER, BRADEN, and FARMER in CIA.

BRADEN, and FARMER left CIA in 1954.
Tom Braden ran the C.I.A.'s covert cultural division in the early 1950's. Mr. Braden goes on in the 1980's to become the leftist foil to Patrick Buchanan on the CNN program ''Crossfire.''

In 1951 Allen W. Dulles took Cord Meyer to join the CIA.

Named Thomas Braden / Thomas Wardell Braden (1917 - 2009) an CIA official, journalist; co-host of the CNN show Crossfire. 1941 - served the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS), with the OSS director William Donovan.
After the war, Braden met Robert Frost. Robert Lee Frost (1874 - 1963) was an American poet. His mother was a Scottish immigrant. He attended the Theta Delta Chi fraternity and then he moved to Washington, becoming part of a group of former OSS men: known as the Georgetown Set.

Richard Mervin Bissell Jr. was the son of Richard Bissell, the president of Hartford Fire Insurance. Two of his fellow pupils at Groton were Joseph Alsop and Tracy Barnes. Bissell worked closely with the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC), which had helped to organize guerrilla. 1947 Bissell was recruited by W. Averell Harriman.

The Georgetown Set was formed in 1945-1948 by a group of former Office of Strategic Services veterans:
Frank Wisner - the founder, George Kennan, Dean Acheson, Joseph Alsop, Stewart Alsop - the founder, Thomas Braden - a founder, Walt Rostow - a founder, Eugene Rostow, Charles Bohlen, Cord Meyer, James Angleton, William Averell Harriman, John McCloy, Felix Frankfurter, Allen W. Dulles, and Paul Nitze. The Georgetown Ladies' Social Club: Katharine Meyer Graham, Mary Pinchot Meyer, Antoinette Pinchot, Polly Wisner, Joan Braden, and Annie Bissell.

Bissell worked for the Ford Foundation but Frank Wisner took him to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Bissell in February 1962 left the Central Intelligence Agency and was replaced as head of the Directorate for Plans, by Richard Helms.
Braden joined the CIA and he was working closely with Allen Dulles and Frank Wisner, "believing that the cultural milieu of postwar Europe at the time was favorable toward left-wing views, and ... best served by supporting the Democratic left", by Wikipedia.
Braden's efforts were guided toward promoting left-wing elements in groups such as the AFL-CIO: Irving Brown, Jay Lovestone, a noted former communist follower.
Braden left the CIA in November 1954 and co-operated with his friend Nelson Rockefeller. Active in California Democratic politics, he served as president of the California State Board of Education.

Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (1908 - 1979) was an American businessman and politician. He served as the 41st Vice President of the United States from 1974 to 1977;
served as Assistant Secretary of State for American Republic Affairs for Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman.
Rockefeller was politically liberal and progressive.
He was the second son of John Davison Rockefeller Jr. and philanthropist Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich. He had brother - John III. Their father, John Jr., was the only son of Standard Oil co-founder John Davison Rockefeller Sr. and Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman.
Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman Rockefeller (b. 1839) was an American abolitionist and philanthropist.
Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich Rockefeller (b. 1874) was an American socialite and philanthropist.

Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller in 1956 created the Special Studies Project, directed by Henry Kissinger and funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund.
Rockefeller "...outlawed job discrimination based on sex or age; appointed women to head the largest number of state agencies in state history; prohibited discrimination against women in education, employment, housing and credit applications".

Back to BRADEN who became a newspaper columnist with Kennedy's press secretary, Frank Mankiewicz.

Frank Fabian Mankiewicz II (b. 1924) was an American journalist and political adviser. The son of Sara Aaronson and screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz; his son Josh Mankiewicz is an NBC News correspondent.

Wife of named Thomas Wardell Braden - Joan Braden "...worked as coordinator of consumer affairs in the State Department, a position created for her in 1976 while her friend Henry Kissinger was secretary of state. Among her other close friends were former ambassador Averell Harriman and CIA Director Richard Helms".
After replacing Mankiewicz as the "voice from the left" on the syndicated radio show Confrontation, Tom Braden co-hosted the Buchanan-Braden Program; hosted the CNN program Crossfire.

Patrick Joseph Buchanan (b. 1938), co-hosted a radio show with liberal columnist Tom Braden; on NBC radio from 1978 to 1984; and CNN's Crossfire;
his partners included Braden, Michael Kinsley, Geraldine Ferraro, and Bill Press.
His father was of Irish, English, and Scottish ancestry, and his mother was of German descent.

Michael Kinsley (born 1951) is an American political journalist and commentator. Kinsley was born to a Jewish family; 1989 to 1995, Kinsley appeared on CNN's Crossfire.
In 2002 Kinsley married Patty Stonesifer, a top executive at Microsoft and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; on the MSNBC.

Remember:
Thomas Braden, head of the International Organizations Division (IOD);
Frank Weisner, the Director, Office of Special Projects.

David Bruce, appointed by Dwight Eisenhower to investigate covert propaganda, stated that Mockingbird is responsible for over 50% of international politics over the last half of the 20th Century. Operation Mockingbird was an program of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that began in the early 1950s and attempted to manipulate news media; Deborah Davis wrote, that the
Operation Mockingbird was established by Frank Wisner, director of the Office of Policy Coordination; Wisner recruited Phil Graham from The Washington Post to run the project;
"By the early 1950s, Wisner 'owned' respected members of The New York Times, Newsweek, and CBS...".

In 1951, Allen Dulles enlisted Cord Meyer to the CIA. Meyer became Mockingbird's "principal operative."

Philip Leslie "Phil" Graham b. 1915, was a member of both Florida Blue Key and Sigma Alpha Epsilon (Florida Upsilon chapter) and was both a fraternity brother and roommate of the late Senator George A. Smathers.
In 1941 he was law clerk to United States Supreme Court under Justice Felix Frankfurter, who had been his professors at Harvard.

1940, he married Katharine Graham, the daughter of Eugene Meyer, the owner of The Washington Post.
Eugene Isaac Meyer b. 1875, to Marc Eugene Meyer and Harriet Newmark, both Alsatian Jews. In 1946, when Washington Post publisher Eugene Meyer was named the first president of the World Bank, he passed the position of publisher to Graham.

Thomas Braden, head of the of International Organizations Division (IOD), played an important role in Operation Mockingbird.

Cord Meyer -
Operation Mockingbird was, in the 1950s, organized by Cord Meyer and Allen W. Dulles, it was later led by Frank Wisner after Dulles became the head of the CIA.
It also worked to influence foreign media and political campaigns.

Cord Meyer Jr., b. 1920, was a US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) official. The son of a diplomat and grandson of a New York State Democratic chairman.
In about 1949, he began work with the CIA, until 1977.
He married Mary Pinchot in 1945; and she was mistress to President John F. Kennedy. Her 1964 murder remains unsolved.
His grandfather, also called Cord Meyer, was a property developer and a chairman of the New York State Democratic Committee. Junior was a member of the Scroll and Key society. Mary Eno Pinchot, was the second daughter of Amos Pinchot.
In 1951, Allen W. Dulles made contact with her husband.


Nicolae Ceausescu's strongest ally was Elena, his wife since December 23, 1947.

Let's compare the information contained in the book 'Shadows of War' by Mike Johnson - 2010, with reality:
Joe and GABRIELLA BALAS BARTON were as close as the CEAUSESCUS.

Joe Barton, a young man who joins the United States Foreign Service after graduation from Ohio University in 1938. In Washington, he meets Gabriella Balas, clerk in Romania's Washington Embassy. Gabriella was from PLOESTI. In 1938 she met JOE BARTON, Foreign SERVICE officer in Washington. And the two enjoy romance before Joe is posted to Singapore, which proves to be a very dangerous assignment. Dec. 1941 Gabriella back to Romania.
In Romania since 1941 Gabriella teamed with Princess CATHERINE CARADJA in Ploesti.
In 1945 Joe moved to Romania. Gabriella and her parents Cornel [died in 1960] and Elena, lived in Ploesti, where Joe married Gabriella Balas, now Mrs. Joseph Barton.
Gabriella BARTON in Washington befriended ALICE MANESCU [from TIMISOARA], from the Romanian embassy before 1939 in US; LAURA Ramaschi from Bucharesti, married English professor at the University of Bucharest, named STENTZ.
Gabriella BALAS BARTON was friend of Princess Catherine Olympia Caradja born Ecaterina Olimpia Cretulescu on January 28, 1893.
"... According to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, Princess Caradja had an affair during the war with Frank Wisner, who was working in Bucharest as chief of OSS operations in southeastern Europe. Claiming that Caradja was a Soviet agent, Hoover passed that information to Senator Joseph McCarthy...", by Wikipedia;
Frank Gardiner Wisner b. 1909, was head of Office of Strategic Services operations in southeastern Europe in 1944-1945; and served as the 2nd Deputy Director of Plans in charge of the Directorate of Plans of the Central Intelligence Agency from August 23, 1951 to January 1, 1959.

Among those attending Catherine's memorial service [1993 in Romania] were Gabriella Balas Barton and Jeff Wolfrom.
Catherine's youngest daughter, Alexandra, died in 1997, at 77.
Gabriella met Jeff Wolfrom and his American colleagues in Ploesti during second World War. Jeff Wolfrom was experiencing a strong sense of deja vu.

Above named Elena Ceausescu, n�e Lenuta Petrescu, b. 1916, was the wife of Nicolae Ceausescu, the Communist leader of the Socialist Republic of Romania. She was also the Deputy Prime Minister of Romania. She was born in Petresti commune. She moved along with her brother to Bucharest, where she worked as a laboratory assistant.
Author Mike Johnson wrote on real people, among the most compelling historical characters are a Romanian princess who was devoted to caring for orphans and Allied prisoners of war.
Gabriella BALAS BARTON visited Romania in 1966.


Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1912 - 1988)

"...was a high-ranking member of British intelligence who worked as a double agent before defecting to the Soviet Union in 1963. He served as both an INO NKVD and KGB operative. In 1963, Philby was revealed to be a member of the spy ring now known as the Cambridge Five
[he was the member of Cambridge University Socialist Society / CUSS. Closest friend of Maurice Dobb, who was a lecturer at Trinity College, and under his influence, "...Philby became convinced that the world was endangered by fascism, and that the only effective weapon in the fight against this evil was Marxism and the Comintern..."],
the other members of which were Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt and, possibly, John Cairncross".

His grandfather was Harry Montagu Philby (1864 - 1913), born to Henry Adams Philby and Mary Bridger.
H. Montague Philby was the secretary of the Passara Planters' Association

[tea in CEYLON - see my websites -
Naminacooly close to Badulla in the District of Passara, established in 1893: Deaker., Geo.kent, 1898 - 1899, Manager; Macfarlane, 1893, Manager; Owners: Estates Ld, Namunukula Tea in 1898 - 1899; Macfarlane, Messrs. in 1893. 50 km east to NUWARA ELIJA, and south-east to KANDY. 1867 - the first tea estate in Sri Lanka was established by scotsman James Taylor in Loolecondera Estate.

Namunukula = Naminacooly mountains, west to URY estate; west to Passara, Sri Lanka, about 5 km; and 5 km east to SPRING VALLY. Namunukula village: south to named SPRING VALLY and 13 km south-west to PASSARA; 20 km to north-west is situated BADULLA - the capital of the province of Uva, Ceylon is situated 54 m. S. E. of Kandy. There is a botanic garden; and the town is overshadowed by the Naminacooly Kande range of mountains.

Sir Anthony Oliphant's tea estate, the Oliphant Estate, situated in the hill country in Nuwara Eliya - 55 km south-east-south of Kandy, east of Colombo, 26 km east of Hatton, close to Lindula and Meepilimana - was the first estate to grow tea in Ceylon;
Anthony and his son Laurence are the first people to grow tea in Ceylon. Sir Anthony's son, Laurence Oliphant, went on become a Member of the House of Commons. Laurence Oliphant was the only child of Sir Anthony Oliphant (1793 - 1859), a member of the Scottish landed gentry. Laurence spent his early childhood in Colombo, and the Oliphant Estate in Nuwara Eliya. In 1848 - 1849, he was in Europe, 1851 to Nepal,
returned to Ceylon, travel in Russia at the Black Sea in 1853 (Odessa ?), next to 1861 Oliphant was secretary to Lord Elgin; visited the Circassian coast during the Crimean War. 1861 Oliphant was appointed First Secretary of the British Legation in Japan, a visit to Korea, where he discovered a Russian force;
met Alice le Strange, married in London, 1872.
In 1879, Oliphant left for Palestine, where he promoted Jewish settlement for Jewish suffering in Eastern Europe. This was the first wave of Jewish settlement by Zionists in 1882 in the Galilee. Oliphant settled in Haifa, and on Mount Carmel.

The Worms Brothers estates:
Pussellawa,
Keenakelle in Badulla {Keenakelle Group including Keenakelle (13 km north-west to BADULLA), Keenagashena (17 km north-west to BADULLA) and Serendib},
Meddecombra in Dimbulla,
Thotulagalla in Haputale, Condegalla and
Labookelle in Ramboda, the Norwood in Dikoya.
There was Delta estate, adjoining Rothschild,
James Glenie, Captain Harry Bird's Black Forest and F. R. Sabonadiere, the founder of Sabonadiere & Company in Colombo.
Loolecondera situated in the Hewaheta district, of G. D. B. Harrison, W. M. Leake, and James Joseph Mackenzie in 1841. James Taylor referred as the father of tea planting in Ceylon at the Peradeniya gardens from about 1865. The Government sent Arthur Morice, an experienced coffee planter to Assam to learn the art of tea cultivation. In 1875, James Taylor had planted 100 acres in tea in Loolecondera in Hewaheta lower, Jenkins on Hope in Hewaheta upper.
The estates opened up in the Nuwara Eliya district:
L. A. Rossiter in 1875 owned 203 acres; Fairyland, Hazelwood, Oliphant, Alston Scott & Company. He also owned Florence in Yakdessa. Other plantations were Pedro owned by F. Bayley and Tullibody owned by G. Armitage, both under the supervision of E. A. Watson.
Above the ALSTONS, SCOTT & CO. was founded in 1848 by J. B. Alston and Alex Scott who were joined in 1853 by George Alston. BORRON, A. G. K. - Archibald Glen Kidson Borron was a coffee planter at Crystal Hill at Matale. The fourth son of William Geddes Borron, J. P., of Scafield Tower, Ardrosan, Scotland; A. G. K. Borron died in Ceylon in 1872.
CAREY, STRACHAN & CO. established in 1869 under the name of Carey and Strachan, the partners being L. St. George Carey and Charles Strachan. In 1896, a company was formed in London, and develop certain tea estates, tea factory as the Galaha Factory.
CEYLON COMPANY LTD. in 1863 of G. and M. B. Worms in Colombo (1842-1862). The Ceylon establishment was managed by J. Mercer (Mercier ?) and C. B. Smith.
In 1883 the Company owned St. Sebastion Mills for Coffee and Grandpass for Tea. CEYLON PLANTATION CO. under the auspices of the Ceylon Plantation Company by George Wall in Ceylon in 1846. The office of the company was in Kandy and George Wall took up his residence at Haramby / Aramba House.
COLOMBO COMMERCIAL CO., THE - in London and Ceylon by John Burn, an engineer, who was born in Aberdeen, Scotland; since 1848 in coffee planting and in 1876 tea.
The Worms brothers, cousins of the Rothschild family.
Baron Solomon Benedict De Worms, b. 1801, d. 1882, and his brothers Maurice and Gabriel purchased a large estate at Pussellawa, the Rothschild Estate in 1841. The brothers established the Eastern Produce and Estates Co Ltd, and G. and M. B. Worms; at the Condegalla Estate, near Ramboda Pass they planted the first tea trees with derived from China.
Sir Emerson Tennant, Colonial Secretary 1845 - 1850 visited their estate at Pussellawa.
Above mentioned Sir James Emerson - Tennent, 1st Baronet b. 1804 in Rockvale, County of Down, an Irish politician and traveller, was the third son of William Emerson, a merchant of Belfast and Sarah daughter of William Arbuthnot of Rockville / Rockvale, County of Down; James Emerson Tennent, 1st Baronet married Letitia, only daughter of William Tennent, a banker and wealthy merchant at Belfast, who died in 1832. James Emerson Tennent entered parliament in 1832 for Belfast],

"...conveying the Association's thanks for Ferguson's support for the extension of the road from Naminacooly
{JOHN Ferguson, in Ceylon in 1893; close to Hakgala - 7 km south to NUWARA ELIJA, and Oodapusilawa}
to Passara, 1895...".

Passara Planters' Association: Mr. George Kent Deaker, planting politician, chairman Passara Planters' Association, 1896-97, died 1924; ca 1907, Mr. Bisset is the hon. sec. of the Passara Planters' Association, and is a member of the Badulla Club.

Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby was born at Ambala in the Punjab Province of British India.
He was the son of Dora Johnston and HARRY St John Philby
[born at St John's (hospital ?), Badulla, Ceylon - the second son of Harry Montagu],
who convert to Islam in 1930, a member of the Indian Civil Service
[deputy of the Governor ! after 1908; the closest friend of lieutenant Bernard Montgomery],
a civil servant in Mesopotamia and advisor to King Ibn Sa'ud of Saudi Arabia. Named
Harry St John Bridger Philby (1885 - 1960) / Jack Philby / Sheikh Abdullah, was also colonial office intelligence officer; "the first Socialist to join the Indian Civil Service" in Lahore in the Punjab in 1908. In later years St. John Philby was interned as an fascist and potential enemy of Britain
[compare Hugh Angleton, an executive of the National Cash Register Company, since 1931 in Milan, very impressed with Benito Mussolini, ultra-conservative, a sympathizer with Fascist officials].

Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby in 1933 acted as a courier between Vienna and Prague, delivered money to refugees from the Nazis [compare the parents of Zbigniew Brzezinski]. In Vienna Philby met Litzi Friedmann / Alice Kohlmann, Austrian Communist of Hungarian Jewish origins [compare origin of George SOROS]. A friend of Friedmann's in London, Edith Tudor Hart, a Soviet agent, "...first approached Philby about the possibility of working for Soviet intelligence" in 1934. Litzi Friedmann was "almost certainly the person who recruited him to the Soviet cause." Theodore Maly / Man, Hungarian, and Anatoly Gorsky / Kap, of the OGPU in London, a German known as Reif / Mar, also co-operated with Philby. In February 1937, Philby came to Seville, Spain, but in 1938, Walter Krivitsky / Samuel Ginsberg, a former GRU officer in Paris, published an account of two Soviet intelligence agents had penetrated the British Foreign Office and a third Soviet intelligence agent had worked as a journalist for a British newspaper during the civil war in Spain.
Hester Marsden-Smedley introduced Kim Philby to Marjorie Maxse of the War Office.
Philby was appointed as an instructor of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) in 1940 - in the Secret Intelligence Service known as MI6, the British intelligence service - with the support of his then influential father, who had sponsored him at MI6 Major General Stewart Menzies.
Ivan Chichayev / Vadim, re-established contact with Kim Philby.
Kim Philby met James Jesus Angleton, a US counter-intelligence officer working with SIS in London, Section V.
Angleton "...became suspicious of Philby when he failed to pass on information relating to a British agent executed by the Gestapo in Germany. It later emerged that the agent - known as Schmidt - had also worked as an informant for the Rote Kapelle organisation, which sent information to both London and Moscow".
Acc. to 'spartacus-educational': "...On 28th December, 1943, James Jesus Angleton, arrived in London to work for the Italian section of X-2 C.I.
Soon after arriving in England he met Kim Philby, who was head of MI6's Iberian section. It was the start of a long friendship:
"Once I met Philby, the world of intelligence that had once interested me consumed me. He had taken on the Nazis and Fascists head-on and penetrated their operations in Spain and Germany. His sophistication and experience appealed to us ... Kim taught me a great deal." Phillip Knightley, the author of Philby: KGB Masterspy (1988), has pointed out:
"Philby was one of Angleton's instructors, his prime tutor in counter-intelligence; Angleton came to look upon him as an elder-brother figure."
Angleton impressed his senior officers and within six months he was promoted to the rank of second lieutenant and was appointed as chief of the Italian Desk for the European Theater of Operations. A colleague, John Raymond Baine, later remembered him as a well-respected officer...".

In September 1949, Philby arrived in the United States, as First Secretary to the British Embassy and as chief British intelligence representative in Washington. 1952, Philby was working as a journalist, in 1954 a diplomatic newsletter.
In October 1955, Philby was officially cleared by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan.
"...On the evening of 23rd January 1963, Kim Philby vanished from Beirut, ..." either on board a ship or escaped through Syria, to Soviet Armenia. On 1 July 1963, Philby's flight to Moscow was officially confirmed.


Baliszewski and Tadeusz Kisielewski point out the opportunity the Soviets had at Gibraltar. "... At about the same time that Sikorski's plane was left unguarded at the Gibraltar airfield, a Soviet plane was parked nearby; it carried Soviet ambassador Ivan Maisky, giving the Soviets an officially confirmed presence at the site of the accident".
Philby was in charge of security for the Gibraltar area at that time.

"...M�ller knew Harold Kim Philby before World War II and he renewed their contacts when Philby was sent to Washington as a British intelligence officer to cooperate with the FBI and CIA. In his journal, under the date of January 8, 1950, Heinrich M�ller noted the conversation he had with Philby regarding what happened on Gibraltar on July 4, 1943. ... In Philby's opinion, Stalin wanted General Sikorski's death.
As the chief of the British counterespionage for the Iberian Peninsula, Philby could easily find out the date of Sikorski's visit to Gibraltar on his way from the Near East to London. In his version of events, the Soviets arranged for Maisky, their ambassador to London, to fly back via Gibraltar, and to be there at the same time as General Sikorski. Philby believed that Sikorski was dangerous for Stalin. He told the former chief of the Gestapo that Maisky's passenger list included two professional assassins.
As M�ller recalls, the British, except for Philby's treasonable activities, had no direct connection with the murder of Sikorski.
According to Philby, Churchill had been tipped off that this would happen, but he was so frightened about the possible rupture with Stalin over the death of Polish officers that he said nothing by way of warning.
... On March 31, 1941, in a conversation with the Czechoslovakian legate to the Soviet Union, Zdenek Fierlinger, Maisky stated that he can guarantee that General Sikorski will never enter Warsaw again..." - by J�zef Kazimierz Kubit with translation by Kasia Miszta.

Copyright by telegraph.co.uk:
Stalin's accusers claim that Gen Sikorski's plane was left unguarded on the runway at Gibraltar, and could easily have been sabotaged. They also point out that on the day of the crash, July 4, 1943, a plane carrying the Soviet ambassador Ivan Maisky and a small retinue of Soviet troops parked next to the doomed Polish leader's aircraft. Allegations of a plot by the Soviet Union, determined not to let Polish nationalism get in the way of communist expansion after the war, have been further fuelled by the presence on Gibraltar of Kim Philby - he was in charge of British intelligence operations in the territory from 1941 to 1944. ...
Claims that a Polish government office in London received a telephone warning of Sikorski's death in Gibraltar weeks before it happened, the fact that the British spy Kim Philby had been in Gibraltar, and the lack of bodies have all fuelled conspiracy theories.
Kim Philby prior to that functioned as instructor specializing in sabotage behind enemy lines [an instructor with the Special Operations Executive in 1940]; then he was the head of the British Secret Intelligence Service's counterintelligence for the Iberian Peninsula from 1941 to 1944.


Copyright on October 27, 2017 by Carl Schreck, a senior correspondent for RFE/RL.:

"... The declassified document - dated November 23, 1963 - states that according to an intercepted phone call in Mexico City, Oswald was at the Soviet Embassy on September 28, 1963 [and "...the American had been there the previous day" ?!].
... The CIA document states that Oswald called the Soviet Embassy on October 1, 1963, "identifying himself by name and speaking broken Russian, stating" that he'd spoken to Kostikov "and asking the guard who answered the phone whether there was 'anything new concerning the telegram to Washington'." ...
the links between Kostikov, who was serving as vice consul at the embassy as Oswald tried in vain to get a Soviet visa there in September 1963, and the KGB's "assassination" department appear to be far from definitively established, according to previously classified documents now available to the public.
... Valery Kostikov, was identified by the CIA [on November 23rd, 1963] a day after Kennedy's assassination [in Dallas on November 22, 1963] as a KGB officer in an operation allegedly being run by the Soviet spy agency's 13th Department "responsible for sabotage and assassination."
... Oswald's contacts with Kostikov were previously known [before 2017]

... But their interactions at the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City nonetheless grabbed headlines in both Russian and Western media following the October 26 [2017], release of nearly 3,000 records on Kennedy's killing.

... memo to the CIA's director in September 1964, FBI head J. Edgar Hoover said his agency's files "do not contain any information to fully support" the CIA's assessment that Kostikov worked for the KGB's 13th Department.
... Hoover's memo also cited a letter the FBI received from the CIA's counterintelligence chief [J. ANGLETON] five months before Kennedy's killing stating that the CIA "could locate no information in your files to indicate Kostikov was a representative" of the KGB's assassinations department.

... The CIA said in early 1964 that Oswald's contact with Kostikov and other KGB officers stationed under diplomatic cover in Mexico City "was nothing more than a grim coincidence." ...

[Valery Vladimirovich Kostikov was born in 1933, died in 2002, served in Spain, Mexico and Cuba; and again in Mexico City in the Soviet Embassy]. ...

Kostikov's appearance matched the description an "FBI-controlled double agent" gave of a Soviet intelligence officer he met in Mexico, the CIA memo says. That agent's Soviet handler in the United States was Oleg Brykin of the KGB's 13th Department, according to the CIA background memo.

... October 26, 2017, Litman states that Kostikov was a captain in the KGB's 13th Department, which was responsible for assassinations, calling the Soviet officer a "trained 'neutralizer'." ...".


News on October 28, 2017:

1. FBI informant claimed Dallas police officer was real assassin;
According to an April 1964 note, an informant claimed to the FBI that slain Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit was the real gunman behind Kennedy's assassination. The informant also told the FBI that a week before the assassination, Tippit met with a third party - possibly gunman Lee Harvey Oswald - at Jack Ruby's nightclub.
JFK files have revealed that Lee Harvey Oswald and his killer Jack Ruby / Jacob Rubenstein met in the weeks before Kennedy was assassinated. The pair were seen together at Florida's Key West airport in 1963
and were overheard speaking in code about 'Big Bird', according to the documents of the airport manager George Faraldo. Oswald and nightclub owner Ruby were apparently both part of a large group of 'mostly young' people heading to Cuba. Mr Faraldo told the FBI that Ruby and Oswald were dressed casually in a sport shirts and trousers. The airport manager added that Ruby 'spent most of the time not mingling with the group but standing against the doorway that led from the waiting area to the rear plane boarding area'.

2. Hoover said the public must believe Oswald acted alone:
'The thing I am concerned about, and so is [Deputy Attorney General Nicholas] Katzenbach, is having something issued so we can convince the public that Oswald is the real assassin', Hoover wrote in a November 1963 memo.

3. Oswald spoke to a KGB agent in the department responsible for assassinations:
A memo from Nov. 23, 1963, reveals that Oswald secretly met with Russian spies at the Soviet Embassy in MEXICO CITY, less than two months before the assassination.
He met with Valeriy Kostikov, a KGB agent the FBI said worked for the agency's 13th Department, which was 'responsible for sabotage and assassination', on Sept 28, 1963.

Below Jefferson Morley on the new JFK files wrote down on 04 November 2017:

"... The document, a CIA cable dated October 8, 1963, has been partially released before but the slugline of the cable, LCIMPROVE, has now been declassified. ... According to previously released JFK files, LCIMPROVE was the agency's code name for 'counter-espionage involving Soviet intelligence services worldwide'. That was the undisputed domain of counterintelligence chief James Jesus Angleton, the subject of my new book. ...
The October 8, 1963, cable, written by Mexico City station chief Winston Scott, concerned contacts between an American named Lee Oswald and a Soviet consular official named Valery Kostikov. The LCIMPROVE slugline is strong evidence that Angleton was notified about Oswald's contact with Kostikov, a presumed KGB officer. Scott and Angleton had been friends since World War II. A JFK file released last week showed that some CIA officials suspected Kostikov might work for KGB's 13th Department, which was reputedly responsible for political assassinations. ... The story of Oswald's contact with Kostikov is not new.
The Mary Ferrell Foundation has a good primer on Kostikov. ... Jim Angleton and Win Scott, CIA friends...
Oswald returned to Texas after his visit to Mexico City. As I recently reported for the Daily Beast,
a senior FBI agent reported Oswald's return to the Dallas-Fort Worth area to Angleton's office on November 15, 1963.
The Daily Beast story showed that Angleton knew, or should have known, Oswald was in Dallas. Now we know that Angleton also knew Oswald had been in contact with a KGB officer who some said was a KGB assassin. After receiving the October 8 cable, Angleton could have asked the FBI to locate and interview Oswald to explain his contacts with Kostikov. The FBI located him but Angleton is not known to have taken any action. Seven day later, President Kennedy was dead, allegedly shot dead by Oswald. ... In 1978, the House Select Committee on Assassinations re-opened the investigation of JFK's death. As the HSCA investigators began to review CIA records, they asked the agency to supply a list of codenames found in the documents. One of the code names they asked for was LCIMPROVE. In the CIA's response, the agency gave the definition. ...".

4. According to an FBI memo on the Soviet reaction to Kennedy�s death, Soviet spies believed President Lyndon B. Johnson was behind the assassination plot.

5.
According to a Nov. 26, 1963, memo from CIA Deputy Director James Angelton, the British newspaper the Cambridge News received a tip that a reporter 'should call the American Embassy in London for some big news, and then hung up'. According to Britain's MI5 intelligence service, the newspaper received the call 25 minutes before Kennedy was killed.
The reporter, who MI5 noted was 'sound and loyal', said he'd never received a call of that kind before.
Anna Savva, a reporter at the News, told the Associated Press the paper has no record of the tip being taken.
Above acc. to 'philly.com'.

April the 28th, 1961 we read on the 'JFK Tells of Red Menace',
"President Kennedy told the nations newspaper publishers Thursday night that
no formally declared war ever posed as great a threat to American security as
does the rampant worldwide menace of communism.
In view of this deadly challenge, he urged newspapers across the land to re-examine their obligations in the light of global danger and, in presenting the news, to heed the duty of self-restraint.
Kennedy ... speaking at the annual Waldorf-Astoria dinner of the Bureau of Advertising of the American Newspaper Publishers Association, suggested there is a need for greater public information, and at the same time a need for greater official secrecy...".

On April 28, 1961, President Kennedy explained what is meant by the term:
"The Communist conspiracy".

We read The Address in Chicago at a Dinner of the Democratic Party of Cook County on April 28, 1961:
"Mayor Daley, Governor Kerner, Senator Douglas, Congressman Dawson, Chairman Cullerton ... ladies and gentlemen: ... We live in a hazardous and dangerous time. ... Now our great responsibility is to be the chief defender of freedom, in this time of maximum danger. Only the United States has the power and the resources and the determination. We have committed ourselves to the defense of dozens of countries stretched around the globe who look to us for independence, who look to us for the defense of their freedom. We are prepared to meet our obligations, but we can only defend the freedom of those who are determined to be free themselves. ... The Russians and the Chinese, containing within their borders nearly a billion people, totally mobilized for the advance of the Communist system, operating from narrow, interior lines of communication, pressuring on Southeast Asia with the masses of the Chinese armies potentially ready to move-of the Russians who hold great power potentially in the Middle East and Western Europe ...
There is no easy answer to the dilemmas that we face. Our great ally is the fact that people do desire to be free, that people will sacrifice everything in their desire to maintain their independence.
And as the true nature of the Communist conspiracy becomes better known around the globe, when people come to realize - as they surely will - that the Communist advance does not represent a means of liberation but represents a final enslavement,
then I believe that they will rally to the cause to which we have given our support and our commitment".

Mentioned above Bissell moved after 1949 to Washington, where he associated with a group of journalists and politicians: Frank Wisner, George Kennan, Dean Acheson, Desmond FitzGerald, Joseph Alsop, Stewart Alsop, Tracy Barnes, Walt Rostow, Eugene Rostow, Cord Meyer, James Angleton, W. Averell Harriman, John McCloy, Felix Frankfurter, Allen W. Dulles, and Paul Nitze. In September 1960, Bissell and Allen W. Dulles, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency, initiated talks with Johnny Roselli and Sam Giancana. Later, with Carlos Marcello, Santo Trafficante, Jr. and Meyer Lansky became involved in plot against Castro.

Meyer Lansky, original name Maier Suchowljansky born in Grodno, or Meier Suchowlanski, moved to the United States through the port of Odessa.

Bissell became head of the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) in 1962. IDA was a Pentagon think tank set up to evaluate weapons systems. After Bissell was Richard McGarrah Helms who served as the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from June 1966 to February 1973. Helms began intelligence work with the Office of Strategic Services.

At www.jfklibrary.org we have the speech of President John F. Kennedy; that is an Address before the American Newspaper Publishers Association, on April 27, 1961 at Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York City.
"Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen: I appreciate very much your generous invitation to be here tonight. ... I want to talk about our common responsibilities in the face of a common danger. The events of recent weeks may have helped to illuminate that challenge for some; but the dimensions of its threat have loomed large on the horizon for many years. ...
The very word "secrecy" is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings. We decided long ago that the dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweighed the dangers which are cited to justify it. Even today, there is little value in opposing the threat of a closed society by imitating its arbitrary restrictions. Even today, there is little value in insuring the survival of our nation if our traditions do not survive with it. And there is very grave danger that an announced need for increased security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of official censorship and concealment. That I do not intend to permit to the extent that it is in my control. And no official of my Administration, whether his rank is high or low, civilian or military, should interpret my words here tonight as an excuse to censor the news, to stifle dissent, to cover up our mistakes or to withhold from the press and the public the facts they deserve to know. ...
Today no war has been declared - and however fierce the struggle may be, it may never be declared in the traditional fashion. Our way of life is under attack. Those who make themselves our enemy are advancing around the globe. The survival of our friends is in danger. And yet no war has been declared, no borders have been crossed by marching troops, no missiles have been fired.

If the press is awaiting a declaration of war before it imposes the self-discipline of combat conditions, then I can only say that no war ever posed a greater threat to our security. If you are awaiting a finding of "clear and present danger," then I can only say that the danger has never been more clear and its presence has never been more imminent. It requires a change in outlook, a change in tactics, a change in missions - by the government, by the people, by every businessman or labor leader, and by every newspaper.
For we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence - on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day.
It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations.
Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined.
Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed.
It conducts the Cold War, in short, with a war-time discipline no democracy would ever hope or wish to match.
Nevertheless, every democracy recognizes the necessary restraints of national security - and the question remains whether those restraints need to be more strictly observed if we are to oppose this kind of attack as well as outright invasion. ...".

By Liz McNeil and Tierney McAfee on September 25, 2017:
"...She met John F. Kennedy at a prep school dance and in the early 1960s, began an affair with the president that lasted until the time of his assassination.
One year later, on Oct. 12, 1964, Mary Pinchot Meyer was shot dead while taking an afternoon walk on a Georgetown towpath in Washington, D.C., at age 43.
... there have been theories that Pinchot Meyer's death may have been linked to her affair with JFK. Says Burleigh: 'The theory is that she had to die because she knew too much.' 'Her murder just ten days after the Warren Commission report was released makes a lot of people suspicious that she had to be silenced,'
Burleigh notes, adding:
'She lived in a world of secrets ... the secrets of spies running complicated international plots, trying to control a dangerous world at the dawn of the nuclear age.'

Adding to the mystery, in the hours after Pinchot Meyer's death, chief of CIA counterintelligence James Jesus Angleton broke into her artist studio (which was attached to her brother-in-law Ben Bradlee's house) to find her diary. ... Pinchot Meyer, daughter of Amos Pinchot, a wealthy Progressive lawyer, and Ruth Pickering Pinchot, a writer and activist, 'was a true American aristocrat, the beautiful daughter,' says Burleigh. 'Mary was raised on Park Avenue ... educated at the finest schools, a debutante, basically an American princess.'
'She met JFK at a prep school dance,' says Burleigh, the national politics correspondent for Newsweek. 'They were teens. He supposedly cut in on her date.' After graduating from Vassar, Pinchot Meyer went on to marry Cord Meyer, a high-ranking CIA official, in 1945. ... 'Her name first appears on the White House logs in October 1962,' she says. 'She was by his side ... She was often signed in when Jackie was away...'...".

By Wikipedia: "Mary Eno Pinchot Meyer (October 14, 1920 - October 12, 1964) was an American painter who lived in Washington D.C. At the time of her death, her work was considered part of the Washington Color School and was selected for the Pan American Union Art Exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art in Buenos Aires. She was married to Central Intelligence Agency official Cord Meyer from 1945-1958, and she was linked romantically to the late President John F. Kennedy after her marriage to Meyer. ...".
Her parents - copyright by geni.com:
Ruth Pinchot (Pickering) b. 1893 in Elmira, Chemung County, NY, USA; d. 1984; daughter of George Pickering and Rebecca Iredell Pickering. Wife of Amos Richards Eno Pinchot. Mother of Mary Pinchot Meyer; Antoinette Bradlee; and Gifford Pinchot.
Above Rebecca Iredell Pickering (Thomas) b. 1857, daughter of Nathan Spencer Thomas and Hannah Ann Thomas.

And now we look at
Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt / George Sergius de Mohrenschildt / Георгий Сергеевич де Мореншильд / Jerzy Sergiusz,
who studied at the Institute of Higher Commercial Studies, the University of Liege and the University of Texas at Austin. He was petroleum geologist.
He became
friends with Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President John F. Kennedy.
George De Mohrenschildt met Oswald after his return from the Soviet Union.
"...While in Atsugi, Japan, Oswald studied the Russian language ... He studied by himself a great deal in late 1958 and early 1959 after he was transferred from Japan to California. ... When he reached the Soviet Union in October of the same year he could barely speak the language. During the period in Moscow while he was awaiting decision on his application for citizenship, his diary records that he practiced Russian 8 hours a day. After he was sent to Minsk in early January 1960 he took lessons... Marina Oswald said that by the time she met him in March 1961 he spoke the language well enough ... Oswald resided in the city of Minsk from January 1960 until June 1962...".

George de Mohrenschildt (Pole-German from Estonia, Belarus and Poland) knew perfectly Jacqueline Kennedy's family practically since childhood. During the Second World War he was followed by the FBI as a German agent, and in the 50s and 60s of the 20th century he maintained close contacts with the Bush family, including future head of the CIA, George H. W. Bush (41st President of the United States in 1989 - 1993; see 1989 in Poland);
one piece of Kennedy death's evidence was an amateur film made by Abraham Zapruder (1905-1970), a Polish-Jewish immigrant from Volhynia, city Kowel / Kovel in Tsarist Russia, who owned a small company, the Jennifer Juniors, Inc., located in front of the Depot handbooks in Dallas (see Lee Oswald position on 22nd November, 1963, who was ex Minsk of Belarus citizen).
Abraham Zapruder was an American clothing manufacturer who witnessed the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. He received only four years of formal education in Russia. In 1920 (see: von Mohrenschildt moved to Poland in 1922), his family emigrated to the United States, settling in Brooklyn, New York.
George de Mohrenschildt was friend of the Oswalds; Lee Oswald on November 24, 1963 had to participate in a press conference, and then would be taken to the local jail. At 11.21 Oswald was escorted by policemen.
Surprisingly, Jack Ruby / Jacek Leon Rubenstein (son of the orthodox Jews from POLAND - Sokolow Podlaski), owner of the nightclub, jumped and shoted Oswald who was being led through the Dallas Police Headquarters toward an armored car.
Zapruder himself and approx. 60 peoples claimed that at least one shot fell down at front of the limousine, but their testimonies were ignored by the Warren committees. Zapruder's film showed three or four shots within 8.3 seconds.
Jim Garrison (1921-1992), the district attorney of New Orleans for the period 1962-1973, discovered evidence of conspiracy (but we have data about letters on 12 Nov. 1963 to James Webb and to John McCone, Willim Colby and James Angleton; need to be check!); Garrison arrested the New Orleans businessman - Clay Shaw. A key witness was Perry Russo, twenty-five insurance agent from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Russo said that David Ferrie, Shaw, and Lee Oswald discussed the assassination of Kennedy. In 1993, the television photographs showed Oswald and Ferrie at picture of CAP cadets - Civil Air Patrol; on July 17, 1979 after more than two years of work, the new commission published its report; concluded Oswald was the assassin, but most likely the assassins were two; concluded that fell four shots, but failed to identify the second shooter.
The Commission also said that there was a plot to assassinate Kennedy; in 1984 the Commission report was completed and published.
The authors also draw attention to the fact that on June 4, 1963 the Regulation No. 11110 of limiting the competence of the Federal Reserve (Fed) was published, including takeover by the federal government the right to issue money based on values ​​for gold parity. In fact, the Federal Reserve is a private bank managed by federal authorities, created in 1913. Its functions include, among others supervision of banks, issue of money, and maintain a strong system of payments.

GEORGE DE MOHRENSCHILDT who was born in Mozyr / Mozyrz, and escaped with family to Poland, in 1939 worked for Humble Oil in Houston, Texas. 1941 his cousin Baron Maydell offered de Mohrenschildt job making documentary movies. Met Lilia Pardo Larin through "King of Bananas" of Brazil, Dr. Paulo Machado, and went to live with her in Mexico 9 months; invested in sugar company. In 1942 he met Dorothy Pierson in Palm Beach, and married her in 1943. 1944 moved to Texas, applied at Colorado School of Mines, Rice Institute and University of Texas. Worked in Venezuela. 1946 returned to the United States. Went to work for Rangely Field Committee in Colorado; met Phyllis Washington during vacation in New York. 1947 went to Haiti
Washington's step-daughter, Fifi / Phyllis married von George / Jurij / Yuri de Mohrenschildt on July 11, 1948 or in 1947. In 1949 he divorced from Phyllis Washington. Washington was descended to the brothers of first President George Washington. This would have been on both his mother and father's side of the family. S. W. Washington worked for the State Department from 1926 to 1954; Washington had been assigned to CIA from the Foreign Service in September 1950. Samuel Walter Washington father-in-law to George de Mohrenschildt, was in charge of more than 250 CIA agents between 1950-53, but George was Lee Harvey Oswald's closest friend. Mr. Washington worked with Allen Dulles, Frank Wisner, Robert P. Joyce, J. Caldwell King and other top CIA officials.
George then married Wynne Sharples. 1952 terminated partnership with Ed Hooker, returned to New York. Formed Walden Oil Co. with wife's uncle, Col. Edward J. Walz. Traveled to Nigeria, France, Mexico on oil exploration, also Ghana, Togo, Cuba, in Yugoslavia for International Cooperation Administration and Yugoslav Government. Met Jeanne Le Gon in Dallas. Visited Poland for 10 days. Visited Dominican Embassy in Washington; 1959 or 1960 moved to Mexico City for Texans Eastern Corp. and encountered Mikoyan. Early 1962 he went to Haiti; returned to Luisiana, began geology consulting work in Dallas. Summer 1962 told by George Bouhe of Oswald; went with Colonel Orlov to visit Oswalds; introduced him to Samuel Ballen in December 1962 or January 1963. Oct. 1962 George visited Elena Hall while Marina was living with her. March 1963 went to Haiti; Dominican Republic. Easter 1963 visited Oswalds at Neely Street address; May 1963 left Dallas for Haiti - June 1963. April 1964 went to Dominican Republic from Haiti. Acc. to MS. SURELL BRADY.
After Second World War George de Mohrenschildt advanced within State Department, CIA and governmental circles. George H. W. Bush knew George de Mohrenschildt since 1942. Allen Dulles knew de Mohrenschildt's brother in 1953. George knew Jackie Kennedy and her mother Janet Bouvier in 1938, also knew Mrs. Kennedy's dress designer Oleg Cassini and his brother Igor. George was business partners with Mohamed Al Fayed in 1964. Fayed had an affair with Alexandra de Mohrenschildt and James Angleton of the CIA was interested in this.

See more: Bruce Campbell Adamson's book.
In 1964, a CIA report states, "...(George's daughter) Alexandra was being monitored by CIA's James Jesus Angleton because she was having an affair with Mohammed al Fayed shortly after JFK assassination". James Jesus Angleton b. 1917, was chief of the Central Intelligence Agency's Counterintelligence Staff from 1954 to 1975 as 'Associate Deputy Director of Operations for Counterintelligence'. Under his signature is that of CIA asset, Jane Roman. Roman was CIA agent who record shows was charged with monitoring movements of Lee Harvey Oswald for two months preceding assassination. George DEMOHRENSCHILDT / DE MOHRENSCHILDT "was business partners with Mohamed Al Fayed in 1964. Fayed had an affair with Alexandra de Mohrenschildt...". George DE MOHRENSCHILDT and Mohammad Abdel Fayed were in contact in Haiti, and Mohammad Abdel Fayed was suspected of having been a member of Egyptian intelligence in 1953 in Saudi Arabia, in Haiti in June 1964 while official guest of Haitian Government. "...Alexandra deMohrenschildt Gibson, daughter of George deMohrenschildt, while visiting her father in Haiti in December 1964 without her husband, ... was dating Mohammed Fayed. Fayad purchased Harrods in London in early 1980s. Fayed's son, Dodi, was killed in an automobile accident in Paris on August 31, 1997 that also killed English Princess Dianna. GIBSON, DONALD and ALEXANDRA DEMOHRENSCHILDT were planning to leave Wingdale, NY and move to Florida. Daughter of George deMohrenschildt "...married to Gary Taylor in Nov. 1959, divorced in April 1963 following birth of son, Curtis Taylor on Feb. 10, 1962. Married to Donald Gibson by 1963. Friend of William Sprott, Attorney ... in 1977. In 1993, owns boutique ... In 1994, ... moved to Tubac, AZ ... In 2001, Alexandra and Giorgio Miola ... moved to Green Valley, AZ".

In 1953 future Warren Commissioner Allen Dulles was working with the father-in-law of George de Mohrenschildt in the Guatemala Coup. Three days after Allen Dulles took over as CIA Director in February of 1953 he was writing to Dimitri Mohrenschildt - the brother of Lee Harvey Oswald's pal, George de Mohrenschildt.

Russian diplomat in the US, Ferdinand Nikolai Alexander von Mohrenschildt, b. 1885 in Haiba, Kernu Parish, Harju County, Estonia, d. March 4, 1919 in New York. Burial at Sleepy Hollow, Westchester County, New York. He was son of Thomas Ferdinand or Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt and Mary / Marie von Mohrenschildt daughter of Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt and Marie Luise von Bremen. Above Ferdinand's wife was Nona Hazelhurst McAdoo b. 1893, daughter of William Gibbs McAdoo, U.S. Senator and Secretary of the Treasury and Sarah Hazelhurst Houston. Above Thomas Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. 1833 in Haiba, Hageri kihelkond, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland. He was son of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth. Above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland. He was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie. Above Gustava Stephanie Gr�fin von Douglas b. 1758 in Reval (Tallinn). She was daughter of Robert Wilhelm Douglas and Margarethe Juliane von Knorring. Above Robert Wilhelm Douglas (on the Douglas in Estonia, ITALY and Scotland see my domain) b. 1724 Tallinn - died in 1778 in J�rvamaa was son of Gustaf Otto Douglas and Helena von Schlippenbach.

In 1920, Ferdinand's (von Mohrenschildt) nephew Dimitri von Mohrenschildt, the older brother of George, arrived in the United States and entered Yale University. His admission was likely smoothed by the connections of the Harriman family; Dimitri von Mohrenschildt after graduating from Yale, was offered a position teaching the exclusive Loomis School near Hartford, Connecticut, where John D. Rockefeller III was a student.

There, Dimitri became friendly with Roland and Winifred Betty Cartwright Holhan Hooker; Dimitri served the Office of Strategic Services, later cofounding Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. In 1941, Dimitri also founded a magazine, the Russian Review, and later became a professor at Dartmouth. Dimitri in the summer of 1936 traveled to Europe, followed a week later by Betty Hooker.
The relationship between Bush and Hooker lasted for three decades, until 1967, when Hooker died. 1937, Betty Hooker and Dimitri von Mohrenschildt married. By then, Dimitri had been hired by Henry Luce as a stringer for Time magazine. Meanwhile, Dimitri's younger brother, George, had been living with their family in Wilno; in May 1938, George arrived from Europe to US and lived with his brother and new sister-in-law in their Park Avenue apartment.

Future Warren Commissioner, CIA Director Allen Dulles' knew George de Mohrenschildt's brother Dimitri. He wrote to Dimitri three days after he took over the office as CIA Director in Feb. 1953.

Allen Dulles' uncle Robert Lansing and de Mohrenschildt's grandfather-by-marriage, William Gibbs McAdoo co-founded the Secret Service together during the Woodrow Wilson administration.

in 1964 Allen Dulles interrogated the de Mohrenschildts' for more than 250 pages during The Warren Commission Report and Dulles did not think the public should know about his ties to de Mohrenschildt; Allen Dulles dated Mary Bancroft who was the best friend of Michael Paine's mother, Ruth Forbes Paine. It was Michael who put the Oswalds' up in his home; his wife found him a job. George H. W. Bush did not disclose that he knew Oswald's closest friend, George de Mohrenschildt, since 1942.

Adamson was the first to publish letters betweeen the de Mohrenschildts to President Kennedy, Jacqueline Kennedy, Vice-President Lyndon Baines Johnson, CIA Directors Allen Dulles and George H. W. Bush.

Since 1953 future Warren Commisioner Allen Dulles had been working with de Mohrenschildt's brother and his father-in-law.


DEATH of George de Mohrenschildt:

At Image CE-133A, "sent by Oswald (as a first generation copy) to his friend George de Mohrenschildt in April 1963, dated and signed by Oswald on the back of the photo, named Oswald holds a Carcano rifle in one hand. Furthermore he holds two Marxist newspapers in the other hand: The Worker, which followed closely a Moscow party line (and up to being pro-Stalinist until the death of Stalin), and The Militant, a Trotskyist newspaper which followed an anti-Stalinist and anti-Moscow line".
On March 16, 1977, Mohrenschildt returned to the United States,
and on March 29, Mohrenschildt gave an interview to author Edward Jay Epstein,
and said:
"... in 1962, Dallas CIA operative J. Walton Moore and one of Moore's associates had handed him the address of Lee Harvey Oswald in nearby Fort Worth and then suggested that Mohrenschildt might like to meet him. Some help from the U.S. Embassy in Haiti would be greatly appreciated by him, he suggested to Moore...".
"On the same day as the Epstein interview, Mohrenschildt received a business card from Gaeton Fonzi, an investigator for the House Select Committee on Assassinations, telling him that he would like to see him. ... That afternoon, Mohrenschildt was found dead from a self-inflicted shotgun wound to the head in a house where he was staying in Manalapan, Florida. The coroner's verdict was suicide".
"...In the book Killing Kennedy (2012), reporter Bill O'Reilly claimed he had been knocking at George de Mohrenschild's front door when he heard a shotgun blast that marked the suicide. This claim, however, has since been proven false. A contemporaneously made phone call recording between O'Reilly and Fonzi confirms the inaccuracy of O'Reilly's claim".

Gaeton Fonzi / Gaetano Fonzi (1935 - 2012) was an American investigative journalist, "... was hired as a researcher in 1975 by the Church Committee and by the House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations in 1977, and in 1993 published a book on the subject...". In 1975, he was hired by Senator Richard Schweiker as a researcher for the Church Committee into the activities of US intelligence agencies.

On March 29, 1977, George de Mohrenschildt was visiting a family friend in Manalapan, Florida.
Copyright by NEWSWEEK:
Bill O'Reilly visited Manalapan, Florida, where George de Mohrenschildt "and his 33-year-old daughter Alexandra were staying as guests. During the interview on March 29, de Mohrenschildt asked me to get him a photograph from his Dallas lawyer to confirm part of his story. Then, at around 1 p.m., we broke for an hour for lunch. De Mohrenschildt drove back to Manalapan. As the reporter knocked on the door of de Mohrenschildt's daughter's home, he heard the shotgun blast that marked the suicide of the Russian, assuring that his relationship with Lee Harvey Oswald would never be fully understood. By the way, that reporter's name is Bill O'Reilly. ... Less than two hours later, de Mohrenschildt was found shot to death on the second floor of the Tilton home. The West Palm Beach deputy sheriff arrived at my hotel and questioned me and my research assistant, Nancy Lanoue, who had been taking notes during the de Mohrenschildt interview. We both were then taken to the county courthouse, where I was interviewed by state's attorney David Bludworth. The next day, two FBI agents questioned me ... But de Mohrenschildt was not at his daughter's home (158 Villa Longine in Mexico City); he was at Tilton's home in Florida. Another minor problem is O'Reilly's claim to have been an ear-witness to the death. In the 2013 version of his book for younger readers, he wrote: "As I knocked on the door, I heard a shotgun blast. He had killed himself." According to the police report, however, no one inside or outside the house heard the shot (which was fired in the second-floor hallway outside Nancy Tilton's bedroom). A maid, Anna Vitsula / WISTULA {who ?}, said she had been in Mrs. Tilton's room a few minutes earlier to turn on an external recorder to tape a television show, but did not hear a shot. Five other people on the staff also said they didn't hear the report of the shotgun. When I asked Bludworth why no one in the house heard the shot, he said it was probably because the blast was partly absorbed by the body, the carpet and the furnishings. In any case, because no one heard a shot, the body was not discovered for some 15 minutes after the shooting...".
On April 1, 1977, Jeanne de Mohrenschildt gave the House Select Committee on Assassinations a print of a photograph showing Lee Harvey Oswald standing in his Dallas backyard holding two newspapers and a rifle ... -
a photograph taken by Oswald's wife Marina. On the back was written 'To my friend George from Lee Oswald', and the date '5/IV/63' (5 April 1963). ... along with the words 'Copyright Geo de M', and a Russian phrase translated as 'Hunter of fascists, ha-ha-ha!' ...
Mohrenschildt wrote in his manuscript ... that he had missed Oswald's photograph in packing for the move to Haiti in May, 1963, and this was why he had not mentioned it to the Warren Commission.
"According to Mohrenschildt, the photograph was not found among his stored papers until he and his wife found it in February 1967. When analyzed by the HSCA in 1977, this photo turned out to be a first generation print of the backyard photo already known to the Warren Commission as "CE-133A" and which had probably been taken on March 31, 1963".
Copyright by WIKIPEDIA:
"On April 2, 1977, Willem Oltmans told the House Select Committee on Assassinations that Mohrenschildt had implicated himself in the conspiracy to kill President Kennedy. ... Oltmans testified for three hours behind closed doors and told the committee that Mohrenschildt had told him he had discussed the assassination of Kennedy with Oswald from A to Z. 'De Mohrenschildt told me that Oswald acted at his (De Mohrenschildt's) instructions and that he knew Oswald was going to kill Kennedy,' Oltmans said.

Willem Oltmans / Willem Leonard Oltmans (1925 - 2004) was a Dutch investigative journalist;
by Wikipedia:
"... in 1963, Oltmans interviewed the mother of accused assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, Marguerite. Further investigation led him to Oswald's acquaintance George de Mohrenschildt. In 1977 De Mohrenschildt agreed to disclose information to Oltmans, but disappeared from their meeting place and was found dead in Florida a few weeks later. ...
On March 29, 1977, De Mohrenschildt was found dead ...
L. Richardson Preyer of the House Select Committee on Assassinations investigating the assassination of Kennedy stated that De Mohrenschildt was "crucial witness, based on the new information that he had".
A few days later, Oltmans told the HSCA that George de Mohrenschildt had implicated himself in the conspiracy to kill President Kennedy. And Pat S. Russell, who was De Mohrenschildt's attorney said "I definitely feel there was a conspiracy and that definitely was the opinion of George."
Oltmans ... told the committee that De Mohrenschildt told him he had discussed the assassination of Kennedy with Lee Harvey Oswald from A to Z. De Mohrenschildt told me that Oswald acted at his (De Mohrenschildt's) instructions and that he knew Oswald was going to kill Kennedy, Oltmans said.
Although Oltmans had given information to the Committee shortly before, De Mohrenschildt's death had released Oltmans from his promise not to divulge certain information.
Oltmans revealed that De Mohrenschildt, whom he had known for ten years, had told him that there had been a conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy and that he had played a role in the conspiracy. De Mohrenschildt said that CIA and FBI personnel were involved as well...".

... On July 6, 1978, Joseph Dryer told the House Select Committee on Assassinations that he and Mohrenschildt were associated with a woman named Jacqueline Lancelot.
Dryer's relationship with Lancelot included passing messages for her to people in the United States whom Dryer assumed were connected in some way to the CIA. Dryer said in the interview that Lancelot told him shortly after the Kennedy assassination that a substantial sum of money, $200,000 or $250,000, had been deposited in Mohrenschildt's account. Dryer said that Mohrenschildt had claimed he came to Haiti to scout for oil, but Dryer stated that "I could never figure out what he did."
Dryer expressed the belief that Mohrenschildt had "some intelligence connection".
... Congressional researcher Gaeton Fonzi noted that in late 1963 "several large deposits popped up in de Mohrenschildt's Haitian bank account including one for two hundred thousand dollars from a Bahamian bank". ...

In a 1976 CIA internal memo regarding Mohrenschildt, Director George H. W. Bush stated: "At one time he had / or spent plenty of money."


Brief on J. Walton Moore:

James Walton Moore, employed by the FBI since April 1940, begins service in the U.S. Navy on 6 January 1945. He was in Tsingtao China in 1948; the same time Robert Emmett Johnson was there. Although James Walton Moore's employment is listed as being "FBI Washington DC" from January 1942 to January 1945, his residence is listed as being "San Francisco, Calif." from 1942 to 1945. J. Walton Moore died on the 18th of June, 2006. In 1963 J. Walton Moore was employed by the Central Intelligence Agency in Dallas, Tex., in the Domestic Contacts Division. According to Moore's CIA personnel file, he was assigned to the Domestic Contacts Division in 1948.

"... In an Agency memorandum dated April 13, 1977, contained in George de Mohrenschildt's CIA file, Moore set forth facts to counter a claim which had been recently made by WFAA-TV in Dallas that Lee Harvey Oswald was employed by the CIA and that Moore knew Oswald. In that memo, Moore is quoted as saying that according to his records the last time he talked to George de Mohrenschildt was in the fall of 1961. ... Moore said that he had no recollection of any conversation with de Mohrenschildt: First, in the spring of 1958 to discuss the mutual interest the two couples had in mainland China: and then in the fall of 1961 when the de Mohrenschildts showed films of their Latin American walking trip".

By Richard Booth on 3 Sep 1997:
"...According to DeM, Dallas CIA official J. Walton Moore first mentioned Oswald to him in late 1961 - when Oswald was still in Minsk. According to Richard Case Nagell and DeM himself, Demohrenshildt "debriefed" Oswald for the CIA. From August 1962 to October 1963, Richard Nagell was intermittently employed as an informant and / or investigator for the CIA. In April of 1963, Nagell conducted an inquiry concerning the marital status of Marina Oswald and her reported desire to return to the USSR. During July, August and September Nagell conducted an inquiry into the activities of Lee Harvey Oswald, and the allegation that he had established a Fair Play for Cuba Committee in New Orleans. Former CIA finance officer James Wilcott testified to the House Select Comittee on Assassinations in 1977 that "he learned that Oswald was paid by the CIA while still stationed at Atsugi."

Wikipedia said:
Mohrenschildt testified to the Warren Commission in 1964 that he had met the Oswalds through George Bouhe. When he asked 'Do you think it is safe for us to help Oswald', Bouhe said he had checked with the FBI. Mohrenschildt also stated that he believed he had discussed Oswald with Max Clark, whom he believed was connected with the FBI, and with J. Walton Moore, whom Mohrenschildt described as "a Government man - either FBI or Central Intelligence", and who had debriefed Mohrenschildt several times following his travels abroad, starting in 1957. ... When interviewed in 1978 by the House Select Committee on Assassinations, J. Walton Moore said that he had no recollection of any conversation with Mohrenschildt concerning Oswald. ... According to Mohrenschildt, J. Walton Moore flatly denied that the CIA was involved in any way.

By Ralph Lopez Nov 8, 2013 in Politics:
"...On March 29, De Mohrenschildt granted an interview to author Edward Jay Epstein, during which he claimed that in 1962, Dallas CIA operative J. Walton Moore had given him the go-ahead to meet Oswald. "I would never have contacted Oswald in a million years if Moore had not sanctioned it," de Mohrenschildt said. On the same day as the interview, De Mohrenschildt was contacted by the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA.) That afternoon, he was found dead from a shotgun blast to the head. The verdict was suicide. Rep. Richardson Preyer, a member of the HSCA, said De Mohrenschildt was a "crucial witness."...".

"...It has long been known that, before his death, Oswald's "best friend" George DeMohrenschildt admitted that local CIA man J. Walton Moore had suggested that George strike up an acquaintance with Oswald. In corroboration for Marina's statement above are the released documents showing that Ruth Paine's sister worked for the CIA, and her father was an informant to it. Another case is Priscilla Johnson, the reporter who interviewed Oswald in Moscow and later wrote 'Marina and Lee'. Documents show that she applied for a job at the CIA, but was turned down, but was also viewed as a potential "witting asset" for the Agency. If Lee Oswald was not a U.S. intelligence agent, he was certainly surrounded by them. ...",
by Rex Bradford in November 2001.


Michael Ralph Paine,
born in 1928, engineer, he was an acquaintance of the President's purported assassin Lee Harvey Oswald. His wife, Ruth Hyde Paine, housed Lee's estranged wife, Marina Oswald. Lee Harvey Oswald stored the rifle that he used to assassinate U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Ruth Paine's garage. In 1959 Michael Paine got a job with Bell Helicopter in Fort Worth, and the Paines moved into a house in the suburb of Irving - Michael Paine's step-father, Arthur M. Young, invented the Bell Helicopter.
As liberals in Dallas, the Paines were isolated.
His wife - Ruth Paine had been studying Russian since 1957, participated in the East-West Contact Committee
{The American Committee for East-West Accord is the name of two related organizations - 1974 / 1977, founding members included George F. Kennan, Stephen F. Cohen, Jerome Wiesner, and Theodore Hesburgh. "... that "common sense" should determine U.S. trade policy with the USSR, specifically, that the U.S. should avoid economic boycotts and sanctions against the Soviet Union as such measures rarely worked. Instead, it argued, expanding American-Soviet trade would help advance the cause of d�tente..."};
sponsored visits by three Soviets to the US. In 1963 she signed up to teach a summer class in Russian at St. Mark's School in Dallas.
Ruth Paine met the Oswalds through her interest in Russian, in Everett Glover home
[the testimony of Everett D. Clover was taken on March 24, 1964, in the office of the U.S. attorney, in Dallas, Tex., by Mr. Albert E. Jenner, Jr.: "... June 2, 1955, I took a position with Socony Mobil Oil Co. ...
I met Marina first at the home of George De Mohrenschildt. ... I am not able to say when she (Marina) came to the De Mohrenschildts. Marina came to the De Mohrenschildts several times. ... Oswald had gone to Russia to live and had become a citizen.
... I have started to study Russian in connection with scientific work, because it is very valuable to be able to speak Russian, and I have always wanted to learn to speak Russian, but somehow I never got to do this..."],
on February 22, 1963 because he thought she would be interested in meeting people who spoke Russian. The party was arranged by Oswald's friend, 51-year-old Russian �migr� George de Mohrenschildt, petroleum geologist with intelligence connections. The Paines and Oswalds spent much time together after the party. Ruth befriended Marina.
Ruth Paine drove Marina Oswald to New Orleans when the Oswalds moved there in May 1963 and back to Dallas when they moved again in September 1963. Marina and Lee's child, June, moved in with Ruth Paine the suburb of Irving, Texas while Lee stayed in a boarding house under the name O. H. Lee. "...Marina helped with the housework and Ruth's Russian studies while Lee visited on weekends. By this time Michael and Ruth had separated, ... Michael was a frequent visitor. At the suggestion of a neighbor, Ruth Paine told Lee Oswald about a job opportunity at the Texas School Book Depository".
Lee Harvey Oswald stayed at the Paine home with Marina and his children unannounced on Thursday night, November 21, 1963. "...When Oswald left for work on the morning of November 22, he brought a large package that he had kept in the Paine's garage with him to work at the Texas School Book Depository".

Now brief explanation:
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
is a nonpartisan nonprofit organization whose defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties ... It works through litigation and lobbying. ... Current positions of the ACLU include: ... supporting same-sex marriage and the right of LGBT people to adopt; supporting birth control and abortion rights; eliminating discrimination against women, minorities, and LGBT people... The ACLU consists of two separate organizations: the American Civil Liberties Union, and the ACLU Foundation.
The ACLU was founded in 1920 by Helen Keller, Roger Baldwin, Crystal Eastman, Walter Nelles, Morris Ernst, Albert DeSilver, Arthur Garfield Hays, Jane Addams, Felix Frankfurter, and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, "...and its focus was on freedom of speech, primarily for anti-war protesters".
Many of the ACLU's cases involved the defense of Communist party members and Jehovah's Witnesses.
Above
Felix Frankfurter (1882 - 1965) was an lawyer, who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
He became a friend and adviser of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Frankfurter was born into a Jewish family in 1882, in Vienna, Austria; son of Leopold Frankfurter, a merchant, and Emma Winter; uncle, Solomon Frankfurter, was head librarian at the Vienna University Library;
Frankfurter's forebears had been rabbis for generations.

At margin:
J�zef Hieronim Retinger (17 April 1888 � 12 June 1960) was a Polish political adviser.
Since 1906 in Paris, among his new friends was the Marquis de Castellane, and an artists from Left Bank cafes; 1908 docteur of Sorbonne, next Univ. of Munich, Florence ca 1907?, 1908 met masonry in London, 1911 Cracow under procection of Count Zamoyski and the Godebski family, and again in 1911 or 1912 to London, 1912 return to Cracow, married Otylia Zubrzycka; sometimes to Paris and again London where J�zef Hieronim Retinger opened a bureau of the Supreme National Council; met with Joseph Conrad, 1914 ? and next he fled to Spain and met L. N. Morones and P. E. Calles,
moved in 1917 to Mexico; J�zef Hieronim Retinger travelled to USA and met Felix Frankfurter and Sir Edward Bedington-Behrens. Felix Frankfurter b. 1882, in Vienna and immigrated to New York, Harvard Law School, friend and adviser of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1939; was born into a Jewish family of Leopold Frankfurter, a merchant;
Felix Frankfurter worked for Tenement House Department of New York City, friend with Walter Lippmann and Horace Kallen; an editor of the Harvard Law Review; law firm of Hornblower, Byrne, Miller & Potter in 1906, assistant to Henry Stimson, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York; law officer of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, used a donation from the financier Jacob Schiff to create a position; was appointed Judge Advocate General, supervising military courts-martial for the War Department; he was encouraged by Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis to become more
involved in Zionism. In 1918, he participated in the founding conference of the American Jewish Congress in Philadelphia; 1919, Frankfurter served as a Zionist delegate to the Paris Peace Conference.
Roosevelt nominated Frankfurter to the Supreme Court in 1939 (to 1962).

During 1st World War and after J�zef Hieronim Retinger met in England with Stafford Cripps, Winston Churchill, Marshall Horatio Herbert Lord Kitchener.
In Paris since 1906: with Georges Clemenceau, Paul Valery, Andre Gide, Maurice Ravel; in 1916 in Paris met with Arthur Capel, 1924 to Edmund Dene Morel in London. In 1917 J�zef Hieronim Retinger traveled to Mexico, where he became an unofficial political adviser to union organizer Luis Morones and President Plutarco El�as Calles. Later, during World War II, he advised the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile, General Władysław Sikorski.
After 1930 J�zef Hieronim Retinger co-operated with Sikorski, Korfanty, Kot, Popiel, Witos and Paderewski.

Mentioned
Helen Adams Keller (1880 - 1968) was an American political activist; "...a member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage, labor rights, socialism, antimilitarism...".

Back to PAINE:
Michael Ralph Paine b. 1928;
his mother was
Ruth Forbes Young, financial backer of International Peace Academy;
"... a founder of the International Peace Academy in 1970. She also co-founded Berkeley's Institute for the Study of Consciousness with her third husband, Arthur M. Young. ... the daughter of Ralph Emerson Forbes and Elise Cabot. She was a great-granddaughter of Ralph Waldo Emerson and a niece of William Cameron Forbes (Governor-General of the Philippines 1908 - 1913). ... Forbes married architect Lyman Paine in the mid-1920s...".

Note:
The International Peace Institute / IPI / the International Peace Academy,
policy development institution; chairman of the Board of Directors:
Rita Hauser, born of Jewish parents;
Hauser was the daughter of Nathan and Frieda (Litt) Abrams / Rita Eleanor (Abrams).
Vice Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer: Mortimer Benjamin Zuckerman, owner, Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the New York Daily News newspaper
and U. S. News and World Report magazine; Mortimer Benjamin "Mort" Zuckerman born in 1937, in Montreal, Canada, the son of Esther and Abraham Zuckerman;
family was Jewish, and his grandfather was an Orthodox rabbi.

Back to Michael Ralph Paine:
Paine worked at Bartol Research Foundation in Swarthmore; then worked for his mother's third husband Arthur M. Young, making helicopter models in Pennsylvania. In 1958, Paine became employed at Bell Helicopter through Young;
"...on February 22, 1963, Ruth Paine attended a party ... at the home of Everett Glover, who knew Ruth spoke Russian and thought she would be interested in meeting a couple he knew, Marina and Lee Harvey Oswald. ... Michael met the Oswalds for the first time on April 2, 1963. when he picked up Lee, Marina, and their baby daughter, June at their apartment at 214 West Neely Street in Dallas so that they could join with him in the small meet and greet dinner Mrs. Paine had cooked for them ... Lee Harvey Oswald rented a room in Dallas but stored some of his possessions in Paine's garage, including a supposed rifle wrapped in a blanket which Paine thought to be camping equipment. Paine's wife helped Oswald get a job at the Texas School Book Depository. ... In 1964, Paine testified that he was a member of [named above] the American Civil Liberties Union".

We look now at the genealogy
CARL MAGNUS Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803, Yoggis / Jogisoo near KEILA
(see HACKER or Hakker family next of kin to the ARMANDS and PASZKOWSKI - Konstantynowicz)
- 8 km east-south (or in Padis / Padise), he died in 1862, Revel, the owner of Jogisoo / Yoggisa and Pallu ca 6 km south of above named Jogisoo, in Estonia (Yoggis / Jogisoo / Yoggisa / J�ggis).
Chief of District. Baronial title in 1855.
His wife was Katharina Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt / MORENSHILD / Katharina Augusta Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1811 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland that is Kreuz Hof, died in 1855, Revel, the daughter of Berend von Mohrenschildt, owner of Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald and Eleanor Juliana Elisabeth von Rosenthal.
That is Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth Rosenthal daughter of Gustav Heinrich von Wetter-Rosenthal.
Above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), died 1861 in Kreuzhof; he was father of
Katharina Augusta Elisabeth;
Alexander Behrend Heinrich von Mohrenschildt;
Maria Katharina Juliane;
Karl Gustav Konstantin von Mohrenschildt;
Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt;
Elisabeth (Lilly) Auguste; Emilie; Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt; Alexandrine Nathalie Karoline, and
(Karl) Reinhold von Mohrenschildt.
Mentioned above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt was son of
Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt, 1748 - 1817 who was son of
Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt b. 1718 and Marie von Ramm;
come from Hans Heinrich von Mohrenschildt from Tallinn.

CARL MAGNUS Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 was a cousin of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau, husband of Princess Kudasheva Kitty b. 1811, granddaughter of Field Marshal Kutuzov.
The second Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Sta�l von Holstein.

Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 was son of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm; father of Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau; Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau; Reinhold Berend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau and Karl Julius Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau;
brother of Emilie Caroline Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Gertrude Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1806.
Mentioned above Katharina Augusta Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1811, was daughter of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth.

Mentioned above
Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau married Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm; Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777 and died in 1847 in J�ggis (Jogisoo);
he was son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau 1734 - 1801 in J�ggis / Jogisoo;
the grandson of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1709 - 1752 in Reval;
great-grandson of Friedrich Jakob Pilar von Pilchau 1675 - 1710,
who was son of Nikolaus Georg Pilar von Pilchau.

Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in St Petersburg, d. 1922, was daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Katharina Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau / Kitty Ekaterina Nikolajevna.
Maria was wife of Leonid Nikolaevich Horvath; she was mother of Dmitri Horvath (was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov);
sister of Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau, Elisabeth Shuvalov, Theodor / Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau. All above acc. to Peter Trefilov on July 25, 2009, under copyright by geni.com.
Katharina Kitty / Ekaterina Nikolajevna / Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau nee Koudaschew, b. 1811, daughter of Danilovitch Kudashev; she was wife of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Hermann Napoleon von Hoyningen-Huene; was mother of above Maria Pilar von Pilchau; Nikolai; Elisabeth Lizine Shuvalova, Theodor Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau.

Above Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Sta�l von Holstein, and was brother of Ottilie Gustava von L�der, Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau, acc. to: Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina.

Above Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 was son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

Above named Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 (Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau died in 1801 in J�ggis), was father of

1.
Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761;

2.
Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau;

3.
Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau;
4.
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and

5.
Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau;

6.
Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769.

His wife was Maria Becu with her children:

Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and

a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802.

Magnus Fabian's closest next of kin: Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein; фон Людер / Luder who died 1857.

Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 was brother of Dorothea Charlotta Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau.
Acc. to Peter Trefilov and Bernard von Schulmann.

Mentioned above Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 was son of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm;
he was brother of Emilie Caroline Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Gertrude Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1806. Above named Emilia CAROLINA ELIZABETH b. 1804, Ladis - died in 1891, she was State-lady in Katarinenhale.
Gertrude Elizabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1806, married in 1829, Jogisoo, to Berend von Mohrenschildt d. 1861 owner of Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland that is Krayskhofa;
his daughter from his first marriage married to the brother of his wife.
Berend Robert / Behrend von Mohrenschildt, b. on July 3, 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), died on January 9, 1861 in Kreuzhof (Risti); he was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie; husband of Margaretha Ulrika Juliane von Mohrenschildt; Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt and above named Gertrude Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt;
he was father of Katharina Augusta Elisabeth; Alexander Behrend Heinrich von Mohrenschildt; Maria Katharina Juliane; Karl Gustav Konstantin von Mohrenschildt; Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt; Elisabeth (Lilly) Auguste; Emilie; Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt; Alexandrine Nathalie Karoline von Mohrenschildt and (Karl) Reinhold von Mohrenschildt.
Copyright by Peter Trefilov at geni.com.

George De Mohrenschildt's spouses:
Dorothy Pierson / Pherson ? m. 1942 - 1944, Phyllis Washington, Wynne Sharples and Jeanne LeGon.

De Mohrenschildt was born Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt in MOZYRZ / Mozyr (see Bulhak family and Ipohorski) in Belarus, in 1911.
He had an older brother, Dimitri / Dymitr.
His father was Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt;
his mother, Alexandra / Aleksandra Zopalsky / ALEKSANDRA ZAPOLSKA, of Polish descent.
Sergey von Mohrenschildt was a Marshal of Nobility of the Minsk Province 1913 - 1917 (see Karol Hutten - Czapski and Duflon & Konstantynowicz in Minsk), and an Actual Civil Councilor; 1920, Sergy von Mohrenschildt was arrested by the Bolsheviks;
while awaiting transport to Veliky Ustyug, Sergey became ill. The Soviet government released Sergey, his wife and De Mohrenschildt then fled to Poland;
De Mohrenschildt's older brother Dimitri was awaiting execution but was later released in a prisoner exchange in Poland;
Alexandra died ca 1922 in Poland.
De Mohrenschildt lived in Wilno (here the Konstantynowiczs), Jerzy was graduated from the Wilno gymnasium in 1929 and later graduated from Polish Cavalry Academy in 1931.
Then he completed a dissertation on the economic influence of the U.S. on Latin America; in Liege in Belgium in 1938. Jerzy / George de Mohrenschildt moved to the United States in 1938; changed his surname to de Mohrenschildt;
he was working for German intelligence?
He was hired by the Shumaker company in New York City, which also employed Pierre Fraiss - the French intelligence spy. He lived together with his older brother Dimitri von Mohrenschildt on Long Island, New York -
Dimitri was the founder of the CIA's Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty;
Dimitri died in 2002.
De Mohrenschildt became acquainted with the Bouvier family, including young Jacqueline Bouvier, future wife of John F. Kennedy, and he became a friend of Jacqueline's aunt Edith Bouvier Beale.
He helped raise money for the Polish resistance after ca 1940.
George Sergius de Mohrenschildt b. 1911, d. 1977, befriended Lee Harvey Oswald in the summer of 1962 and maintained that friendship until Oswald's death, two days after the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy.
After Kennedy was assassinated, De Mohrenschildt testified before the Warren Commission in April 1964. In 1976, the CIA requested that the FBI locate De Mohrenschildt, because he had "attempted to get in touch with the CIA Director."
In 1976, De Mohrenschildt had written a letter to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, George H. W. Bush, asking for his assistance. He was acquainted with the Bush family; George H. W. Bush had roomed with De Mohrenschildt's nephew, Edward G. Hooker, at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts.
His father was a marshal of nobility in Minsk Province, and he served as director of the Nobel interests in Russia.
A descendant of the de Mohrenschildt family, Baron Hilienfelt, was a Baltic Swede, fought in the American Army of Independence.
An uncle, Ferdinand de Mohrenschildt, was First Secretary of the last Russian Embassy in Washington under the Tsar government.
De Mohrenschildt's brother, Dimitri von Mohrenschildt, emigrated to the United States and became a professor at Dartmouth University.
De Mohrenschildt's father was jailed by the Communist regime in 1920, but a friends of the government intervened to secure his release. He was jailed again in 1921 and was banished to Siberia for life. Sergius von Mohrenschildt escaped with his family to Poland.
His family regained (1922 / 1924 ?) an estate had held in Russia near the Polish border (close to Minsk ?). It was money from that estate that George do Mohrenschildt brought to the United States in 1938 when he started his first business interest.
I wrote above his father was Sergiusz / Sergei / Sergis Alexander Von Mohrenschildt, mother was Alexandra Zopalsky.
His father and uncle, ran the Branobel Oil Company in Baku (see Duflon and Konstantynowicz in Petersburg). In 1918 De Mohrenschildt lived in Minsk (from Baku ?). In 1944 George De Mohrenschildt told the FBI that Sergius Von Mohrenschildt was a Vice President of the Nobel Oil Company in Russia with holdings in Poland and Russia prior to and during World War I;
his father continued in the oil business until the confiscation of these holdings in 1918 / 1920.
By Tommy Wilkens:
Baron George De Mohrenschildt born 1911 in Mozyr, comes from the Baltic Germans. His father was Baron Sergius Alexander Von Mohrenschildt;
1918 De Mohrenschildt lived in Minsk, probably in St. Petersburg, or Moscow; 1922 Sergius was released from Soviet prison due to health problems ?!;
1929 George DeMohrenschildt volunteered for the Polish Army and attended a Polish military academy in Grudziadz; 1931 George / Jurij was graduated from the Polish military academy with rank of sergeant; then in Liege, and returned to Poland to take part in military summer maneuvrs.
The de Mohrenschildts were major players in the global oil business since the beginning of the twentieth century, and their paths crossed with the Rockefellers; George de Mohrenschildt�s uncle and father ran the Swedish Nobel Brothers Oil Company's operations in Baku;
1915, the Russian government dispatched a second uncle of George de Mohrenschildt, the young diplomat Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt, to Washington to plead for American intervention in the war (see Koziell POKLEWSKI);
1917, Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt's mission was a success;
he was often in the company of Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, of the family then befriending Prescott Bush and about to hire Prescott's future father-in-law, George Herbert Walker.
Ferdinand married the step-granddaughter of President Woodrow Wilson.
Emanuel Nobel sold half of the Baku holdings to Standard Oil of New Jersey, with John D. Rockefeller Jr. personally authorizing the payment of $11.5 million (see more at my webpages).


The genealogy of Alexandra Zapolski is very important and any traces lead to Mozyr, to the family Zapolski Downar / Downar-Zapolski.
This case must be deeply research.
In the Minsk county in 1791 we have 2 persons Downar, in the parishes: Uzda and Iwieniec.
Mitrofan Downar � Zapolski b. 1867, in Rzeczyca, in the Minsk government, died in 1934; son of Wiktor Zapolski Downar b. 1827; Mitrofan was historian, professor in 1902. He studied in Baranovichi village, then in Plovdiv in Bulgaria,
in Rzeczyca in ca 1877,
Minsk in 1878,
the gymnasium in Mozyrz / MOZYR in ca 1878 - 1885,
gymnasium in KIEV since 1885 to 1888. In 1918 in Minsk served the Belarusian People's Republic founded on March 25, 1918 in Minsk and replaced by a Communist government on January 5, 1919. He worked in BAKU. In 1925 - 1926 in Minsk again.
His father was collegiate secretary, and chief clerk of the district gendarmerie in MOZYR / MOZYRZ (and RZECZYCA ?).
By the nineteenth century Dovnar-Zapolsky family lost the status of the middle gentry, nevertheless, the Russian Senate in 1843, enrolled to the nobility clans, the family of Mitrofan Viktorovich, of the Minsk province as the ancient hereditary nobility. It has managed in 1802 to the great-grandfather of Mitrofan, that is Antoni Zapolski Downar born ca 1775, with his sons: among others youngest MARCIN Zapolski who was born in ca 1800.
Marcin was the father of Wiktor Zapolski b. 1827 in Rzeczyca;
Wiktor was appointed in Rechitsa district as court clerk in ca 1850; the Rechitsa district was the biggest in Minsk province.
He married a local noblewoman Alexandra Stanislavovna Lindaher (Lindauer ?), the Orthodox faith, and in this marriage were born five children, among whom was Mitrofan b. 1867 in Rechitsa / Rzeczyca. Soon, the family split up, the mother with the younger daughters moved to Bulgaria in ca 1875, to the eldest son Peter, b. ca 1852, who was served the Bulgarian military.
Mitrofan was living only with father after 1876, who was able to rise to the positions of the Rechitsa Gendarmerie (ca 1877).
In Mozyr 1878 - 1885.
Maybe here Aleksandra Zapolska / Zapolska Downar was born 1879 as daughter of Wiktor Zapolski Downar, b. 1827 in Rzeczyca;
we remember in 1911 in Mozyr was born Jurij / George von Mohrenschildt, because his father was here a teacher.
Mitrofan moved in 1885 to Kiev but his father was living in Mozyr.


The Mohrenschilt / Mohrenschildt - the Baltic-German noble family.
They were living in Estonia:
in Nurme, Seidla, Sipoo, Jogisoo, Hatu, Valingu, Cross, Kumna, Haiba, Laitse, Vacation, Leebiku, Kurisoo.
There were eight Estonian families with the name von Mohrenschildt. These families owned 12 estates.
Hatu is a village in Padise Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia. The property belonged to the Baltic German families of Mohrenschildt and Ramm. The last owner before the Estonian Declaration of Independence was Fridolf Gustav-Adolf von Ramm.

Berend Otto Johann Baron von Maydell, 1793-1870, married 2nd time to Leontine von Mohrenschildt who was the aunt of George von Mohrenschildt.
Above Leontine Ernestine Ulrike von Mohrenschildt (from Lehhet / Lehetu, the Nissi vald, Harjumaa, Estland) born in 1812 in Kegel = Keila, Harjumaa, Estonia, died in 1890 in Reval, was daughter of
Friedrich von Mohrenschildt from Pachel and Henriette von Koskull from Kegel / KEILA
(see Dunkel family next of kin Konstantynowicz).

Above named Pahkla (Pachel) - knight manor in Hageri Parish, Harjumaa County, 24 km south-east of SAKU (see at maps of Keila-Saue-Saku).

Mentioned above Friedrich Johann von Mohrenschildt b. 1785 and died in 1854 in Reval (Tallinn), was son of
Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Douglas!
Friedrich Johann von Mohrenschildt was brother of Berend Wilhelm von Mohrenschildt; Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt; Margarethe Juliane, and Ottilie Helene Beata.

Remember that Jurij or George von Mohrenschildt (the friend of Lee OSWALD) was grandson of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt b. 1831,
and great-grandson of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt 1787 - 1834;
great-great-grandson of Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Gfin. Douglas (see about the DOUGLAS family in Italy, Scotland and Estonia at my webpages).

Mentioned above Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt, 1756 - 1820 in Reval, was son of Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt and Marie von Ramm; husband of Ottilie Helene Douglas
(see: Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt b. 1748, son of Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt and Marie von Ramm).
Above Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt, 1718 - 1789 in Reval, was son of Berend Johann von Mohrenschildt who died in 1732 in Kurkse, Padise Parish, Harju County, Estonia; grandson of Hans Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and great-grandson of Bernhard Koch von Mohrenschildt and Christina von Lohn.

Brother of above George was
Dmitri von Mohrenschildt born in the HLUSK / GLUSK region, near Bobruisk in 1902 - died in 2002, a professor at Stanford University, one of the founders of the CIA Radio Free Europe.
Dmitri was a prominent Russian historian and former Hoover fellow, died on 9 June 2002 in India.
Dmitri studied ca 1912 to 1916 at the Minsk college, then in Sevastopol. Dmitri received his early education in the Naval Cadet School. In 1918 lived again in German-occupied Minsk.
But after the German withdrawal in December 1918, Dimitri and his father were soon arrested, and Dimitri spent nearly a year in prisons in Minsk and Smolensk. After he was finally released in late 1919, his parents arranged for him to travel to Poland as a hostage in exchange for someone; he worked as a merchant seaman; then at Yale University in 1922. Graduating in 1926; 1936 Columbia University. He taught Russian history at Dartmouth College from 1942 to 1947; 1971 von Mohrenschildt published a materials on the Russian Revolution; in 1976 von Mohrenschildt left for India, where he settled in the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in Pondicherry.


West of the Berezyna river, and close to Bobruisk / Bobrujsk stronghold were living in the 19th century the Bulhak, Konstantynowicz, Szostak, Dzierzynski, Tatur, Czajkowski families:
1.
The parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz
(grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich):
Константинович Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county.
They were living in Gorochovka / Gorochovo, south-west of Bobrujsk / Bobruisk, ca 20 km, close to Fortuny: north-west of Gorochovka, and south of Glusha, close to Gorochovka, Rimovcy, Spornoje; east-south-east of Simonovichi (see: Bulhak family).

Glusha, Glusza, at half way from Bobruisk to Simonovichi, west of above Bobruisk / Bobrujsk; ca 28 km north-east-north of Glusk / Hlusk, and south-east of Osipovichi / Osipowicze.
Snustik / Снустик - east of Pukhavichy and Maryina Gorka, and west of Gradzyanka, and south-east of Turin / Turyn (Bulhak family) in the Igumen / Ihumen county / Игумен.

2.
Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas and Aldona, the house Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898; married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska. The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.
In above named Zawołoczyce was the Bernardine filial chapel, like in Chromce (near Bobruisk).

Zawołoczyce that is Заволочицы, Zavalochycy, Zavolochicy, Zavolochitsy close to Simanavichi; west of Glusha, ca 38 km west of Bobruisk / Bobruisk.
Glusha, Glusza, at half way from Bobruisk to Simonovichi, west of above Bobruisk / Bobrujsk; ca 28 km north-east-north of Glusk / Hlusk, and south-east of Osipovichi / Osipowicze.

Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833 died 1902, + Maria Billewicz has 12 children, among others
Helena Piłsudski b. 1864 d. 1917, Zofia Kadenac b. 1865 + Bolesław Kadenac,
Bronisław Piłsudski,
J�zef Piłsudski,
Adam Piłsudski / Адам Гинятович Косьчеша Пилсудский b. 1869,
Kazimierz Piłsudski,
Maria Juchniewiczowa / Juchniewicz b. 1873 + Cezary Juchniewicz.

3.
In 1887, Peter / P. L. Wittgenstein died; he was the son of Lev Petrovich Wittgenstein;
Peter L. Wittgenstein b. 1831, Vilna Province, Lieutenant-General, a military agent in France, the Russian-Turkish war, one of the richest landowners of the Russian Empire.
Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county, lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk. This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh.
Above Lew / Prince Lev Wittgenstein / Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn b. June 7, 1799, the eldest son of Field Marshal Count Peter Xristianovich Wittgenstein / Piotr Christianovich Wittgenstein and Antoinette Stanislavovna Snarskii / Antuanetta Snarski / Antuaneta Snarska.
He was married twice:
1. 1828 to Princess Stefania nee Radziwill, daughter of above Dominik Radziwill and Theophile Morawska;
with two children:
Maria or Antoinette Carolina - Stefania, and Peter / Peter Dominic Ludwig 1832-1887, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General.
2. Princess Leonilla Baryatinskaya Ivanovna.
Stefania Wittgenstein b. Paris 1809, d. 1832, nee Radziwill - father Dominik Radziwill b. 1786, d. 1813; mother Teofila Morawska. Stefania was owner about 12000 km˛ that is 1 mln ha in Belarus (Miezonka...) and Lithuania.
4.
The Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county,
lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk.
This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh.

5.
The Zbieranowski family was living in Лясковичи / Ляскавічы / Liaskavichi / Laskowicze, ca 28 km south-east of Prusy, close to Albinsk, Choromcy, Zabolotse, south of Glusk / Mogilev Province, Belarus; south of Dokol; south of Simanavichi, where was a property of Bulhak (Dzierzynska Aldona, Jerzy Bulhak).
Zawoloczyce is located south-east of Simonovichi, ca 2 km, and west of Glusha, north of Liaskavichi ca 45 km.
6.
The Bulhak family:
Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk.
1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi;
1890, the estate Bluza / Блужа-Городно close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family, west of Lapichi, south-east of Marina-Gorka;
Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесничи of the Копыльского р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937.
Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи, south-east of Osipovichi, close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo;
Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937.
Kamionka or Matseevich from Lipovskii in 1861 and Мацевичи / Matsevichi of Bulhak in 1867 - Mateevichi, south of Ugodino, near by Kamienka / Kamionka; west of Talka, and south of Marina Gorka;
Булгак Борис Николаевич b. 1907 in Macevichi / Мацевичи. Матевичи / Мацевичи / Matewitschi / Maciejewicze i.e. Macevicy (inf. about location above), and Zuki, Budzilowka and Kondratowicze.
Budzilowka / Будзиловка in the Беломльская волость / Bielomlskaja volost;
Zabrodok / Забродок and Beresniewka / Бересневка belonged to the Bulhak family / Булгак.
7.
Wincenty BULHAK, son of Stanisław Wincenty Michał Bulhak, 1807-09 office in Mozyr district. His wife Dubrawska / Dabrowska; relatives of Emanuel Bułhak.


Acc. to 'Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften', G�rlitz 1930 -
1.
Theodor Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. Reval in 1805 m. 2nd to Pauline Wilhelmine Rehbinder b. 1818. Pauline Wilhelmine Rehbinder b. 1818 in Wastemois, d. 1905 in Reval (Tallinn), daughter of Gustav Wilhelm von Rehbinder and Charlotte Margarethe Helene von Lantingshausen; mother of Theodor Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt (b. 1841 in Wredenhagen / Maidla mois, Haggers / Hageri, Harrien / Harjumaa) and Roman Viktor von Mohrenschildt; sister of Woldemar von Rehbinder; Emilie Charlotte and Elisabeth Betty Auguste von Rehbinder b. 1824 in Sarrakus, Livland.
2.
Baron George De Mohrenschildt, a Russian, an Estonian by birth, a Baltic German by last name, a Swedish-Scottish by origin, and a Pole according to his passport. George / Jurij / Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt April 17, 1911 in Mozyr / Mozyrz in the Minsk government - was the son of Sjergei / Siergiej b. 1870.

Siergei's son (+ Aleksandra Zapolski / Gapolski m. in 1901) was also
Dmitri b. March 1902 in the Hlusk district, the Minsk gevernment
- that is Dimitri Sergius Von Mohrenschildt, 1902-2002.
Hlusk / Глуск / Glussk in Moghilev Region, Belarus, ca 50 km south-west of Bobrujsk / Bobruisk at way to Liaskovichi of the Zbieranowskis; see Konstantynowicz, Dzierzynski and Bulhak (Aldona Dzierzynska was living here!) in this area.


Acc. to the Russian source:
George De Mohrenschildt / Morenshild, stated, that was born in 1911 in Mozyr, but his next of kin thought he was born in Georgia, maybe born in 1914. His family comes from a Swedish family (and from Scotland !), but was of the Greek Catholic religion. His father served the Nobel family in Baku, but also worked on oil development in Romania; after 1939 George promoted in the Polish resistance to the rank of lieutenant colonel and spent most of the war in London as a liaison officer. He arrived in America in 1938, but, according to him, in 1939, returned to Poland to serve the army, but in the same year, returned to America. In the US, takes part in various operations; maybe for the French intelligence service of De Gaulle, who fought with the Germans, but also for Marshal Petain; he became known for his contacts with many German agents. But the war years he spent as a neutral film producer in Mexico, in 1944, changed his name, returned to the United States, less than a year receive a diploma of the petroleum engineer;
1957 he spent several months in Yugoslavia after verification by the State Department; 1958 he went on a long journey through Africa: Togo, Ghana, Dahomey; and back out through Poland. He was in Czechoslovakia. In 1959, he and his wife traveled to Mexico, and met Anastas Mikoyan. In 1960, the couple De Mohrenschildt gone for almost a year to the Central or South America.


Acc. to a book 'PRL in Dallas...', about the assassination of President Kennedy, above named George De Mohrenschildt, who as George von Mohrenschildt, first came to the United States, as a Polish citizen (to ca 1952), just before World War II, was the best friend of Lee Oswald.
George edited films about the Polish underground, with the cooperation of the Polish embassy in Washington. However, British intelligence warned about his possible cooperation with Germany;
his father Sergei Von Mohrenschildt, was anti-communist, and ca 1940 decreed German nationality and, he left Vilnius to Germany.
George questioned by Mr. Jenner, on behalf of the Warren Commission, related his biography: a cavalry school in Poland, and doctorate studies in Belgium and three marriages with the daughters of millionaires.
Mr Pacepa and Antoni J. Wrega of Warsaw, cites other sources.
According to Ion Mihai Pacepa, De Mohrenschildt was the so-called "officer support" to Oswald; Consul Valery Vladimirovich Kostikow / Kostin from the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Mexico City was the officer in charge of the case to Oswald,
who on 28 September and 1 October met Oswald in Mexico;
Kostikow was an employee of the Department of the KGB for homicide and sabotage.
Interesting that President Kennedy received from Golitsyn ("Martel"), a KGB officer who defected to the United States, information on the Soviet spies located among others in France, and in Italy. Total about 200 spies in the structures of NATO countries. Spring 1962, John F. Kennedy handed over to the President of France, Charles de Gauelle, data about Soviet infiltration in France. The Report of the Warren Commission showed several so-called "Polish traces". An example of a certain professor, James Dombrowski, with Polish origin, the most prominent activist of the Communist Party of the United States in the South. Especially, however, the figure of George De Mohrenschildt, to at least 1952 a Polish citizen. Media reports about the special role played in 1962 - 1963 by marriage of De Mohrenschildt: George and Jeanne, to Lee Harvey and Marina Oswald, lasted approx. 8 months, from the middle of summer 1962.
George's father was a teacher in high school in Mozyrz, and later vice-president of the oil company, owned by Alfred Nobel in Baku; he was also the Marshal of the nobility in the province of Minsk, and after the outbreak of the revolution Nov. 1917 even deputy minister of agriculture of the Soviet Belarus (1919). In 1922 Sergei von Mohrenschildt found himself in exile in Vilnius, where he was director of the Russian emigre school.
George / Yurij graduated in Polish school in Vilnius in 1929, then studied at one and half year military officers' school of Cavalry in Grudziadz, who graduated as sergeant - candidate for lieutenant in 1931. After he went - with a Polish passport - to study at the School of Commerce in Antwerp, with a doctorate on the natural resources of Latin America at the University of Liege, Belgium. In 1938, with 10 thousands dollars, De Mohrenschildt arrived to the United States. He lived for several months in the apartments of the daughter of the Queen of Yugoslavia, Madame de Lipovatz, trying various businesses after the outbreak of war in 1939. Cooperated with the Polish Consul in New York, Sylwin Jerzy Strakacz, previously confidential secretary of Ignacy Paderewski. Acted together with his cousin, Baron Konstantin von Maydell, apparently an officer of the Abwehr.
Married 4th time in 1958 to 1975, to the fashion designer Jeanne Legon, born as Evgenija Fomenko, Russian from Charbin, northern China, ex wife of Sergei Bogojawlienski;
in 1960, couple of De Mohrenschildt set off on a hike, over 3 thousand miles away, as interpreter all, from the Mexican border with Texas, to the Panama Canal;
in Mexico, they faced with a very important Bolshevik head, Anastazy Mikoyan, the old Bolshevik guard, brother of the constructor of MIG.
In June 1963 George was in Haiti; along with Jeanne, in Haiti are looking for oil and there finds the tragedy in Dallas. George had numerous contacts with Poles: Rey family, meets in Caracas, Venezuela with the then Polish Deputy Minister of Science, chemist, prof. Osman Achmatowicz. Also he corresponds with Mr. Domanska in Warsaw, probably before the war famous Miss Achmatowicz; and with Strumillo from Paris;
but in Port-au-Prince, the Haitian capital, he known the head of the Commercial Counsellor's Office (subordinate to the Polish Embassy in Mexico), attache Wlodzimierz Galicki and Kazimierz Sałaciński.
On 9 August 1964 George and Jeanne De Mohrenschildt met with Wlodzimierz Galicki, and Wojciech STAWINSKI, a Polish national who arrived in Haiti for the first time, by plane on the same day. Stawiński was a member of the "Universal", Polish state-owned commercial organization. Stawiński left the Venezuela to Quito.
29 March 1977, on the eve of a testify before the Commission of the Chamber of Representatives, George De Mohrenschildt shot himself in the throat, leaving a letter in defense of Oswald.


We need check:
In 1915, the Russian government dispatched a second uncle of George de Mohrenschildt, the young diplomat Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt, to Washington to plead for American intervention in the war (see Koziell POKLEWSKI); 1917, Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt's mission was a success; he was often in the company of Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, of the family then befriending Prescott Bush and about to hire Prescott's future father-in-law, George Herbert Walker. Ferdinand married the step-granddaughter of President Woodrow Wilson.

Von Mohrenschildt Ferdinand was son of Karl Johann Ferdinand Mohrenschildt b. 1841. That is Ferdinand Theodor b. in 1870 in Reval, d. Dec. 1918, Reval, m. 1904 in Reval to Irma Sophie Broszewicz / Broschewitz b. 1881 daughter of Johann (JAN BROSZEWICZ) and Amalie (Amalie Girard of Goa canton ?).

Above named Ferdinand's children:
Olga Marie b. 1906 in Reval; Brigitte Dorothea b. 1908 Reval; Ursula Alice b. Nov. 1913 in Reval. See: Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften, � BSB M�nchen.

Sjergei / Siergiej b. 1870 married to Aleksandra Zapolski / Gapolski / ZAPOLSKA in 1901.

Siergei's son was Dmitri b. March 1902 in the Hlusk district, the Minsk gevernment - that is Dimitri Sergius Von Mohrenschildt, 1902-2002.
Sergei b. 1870 was son of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt b. 1831 - d. 1904, and L. Nikonov. Heinrich was son of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Luise Wilhelmine Anna Alexandra von Doerper.
Heinrich's children: Wladimir; Nikolai; Siergei / Sergei; Konstantin b. 1858; Aleksander; and Peter.
Heinrich was brother of Julie Friederike Ulrike; Ottilie Alexandra von Tobiesen; Helene Ottilie Mathilde; Peter Ludwig Hugo von Mohrenschildt; Olga Wilhelmine Lisette Auguste; Oskar Johann von Mohrenschildt; Emilie Nathalie Elisabeth; Eduard Fromhold Gustav von Mohrenschildt and Nikolaus Ewald Konstantin von Mohrenschildt.


Brief note on Artuzow - Frautchi:
In the history of intelligence services Artuzov Arthur Frauchi was headed counterintelligence, foreign intelligence and military intelligence.
He was born 1891 in the village Ustinovo, Kashin County, Tver province
(Dubbelt or Dubelt family in Kuvshinovo, Tver region = Russia, Tver Oblast, Kuvshinovo, close to Puzakovo; ca 120 km west of Tver),
his father Christian Frautschi was a master cheesemaker in the estate of the landowner Likhachev. Frauchi father remained a Swiss citizen;
mother, Augusta Avgustovna Didrikil, Latvian descent, taught him French and German, and then he taught himself English.
Family of Christian Frautschi, came from Switzerland to Russia in 1881 and settled in the estate of landowner Popov, Apashkovo, Tver province, where his older brother Paul / Peter Frautschi, arrived in this region 1879, next in Yurino estate, manor Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putjatino, the village Davydkovo / Davydovo, 17 km north-west of Kashin, and north-east of Tver.
Cheesemaker was working in the estate Mykolaivk, and Christian Frautschi married Augusta Didrikil, Didrikil family was of mixed origin, the Latvian and Estonian, her grandfather was a Scot; after the wedding, the young family settled in the estate at Kashin County, Tver province.
The ancestors of the Frautschi family were Italians, but they settled in that part of the country, where lived natives of Germany, village in the mountains - Gstaad, about an hour away by car from Bern and ca 2 km only from Saanen; ca 30 km east of Villeneuve; here were always Frautschi, all generation were cheesemaker; spoke a strange dialect of German; Christian Frautschi, went to Russia from this village;
Christian's Petrovich daughter Nina came home in Gstaad during the holidays at summer of 1912.
House was unhurt now, the house is so empty since 1912.
Elisee Reclus and Piotr Kropotkin were living in Clarens, Montreux.
L'Abbaye - Breguet.
Abetel in Riex, Lausanne.
Morges - Duflon.
Demontet - in Villette in the Vaud province. Cully is near to Riex. Villette or Lavaux close to Lutry and Cully.
Ramseyer family from Neuch�tel and La Chaux-de-Fonds is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuch�tel. Also St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne, Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, Tavannes, north of Neuchatel.
Villeneuve is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located ca 30 km east-south of Lausanne;
Duflon family gone from Nimes 1584, Lutry 1852, Neuchatel, in Paris 1801 - 1877 Louis Duflon. Duflon in 1906 in d'Ardon, south-east of Villeneuve. Also in La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km. The DUFLON family 1745 - 1815 was living in Riex of the Vaud province / Vaud canton, Switzerland / Suisse.
M. Wilczek from Lausanne, and Michael Dobrovolsky / Michail / Michal Dobrowolski 1903 - 1907 in Lausanne.
Jean Rey / Jean-Alexandre REY b. 1861 in Lausanne / Lauzanne, Switzerland. His first wife Marie Sautter b. 1870, daughter of Louis Sautter - founder of LEMONNIER - HARLE and Co. with Paul LEMONNIER.
Diserens or Dizeren among other things, it were the villages and towns:
CLARENS located east from Lausanne, also Villette, Cully and Riex. Villette or Lavaux is located close to Lutry and Cully.
Shortly before the First World War Kedrov graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Lausanne.
At margin - we know about Anna Frauchi, b. 1716 in Koppigen, Bern district, Switzerland, died in 1756, Switzerland, married 1774 in Jegenstorf, Bern, Switzerland.
Didrikil Maria Gieorgievna, born 1872, in the Armed Forces of South Russia and evacuated at the end of January 1920 from Novorossiysk on the ship 'Hannover'.
Somebody of the Frauchi / Frautchi in Rapperswil-Jona, close to Zurich; Turbach ca 5 km east of Saanen.
Johann Jakob Frautschi / Jacob Jacques Frautschi in 1842, used passport to travel from Switzerland between Canton Berne and Paris, living in Gessenai (Saanen/Gessenay or Saanen, east of Montreux ca 28 km, close to Versoix, near by Rougemont; and now in Schonried close to Saanen; east of Villeneuve), aged 44 years, who was native of Gesseney, who wanted to return to France, married 1843 to Elise Perrin, aged 34 years.
Marie Elise Perin / Perrin was born 28 May 1814, and was baptised in 1815 in the parish of Briel (Biel / Bienne, ca 35 km north-east of Neuchatel).
More:
http://www.konstantynowicz.info/constantinovich/konstantinovich/Russian_military_intelligence/renucci_fraucci_frauchi_frautchi_artuzov/pilar_pilchau/index.html


Note at margin - acc. to http://jfkmurdersolved.com/bush3.htm:
"George H. W. Bush failed to disclose his friendship with George De Mohrenschildt, a renowned oil geologist and Lee Harvey Oswald's best friend in Dallas. They knew each other since 1942, probably even longer, because in 1939 he went to work for Humble Oil, a company founded by Prescott Bush. In 1977, when De Mohrenschildt is located by investigators of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, who want to interview him, he allegedly commits suicide the following day. The last person to interview him on the day he died, is Jay Edward Epstein, a writer - historian and a known apologist for the Warren Report since day one. Epstein married a CIA agent and is the biographer of former CIA-director James Jesus Angleton, presumably in charge of Oswald's "defection" to Russia. Interestingly, Epstein is also the "consultant" that was suddenly hired by NBC in 1995, when NBC was making a program for national TV on the confession of James E. Files".


Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt / George Sergius de Mohrenschildt was son of Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt, who had brothers:
1. Konstantin son of Alexander, collegiate counselor, the Chairman of the Board of the shipbuilding company and a mechanical plant in St. Petersburg. Member of the Board and Managing Director of the mining and oil industry in Ferghana.
2. Morenshild Vladimir son of above Alexandr / Aleksander De Mohrenschildt, was born in 1854. Midshipman - 1876. The senior officer of the battleship "Vice Admiral Popov" (1896). Senior Officer of "Terets" (1896 - 1897) and the battleship "George" (1897-1899). The commander of "Ingul" (1899) and mine cruiser "Griden" (1901-1902), "Zaporozhets" (1902-1903). The mayor of Sevastopol (1906). Orthodox; one son (1906).
Sergey von Mohrenschildt was a Marshal of Nobility of the Minsk Province 1913 - 1917 and served as director of the Nobel interests in Russia.
Konstantin also ran the Branobel Oil Company in Baku. In 1918 De Mohrenschildt lived in Minsk (from Baku ?).
The Baku department of BRANOBEL, the Control Department:
R. E. Nobel, Ulner K. K., Ternudd G. A., Bergrot E. I., Nikolaev R. N., Garsoev I. G., Eklund G. P., Morenshild K. A.,
Lessner A. G. who was in 1916 the Director of the Board;
Nobel G. L. (Gustaf Oscar Ludvig);
Lamberg A. B.
About above Nobel G. L.:
Nobel L. L. (descendant of Ludvig and Edla Nobel), Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel, 1874 - 1935, hereditary honorable citizen, Director of the Company 'Gear-Tsitroen' (Citroen) and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and a machine factory of Company 'Ludvig Nobel'.
Descendants of Immanuel Nobel, the younger b. 1801 and Andriette Ahlsell:
Robert Nobel b. 1829, Alfred Nobel b. 1833 - the inventor of dynamite, instituted the Nobel Prizes, Emil Oskar Nobel and Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831 - is buried in the Smolensky Lutheran Cemetery in St. Petersburg.
Descendants of Ludvig and Mina Nobel:
Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 d. 1932 (Branobel's second president and being interested in the encryption business correspondence, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin and Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel were an investors of the AB Cryptograph Company, in the production cipher machines developed Arvid Damm, like a rotary machine Electrocryptograph B-1),
Carl Nobel b. 1862;
and descendants of Ludvig and Edla Nobel:
Esther Wilhelmina Olsen-Nobel,
Ludvig Alfred (Lullu) Nobel b. 1874 (Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company),
Ingrid Hildegard Nobel-Ahlqvist b. 1879,
Marta Helena Nobel-Oleinikoff b. 1881,
Rolf Nobel,
Emil Waldemar Ludvig Nobel and
last above mentioned Gustaf Oscar Ludvig.
Above LESSNER:
Next of kin to the Armands and the Konstantynowiczs was Pampel Eduard 1884 - 1952, Germany, began his career in Russia at Lessner factory in St. Petersburg 1911, then entered the factory Becker in Revel; he worked at the aerodynamic laboratory of the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute 1917, shipbuilding division Putilov factory. Plant Becker was in Revel that is Revel Shipyard BECKER & Co. / Joint Stock Company 'metallurgical, mechanical and shipbuilding plants Becker & Co.' in Reval / Tallinn. During the First World War, it had to be evacuated to Novorossiysk, where it is located on the site of a small factory Muller, Lampe & Co., after which he ever lost shipbuilding specialization. The factory made machine-gun and artillery tower installation of armored trains.
The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company co-operated with the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank. According to V. S. Solomko at http://www.encspb.ru/ this St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank was a joint-stock commercial bank, opened in 1869, cooperating especially closely with the St. Petersburg International Bank by taking part "in the military industrial group to build submarines for the Baltic Navy.
The group included Lessner's Plant and Nobel's Plant in St. Petersburg, which played a leading role in the group, as well as Fenix, Atlas, and Gatchinsky Ironworks".
Guchkov Alexander Ivanovich b. 1862, political and public figure, banker and businessman, was Director of Moscow Discount Bank. In 1907 and 1915, he was elected Member of State Assembly representing Industry and Trade, heading a defence Commission 1907-10. In St Petersburg, he was a member of St Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank's board. From 1915, he was Chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee and a member of Special Meeting for defence. At the end of 1916, he designed plans for dynastic coup.
Emmanuel Nobel / Immanuel the younger b. 1801 died 1872, the inventor of underwater mines. In 1842 - 1859 he lived in St. Petersburg, where he founded a mechanical plant. Robert E. Nobel (1829 - 1896) was born in Sweden but his mother came to St. Petersburg and since 1850 he has worked at the factory of his father, after worked for many years in companies that founded together with his brothers:
Alfred Bernhard Nobel b. 1833, founder of the Nobel Prizes - in Russia became acquainted with the works of Zinin and V. F. Petrushevskii / Pietruszewski in chemical engineering nitroglycerin.
Ludvig Nobel b. 1831 died 1888, member of the Russian Technical Society, in St. Petersburg acted for 'Ludwig Nobel' / 'Russian diesel', in 1876 he founded with brothers
Robert and
Alfred and
with his sons:
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and
Carl:
Oil Industry Company / Branobel / Tovarichtchestvo Nephtanavo Proisvodtsva Bratiev Nobel in Baku.
He moved with his mother Andriette and brothers Robert and Alfred to St Petersburg in 1842 where his father Immanuel had set up a factory. He bought his own smaller factory that he called the 'Machine-Building Factory Ludvig Nobel'. There, he made cannons, gun carriages, underwater mines and artillery missiles, machine tools, hydraulic presses.
Together with Russian Major General Peter A. Bilderling and his brother, he built up a model factory in Izhevsk in the Urals.
Ludvig and his son
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, visited Baku in 1876. In 1879, the 'Naftaproduktionsaktiebolaget Br�derna Nobel', shortened to Branobel, was formed in St. Petersburg.
Above Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831, was an engineer, m. 1st. time in 1858 to Mina Ahlsell and 2nd time in 1871.
Ludvig ran the company with his sons Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and Carl.
His first and illegitimate child, Hjalmar Crusell, was head of a laboratory and the closest person in St Petersburg.
Most of the people in the managerial staff were Swedes, but was also a man from Norway, Hans Olsen who came to Kronstadt to work in 1880 and met Ludvig Nobel's sons,
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and
Carl, in the Russian capital.
Above Major General Peter A. Bilderling and his brother:
Marie Dolivo Dobrovolsky / MARIA Doliwa Dobrowolska, 1820 - 1887 was mother of above Peter I von Bilderling + Sophie von Westmann von Bilderling.
He was father of Peter II von Bilderling + Marie Rjewsky / RAJEWSKA.
The baron Peter I von Bilderling (born in Saint-Petersburg in 1844) died in Zapolie near Luga in 1900, was the Russian Imperial Army Engineering Officer. Founder with Robert Nobel in Tsaritsin refinery and creation with Ludwig Nobel of the Branobel's Baku petroleum company.
He was the brother of baron Alexander von Bilderling, the general.
Peter von Bilderling was born in Courland, became Orthodox family. His father Alexandre Otto Hermann Grigorievitch von Bilderling was lieutenant general in the engineering. His grandfather, Georges Sigismond von Bilterlings, (1767-1829).
Co-operated with Ludwig Nobel, Alfred Nobel, Robert Nobel, I. J. Zabelsky / ZABIELSKI, Alexander von Bilderling, Fritz Blumberg, Michel Beliamin, A. S. Sundgren, Benno Wunderlich.
More:
http://konstantynowicz.info/Deka_Company_1904_-_1918_St_Petersburg/cryptography_ciphers_radio_telegraph_sweden_switzerland_russia_nobel_damm_wheatstone_hagelin_schilling/index.html
De Mohrenschildt's family managed Nobel Oil (Branobel Oil) in Baku, whose legal representative was John McCloy.
McCloy was a consultant to I. G. Farben and was on the Warren Commission as well. Both McCloy and Gen. William F. Draper, Jr. opposed the de-Nazification of of Germany according to Christopher Simpson in Splendid Blond Beast.

In 1961 George de Mohrenschildt was invited to lunch by J. Walton Moore. According to Edward Jay Epstein, during the meeting Moore told de Mohrenschildt about Lee Harvey Oswald living in Minsk.

In May 1920, the Nobel family sold almost half of Branobel's shares.
The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, or Branobel, was an oil company set up by Ludvig Nobel and Baron Peter von Bilderling, mainly in Baku, Azerbaijan but also in Cheleken, Turkmenistan.
At the head of the partnership stood the Board, based in St. Petersburg. From 1879 to 1888 L. Nobel was Chairman, and after his death, this post was taken by his son Emmanuel.
The post of Director of the Board held:
I. O. Olzen / OLSEN, K. V. Hagelin, M. M. Belyamin, G. P. Eklund, E. K. Grube.

Above HAGELIN:
Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin b. 1892, was a Swedish businessman and inventor of encryption machines. Born of Swedish parents in Azerbaijan;
father Karl Wilhelm Hagelin worked for Ludvig and Emanuel / Emmanuel Nobel in Baku
(Karl Hagelin was closest advisor for Emmanuel, because Wilhelm Hagelin, his father, had been employed by Ludvig Nobel as a manager of the St. Petersburg factory; 1899, Karl Hagelin was called back to St. Petersburg, like Emmanuel's closest technical advisor),
and next was an investor in the Arvid Gerhard Damm's company - Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, established to sell rotor machines, acc. to Wikipedia.
See: Smith, Francis O. J., The Secret Corresponding Vocabulary..., ed. in Portland; Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System..., ed. in 1948; Damm Arvid G., Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, ed. 1922;
Boris C. W. Hagelin became first a director and later the owner of the Cryptograph Company, next the Cryptographe Technik and then the Crypto A. G. in the 1960s.
Several genealogical family connections between families Rehbinder and Gernet, and Arensburg, Saku and Lehola in this configuration:
on 6 March 1865 between the Lord Captain Alezander Gernet / Alexander Gernet
(Alexander August von Gernet 1786 - 1865, born and died in Lehhola / Lehola; his wife died in Lehola - Natalie Praskowia Rehbinder 1796 - 1862)
- as owner of the property in the Harri / Harrifchen or
(Harju County or Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, it is situated in northern Estonia, on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland)
Harjumaa county, Keila parish, close to Lehola - and the farmer T�nnis Elling concluded agreement on the sold on 20 April 1865. And agreement between Gernet and the farmer Karel Keippar on the site Wanna I�rri, as owner of the property in the Harri / Harrifchen close to Lehola.
Captain Alexander von Gernet and the farmer Hans Limberg on the site Old (?) concluded decreed, as owner of the property in the Harrifchen / Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, close to Lehola.
The Baltic German historian Axel von Gernet (1865-1920), or Konrad Axel von Gernet from Sallentack (Salutaguse / 2 km east of Kohila, 19 km south-east of Saku), Raplamaa, Estland, died 1920 in St. Petersburg.
Kohila, Estonia is located ca 17 km south of Saku! Konrad Axel von Gernet was from Sallentack (Salutaguse / 2 km east of Kohila).
Alexander Gustav Konstantin von Benckendorff, from Jendel, b. 1846 in Warrang (Varangu - north of Rakvere ca 18 km), V�ike-Maarja vald. Died 1910 in above Jendel (J�neda - ca 65 km east of Saku).
Some inf. on the Pilchau family:
Karl Gustav Pilar von Pilchau 1751 - 1802 born in Wait (Vaida), Rae vald, Harjumaa, Estland and died 1802 in Weissenstein (Paide), J�rvamaa, Estland.
His wife Johanna Christine Charlotte Pilar von Pilchau nee von Patkul 1751 - 1828; above Weissenstein (Paide), J�rvamaa, ca 75 km south-east of Saku.
Siim Hacker b. 1817; his sons: Constantin Johann Hacker b. 1859 d. on February 28, 1926 in Keila - Keila town is 5 km north-east of Lehola, Harju County, and Keila is west of Saku; Gustav Hacker b. 1854 Hiiumaa - island, west of Haapsalu, died on September 28, 1917 in Tallinn, Harjumaa (his daughter Olga-Pauline Hacker b. 1876 d. 1877).
Pilar von Pilchau:
the first the Narva commendant Wenzel Pilar von Pilchau (1606�1675); lived in Livland / Liivimaa and Estonia; Pilar von Pilchau were owners of Vaida / Wait, Oru / Orrenhof, Meremoisa / Merremois, Raasiku / Rasik, K��sla / K�sal, Lehtse / Lechts, Karjak�la / Karjak�ll close to Saue and Saku, Vardi, Valgu, Palivere south-west of Lehola / Palvere / Pallfer and Halinga / Hallick, Uulu, Lelle, Alt-Salis, Audru / Audern, Arrohof, Haeska / Hasik close to Haapsalu (see Dunkel).
Pilar von Pilchau owners of:
Vaida is a small borough in Rae Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. It's located about 21 km southeast of Tallinn.
Orrenhof, south of Parnu, is a place with a very small population in the region of Parnumaa, Estonia.
Merremois / Meremoisa - 10 km north-west of Karjakula, and 15 km from Keila. Raasiku, south-east of Tallinn, 23 km. Rasik to von Sivers in 1843.
Palifer - Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau (1761-1819), was owner of Palifer, Orks, Pall, K�sal.
Orks = Polumyza Orks, Laanemaa, south of Haeska. K�tke (K�tke) close to M�rjamaa, south of Saku.
Lechts, outh-west of Rakvere.
Schloss Felks owner Baron de Maydell.
Karjak�ll - Vana-Karjak�la / Alt-Karjak�ll, Karjak�la is a small borough in Keila Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia.

A note on the Gernet family from Estland / Estonia:
Natalie Praskowia Rehbinder b. 1796 died 1862, her father Peter Woldemar Rehbinder b. 1757 d. 1823;
her husband Alexander August von Gernet b. 1786 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia and died on October 5, 1865 in Lehhola.
Lehola is a settlement in Keila Parish, Harju County in northwestern Estonia, 15 km south-west of Harku, and 18 km west of Saku.
His father Carl Gustav von Gernet b. 1747 died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia.
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army -
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801 in Jogisoo.
Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. 1767 in Kirna, T�ri vald, J�rvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in J�ggis (Jogisuu).
He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.
Jogisoo (Jogisuu) ca 3 km south-west of Kullamaa, south-east-east of Haapsalu, L��nemaa county. But we know about different J�ggis, ca 5 and 1/2 km south from Saue, and south-west of Saku, also ca 7 km south-east of Keila and east of Lehola.

Walter Erich von Mohrenschildt b. 1910, died on July 1, 1934 in Berlin, the Sturmabteilung (SA) of the NSDAP. Son of Walter Konstantin von Mohrenschildt b. 1879 in Haiba, Hageri kihelkond, Harjumaa, Estonia; grandson of Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. 1833 in Haiba, Estland;
great-grandson of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1806 in J�ggis (Jogisoo), Saue vald, Harjumaa, Estland.
She was daughter of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm.

More about Estonia, Saue, Keila, Lehola, Tallinn:
http://konstantynowicz.info/Konstantinovich_Troubetskoy_Orlov_Denisov_Bagrationi_Paszkovsky_Siedych_Armand_Demonets/Estonia_Russia_Belarus_Poland/toll_rehbinder_steinberg_gernet_nomme_harku_saku/index.html
Kreuzhof / Risti, the Padise vald, Harjumaa - ca 30 km south-west of KEILA.
http://konstantynowicz.info/family_history_genealogy_historia_rodzina_genealogia/Italy_UK_Switzerland_Estonia_Sweden_Belarus_Russia_Poland_France/Belarusian_Estonian_Polish_Russian_genealogical_historical_database/index.html.
Von Mohrenshildt family - genealogical and historical database
A brief explanation on the De Mohrenschildt family from Estonia / Estland:

De Mohrenschildt / Мореншильд, Фёдор Борисович 1st, served the Guards Finland Regiment in 1823; staff captain - 1830, in 1841 lived in Estonia.

The brothers:
1. Sergei son of Alexandr De Mohrenschildt / фон Мореншильд Сергей Александрович, the court counselor, a district chief of the Slutsk district of the Minsk province in 1903.
2. Konstantin / фон Мореншильд Конl