COPYRIGHT BY BOGDAN KONSTANTYNOWICZ

November 11th, 2015

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Bogdan Konstanynowicz, encyklopedia Polski Niepodleglej. The Russian conspiracy intelligence network - globalism and globalization.

Bogdan Konstantynowicz, the Independent Poland Encyclopedia.


Encyklopedia Internetowa Polski Niepodleglej - Konstantynowicz Bogdan: Kiedrzynski, Psarski, Bleszynski, Soltan, Oginski, Mielzynski, Walewski, Radolinski, Sulimierski, Fiszer, Bninski.


Globalization and globalism - Donald Trump, John F. Kennedy, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Hillary Clinton, Angela Merkel, Bronislaw Komorowski - the Russian global intelligence network. Konstantynowicz Bogdan - Polish Internet Archive. Key note.


For the first time in the world in November 2015, more than 50 years after the death of Kennedy, I present connections between structures in Europe that I was researching, and the most important figures of American history, Thomas Jefferson b. 1743, and John Fitzgerald Kennedy born 1917, that is a group of German noble clans from Estonia and Polish families from the province of Minsk in Belarus, which led to the disintegration of Russia in 1917 and among other things, to independence of the Baltic states and Poland in 1918.

Now we come to US in 1961 - 1963:

The operation named the Bay of Pigs was launched in April 1961; the Cuban armed forces destroyed the invading force within three days;
this failed action has caused repercussions among the leaders of the CIA, and were dismissed in autumn 1961, among others, Director Allen Dulles, also CIA Deputy Director Charles Cabell, and Deputy Director for Plans Richard Mervin Bissell Jr.; on November 29th, 1961, the White House released about a resignation letter signed by Dulles.
Interesting note:
Work on the Apollo spacecraft stretched from 28 November 1961, when the prime contract for its development was let to North American Aviation, to 22 October 1968 when the last test flight took place.
Two years later, on November 29, 1963, President Lyndon Johnson appointed Dulles as one of seven commissioners of the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of the U.S. President John F. Kennedy. The appointment was later criticized, have noted that Kennedy had fired him;
on January 10, 1961 there was a publication of the 'New York Times' article under title: "The United States will help train forces against Castro in a secret air-land base in Guatemala"; the Cuban security apparatus knew of the invasion, thanks to their secret intelligence networks, and reports in the US and foreign newspapers. The Cuban government has been warned by two senior officers of the KGB, Osvaldo Cabrera Sánchez and "Aragon"; the first of whom died violently before and one after the invasion; on April 18, 1961 at the beach of Playa Larga came to the biggest battle of the invasion;
fighting finally ended on 21 April 1961;
and then President Kennedy referred the words to the American Newspaper Publishers Association at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City on April 27, 1961.
In his speech President Kennedy addresses his discontent with the press's news coverage before, and during, and after the Bay of Pigs incident, suggesting there is a need for "far greater public information" and "far greater official secrecy".
April the 28th, 1961 we read on the 'JFK Tells of Red Menace',
"President Kennedy told the nations newspaper publishers Thursday night that
no formally declared war ever posed as great a threat to American security as
does the rampant worldwide menace of communism.
In view of this deadly challenge, he urged newspapers across the land to re-examine their obligations in the light of global danger and, in presenting the news, to heed the duty of self-restraint.
Kennedy ... speaking at the annual Waldorf-Astoria dinner of the Bureau of Advertising of the American Newspaper Publishers Association, suggested there is a need for greater public information, and at the same time a need for greater official secrecy...".

On April 28, 1961, President Kennedy explained what is meant by the term:
"The Communist conspiracy".

We read The Address in Chicago at a Dinner of the Democratic Party of Cook County on April 28, 1961:
"Mayor Daley, Governor Kerner, Senator Douglas, Congressman Dawson, Chairman Cullerton ... ladies and gentlemen: ... We live in a hazardous and dangerous time. ... Now our great responsibility is to be the chief defender of freedom, in this time of maximum danger. Only the United States has the power and the resources and the determination. We have committed ourselves to the defense of dozens of countries stretched around the globe who look to us for independence, who look to us for the defense of their freedom. We are prepared to meet our obligations, but we can only defend the freedom of those who are determined to be free themselves. ... The Russians and the Chinese, containing within their borders nearly a billion people, totally mobilized for the advance of the Communist system, operating from narrow, interior lines of communication, pressuring on Southeast Asia with the masses of the Chinese armies potentially ready to move-of the Russians who hold great power potentially in the Middle East and Western Europe ...
There is no easy answer to the dilemmas that we face. Our great ally is the fact that people do desire to be free, that people will sacrifice everything in their desire to maintain their independence.
And as the true nature of the Communist conspiracy becomes better known around the globe, when people come to realize - as they surely will - that the Communist advance does not represent a means of liberation but represents a final enslavement,
then I believe that they will rally to the cause to which we have given our support and our commitment".

Mentioned above Bissell moved after 1949 to Washington, where he associated with a group of journalists and politicians: Frank Wisner, George Kennan, Dean Acheson, Desmond FitzGerald, Joseph Alsop, Stewart Alsop, Tracy Barnes, Walt Rostow, Eugene Rostow, Cord Meyer, James Angleton, W. Averell Harriman, John McCloy, Felix Frankfurter, Allen W. Dulles, and Paul Nitze. In September 1960, Bissell and Allen W. Dulles, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency, initiated talks with Johnny Roselli and Sam Giancana. Later, with Carlos Marcello, Santo Trafficante, Jr. and Meyer Lansky became involved in plot against Castro. Meyer Lansky, original name Maier Suchowljansky born in Grodno, or Meier Suchowlanski, moved to the United States through the port of Odessa. Bissell became head of the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) in 1962. IDA was a Pentagon think tank set up to evaluate weapons systems. After Bissell was Richard McGarrah Helms who served as the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from June 1966 to February 1973. Helms began intelligence work with the Office of Strategic Services.

At www.jfklibrary.org we have the speech of President John F. Kennedy; that is an Address before the American Newspaper Publishers Association, on April 27, 1961 at Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York City.
"Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen: I appreciate very much your generous invitation to be here tonight. ... I want to talk about our common responsibilities in the face of a common danger. The events of recent weeks may have helped to illuminate that challenge for some; but the dimensions of its threat have loomed large on the horizon for many years. ...
The very word "secrecy" is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings. We decided long ago that the dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweighed the dangers which are cited to justify it. Even today, there is little value in opposing the threat of a closed society by imitating its arbitrary restrictions. Even today, there is little value in insuring the survival of our nation if our traditions do not survive with it. And there is very grave danger that an announced need for increased security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of official censorship and concealment. That I do not intend to permit to the extent that it is in my control. And no official of my Administration, whether his rank is high or low, civilian or military, should interpret my words here tonight as an excuse to censor the news, to stifle dissent, to cover up our mistakes or to withhold from the press and the public the facts they deserve to know. ...
Today no war has been declared - and however fierce the struggle may be, it may never be declared in the traditional fashion. Our way of life is under attack. Those who make themselves our enemy are advancing around the globe. The survival of our friends is in danger. And yet no war has been declared, no borders have been crossed by marching troops, no missiles have been fired.
If the press is awaiting a declaration of war before it imposes the self-discipline of combat conditions, then I can only say that no war ever posed a greater threat to our security. If you are awaiting a finding of "clear and present danger," then I can only say that the danger has never been more clear and its presence has never been more imminent. It requires a change in outlook, a change in tactics, a change in missions - by the government, by the people, by every businessman or labor leader, and by every newspaper.
For we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence - on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day.
It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations.
Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined.
Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed.
It conducts the Cold War, in short, with a war-time discipline no democracy would ever hope or wish to match.
Nevertheless, every democracy recognizes the necessary restraints of national security - and the question remains whether those restraints need to be more strictly observed if we are to oppose this kind of attack as well as outright invasion. ...".

And now we look at
Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt / George Sergius de Mohrenschildt / Георгий Сергеевич де Мореншильд / Jerzy Sergiusz,
who studied at the Institute of Higher Commercial Studies, the University of Liege and the University of Texas at Austin. He was petroleum geologist.
He became
friends with Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President John F. Kennedy.
George De Mohrenschildt met Oswald after his return from the Soviet Union.
"...While in Atsugi, Japan, Oswald studied the Russian language ... He studied by himself a great deal in late 1958 and early 1959 after he was transferred from Japan to California. ... When he reached the Soviet Union in October of the same year he could barely speak the language. During the period in Moscow while he was awaiting decision on his application for citizenship, his diary records that he practiced Russian 8 hours a day. After he was sent to Minsk in early January 1960 he took lessons... Marina Oswald said that by the time she met him in March 1961 he spoke the language well enough ... Oswald resided in the city of Minsk from January 1960 until June 1962...".

George de Mohrenschildt (Pole-German from Estonia, Belarus and Poland) knew perfectly Jacqueline Kennedy's family practically since childhood. During the Second World War he was followed by the FBI as a German agent, and in the 50s and 60s of the 20th century he maintained close contacts with the Bush family, including future head of the CIA, George H. W. Bush (41st President of the United States in 1989 - 1993; see 1989 in Poland);
one piece of Kennedy death's evidence was an amateur film made by Abraham Zapruder (1905-1970), a Polish-Jewish immigrant from Volhynia, city Kowel / Kovel in Tsarist Russia, who owned a small company, the Jennifer Juniors, Inc., located in front of the Depot handbooks in Dallas (see Lee Oswald position on 22nd November, 1963, who was ex Minsk of Belarus citizen).
Abraham Zapruder was an American clothing manufacturer who witnessed the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. He received only four years of formal education in Russia. In 1920 (see: von Mohrenschildt moved to Poland in 1922), his family emigrated to the United States, settling in Brooklyn, New York.
George de Mohrenschildt was friend of the Oswalds; Lee Oswald on November 24, 1963 had to participate in a press conference, and then would be taken to the local jail. At 11.21 Oswald was escorted by policemen.
Surprisingly, Jack Ruby / Jacek Leon Rubenstein (son of the orthodox Jews from POLAND - Sokolow Podlaski), owner of the nightclub, jumped and shoted Oswald who was being led through the Dallas Police Headquarters toward an armored car.
Zapruder himself and approx. 60 peoples claimed that at least one shot fell down at front of the limousine, but their testimonies were ignored by the Warren committees. Zapruder's film showed three or four shots within 8.3 seconds.
Jim Garrison (1921-1992), the district attorney of New Orleans for the period 1962-1973, discovered evidence of conspiracy (but we have data about letters on 12 Nov. 1963 to James Webb and to John McCone, Willim Colby and James Angleton; need to be check!); Garrison arrested the New Orleans businessman - Clay Shaw. A key witness was Perry Russo, twenty-five insurance agent from Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Russo said that David Ferrie, Shaw, and Lee Oswald discussed the assassination of Kennedy. In 1993, the television photographs showed Oswald and Ferrie at picture of CAP cadets - Civil Air Patrol; on July 17, 1979 after more than two years of work, the new commission published its report; concluded Oswald was the assassin, but most likely the assassins were two; concluded that fell four shots, but failed to identify the second shooter.
The Commission also said that there was a plot to assassinate Kennedy; in 1984 the Commission report was completed and published.
The authors also draw attention to the fact that on June 4, 1963 the Regulation No. 11110 of limiting the competence of the Federal Reserve (Fed) was published, including takeover by the federal government the right to issue money based on values ​​for gold parity. In fact, the Federal Reserve is a private bank managed by federal authorities, created in 1913. Its functions include, among others supervision of banks, issue of money, and maintain a strong system of payments.

GEORGE DE MOHRENSCHILDT who was born in Mozyr / Mozyrz, and escaped with family to Poland, in 1939 worked for Humble Oil in Houston, Texas. 1941 his cousin Baron Maydell offered de Mohrenschildt job making documentary movies. Met Lilia Pardo Larin through "King of Bananas" of Brazil, Dr. Paulo Machado, and went to live with her in Mexico 9 months; invested in sugar company. In 1942 he met Dorothy Pierson in Palm Beach, and married her in 1943. 1944 moved to Texas, applied at Colorado School of Mines, Rice Institute and University of Texas. Worked in Venezuela. 1946 returned to the United States. Went to work for Rangely Field Committee in Colorado; met Phyllis Washington during vacation in New York. 1947 went to Haiti
Washington's step-daughter, Fifi / Phyllis married von George / Jurij / Yuri de Mohrenschildt on July 11, 1948 or in 1947. In 1949 he divorced from Phyllis Washington. Washington was descended to the brothers of first President George Washington. This would have been on both his mother and father's side of the family. S. W. Washington worked for the State Department from 1926 to 1954; Washington had been assigned to CIA from the Foreign Service in September 1950. Samuel Walter Washington father-in-law to George de Mohrenschildt, was in charge of more than 250 CIA agents between 1950-53, but George was Lee Harvey Oswald's closest friend. Mr. Washington worked with Allen Dulles, Frank Wisner, Robert P. Joyce, J. Caldwell King and other top CIA officials.
George then married Wynne Sharples. 1952 terminated partnership with Ed Hooker, returned to New York. Formed Walden Oil Co. with wife's uncle, Col. Edward J. Walz. Traveled to Nigeria, France, Mexico on oil exploration, also Ghana, Togo, Cuba, in Yugoslavia for International Cooperation Administration and Yugoslav Government. Met Jeanne Le Gon in Dallas. Visited Poland for 10 days. Visited Dominican Embassy in Washington; 1959 or 1960 moved to Mexico City for Texans Eastern Corp. and encountered Mikoyan. Early 1962 he went to Haiti; returned to Luisiana, began geology consulting work in Dallas. Summer 1962 told by George Bouhe of Oswald; went with Colonel Orlov to visit Oswalds; introduced him to Samuel Ballen in December 1962 or January 1963. Oct. 1962 George visited Elena Hall while Marina was living with her. March 1963 went to Haiti; Dominican Republic. Easter 1963 visited Oswalds at Neely Street address; May 1963 left Dallas for Haiti - June 1963. April 1964 went to Dominican Republic from Haiti. Acc. to MS. SURELL BRADY.
After Second World War George de Mohrenschildt advanced within State Department, CIA and governmental circles. George H. W. Bush knew George de Mohrenschildt since 1942. Allen Dulles knew de Mohrenschildt's brother in 1953. George knew Jackie Kennedy and her mother Janet Bouvier in 1938, also knew Mrs. Kennedy's dress designer Oleg Cassini and his brother Igor. George was business partners with Mohamed Al Fayed in 1964. Fayed had an affair with Alexandra de Mohrenschildt and James Angleton of the CIA was interested in this.

See more: Bruce Campbell Adamson's book.
In 1964, a CIA report states, "...(George's daughter) Alexandra was being monitored by CIA's James Jesus Angleton because she was having an affair with Mohammed al Fayed shortly after JFK assassination". James Jesus Angleton b. 1917, was chief of the Central Intelligence Agency's Counterintelligence Staff from 1954 to 1975 as 'Associate Deputy Director of Operations for Counterintelligence'. Under his signature is that of CIA asset, Jane Roman. Roman was CIA agent who record shows was charged with monitoring movements of Lee Harvey Oswald for two months preceding assassination. George DEMOHRENSCHILDT / DE MOHRENSCHILDT "was business partners with Mohamed Al Fayed in 1964. Fayed had an affair with Alexandra de Mohrenschildt...". George DE MOHRENSCHILDT and Mohammad Abdel Fayed were in contact in Haiti, and Mohammad Abdel Fayed was suspected of having been a member of Egyptian intelligence in 1953 in Saudi Arabia, in Haiti in June 1964 while official guest of Haitian Government. "...Alexandra deMohrenschildt Gibson, daughter of George deMohrenschildt, while visiting her father in Haiti in December 1964 without her husband, ... was dating Mohammed Fayed. Fayad purchased Harrods in London in early 1980s. Fayed's son, Dodi, was killed in an automobile accident in Paris on August 31, 1997 that also killed English Princess Dianna. GIBSON, DONALD and ALEXANDRA DEMOHRENSCHILDT were planning to leave Wingdale, NY and move to Florida. Daughter of George deMohrenschildt "...married to Gary Taylor in Nov. 1959, divorced in April 1963 following birth of son, Curtis Taylor on Feb. 10, 1962. Married to Donald Gibson by 1963. Friend of William Sprott, Attorney ... in 1977. In 1993, owns boutique ... In 1994, ... moved to Tubac, AZ ... In 2001, Alexandra and Giorgio Miola ... moved to Green Valley, AZ".

In 1953 future Warren Commissioner Allen Dulles was working with the father-in-law of George de Mohrenschildt in the Guatemala Coup. Three days after Allen Dulles took over as CIA Director in February of 1953 he was writing to Dimitri Mohrenschildt - the brother of Lee Harvey Oswald's pal, George de Mohrenschildt.

Russian diplomat in the US, Ferdinand Nikolai Alexander von Mohrenschildt, b. 1885 in Haiba, Kernu Parish, Harju County, Estonia, d. March 4, 1919 in New York. Burial at Sleepy Hollow, Westchester County, New York. He was son of Thomas Ferdinand or Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt and Mary / Marie von Mohrenschildt daughter of Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt and Marie Luise von Bremen. Above Ferdinand's wife was Nona Hazelhurst McAdoo b. 1893, daughter of William Gibbs McAdoo, U.S. Senator and Secretary of the Treasury and Sarah Hazelhurst Houston. Above Thomas Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. 1833 in Haiba, Hageri kihelkond, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland. He was son of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth. Above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland. He was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie. Above Gustava Stephanie Gräfin von Douglas b. 1758 in Reval (Tallinn). She was daughter of Robert Wilhelm Douglas and Margarethe Juliane von Knorring. Above Robert Wilhelm Douglas (on the Douglas in Estonia, ITALY and Scotland see my domain) b. 1724 Tallinn - died in 1778 in Järvamaa was son of Gustaf Otto Douglas and Helena von Schlippenbach.

In 1920, Ferdinand's (von Mohrenschildt) nephew Dimitri von Mohrenschildt, the older brother of George, arrived in the United States and entered Yale University. His admission was likely smoothed by the connections of the Harriman family; Dimitri von Mohrenschildt after graduating from Yale, was offered a position teaching the exclusive Loomis School near Hartford, Connecticut, where John D. Rockefeller III was a student.

There, Dimitri became friendly with Roland and Winifred Betty Cartwright Holhan Hooker; Dimitri served the Office of Strategic Services, later cofounding Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. In 1941, Dimitri also founded a magazine, the Russian Review, and later became a professor at Dartmouth. Dimitri in the summer of 1936 traveled to Europe, followed a week later by Betty Hooker. The relationship between Bush and Hooker lasted for three decades, until 1967, when Hooker died. 1937, Betty Hooker and Dimitri von Mohrenschildt married. By then, Dimitri had been hired by Henry Luce as a stringer for Time magazine. Meanwhile, Dimitri's younger brother, George, had been living with their family in Wilno; in May 1938, George arrived from Europe to US and lived with his brother and new sister-in-law in their Park Avenue apartment. Future Warren Commissioner, CIA Director Allen Dulles' knew George de Mohrenschildt's brother Dimitri. He wrote to Dimitri three days after he took over the office as CIA Director in Feb. 1953.
Allen Dulles' uncle Robert Lansing and de Mohrenschildt's grandfather-by-marriage, William Gibbs McAdoo co-founded the Secret Service together during the Woodrow Wilson administration.
in 1964 Allen Dulles interrogated the de Mohrenschildts' for more than 250 pages during The Warren Commission Report and Dulles did not think the public should know about his ties to de Mohrenschildt; Allen Dulles dated Mary Bancroft who was the best friend of Michael Paine's mother, Ruth Forbes Paine. It was Michael who put the Oswalds' up in his home; his wife found him a job. George H. W. Bush did not disclose that he knew Oswald's closest friend, George de Mohrenschildt, since 1942. Adamson was the first to publish letters betweeen the de Mohrenschildts to President Kennedy, Jacqueline Kennedy, Vice-President Lyndon Baines Johnson, CIA Directors Allen Dulles and George H. W. Bush.
Since 1953 future Warren Commisioner Allen Dulles had been working with de Mohrenschildt's brother and his father-in-law.

We look now at the genealogy
CARL MAGNUS Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803, Yoggis / Jogisoo near KEILA
(see HACKER or Hakker family next of kin to the ARMANDS and PASZKOWSKI - Konstantynowicz)
- 8 km east-south (or in Padis / Padise), he died in 1862, Revel, the owner of Jogisoo / Yoggisa and Pallu ca 6 km south of above named Jogisoo, in Estonia (Yoggis / Jogisoo / Yoggisa / Jöggis).
Chief of District. Baronial title in 1855.
His wife was Katharina Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt / MORENSHILD / Katharina Augusta Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1811 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland that is Kreuz Hof, died in 1855, Revel, the daughter of Berend von Mohrenschildt, owner of Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald and Eleanor Juliana Elisabeth von Rosenthal.
That is Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth Rosenthal daughter of Gustav Heinrich von Wetter-Rosenthal.
Above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), died 1861 in Kreuzhof; he was father of
Katharina Augusta Elisabeth;
Alexander Behrend Heinrich von Mohrenschildt;
Maria Katharina Juliane;
Karl Gustav Konstantin von Mohrenschildt;
Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt;
Elisabeth (Lilly) Auguste; Emilie; Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt; Alexandrine Nathalie Karoline, and
(Karl) Reinhold von Mohrenschildt.
Mentioned above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt was son of
Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt, 1748 - 1817 who was son of
Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt b. 1718 and Marie von Ramm;
come from Hans Heinrich von Mohrenschildt from Tallinn.

CARL MAGNUS Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 was a cousin of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau, husband of Princess Kudasheva Kitty b. 1811, granddaughter of Field Marshal Kutuzov.
The second Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein.

Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 was son of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm; father of Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau; Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau; Reinhold Berend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau and Karl Julius Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau;
brother of Emilie Caroline Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Gertrude Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1806.
Mentioned above Katharina Augusta Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1811, was daughter of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth.

Mentioned above
Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau married Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm; Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777 and died in 1847 in Jöggis (Jogisoo);
he was son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau 1734 - 1801 in Jöggis / Jogisoo;
the grandson of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1709 - 1752 in Reval;
great-grandson of Friedrich Jakob Pilar von Pilchau 1675 - 1710,
who was son of Nikolaus Georg Pilar von Pilchau.

Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in St Petersburg, d. 1922, was daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Katharina Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau / Kitty Ekaterina Nikolajevna.
Maria was wife of Leonid Nikolaevich Horvath; she was mother of Dmitri Horvath (was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov);
sister of Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau, Elisabeth Shuvalov, Theodor / Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau. All above acc. to Peter Trefilov on July 25, 2009, under copyright by geni.com.
Katharina Kitty / Ekaterina Nikolajevna / Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau nee Koudaschew, b. 1811, daughter of Danilovitch Kudashev; she was wife of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Hermann Napoleon von Hoyningen-Huene; was mother of above Maria Pilar von Pilchau; Nikolai; Elisabeth Lizine Shuvalova, Theodor Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau.

Above Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of Ottilie Gustava von Lüder, Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau, acc. to: Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina.

Above Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 was son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

Above named Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 (Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau died in 1801 in Jöggis), was father of

1.
Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761;

2.
Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau;

3.
Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau;
4.
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and

5.
Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau;

6.
Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769.

His wife was Maria Becu with her children:

Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and

a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802.

Magnus Fabian's closest next of kin: Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein; фон Людер / Luder who died 1857.

Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 was brother of Dorothea Charlotta Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau.
Acc. to Peter Trefilov and Bernard von Schulmann.

Mentioned above Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 was son of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm;
he was brother of Emilie Caroline Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Gertrude Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt b. 1806. Above named Emilia CAROLINA ELIZABETH b. 1804, Ladis - died in 1891, she was State-lady in Katarinenhale.
Gertrude Elizabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1806, married in 1829, Jogisoo, to Berend von Mohrenschildt d. 1861 owner of Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland that is Krayskhofa;
his daughter from his first marriage married to the brother of his wife.
Berend Robert / Behrend von Mohrenschildt, b. on July 3, 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), died on January 9, 1861 in Kreuzhof (Risti); he was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie; husband of Margaretha Ulrika Juliane von Mohrenschildt; Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt and above named Gertrude Elisabeth von Mohrenschildt;
he was father of Katharina Augusta Elisabeth; Alexander Behrend Heinrich von Mohrenschildt; Maria Katharina Juliane; Karl Gustav Konstantin von Mohrenschildt; Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt; Elisabeth (Lilly) Auguste; Emilie; Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt; Alexandrine Nathalie Karoline von Mohrenschildt and (Karl) Reinhold von Mohrenschildt.
Copyright by Peter Trefilov at geni.com.

George De Mohrenschildt's spouses:
Dorothy Pierson / Pherson ? m. 1942 - 1944, Phyllis Washington, Wynne Sharples and Jeanne LeGon.

De Mohrenschildt was born Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt in MOZYRZ / Mozyr (see Bulhak family and Ipohorski) in Belarus, in 1911.
He had an older brother, Dimitri / Dymitr.
His father was Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt;
his mother, Alexandra / Aleksandra Zopalsky / ALEKSANDRA ZAPOLSKA, of Polish descent.
Sergey von Mohrenschildt was a Marshal of Nobility of the Minsk Province 1913 - 1917 (see Karol Hutten - Czapski and Duflon & Konstantynowicz in Minsk), and an Actual Civil Councilor; 1920, Sergy von Mohrenschildt was arrested by the Bolsheviks;
while awaiting transport to Veliky Ustyug, Sergey became ill. The Soviet government released Sergey, his wife and De Mohrenschildt then fled to Poland;
De Mohrenschildt's older brother Dimitri was awaiting execution but was later released in a prisoner exchange in Poland;
Alexandra died ca 1922 in Poland.
De Mohrenschildt lived in Wilno (here the Konstantynowiczs), Jerzy was graduated from the Wilno gymnasium in 1929 and later graduated from Polish Cavalry Academy in 1931.
Then he completed a dissertation on the economic influence of the U.S. on Latin America; in Liege in Belgium in 1938. Jerzy / George de Mohrenschildt moved to the United States in 1938; changed his surname to de Mohrenschildt;
he was working for German intelligence?
He was hired by the Shumaker company in New York City, which also employed Pierre Fraiss - the French intelligence spy. He lived together with his older brother Dimitri von Mohrenschildt on Long Island, New York -
Dimitri was the founder of the CIA's Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty;
Dimitri died in 2002.
De Mohrenschildt became acquainted with the Bouvier family, including young Jacqueline Bouvier, future wife of John F. Kennedy, and he became a friend of Jacqueline's aunt Edith Bouvier Beale.
He helped raise money for the Polish resistance after ca 1940.
George Sergius de Mohrenschildt b. 1911, d. 1977, befriended Lee Harvey Oswald in the summer of 1962 and maintained that friendship until Oswald's death, two days after the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy.
After Kennedy was assassinated, De Mohrenschildt testified before the Warren Commission in April 1964. In 1976, the CIA requested that the FBI locate De Mohrenschildt, because he had "attempted to get in touch with the CIA Director."
In 1976, De Mohrenschildt had written a letter to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, George H. W. Bush, asking for his assistance. He was acquainted with the Bush family; George H. W. Bush had roomed with De Mohrenschildt's nephew, Edward G. Hooker, at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts.
His father was a marshal of nobility in Minsk Province, and he served as director of the Nobel interests in Russia.
A descendant of the de Mohrenschildt family, Baron Hilienfelt, was a Baltic Swede, fought in the American Army of Independence.
An uncle, Ferdinand de Mohrenschildt, was First Secretary of the last Russian Embassy in Washington under the Tsar government.
De Mohrenschildt's brother, Dimitri von Mohrenschildt, emigrated to the United States and became a professor at Dartmouth University.
De Mohrenschildt's father was jailed by the Communist regime in 1920, but a friends of the government intervened to secure his release. He was jailed again in 1921 and was banished to Siberia for life. Sergius von Mohrenschildt escaped with his family to Poland.
His family regained (1922 / 1924 ?) an estate had held in Russia near the Polish border (close to Minsk ?). It was money from that estate that George do Mohrenschildt brought to the United States in 1938 when he started his first business interest.
I wrote above his father was Sergiusz / Sergei / Sergis Alexander Von Mohrenschildt, mother was Alexandra Zopalsky.
His father and uncle, ran the Branobel Oil Company in Baku (see Duflon and Konstantynowicz in Petersburg). In 1918 De Mohrenschildt lived in Minsk (from Baku ?). In 1944 George De Mohrenschildt told the FBI that Sergius Von Mohrenschildt was a Vice President of the Nobel Oil Company in Russia with holdings in Poland and Russia prior to and during World War I;
his father continued in the oil business until the confiscation of these holdings in 1918 / 1920.
By Tommy Wilkens:
Baron George De Mohrenschildt born 1911 in Mozyr, comes from the Baltic Germans. His father was Baron Sergius Alexander Von Mohrenschildt;
1918 De Mohrenschildt lived in Minsk, probably in St. Petersburg, or Moscow; 1922 Sergius was released from Soviet prison due to health problems ?!;
1929 George DeMohrenschildt volunteered for the Polish Army and attended a Polish military academy in Grudziadz; 1931 George / Jurij was graduated from the Polish military academy with rank of sergeant; then in Liege, and returned to Poland to take part in military summer maneuvrs.
The de Mohrenschildts were major players in the global oil business since the beginning of the twentieth century, and their paths crossed with the Rockefellers; George de Mohrenschildt’s uncle and father ran the Swedish Nobel Brothers Oil Company's operations in Baku;
1915, the Russian government dispatched a second uncle of George de Mohrenschildt, the young diplomat Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt, to Washington to plead for American intervention in the war (see Koziell POKLEWSKI);
1917, Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt's mission was a success;
he was often in the company of Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, of the family then befriending Prescott Bush and about to hire Prescott's future father-in-law, George Herbert Walker.
Ferdinand married the step-granddaughter of President Woodrow Wilson.
Emanuel Nobel sold half of the Baku holdings to Standard Oil of New Jersey, with John D. Rockefeller Jr. personally authorizing the payment of $11.5 million (see more at my webpages).


The genealogy of Alexandra Zapolski is very important and any traces lead to Mozyr, to the family Zapolski Downar / Downar-Zapolski.
This case must be deeply research.
In the Minsk county in 1791 we have 2 persons Downar, in the parishes: Uzda and Iwieniec.
Mitrofan Downar – Zapolski b. 1867, in Rzeczyca, in the Minsk government, died in 1934; son of Wiktor Zapolski Downar b. 1827; Mitrofan was historian, professor in 1902. He studied in Baranovichi village, then in Plovdiv in Bulgaria,
in Rzeczyca in ca 1877,
Minsk in 1878,
the gymnasium in Mozyrz / MOZYR in ca 1878 - 1885,
gymnasium in KIEV since 1885 to 1888. In 1918 in Minsk served the Belarusian People's Republic founded on March 25, 1918 in Minsk and replaced by a Communist government on January 5, 1919. He worked in BAKU. In 1925 - 1926 in Minsk again.
His father was collegiate secretary, and chief clerk of the district gendarmerie in MOZYR / MOZYRZ (and RZECZYCA ?).
By the nineteenth century Dovnar-Zapolsky family lost the status of the middle gentry, nevertheless, the Russian Senate in 1843, enrolled to the nobility clans, the family of Mitrofan Viktorovich, of the Minsk province as the ancient hereditary nobility. It has managed in 1802 to the great-grandfather of Mitrofan, that is Antoni Zapolski Downar born ca 1775, with his sons: among others youngest MARCIN Zapolski who was born in ca 1800.
Marcin was the father of Wiktor Zapolski b. 1827 in Rzeczyca;
Wiktor was appointed in Rechitsa district as court clerk in ca 1850; the Rechitsa district was the biggest in Minsk province.
He married a local noblewoman Alexandra Stanislavovna Lindaher (Lindauer ?), the Orthodox faith, and in this marriage were born five children, among whom was Mitrofan b. 1867 in Rechitsa / Rzeczyca. Soon, the family split up, the mother with the younger daughters moved to Bulgaria in ca 1875, to the eldest son Peter, b. ca 1852, who was served the Bulgarian military.
Mitrofan was living only with father after 1876, who was able to rise to the positions of the Rechitsa Gendarmerie (ca 1877).
In Mozyr 1878 - 1885.
Maybe here Aleksandra Zapolska / Zapolska Downar was born 1879 as daughter of Wiktor Zapolski Downar, b. 1827 in Rzeczyca;
we remember in 1911 in Mozyr was born Jurij / George von Mohrenschildt, because his father was here a teacher.
Mitrofan moved in 1885 to Kiev but his father was living in Mozyr.


The Mohrenschilt / Mohrenschildt - the Baltic-German noble family.
They were living in Estonia:
in Nurme, Seidla, Sipoo, Jogisoo, Hatu, Valingu, Cross, Kumna, Haiba, Laitse, Vacation, Leebiku, Kurisoo.
There were eight Estonian families with the name von Mohrenschildt. These families owned 12 estates.
Hatu is a village in Padise Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia. The property belonged to the Baltic German families of Mohrenschildt and Ramm. The last owner before the Estonian Declaration of Independence was Fridolf Gustav-Adolf von Ramm.

Berend Otto Johann Baron von Maydell, 1793-1870, married 2nd time to Leontine von Mohrenschildt who was the aunt of George von Mohrenschildt.
Above Leontine Ernestine Ulrike von Mohrenschildt (from Lehhet / Lehetu, the Nissi vald, Harjumaa, Estland) born in 1812 in Kegel = Keila, Harjumaa, Estonia, died in 1890 in Reval, was daughter of
Friedrich von Mohrenschildt from Pachel and Henriette von Koskull from Kegel / KEILA
(see Dunkel family next of kin Konstantynowicz).

Above named Pahkla (Pachel) - knight manor in Hageri Parish, Harjumaa County, 24 km south-east of SAKU (see at maps of Keila-Saue-Saku).

Mentioned above Friedrich Johann von Mohrenschildt b. 1785 and died in 1854 in Reval (Tallinn), was son of
Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Douglas!
Friedrich Johann von Mohrenschildt was brother of Berend Wilhelm von Mohrenschildt; Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt; Margarethe Juliane, and Ottilie Helene Beata.

Remember that Jurij or George von Mohrenschildt (the friend of Lee OSWALD) was grandson of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt b. 1831,
and great-grandson of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt 1787 - 1834;
great-great-grandson of Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Gfin. Douglas (see about the DOUGLAS family in Italy, Scotland and Estonia at my webpages).

Mentioned above Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt, 1756 - 1820 in Reval, was son of Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt and Marie von Ramm; husband of Ottilie Helene Douglas
(see: Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt b. 1748, son of Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt and Marie von Ramm).
Above Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt, 1718 - 1789 in Reval, was son of Berend Johann von Mohrenschildt who died in 1732 in Kurkse, Padise Parish, Harju County, Estonia; grandson of Hans Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and great-grandson of Bernhard Koch von Mohrenschildt and Christina von Lohn.

Brother of above George was
Dmitri von Mohrenschildt born in the HLUSK / GLUSK region, near Bobruisk in 1902 - died in 2002, a professor at Stanford University, one of the founders of the CIA Radio Free Europe.
Dmitri was a prominent Russian historian and former Hoover fellow, died on 9 June 2002 in India.
Dmitri studied ca 1912 to 1916 at the Minsk college, then in Sevastopol. Dmitri received his early education in the Naval Cadet School. In 1918 lived again in German-occupied Minsk.
But after the German withdrawal in December 1918, Dimitri and his father were soon arrested, and Dimitri spent nearly a year in prisons in Minsk and Smolensk. After he was finally released in late 1919, his parents arranged for him to travel to Poland as a hostage in exchange for someone; he worked as a merchant seaman; then at Yale University in 1922. Graduating in 1926; 1936 Columbia University. He taught Russian history at Dartmouth College from 1942 to 1947; 1971 von Mohrenschildt published a materials on the Russian Revolution; in 1976 von Mohrenschildt left for India, where he settled in the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in Pondicherry.


West of the Berezyna river, and close to Bobruisk / Bobrujsk stronghold were living in the 19th century the Bulhak, Konstantynowicz, Szostak, Dzierzynski, Tatur, Czajkowski families:
1.
The parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz
(grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich):
Константинович Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county.
They were living in Gorochovka / Gorochovo, south-west of Bobrujsk / Bobruisk, ca 20 km, close to Fortuny: north-west of Gorochovka, and south of Glusha, close to Gorochovka, Rimovcy, Spornoje; east-south-east of Simonovichi (see: Bulhak family).

Glusha, Glusza, at half way from Bobruisk to Simonovichi, west of above Bobruisk / Bobrujsk; ca 28 km north-east-north of Glusk / Hlusk, and south-east of Osipovichi / Osipowicze.
Snustik / Снустик - east of Pukhavichy and Maryina Gorka, and west of Gradzyanka, and south-east of Turin / Turyn (Bulhak family) in the Igumen / Ihumen county / Игумен.

2.
Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas and Aldona, the house Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898; married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska. The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.
In above named Zawołoczyce was the Bernardine filial chapel, like in Chromce (near Bobruisk).

Zawołoczyce that is Заволочицы, Zavalochycy, Zavolochicy, Zavolochitsy close to Simanavichi; west of Glusha, ca 38 km west of Bobruisk / Bobruisk.
Glusha, Glusza, at half way from Bobruisk to Simonovichi, west of above Bobruisk / Bobrujsk; ca 28 km north-east-north of Glusk / Hlusk, and south-east of Osipovichi / Osipowicze.

Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833 died 1902, + Maria Billewicz has 12 children, among others
Helena Piłsudski b. 1864 d. 1917, Zofia Kadenac b. 1865 + Bolesław Kadenac,
Bronisław Piłsudski,
Józef Piłsudski,
Adam Piłsudski / Адам Гинятович Косьчеша Пилсудский b. 1869,
Kazimierz Piłsudski,
Maria Juchniewiczowa / Juchniewicz b. 1873 + Cezary Juchniewicz.

3.
In 1887, Peter / P. L. Wittgenstein died; he was the son of Lev Petrovich Wittgenstein;
Peter L. Wittgenstein b. 1831, Vilna Province, Lieutenant-General, a military agent in France, the Russian-Turkish war, one of the richest landowners of the Russian Empire.
Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county, lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk. This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh.
Above Lew / Prince Lev Wittgenstein / Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn b. June 7, 1799, the eldest son of Field Marshal Count Peter Xristianovich Wittgenstein / Piotr Christianovich Wittgenstein and Antoinette Stanislavovna Snarskii / Antuanetta Snarski / Antuaneta Snarska.
He was married twice:
1. 1828 to Princess Stefania nee Radziwill, daughter of above Dominik Radziwill and Theophile Morawska;
with two children:
Maria or Antoinette Carolina - Stefania, and Peter / Peter Dominic Ludwig 1832-1887, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General.
2. Princess Leonilla Baryatinskaya Ivanovna.
Stefania Wittgenstein b. Paris 1809, d. 1832, nee Radziwill - father Dominik Radziwill b. 1786, d. 1813; mother Teofila Morawska. Stefania was owner about 12000 km˛ that is 1 mln ha in Belarus (Miezonka...) and Lithuania.
4.
The Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county,
lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk.
This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh.

5.
The Zbieranowski family was living in Лясковичи / Ляскавічы / Liaskavichi / Laskowicze, ca 28 km south-east of Prusy, close to Albinsk, Choromcy, Zabolotse, south of Glusk / Mogilev Province, Belarus; south of Dokol; south of Simanavichi, where was a property of Bulhak (Dzierzynska Aldona, Jerzy Bulhak).
Zawoloczyce is located south-east of Simonovichi, ca 2 km, and west of Glusha, north of Liaskavichi ca 45 km.
6.
The Bulhak family:
Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk.
1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi;
1890, the estate Bluza / Блужа-Городно close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family, west of Lapichi, south-east of Marina-Gorka;
Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесничи of the Копыльского р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937.
Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи, south-east of Osipovichi, close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo;
Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937.
Kamionka or Matseevich from Lipovskii in 1861 and Мацевичи / Matsevichi of Bulhak in 1867 - Mateevichi, south of Ugodino, near by Kamienka / Kamionka; west of Talka, and south of Marina Gorka;
Булгак Борис Николаевич b. 1907 in Macevichi / Мацевичи. Матевичи / Мацевичи / Matewitschi / Maciejewicze i.e. Macevicy (inf. about location above), and Zuki, Budzilowka and Kondratowicze.
Budzilowka / Будзиловка in the Беломльская волость / Bielomlskaja volost;
Zabrodok / Забродок and Beresniewka / Бересневка belonged to the Bulhak family / Булгак.
7.
Wincenty BULHAK, son of Stanisław Wincenty Michał Bulhak, 1807-09 office in Mozyr district. His wife Dubrawska / Dabrowska; relatives of Emanuel Bułhak.


Acc. to 'Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften', Görlitz 1930 -
1.
Theodor Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. Reval in 1805 m. 2nd to Pauline Wilhelmine Rehbinder b. 1818. Pauline Wilhelmine Rehbinder b. 1818 in Wastemois, d. 1905 in Reval (Tallinn), daughter of Gustav Wilhelm von Rehbinder and Charlotte Margarethe Helene von Lantingshausen; mother of Theodor Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt (b. 1841 in Wredenhagen / Maidla mois, Haggers / Hageri, Harrien / Harjumaa) and Roman Viktor von Mohrenschildt; sister of Woldemar von Rehbinder; Emilie Charlotte and Elisabeth Betty Auguste von Rehbinder b. 1824 in Sarrakus, Livland.
2.
Baron George De Mohrenschildt, a Russian, an Estonian by birth, a Baltic German by last name, a Swedish-Scottish by origin, and a Pole according to his passport. George / Jurij / Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt April 17, 1911 in Mozyr / Mozyrz in the Minsk government - was the son of Sjergei / Siergiej b. 1870.

Siergei's son (+ Aleksandra Zapolski / Gapolski m. in 1901) was also
Dmitri b. March 1902 in the Hlusk district, the Minsk gevernment
- that is Dimitri Sergius Von Mohrenschildt, 1902-2002.
Hlusk / Глуск / Glussk in Moghilev Region, Belarus, ca 50 km south-west of Bobrujsk / Bobruisk at way to Liaskovichi of the Zbieranowskis; see Konstantynowicz, Dzierzynski and Bulhak (Aldona Dzierzynska was living here!) in this area.


Acc. to the Russian source:
George De Mohrenschildt / Morenshild, stated, that was born in 1911 in Mozyr, but his next of kin thought he was born in Georgia, maybe born in 1914. His family comes from a Swedish family (and from Scotland !), but was of the Greek Catholic religion. His father served the Nobel family in Baku, but also worked on oil development in Romania; after 1939 George promoted in the Polish resistance to the rank of lieutenant colonel and spent most of the war in London as a liaison officer. He arrived in America in 1938, but, according to him, in 1939, returned to Poland to serve the army, but in the same year, returned to America. In the US, takes part in various operations; maybe for the French intelligence service of De Gaulle, who fought with the Germans, but also for Marshal Petain; he became known for his contacts with many German agents. But the war years he spent as a neutral film producer in Mexico, in 1944, changed his name, returned to the United States, less than a year receive a diploma of the petroleum engineer;
1957 he spent several months in Yugoslavia after verification by the State Department; 1958 he went on a long journey through Africa: Togo, Ghana, Dahomey; and back out through Poland. He was in Czechoslovakia. In 1959, he and his wife traveled to Mexico, and met Anastas Mikoyan. In 1960, the couple De Mohrenschildt gone for almost a year to the Central or South America.


Acc. to a book 'PRL in Dallas...', about the assassination of President Kennedy, above named George De Mohrenschildt, who as George von Mohrenschildt, first came to the United States, as a Polish citizen (to ca 1952), just before World War II, was the best friend of Lee Oswald.
George edited films about the Polish underground, with the cooperation of the Polish embassy in Washington. However, British intelligence warned about his possible cooperation with Germany;
his father Sergei Von Mohrenschildt, was anti-communist, and ca 1940 decreed German nationality and, he left Vilnius to Germany.
George questioned by Mr. Jenner, on behalf of the Warren Commission, related his biography: a cavalry school in Poland, and doctorate studies in Belgium and three marriages with the daughters of millionaires.
Mr Pacepa and Antoni J. Wrega of Warsaw, cites other sources.
According to Ion Mihai Pacepa, De Mohrenschildt was the so-called "officer support" to Oswald; Consul Valery Vladimirovich Kostikow / Kostin from the Embassy of the Soviet Union in Mexico City was the officer in charge of the case to Oswald,
who on 28 September and 1 October met Oswald in Mexico;
Kostikow was an employee of the Department of the KGB for homicide and sabotage.
Interesting that President Kennedy received from Golitsyn ("Martel"), a KGB officer who defected to the United States, information on the Soviet spies located among others in France, and in Italy. Total about 200 spies in the structures of NATO countries. Spring 1962, John F. Kennedy handed over to the President of France, Charles de Gauelle, data about Soviet infiltration in France. The Report of the Warren Commission showed several so-called "Polish traces". An example of a certain professor, James Dombrowski, with Polish origin, the most prominent activist of the Communist Party of the United States in the South. Especially, however, the figure of George De Mohrenschildt, to at least 1952 a Polish citizen. Media reports about the special role played in 1962 - 1963 by marriage of De Mohrenschildt: George and Jeanne, to Lee Harvey and Marina Oswald, lasted approx. 8 months, from the middle of summer 1962.
George's father was a teacher in high school in Mozyrz, and later vice-president of the oil company, owned by Alfred Nobel in Baku; he was also the Marshal of the nobility in the province of Minsk, and after the outbreak of the revolution Nov. 1917 even deputy minister of agriculture of the Soviet Belarus (1919). In 1922 Sergei von Mohrenschildt found himself in exile in Vilnius, where he was director of the Russian emigre school.
George / Yurij graduated in Polish school in Vilnius in 1929, then studied at one and half year military officers' school of Cavalry in Grudziadz, who graduated as sergeant - candidate for lieutenant in 1931. After he went - with a Polish passport - to study at the School of Commerce in Antwerp, with a doctorate on the natural resources of Latin America at the University of Liege, Belgium. In 1938, with 10 thousands dollars, De Mohrenschildt arrived to the United States. He lived for several months in the apartments of the daughter of the Queen of Yugoslavia, Madame de Lipovatz, trying various businesses after the outbreak of war in 1939. Cooperated with the Polish Consul in New York, Sylwin Jerzy Strakacz, previously confidential secretary of Ignacy Paderewski. Acted together with his cousin, Baron Konstantin von Maydell, apparently an officer of the Abwehr.
Married 4th time in 1958 to 1975, to the fashion designer Jeanne Legon, born as Evgenija Fomenko, Russian from Charbin, northern China, ex wife of Sergei Bogojawlienski;
in 1960, couple of De Mohrenschildt set off on a hike, over 3 thousand miles away, as interpreter all, from the Mexican border with Texas, to the Panama Canal;
in Mexico, they faced with a very important Bolshevik head, Anastazy Mikoyan, the old Bolshevik guard, brother of the constructor of MIG.
In June 1963 George was in Haiti; along with Jeanne, in Haiti are looking for oil and there finds the tragedy in Dallas. George had numerous contacts with Poles: Rey family, meets in Caracas, Venezuela with the then Polish Deputy Minister of Science, chemist, prof. Osman Achmatowicz. Also he corresponds with Mr. Domanska in Warsaw, probably before the war famous Miss Achmatowicz; and with Strumillo from Paris;
but in Port-au-Prince, the Haitian capital, he known the head of the Commercial Counsellor's Office (subordinate to the Polish Embassy in Mexico), attache Wlodzimierz Galicki and Kazimierz Sałaciński.
On 9 August 1964 George and Jeanne De Mohrenschildt met with Wlodzimierz Galicki, and Wojciech STAWINSKI, a Polish national who arrived in Haiti for the first time, by plane on the same day. Stawiński was a member of the "Universal", Polish state-owned commercial organization. Stawiński left the Venezuela to Quito.
29 March 1977, on the eve of a testify before the Commission of the Chamber of Representatives, George De Mohrenschildt shot himself in the throat, leaving a letter in defense of Oswald.


We need check:
In 1915, the Russian government dispatched a second uncle of George de Mohrenschildt, the young diplomat Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt, to Washington to plead for American intervention in the war (see Koziell POKLEWSKI); 1917, Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt's mission was a success; he was often in the company of Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, of the family then befriending Prescott Bush and about to hire Prescott's future father-in-law, George Herbert Walker. Ferdinand married the step-granddaughter of President Woodrow Wilson.

Von Mohrenschildt Ferdinand was son of Karl Johann Ferdinand Mohrenschildt b. 1841. That is Ferdinand Theodor b. in 1870 in Reval, d. Dec. 1918, Reval, m. 1904 in Reval to Irma Sophie Broszewicz / Broschewitz b. 1881 daughter of Johann (JAN BROSZEWICZ) and Amalie (Amalie Girard of Goa canton ?).

Above named Ferdinand's children:
Olga Marie b. 1906 in Reval; Brigitte Dorothea b. 1908 Reval; Ursula Alice b. Nov. 1913 in Reval. See: Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften, © BSB München.

Sjergei / Siergiej b. 1870 married to Aleksandra Zapolski / Gapolski / ZAPOLSKA in 1901.

Siergei's son was Dmitri b. March 1902 in the Hlusk district, the Minsk gevernment - that is Dimitri Sergius Von Mohrenschildt, 1902-2002.
Sergei b. 1870 was son of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt b. 1831 - d. 1904, and L. Nikonov. Heinrich was son of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Luise Wilhelmine Anna Alexandra von Doerper.
Heinrich's children: Wladimir; Nikolai; Siergei / Sergei; Konstantin b. 1858; Aleksander; and Peter.
Heinrich was brother of Julie Friederike Ulrike; Ottilie Alexandra von Tobiesen; Helene Ottilie Mathilde; Peter Ludwig Hugo von Mohrenschildt; Olga Wilhelmine Lisette Auguste; Oskar Johann von Mohrenschildt; Emilie Nathalie Elisabeth; Eduard Fromhold Gustav von Mohrenschildt and Nikolaus Ewald Konstantin von Mohrenschildt.


Brief note on Artuzow - Frautchi:
In the history of intelligence services Artuzov Arthur Frauchi was headed counterintelligence, foreign intelligence and military intelligence.
He was born 1891 in the village Ustinovo, Kashin County, Tver province
(Dubbelt or Dubelt family in Kuvshinovo, Tver region = Russia, Tver Oblast, Kuvshinovo, close to Puzakovo; ca 120 km west of Tver),
his father Christian Frautschi was a master cheesemaker in the estate of the landowner Likhachev. Frauchi father remained a Swiss citizen;
mother, Augusta Avgustovna Didrikil, Latvian descent, taught him French and German, and then he taught himself English.
Family of Christian Frautschi, came from Switzerland to Russia in 1881 and settled in the estate of landowner Popov, Apashkovo, Tver province, where his older brother Paul / Peter Frautschi, arrived in this region 1879, next in Yurino estate, manor Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putjatino, the village Davydkovo / Davydovo, 17 km north-west of Kashin, and north-east of Tver.
Cheesemaker was working in the estate Mykolaivk, and Christian Frautschi married Augusta Didrikil, Didrikil family was of mixed origin, the Latvian and Estonian, her grandfather was a Scot; after the wedding, the young family settled in the estate at Kashin County, Tver province.
The ancestors of the Frautschi family were Italians, but they settled in that part of the country, where lived natives of Germany, village in the mountains - Gstaad, about an hour away by car from Bern and ca 2 km only from Saanen; ca 30 km east of Villeneuve; here were always Frautschi, all generation were cheesemaker; spoke a strange dialect of German; Christian Frautschi, went to Russia from this village;
Christian's Petrovich daughter Nina came home in Gstaad during the holidays at summer of 1912.
House was unhurt now, the house is so empty since 1912.
Elisee Reclus and Piotr Kropotkin were living in Clarens, Montreux.
L'Abbaye - Breguet.
Abetel in Riex, Lausanne.
Morges - Duflon.
Demontet - in Villette in the Vaud province. Cully is near to Riex. Villette or Lavaux close to Lutry and Cully.
Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel and La Chaux-de-Fonds is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuchâtel. Also St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne, Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, Tavannes, north of Neuchatel.
Villeneuve is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located ca 30 km east-south of Lausanne;
Duflon family gone from Nimes 1584, Lutry 1852, Neuchatel, in Paris 1801 - 1877 Louis Duflon. Duflon in 1906 in d'Ardon, south-east of Villeneuve. Also in La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km. The DUFLON family 1745 - 1815 was living in Riex of the Vaud province / Vaud canton, Switzerland / Suisse.
M. Wilczek from Lausanne, and Michael Dobrovolsky / Michail / Michal Dobrowolski 1903 - 1907 in Lausanne.
Jean Rey / Jean-Alexandre REY b. 1861 in Lausanne / Lauzanne, Switzerland. His first wife Marie Sautter b. 1870, daughter of Louis Sautter - founder of LEMONNIER - HARLE and Co. with Paul LEMONNIER.
Diserens or Dizeren among other things, it were the villages and towns:
CLARENS located east from Lausanne, also Villette, Cully and Riex. Villette or Lavaux is located close to Lutry and Cully.
Shortly before the First World War Kedrov graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Lausanne.
At margin - we know about Anna Frauchi, b. 1716 in Koppigen, Bern district, Switzerland, died in 1756, Switzerland, married 1774 in Jegenstorf, Bern, Switzerland.
Didrikil Maria Gieorgievna, born 1872, in the Armed Forces of South Russia and evacuated at the end of January 1920 from Novorossiysk on the ship 'Hannover'.
Somebody of the Frauchi / Frautchi in Rapperswil-Jona, close to Zurich; Turbach ca 5 km east of Saanen.
Johann Jakob Frautschi / Jacob Jacques Frautschi in 1842, used passport to travel from Switzerland between Canton Berne and Paris, living in Gessenai (Saanen/Gessenay or Saanen, east of Montreux ca 28 km, close to Versoix, near by Rougemont; and now in Schonried close to Saanen; east of Villeneuve), aged 44 years, who was native of Gesseney, who wanted to return to France, married 1843 to Elise Perrin, aged 34 years.
Marie Elise Perin / Perrin was born 28 May 1814, and was baptised in 1815 in the parish of Briel (Biel / Bienne, ca 35 km north-east of Neuchatel).
More:
http://www.konstantynowicz.info/constantinovich/konstantinovich/Russian_military_intelligence/renucci_fraucci_frauchi_frautchi_artuzov/pilar_pilchau/index.html


Note at margin - acc. to http://jfkmurdersolved.com/bush3.htm:
"George H. W. Bush failed to disclose his friendship with George De Mohrenschildt, a renowned oil geologist and Lee Harvey Oswald's best friend in Dallas. They knew each other since 1942, probably even longer, because in 1939 he went to work for Humble Oil, a company founded by Prescott Bush. In 1977, when De Mohrenschildt is located by investigators of the House Select Committee on Assassinations, who want to interview him, he allegedly commits suicide the following day. The last person to interview him on the day he died, is Jay Edward Epstein, a writer - historian and a known apologist for the Warren Report since day one. Epstein married a CIA agent and is the biographer of former CIA-director James Jesus Angleton, presumably in charge of Oswald's "defection" to Russia. Interestingly, Epstein is also the "consultant" that was suddenly hired by NBC in 1995, when NBC was making a program for national TV on the confession of James E. Files".


Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt / George Sergius de Mohrenschildt was son of Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt, who had brothers:
1. Konstantin son of Alexander, collegiate counselor, the Chairman of the Board of the shipbuilding company and a mechanical plant in St. Petersburg. Member of the Board and Managing Director of the mining and oil industry in Ferghana.
2. Morenshild Vladimir son of above Alexandr / Aleksander De Mohrenschildt, was born in 1854. Midshipman - 1876. The senior officer of the battleship "Vice Admiral Popov" (1896). Senior Officer of "Terets" (1896 - 1897) and the battleship "George" (1897-1899). The commander of "Ingul" (1899) and mine cruiser "Griden" (1901-1902), "Zaporozhets" (1902-1903). The mayor of Sevastopol (1906). Orthodox; one son (1906).
Sergey von Mohrenschildt was a Marshal of Nobility of the Minsk Province 1913 - 1917 and served as director of the Nobel interests in Russia.
Konstantin also ran the Branobel Oil Company in Baku. In 1918 De Mohrenschildt lived in Minsk (from Baku ?).
The Baku department of BRANOBEL, the Control Department:
R. E. Nobel, Ulner K. K., Ternudd G. A., Bergrot E. I., Nikolaev R. N., Garsoev I. G., Eklund G. P., Morenshild K. A.,
Lessner A. G. who was in 1916 the Director of the Board;
Nobel G. L. (Gustaf Oscar Ludvig);
Lamberg A. B.
About above Nobel G. L.:
Nobel L. L. (descendant of Ludvig and Edla Nobel), Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel, 1874 - 1935, hereditary honorable citizen, Director of the Company 'Gear-Tsitroen' (Citroen) and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and a machine factory of Company 'Ludvig Nobel'.
Descendants of Immanuel Nobel, the younger b. 1801 and Andriette Ahlsell:
Robert Nobel b. 1829, Alfred Nobel b. 1833 - the inventor of dynamite, instituted the Nobel Prizes, Emil Oskar Nobel and Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831 - is buried in the Smolensky Lutheran Cemetery in St. Petersburg.
Descendants of Ludvig and Mina Nobel:
Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 d. 1932 (Branobel's second president and being interested in the encryption business correspondence, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin and Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel were an investors of the AB Cryptograph Company, in the production cipher machines developed Arvid Damm, like a rotary machine Electrocryptograph B-1),
Carl Nobel b. 1862;
and descendants of Ludvig and Edla Nobel:
Esther Wilhelmina Olsen-Nobel,
Ludvig Alfred (Lullu) Nobel b. 1874 (Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company),
Ingrid Hildegard Nobel-Ahlqvist b. 1879,
Marta Helena Nobel-Oleinikoff b. 1881,
Rolf Nobel,
Emil Waldemar Ludvig Nobel and
last above mentioned Gustaf Oscar Ludvig.
Above LESSNER:
Next of kin to the Armands and the Konstantynowiczs was Pampel Eduard 1884 - 1952, Germany, began his career in Russia at Lessner factory in St. Petersburg 1911, then entered the factory Becker in Revel; he worked at the aerodynamic laboratory of the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute 1917, shipbuilding division Putilov factory. Plant Becker was in Revel that is Revel Shipyard BECKER & Co. / Joint Stock Company 'metallurgical, mechanical and shipbuilding plants Becker & Co.' in Reval / Tallinn. During the First World War, it had to be evacuated to Novorossiysk, where it is located on the site of a small factory Muller, Lampe & Co., after which he ever lost shipbuilding specialization. The factory made machine-gun and artillery tower installation of armored trains.
The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company co-operated with the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank. According to V. S. Solomko at http://www.encspb.ru/ this St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank was a joint-stock commercial bank, opened in 1869, cooperating especially closely with the St. Petersburg International Bank by taking part "in the military industrial group to build submarines for the Baltic Navy.
The group included Lessner's Plant and Nobel's Plant in St. Petersburg, which played a leading role in the group, as well as Fenix, Atlas, and Gatchinsky Ironworks".
Guchkov Alexander Ivanovich b. 1862, political and public figure, banker and businessman, was Director of Moscow Discount Bank. In 1907 and 1915, he was elected Member of State Assembly representing Industry and Trade, heading a defence Commission 1907-10. In St Petersburg, he was a member of St Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank's board. From 1915, he was Chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee and a member of Special Meeting for defence. At the end of 1916, he designed plans for dynastic coup.
Emmanuel Nobel / Immanuel the younger b. 1801 died 1872, the inventor of underwater mines. In 1842 - 1859 he lived in St. Petersburg, where he founded a mechanical plant. Robert E. Nobel (1829 - 1896) was born in Sweden but his mother came to St. Petersburg and since 1850 he has worked at the factory of his father, after worked for many years in companies that founded together with his brothers:
Alfred Bernhard Nobel b. 1833, founder of the Nobel Prizes - in Russia became acquainted with the works of Zinin and V. F. Petrushevskii / Pietruszewski in chemical engineering nitroglycerin.
Ludvig Nobel b. 1831 died 1888, member of the Russian Technical Society, in St. Petersburg acted for 'Ludwig Nobel' / 'Russian diesel', in 1876 he founded with brothers
Robert and
Alfred and
with his sons:
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and
Carl:
Oil Industry Company / Branobel / Tovarichtchestvo Nephtanavo Proisvodtsva Bratiev Nobel in Baku.
He moved with his mother Andriette and brothers Robert and Alfred to St Petersburg in 1842 where his father Immanuel had set up a factory. He bought his own smaller factory that he called the 'Machine-Building Factory Ludvig Nobel'. There, he made cannons, gun carriages, underwater mines and artillery missiles, machine tools, hydraulic presses.
Together with Russian Major General Peter A. Bilderling and his brother, he built up a model factory in Izhevsk in the Urals.
Ludvig and his son
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, visited Baku in 1876. In 1879, the 'Naftaproduktionsaktiebolaget Bröderna Nobel', shortened to Branobel, was formed in St. Petersburg.
Above Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831, was an engineer, m. 1st. time in 1858 to Mina Ahlsell and 2nd time in 1871.
Ludvig ran the company with his sons Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and Carl.
His first and illegitimate child, Hjalmar Crusell, was head of a laboratory and the closest person in St Petersburg.
Most of the people in the managerial staff were Swedes, but was also a man from Norway, Hans Olsen who came to Kronstadt to work in 1880 and met Ludvig Nobel's sons,
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and
Carl, in the Russian capital.
Above Major General Peter A. Bilderling and his brother:
Marie Dolivo Dobrovolsky / MARIA Doliwa Dobrowolska, 1820 - 1887 was mother of above Peter I von Bilderling + Sophie von Westmann von Bilderling.
He was father of Peter II von Bilderling + Marie Rjewsky / RAJEWSKA.
The baron Peter I von Bilderling (born in Saint-Petersburg in 1844) died in Zapolie near Luga in 1900, was the Russian Imperial Army Engineering Officer. Founder with Robert Nobel in Tsaritsin refinery and creation with Ludwig Nobel of the Branobel's Baku petroleum company.
He was the brother of baron Alexander von Bilderling, the general.
Peter von Bilderling was born in Courland, became Orthodox family. His father Alexandre Otto Hermann Grigorievitch von Bilderling was lieutenant general in the engineering. His grandfather, Georges Sigismond von Bilterlings, (1767-1829).
Co-operated with Ludwig Nobel, Alfred Nobel, Robert Nobel, I. J. Zabelsky / ZABIELSKI, Alexander von Bilderling, Fritz Blumberg, Michel Beliamin, A. S. Sundgren, Benno Wunderlich.
More:
http://konstantynowicz.info/Deka_Company_1904_-_1918_St_Petersburg/cryptography_ciphers_radio_telegraph_sweden_switzerland_russia_nobel_damm_wheatstone_hagelin_schilling/index.html
De Mohrenschildt's family managed Nobel Oil (Branobel Oil) in Baku, whose legal representative was John McCloy.
McCloy was a consultant to I. G. Farben and was on the Warren Commission as well. Both McCloy and Gen. William F. Draper, Jr. opposed the de-Nazification of of Germany according to Christopher Simpson in Splendid Blond Beast.
In 1961 George de Mohrenschildt was invited to lunch by J. Walton Moore. According to Edward Jay Epstein, during the meeting Moore told de Mohrenschildt about Lee Harvey Oswald living in Minsk.
In May 1920, the Nobel family sold almost half of Branobel's shares.
The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, or Branobel, was an oil company set up by Ludvig Nobel and Baron Peter von Bilderling, mainly in Baku, Azerbaijan but also in Cheleken, Turkmenistan.
At the head of the partnership stood the Board, based in St. Petersburg. From 1879 to 1888 L. Nobel was Chairman, and after his death, this post was taken by his son Emmanuel.
The post of Director of the Board held:
I. O. Olzen / OLSEN, K. V. Hagelin, M. M. Belyamin, G. P. Eklund, E. K. Grube.
Above HAGELIN:
Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin b. 1892, was a Swedish businessman and inventor of encryption machines. Born of Swedish parents in Azerbaijan;
father Karl Wilhelm Hagelin worked for Ludvig and Emanuel / Emmanuel Nobel in Baku
(Karl Hagelin was closest advisor for Emmanuel, because Wilhelm Hagelin, his father, had been employed by Ludvig Nobel as a manager of the St. Petersburg factory; 1899, Karl Hagelin was called back to St. Petersburg, like Emmanuel's closest technical advisor),
and next was an investor in the Arvid Gerhard Damm's company - Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, established to sell rotor machines, acc. to Wikipedia.
See: Smith, Francis O. J., The Secret Corresponding Vocabulary..., ed. in Portland; Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System..., ed. in 1948; Damm Arvid G., Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, ed. 1922;
Boris C. W. Hagelin became first a director and later the owner of the Cryptograph Company, next the Cryptographe Technik and then the Crypto A. G. in the 1960s.
Several genealogical family connections between families Rehbinder and Gernet, and Arensburg, Saku and Lehola in this configuration:
on 6 March 1865 between the Lord Captain Alezander Gernet / Alexander Gernet
(Alexander August von Gernet 1786 - 1865, born and died in Lehhola / Lehola; his wife died in Lehola - Natalie Praskowia Rehbinder 1796 - 1862)
- as owner of the property in the Harri / Harrifchen or
(Harju County or Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, it is situated in northern Estonia, on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland)
Harjumaa county, Keila parish, close to Lehola - and the farmer Tönnis Elling concluded agreement on the sold on 20 April 1865. And agreement between Gernet and the farmer Karel Keippar on the site Wanna Iürri, as owner of the property in the Harri / Harrifchen close to Lehola.
Captain Alexander von Gernet and the farmer Hans Limberg on the site Old (?) concluded decreed, as owner of the property in the Harrifchen / Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, close to Lehola.
The Baltic German historian Axel von Gernet (1865-1920), or Konrad Axel von Gernet from Sallentack (Salutaguse / 2 km east of Kohila, 19 km south-east of Saku), Raplamaa, Estland, died 1920 in St. Petersburg.
Kohila, Estonia is located ca 17 km south of Saku! Konrad Axel von Gernet was from Sallentack (Salutaguse / 2 km east of Kohila).
Alexander Gustav Konstantin von Benckendorff, from Jendel, b. 1846 in Warrang (Varangu - north of Rakvere ca 18 km), Väike-Maarja vald. Died 1910 in above Jendel (Jäneda - ca 65 km east of Saku).
Some inf. on the Pilchau family:
Karl Gustav Pilar von Pilchau 1751 - 1802 born in Wait (Vaida), Rae vald, Harjumaa, Estland and died 1802 in Weissenstein (Paide), Järvamaa, Estland.
His wife Johanna Christine Charlotte Pilar von Pilchau nee von Patkul 1751 - 1828; above Weissenstein (Paide), Järvamaa, ca 75 km south-east of Saku.
Siim Hacker b. 1817; his sons: Constantin Johann Hacker b. 1859 d. on February 28, 1926 in Keila - Keila town is 5 km north-east of Lehola, Harju County, and Keila is west of Saku; Gustav Hacker b. 1854 Hiiumaa - island, west of Haapsalu, died on September 28, 1917 in Tallinn, Harjumaa (his daughter Olga-Pauline Hacker b. 1876 d. 1877).
Pilar von Pilchau:
the first the Narva commendant Wenzel Pilar von Pilchau (1606–1675); lived in Livland / Liivimaa and Estonia; Pilar von Pilchau were owners of Vaida / Wait, Oru / Orrenhof, Meremoisa / Merremois, Raasiku / Rasik, Kääsla / Käsal, Lehtse / Lechts, Karjaküla / Karjaküll close to Saue and Saku, Vardi, Valgu, Palivere south-west of Lehola / Palvere / Pallfer and Halinga / Hallick, Uulu, Lelle, Alt-Salis, Audru / Audern, Arrohof, Haeska / Hasik close to Haapsalu (see Dunkel).
Pilar von Pilchau owners of:
Vaida is a small borough in Rae Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. It's located about 21 km southeast of Tallinn.
Orrenhof, south of Parnu, is a place with a very small population in the region of Parnumaa, Estonia.
Merremois / Meremoisa - 10 km north-west of Karjakula, and 15 km from Keila. Raasiku, south-east of Tallinn, 23 km. Rasik to von Sivers in 1843.
Palifer - Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau (1761-1819), was owner of Palifer, Orks, Pall, Käsal.
Orks = Polumyza Orks, Laanemaa, south of Haeska. Kütke (Kütke) close to Märjamaa, south of Saku.
Lechts, outh-west of Rakvere.
Schloss Felks owner Baron de Maydell.
Karjaküll - Vana-Karjaküla / Alt-Karjaküll, Karjaküla is a small borough in Keila Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia.

A note on the Gernet family from Estland / Estonia:
Natalie Praskowia Rehbinder b. 1796 died 1862, her father Peter Woldemar Rehbinder b. 1757 d. 1823;
her husband Alexander August von Gernet b. 1786 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia and died on October 5, 1865 in Lehhola.
Lehola is a settlement in Keila Parish, Harju County in northwestern Estonia, 15 km south-west of Harku, and 18 km west of Saku.
His father Carl Gustav von Gernet b. 1747 died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia.
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army -
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801 in Jogisoo.
Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. 1767 in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu).
He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.
Jogisoo (Jogisuu) ca 3 km south-west of Kullamaa, south-east-east of Haapsalu, Läänemaa county. But we know about different Jöggis, ca 5 and 1/2 km south from Saue, and south-west of Saku, also ca 7 km south-east of Keila and east of Lehola.

Walter Erich von Mohrenschildt b. 1910, died on July 1, 1934 in Berlin, the Sturmabteilung (SA) of the NSDAP. Son of Walter Konstantin von Mohrenschildt b. 1879 in Haiba, Hageri kihelkond, Harjumaa, Estonia; grandson of Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. 1833 in Haiba, Estland;
great-grandson of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1806 in Jöggis (Jogisoo), Saue vald, Harjumaa, Estland.
She was daughter of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm.

More about Estonia, Saue, Keila, Lehola, Tallinn:
http://konstantynowicz.info/Konstantinovich_Troubetskoy_Orlov_Denisov_Bagrationi_Paszkovsky_Siedych_Armand_Demonets/Estonia_Russia_Belarus_Poland/toll_rehbinder_steinberg_gernet_nomme_harku_saku/index.html
Kreuzhof / Risti, the Padise vald, Harjumaa - ca 30 km south-west of KEILA.
http://konstantynowicz.info/family_history_genealogy_historia_rodzina_genealogia/Italy_UK_Switzerland_Estonia_Sweden_Belarus_Russia_Poland_France/Belarusian_Estonian_Polish_Russian_genealogical_historical_database/index.html.
Von Mohrenshildt family - genealogical and historical database
A brief explanation on the De Mohrenschildt family from Estonia / Estland:

De Mohrenschildt / Мореншильд, Фёдор Борисович 1st, served the Guards Finland Regiment in 1823; staff captain - 1830, in 1841 lived in Estonia.

The brothers:
1. Sergei son of Alexandr De Mohrenschildt / фон Мореншильд Сергей Александрович, the court counselor, a district chief of the Slutsk district of the Minsk province in 1903.
2. Konstantin / фон Мореншильд Константин Александрович, collegiate counselor, the Chairman of the Board of the shipbuilding company and a mechanical plant in St. Petersburg. Member of the Board and Managing Director of the mining and oil industry in Ferghana.
3. Morenshild Vladimir son of above Alexandr / Aleksander De Mohrenschildt, was born in 1854. Midshipman - 1876. The senior officer of the battleship "Vice Admiral Popov" (1896). Senior Officer of "Terets" (1896 - 1897) and the battleship "George" (1897-1899). The commander of "Ingul" (1899) and mine cruiser "Griden" (1901-1902), "Zaporozhets" (1902-1903). The mayor of Sevastopol (1906). Orthodox; one son (1906).

We back to Kennedy:
In January 1963 Kennedy proposed to Congress to enforce the law, reducing incentives to oil companies. Implementation of this measure would cut the income of the Texas oilmen, which also referred to Count George de Morenshild / George S. De Mohrenschildt; his real name is George S. Morenshild. He was born on April 17, 1911 in Belarus. Many researchers believe that he had already worked for several networks of intelligence; in 1941 he was arrested in Arkansas as a German spy. But it took only three years, and in 1944 Count George Morenshild becomes famous Texas oil businessman. In 1949, he finally gets US citizenship; as a specialist in the oil, he travels around the world.
At early 60-ies in Dallas, he met with Oswald's family;

Oswald's wife was Marina Oswald Prusakova from Belarus.

Aunt and Uncle of Marina met in Berlin. Ilija Prusakow, the uncle of Marina OSWALD lived in Minsk,
he was Colonel of the Interior Ministry in the 60's in the Soviet Union and has allowed his niece to communicate with the American.
Lee Harvey Oswald b. October 1939, in New Orleans; his wife was Marina Nikolayevna Oswald-Porter, born July 17, 1941; daughter of Nikolay PRUSAKOW b. ca 1900.
He was living in Dryssa ca 1950 / 1960. His brother was Ilija born ca 1900.
FATHER OF ABOVE BOTH was Vasilij PRUSAKOW / Vasily Prusakov born 1854, architect in Wilno since the end of 1888; he arrived from St. Petersburg to Vilna on assignment by the Ministry of Justice; acted in 1899 - 1909, with
Aleksy Krasowski, Michal PROZOR, Tadeusz Rostworowski, Julian Januszewski, Feliks Jasinski, August Klain.
Prussakov (Prusakov) Vasiliy Agafonovich b. 1854, studied at Academy of Arts since 1871, on mechanics and technology, 1876 he graduated; Prusakov Agafon born ca 1820 / 1830.


And now a note about the genealogy of Count George de Morenshild / George S. De Mohrenschildt:
Karl Reinhold von Mohrenschildt born 1831 in Estonia, d. 1905 in Wolfsberg, Kärnten, Österreich; was son of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth; husband of Katharina Elmerice and father of Behrend Reinhold Alexander von Mohrenschildt.
Above Gertrude Elisabeth nee Pilar von Pilchau, born 1806 in Jöggis / Jogisoo, the Saue vald, Harjumaa, Estonia - d. 1847 (see Dunkel and Krauze). She was daughter of Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau (see Becu, Dzierzynski and Pilsudski) and Margaretha Ulrike Henriette von Ramm. She was sister of Karl Pilar von Pilchau and Emilie Caroline Elisabeth.
Above Berend Robert / Behrend von Mohrenschildt, b. 1786 in Kreuzhof / Risti, the Padise vald, Harjumaa, died in 1861 in Kreuzhof.
He was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie (see below !).
Husband of Margaretha Ulrika Juliane; Eleonore Juliane Elisabeth; and Gertrude Elisabeth. Father of Elisabeth (Lilly) Auguste 1825 - 1916 wife of Karl Platon Oskar von Baumgarten.

And we back to mentioned above Juri or George Sergius de Mohrenschildt 1911 - 1977, son of Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt (see above about фон Мореншильд Сергей Александрович) and Alexandra Gapolski / Zapolska; husband of Wynne Sharples; Phyllis Washington; Eugenia Jeanne Fomenko LeGon, and Dorothy Pierson; brother of Dimitri von Mohrenschildt
- inf. under copyright by Timo Antero Westerlund at geni.com in 2014.

George De Mohrenschildt's father was Von Mohrenschildt Sergej Aleksandrovic, born 9.4.1870; mother of Sergej: Nikonova Ljubov. The wedding day of Sergej on 29.4.1901 / 12.5. 1901; Sergej's wife was Alexandra Zapolska born 13.5.1879 / 25.5.1879; occupation: the County marshal in Mozyrz / Mozir in 1911; County marshal in Minsk in 1914 - 1915 or 1913 to 1917; description: Minsk office in 1911.

Above Alexandra Gapolski (Aleksandra Zapolska) b. 1879.

Above Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt b. 1870, son of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt and Ljubow Nikanorowna (Nikonova Ljubov); brother of Wladimir von Mohrenschildt; Nikolai von Mohrenschildt and Konstantin von Mohrenschildt.
Above Ljubow Nikanorowna Lukin (Nikonova Ljubov), 1840 - 1902. Above Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt, 1831 - 1904 was son of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Luise Wilhelmine Anna Alexandra von Doerper.
Above Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt, b. 1787, died in 1834, was son of Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Gfin. Douglas.
Above Ottilie Helene Douglas born 1756 in Reval (Tallinn), d. 1797. She was sister of above Gustava nee Douglas that is Gustava Stephanie von Mohrenschildt. She was daughter of Robert Wilhelm Douglas Count and Margarethe Juliane von Knorring.
Above Robert Wilhelm Douglas, 1724 in Tallinn, d. 1778 in Järvamaa. He was son of Gustaf Otto Douglas that is Gustav Otto Gf. Douglas-Skenninge, b. 1687 in Stockholm.

Part of von Mohrenschildt family moved home to Österreich:
Reinhold von Mohrenschildt b. 1915 in Krumpendorf am Wörthersee, Kärnten / Carinthia, Austria, was son of Erich Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt; grandson of Karl Reinhold von Mohrenschildt b. 1831;
great-grandson of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1806 in Jöggis / Jogisoo, Saue vald, Harjumaa, daughter of mentioned above Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau.
Above Berend Robert / Behrend von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti); son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt;
Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt b. 1748, son of Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt and Marie von Ramm; above Berend Otto von Mohrenschildt b. 1718 in Reval (Tallinn) was son of Berend Johann who died in 1732 in Kurkse, the Padise Parish, Harju County, Estonia.


The DOUGLAS family from SCOTLAND:

Stjärnorp Castle / Stiernorp, in the southern province of Östergötland, Sweden, was built by the Douglas family, in 1655 - 1662 owned by Field Marshal Robert Douglas, Count of Skenninge (1611 - 1662). Robert Douglas b. 1611 in Standingstone Estate, by Traprain Law, East Lothian, Scotland; his father, Patrick Douglas, was the second son of William Douglas of Whittinghame. ROBERT Douglas in 1654 was created a count. In 1658-1661 the military governor of Estonia and Livonia. His daughter married an Oxenstierna. The remaining son, Gustaf, was first of the Swedish-born noble line of Douglas.

His grandson, Count Gustav Otto Douglas, was captured by the Russians during the Battle of Poltava, entered Russian service, and in 1717 was the Governor General of Finland. Count Gustaf / Gustav Otto Douglas b. 1687, Stockholm, died in Reval, was father of Robert Wilhelm Graf Douglas b. 1724 in Tallinn, d. in Järvamaa, and grandfather of
Robert;
Ottilie Helene;
Juliane Luise;
Gustava Stephanie von Mohrenschildt,
and Peter.
Above Ottilie Helene b. 1756 in Reval (Tallinn), was wife of Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt. She was mother of Berend Wilhelm von Mohrenschildt.
Above Gustava Stephanie von Mohrenschildt Gräfin von Douglas b. 1758 in Reval (Tallinn), was wife of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and mother of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt; sister of Ottilie Helene.
Above Berend Robert / Behrend von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland. Father of Katharina Augusta Elisabeth; Behrend / Boris; Lilly Auguste; and among others
Thomas Ferdinand or Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt - see below!

Famous Juri / George Sergius de Mohrenschildt 1911 - 1977, son of Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt and Alexandra Zapolski. Above Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt b. 1870, was son of Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt and Ljubow Nikanorowna / NIKONOV; above Heinrich Alexander von Mohrenschildt b. 1831 was son of Gustav Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Luise Wilhelmine Anna Alexandra von Doerper.
Above Gustav Reinhold 1787 - 1834 was son of Johann Heinrich von Mohrenschildt and Ottilie Helene Douglas - see above!

Russian diplomat in the US, Ferdinand Nikolai Alexander von Mohrenschildt, b. 1885 in Haiba, Kernu Parish, Harju County, Estonia, d. March 4, 1919 in New York. Burial at Sleepy Hollow, Westchester County, New York.
He was son of Thomas Ferdinand or Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt and Mary / Marie von Mohrenschildt daughter of Behrend / Boris Mohrenschildt and Marie Luise von Bremen. Above Ferdinand's wife was Nona Hazelhurst McAdoo b. 1893, daughter of William Gibbs McAdoo, U.S. Senator and Secretary of the Treasury and Sarah Hazelhurst Houston.
Above Thomas Ferdinand von Mohrenschildt b. 1833 in Haiba, Hageri kihelkond, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland. He was son of Behrend Robert von Mohrenschildt and Gertrude Elisabeth.
Above Berend Robert (Behrend) von Mohrenschildt b. 1786 in Kreuzhof (Risti), Padise vald, Harjumaa, Estland.
He was son of Berend Reinhold von Mohrenschildt and Gustava Stephanie. Above Gustava Stephanie Gräfin von Douglas b. 1758 in Reval (Tallinn) - see above!
She was daughter of Robert Wilhelm Douglas and Margarethe Juliane von Knorring.
Above Robert Wilhelm Douglas (above on the Douglas in Estonia and Scotland; see my domain about the Douglas family in Italy) b. 1724 Tallinn - died in 1778 in Järvamaa was son of Gustaf Otto Douglas and Helena von Schlippenbach.



And now let's see how my genealogical research began, and not only those - in 1987 - and how it connects to the Artusov / Артур Христианович Артузов / Фраучи and Vernadsky! This short preface to my domain was formed 19 and on 20th April 2015, but its extensive fragments are also to read in the so-called 'Part 2 - Intelligence...'. So I invite you to read how somebody can create an history image omitting the historical facts...

"...The Trust's young mastermind, A. H. Artuzov / Артур Христианович Артузов (Фраучи), in his thirties at the peak of the operation, was a cousin of Potapov. Originally named Renucci or Fraucci, Artuzov is said by most sources to have returned to Russia from Genoa only on the eve of the Revolution, while the Soviets' fictionalized biography of Artuzov acknowledges that he was of Italo-Swiss ancestry. When Potapov was the Trust's emissary to Western Europe in the 1920s, he supposedly fooled the Russian aristocrats abroad into believing he was the representative of an anti-Bolshevik underground. Yet, as emigre chronicler of the Trust S. L. Voitsekhovsky had to admit, it was incomprehensible, how his contemporaries, his former superiors and colleagues, could have believed in the sincerity of his monarchical views. ... The Trust of the spies and provocateurs, as the above shows, turns out to be a microcosm of a much bigger East­West complex, whose strategic outlook was best stated by the infamous Toynbee in 1974. ... Cheka chief Dzerzhinsky wore another hat, as chairman of the Supreme Council for the National Economy, which allowed him to deal directly with the Western members of this larger Trust...".
Copyright of above quotation:
EIR Volume 15, Number 3, January 15, 1988; © 1988 EIR News Service Inc., All Rights Reserved. A Fresh Look at the February Revolution. New KGB skirts history lessons... by Aleln and Rachel Douglas.
"John Dziak leads the IASC's work on technology security, strategic denial and deception and countermeasures. He has served over three decades as a senior intelligence officer and an executive in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and in the Defense Intelligence Agency, with long experience in weapons proliferation intelligence, counterintelligence, strategic intelligence, global countermeasures and intelligence education. He is the author of the award-winning, Chekisty: A History of the KGB (1987), numerous other books, articles, and monographs, the most recent of: which is The Military Relationship Between China and Russia, 1995-2002 (2002), and is currently preparing a book on counterintelligence. Dr. Dziak is fluent in Russian. Dr. Dziak is co-founder and President of Dziak Group, Inc., a consulting firm in the fields of technology transfer, intelligence, counterintelligence and security, and national security affairs with clients in industry and the Intelligence Community. Dr. Dziak is an Adjunct Professor at the National Defense Intelligence College".

The Dziak family came from Slovakia:
Ortutova in 1921, George Dziak to Cleveland, OH; Maria Dziak (Zavidny) of Lipova; in Lipova in 1901 Andrew Dziak to Marblehead, OH; Ortutova, Slovensko, east of Bardejov. Helen Dziak 1854-03-10 of Lipova; Stefan Dziak; Dziak, John 1866-02-17 of Ortutova; Peter Dziak; Dziak, John 1888-08-09 of Sasova / Šašova; see: Charles Dziak b. ca 1900 / 1906. His wife Susan Dziak (nee Madansky). Lipova, Ortutova and Sasova are located east of Bardejov, northern Slovakia. Dr. John J. Dziak is co-founder and President of Dziak Group, Inc., a consulting firm in the fields of technology transfer, intelligence, counterintelligence and security, and national security affairs with clients in industry and the Intelligence Community in USA. Please remember about: John W. Dziak, Sr, of Lorain, died 2014 in Lorain; he was born in 1927 in Lorain; John served with the US Army from 1945-1947; worked for the Illuminating Company; member of the American Slovak Club, First Catholic Slovak Union; his wife Frances nee Keplar; children Robert, Barbara (Dennis) Goza of Cheboygan, Beverly (William) Allsop of Vermilion, Joan, John (Kathy) Dziak, Jr of Lorain, and so on; from Slovakia!

But
"... A. H. Artuzov, in his thirties at the peak of the operation, was a cousin of Potapov. Originally named Renucci or Fraucci, Artuzov is said by most sources to have it returned Russia from Genoa only on the eve of the Revolution, while the Soviet's fictionalized biography of Artuzov acknowledges that he was of Italo - Swiss ancestry. When Potapov was the Trust's emissary is Western Europe in the 1920s, he supposedly the Russian aristocrats fooled into believing abroad he was the representative of an anti-Bolshevik underground".
In this quotation, however, is a mistake (see below my explanations).
Characteristic that appeared to it in the years 1987 and 1988.
Recently in 1987, I started by solving puzzles and political genealogy around my Konstantynowicz family in Poland and Russia.
In the first period October 1987 - September 1989 I recognized the immediate environment of our family Konstantynowicz, maybe 200 people; unfortunately it 'coincided' with the sudden death of my father on November 3, 1987; buried 09 November 1987.
And at the same time: in the villa at the Zawrat Street in Warsaw, General Czeslaw Kiszczak meets Lech Walesa [+ Bishop Jerzy Dabrowski] dated 31-08-1988, 15-09-1988; in Magdalenka near Warsaw with Kiszczak were meetings on 27-01-1989 and 02-03-1989, 07-03-1989 and 29-03-1989.
Not counting other important my family events on 28 October 1987 and 1 November 1987 - and finally, on November 2, 1987 I attempted to obtain from my father (died 03rd Nov.) the most important data about our family.
More:
http://www.konstantynowicz.info/Berezyna/Miezonka_Polish_nobility_village_photos_part_five/duflon_deka_company_miezonka_21st_century/Poland_1945_2013/index.html

In principle, all these people (October 1987 - September 1989) were associated with the Warsaw special services, mainly with counter-intelligence of the security services

(by the way, like in the whole period 1972
{B. Grabowski - 1968; A. Krych - 1972; J. Janowski - 1973; K. Wojcieszek - 1973; P. Dmochowski - 1974; J. Hempel - 1975; J. Matysiak - 1977; S. Broniarz - 1978. The General Zbigniew Nowek from Bydgoszcz {General Nowek - his professional career in 1990 started with the aid of the head of the Ministry of Interior, Andrzej Milczanowski} and Torun [in 2005 to 2008 head of the Foreign Intelligence Agency, in 2010 deputy chief of the National Security Agency], close to [then Colonel] Adam Ostoja-Owsiany a head in 2006 of the Internal Security Agency in Lodz [close to Moczulski (b. 1930) / Robert Reimer-Berman / Robert Berman, who was in London Dec. 1986/January 1987 to Edward Raczynski, and to Bush in US], then a head of personnel department of the Foreign Intelligence Agency - with Colonel Brunon Czabok [cyber threat information security and ex-Deputy Director of the Office of Information Security and Computer Security] a head in KATOWICE}
- 2017

[along with the Lodz civil counterintelligence Captain Krzysztof Tomczyk b. ca 1952 + Andrzej Kolczynski, a counterintelligence Captain of the civilian prosecutor's office, and Monika Bogucka Sedzicka born 1976 {then The Department of National Telecommunications Security} with a line to Jaworska Halina, nee Wodkiewicz b. 1923 in Leszno village close to (see: Woroniecki, Lelewel and ROMAN family) Przasnysz
(an activity since June 1955 around the Kiedrzynski and Rogaczewski family and relatives, coming from Wola Pszczolecka village - here the period: before the seventies of the nineteenth century, 1915 to 1918 and later - and Jedlno)
+ Rozan by Narew river {with the next network 2006-2014 reaching to the town Rozan and Geremek
{Bronislaw Geremek, 1954 and 1955 went to the USA on a scholarship of the Smithsonian Institution}
- and in 2005 up to connection Geremek-L. Moczulski} - the Chodecz {since 1983} - Brzesc Kujawski {2012-2013, Maciej I. Wojtczak} -
Wloclawek (maybe here is network of "ALIEN"; with an area of Radziejow;
and interesting connection to Popowo near Tluchowo - Popowo is situated ca 28 km east of Wloclawek)
- Torun - Tczew [Burnicki] - Gdansk [Pisz Andrzej] - Wabrzezno {since 2005} -
Olecko {b. Suwalki in ca 1988, 2015 - 2016, with Gąski, Możne, Wężewo, Kowale Oleckie} - Jan Ddl, b. 1996/7 (Ełk; Pisanica, east of Ełk at way to Augustów; Bournemouth; Milewo, 20 km north-west of Augustow; mainly ethnic minorities from the Bialystok provice) -

and on 18th April 2017 to August 2017, a network of Senegal / Jamaica [190 cm tall; house number 135 {he is very thin with a small head and very black face hidden under the hood - aggressive provocateur [16 September 2017 in Maple Convenience Store] of the Polish illegal foreign counterintelligence network} + X458 OPS + HJ16 FDN; PJ13 AHU] + full cooperation with: Sadowski; Rochelle Thompson; Sosnierz {main brain action against me; friend of the Negro from No. 135; she is trained in Poland before 2007 - see Winterbourne Rd in 2007/2008}; and Garland Rd No 43 {the duplicate or double of the Negro from the No. 135 - probably of Arab origin} -
Szczecin / Police [number 137; actual legal address: 2 Denmark Rd] + in 2013: "Our mission is to empower women to achieve their ambitions." - https://leanin.org/about - "...Lean In Circles are small groups who meet regularly to learn and grow together, and they’re changing lives." "Lean In.Org is an initiative of the Sheryl Sandberg & Dave Goldberg Family Foundation, which also runs OptionB.Org, and is recognized by the IRS as tax-exempt private operating foundation ... LeanIn.Org receives all of the profits of Lean In: Women, Work & the Will to Lead by Sheryl Sandberg. She has also made additional donations to LeanIn.Org to cover its operating budget"
- Przybranowo / Wloclawek [house 96; moved home at No 92] with again Michalow / Suwalki [92; with Garland Rd 2; + Tatnam Rd 15-17] + (b. 1981) Rozan
+ MARCIN, on 21 March 2005 - 19 August 2017, an active counter-intelligence agent at St Swithun's Rd
-
Zgierz {2005/2006 and again since October 2015 with international support from his "brethren"}
branch
[sometimes practically only from among ethnic minorities: 2015 from Mokotow in Warsaw; 1982/1988 from Opoczno - Natkanski Z.; Suwalki, Wroclaw - Michalak E. - in 1985 and 2008...
and from Western Europe {"Bogdan - they were very easy to get along in your case", a man named Przemyslaw of Zgierz says in spring 2006 to me; he was the bartender from the Piotrkowska street in 2004};
in 2015 first of all centres of special services from Gdansk, and Lodz + Zgierz, etc.].

Above highly dangerous, aggressive network of a pseudo Counterintelligence nature dependent on the Russians, led by national minority, currently is in a state of underground conspiracy [2016-2017]. The creator of this special services network since 1972 was General Kiszczak, the head of military intelligence, former communist prime minister and the head of the secret police. The funeral of Czeslaw Kiszczak was in November 2015 and his wife said:
"God will pay you for all the harm, which ungrateful, unworthy Pole has done to you. A wrong words fall somewhere there out, hateful to you - of the people full of evil, hypocritical ... Your heroic deeds will be exposed."

The Suwalki - Sandberg - Summers - Samuelson - Romania network with a line to POLICE:

Larry Summers - Lawrence Henry "Larry" Summers is an American economist who is President Emeritus and Charles W. Eliot University Professor of Harvard University. Summers became a professor of economics at Harvard University in 1983. He left Harvard in 1991, working as the Chief Economist at the World Bank from 1991 to 1993. In 1993, Summers was appointed Undersecretary for International Affairs of the United States Department of the Treasury under the Clinton Administration. In 1995, he was promoted to Deputy Secretary of the Treasury under his mentor Robert Rubin [under copyright by Wikipedia]. After his departure from Harvard, Summers worked as a managing partner at the hedge fund D. E. Shaw & Co., and as a freelance speaker at other financial institutions, including Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, Citigroup, Merrill Lynch and Lehman Brothers.

Summers was born in New Haven, in 1954, into a Jewish family, the son of two economists, Robert Summers (who changed the family surname from Samuelson) and Anita Summers (of Romanian-Jewish ancestry), who are both professors at the University of Pennsylvania.

Anita Arrow Summers have a brother Kenneth Arrow. Kenneth Joseph Arrow, Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1972, born in 1921 in New York. Son of Harry Arrow and Lilian Arrow. Brother of Anita Summers (Arrow). Kenneth Joseph Arrow was born to parents of Romanian Jewish origins. Anita Arrow Summers have a brother-in-law Paul Samuelson.

Above Lilian Arrow b. estimated 1890 ?? in Romania. Above Harry Arrow b. in Romania.

Above mentioned Paul Anthony Samuelson b. in 1915, died 2009, an American economist. President Bill Clinton commended Samuelson for his "fundamental contributions to economic science" for over 60 years. He served as an advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, and was a consultant to the United States Treasury, the Bureau of the Budget and the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Samuelson was born in Gary, Indiana, to Frank Samuelson, a pharmacist, and Ella Lipton. His family was "mobile Jewish immigrants from Poland who had prospered considerably in World War I, because Gary was a brand new steel town...".

Mentioned Lawrence "Larry" Henry Summers / Larry Summers, was the son of Robert "Bob" (Samuelson) Summers. Above Robert Summers (Samuelson) / Bob Summers, 1922 - 2012, was the son of Frank Samuelson [Franc ??] and Ella (Lypski) Samuelson / Elzbieta Lipska?; Robert was the brother of Harold Samuelson and Paul Samuelson, Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, 1970.

Note on the SAMUELSON family come from the OLECKO area:

Paul Anthony Samuelson was born on May 15, 1915, in Gary, Indiana. His parents were Frank Samuelson, a pharmacist, and Ella Lipton / LYPSKI Samuelson.

Ella Lipton and the Samuelsons immigrated to the USA in 1908 to build a pharmacy business in Gary, Indiana. Frank's older brother Herman also emigrated from Poland [the Suwalki area].

Samuelson come from RACZIK, Poland, then of the Prussian Empire to 1945 [Raczki Wielkie, north-east of Olecko, Prussia to 1945, and 1 km west of ex-Russian border; Nowe Raczki ca 6 km east of Olecko, and 2 km west to the ex-Russian border].

Robert Summers (June 22, 1922 - April 17, 2012) was a U.S. economist and professor, University of Pennsylvania, where he taught from 1960. He was the son of above named Frank Samuelson and Ella (Lypski) Samuelson.

Anna (Glotstein) Lypski was a wife of Mayer Lypski and mother of Sophia Lypski born in 1892 in Suwalki, Poland. Above Mayer Lypski / Meir Lypski, was also born in 1840 in Suwalki, [Russia in the 19th cent.; see Borys Johnson genealogy - Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson PC MP (born in 1964) / Boris Johnson, is a British politician, and journalist. He has been Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since July 2016; Johnson's mother, Charlotte Johnson Wahl nee Fawcett, was the granddaughter of Americans Elias Avery Lowe, of Russian Jewish descent. Johnson's great-grandparents come from an area north of SUWALKI and émigré to Mexico] Russia to 1918 / Poland, died in 1923. He was the son of Mordechai Nissan Lypski.

Ella Samuelson (Lypski) / Ella Lypski, was the daughter of above Mayer Lypski and mentioned Anna (Glotstein) Lypski. Ella was the wife of named Frank Samuelson [Frank Samuelson, 1886-1939, had married ELLA LIPTON = Ella Lipton / LYPSKI Samuelson], and she was the mother of Harold Samuelson; Paul Samuelson, Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, 1970 and Robert "Bob" (Samuelson) Summers.

Paul Samuelson's grandfather - Leo Samuelson - and his grandmother JENNIE Epstein, were part of a Jewish community that saw waves of immigrants come to the USA in the latter half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th cent.

Their son, Frank Samuelson, 1886-1939, had married ELLA LIPTON and they immigrated to the USA in 1908 to GARY, Indiana [before the Great War]. Frank's older brother Herman also emigrated from Poland and started up a furrier business in the area, along with Frank's other brother Charles.

Sheryl Sandberg was named in the Time 100 in 2012, an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world according to Time magazine. "... Ms. Sandberg’s personal wealth is reported to be in the region of $400 million, thanks to her stock holdings in Facebook as well as other companies. ... Sheryl Sandberg was born in Washington, D.C, ... Ms. Sandberg graduated Harvard College ... being awarded the highly prestigious John H. Williams Prize for the top graduating student in her subject. While studying at Harvard, Ms. Sandberg first got to know Larry Summers who was teaching at the college. After graduation Summers asked Sheryl to join him as his research assistant at the World Bank reporting on important health projects funded by the bank in India. Sheryl was to remain at the World Bank for around twelve months during 1993, before enrolling at the Harvard Business School ...

Sheryl Sandberg began her professional career as a management consultant for McKinsey & Company, before the meeting her professional association with Larry Summers, by then United States Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of President Bill Clinton.

From 1996 to 2001, Sandberg held the role of Summer's Chief of Staff, playing a major part in the Treasury's mission of forgiving debt in the developing world. Ms. Sandberg left the Treasury to join Google Inc. in 2001, remaining there until early 2008, when she was appointed by Facebook to become their COO. Sheryl Sandberg is a key figure in the Facebook management team...".

Sylwia Barthel de Weydenthal / Sylwia de Weydenthal was the precursor of Lean In Poland, an organization initiated by Sheryl Sandberg (COO of Facebook). On the Leanin.org: the Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead is a 2013 book written by Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook. Anecdotes are given in which Judith Rodin questions why highly talented women choose to leave careers and become homemakers and Gayle Tzemach Lemmon gives her opinion.

Above Judith Rodin born Judith Seitz in 1944 is a philanthropist. Rodin was born Jewish in Philadelphia, PA. She was the daughter of Morris and Sally Seitz. Rodin became president of the Rockefeller Foundation in March, 2005.

Sheryl Kara Sandberg born 1969, is an American technology executive, activist, and author. She is the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook and founder of Leanin.org / the Lean In Foundation.

Sandberg was born in 1969 in Washington, D.C. to a Jewish family, the daughter of Adele (née Einhorn) and Joel Sandberg. Sandberg's family was active in helping Soviet Jews make aliyah to Israel during the refusenik era [in Russia]. Her mother ADELE was also an English teacher who co-founded Ear Peace-Save Your Hearing, a nonprofit that teaches teens how to prevent hearing loss, with a Restaurant Noise Survey:

"... The decibel levels in the arena were so loud that she and her husband began putting tissues in their ears in an attempt to muffle the noise. (They later used earplugs after learning that tissues do not provide adequate protection.) Adele was especially concerned when she saw how many young people, even babies, were being exposed to sound levels that could permanently damage their hearing".

ADELE Sandberg - Ear Peace-Save Your Hearing, a nonprofit that teaches teens how to prevent hearing loss, with a Restaurant Noise Survey - 2740 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, FL 33020 - MIAMI; see: Stephen F. Mandel and Miriam Zadek, is director of social work at the Hearing and Speech Agency of Metropolitan Baltimore [a daughter of Mrs. Hyman I. Scharfman of West Palm Beach, Fla. - north of MIAMI - see the Addo Food Group factory in UK - Pork Farms Group has been rebranded as Addo Food Group].

"Aliyah to Israel during the refusenik era" - Refusenik was an unofficial term for individuals, typically but not exclusively Soviet Jews, who were denied permission to emigrate by the authorities of the former Soviet Union and other countries of the Eastern bloc [by Wikipedia]. The coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s, led to major changes, and most refuseniks were allowed to emigrate. The family of Sheryl Kara Sandberg helped to them; she is an American technology executive, activist, and author.

She is the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook and founder of Leanin.org / the Lean In Foundation.

Sheryl Kara Sandberg born 1969, is an American technology executive, activist, and author. Widow of David Bruce Goldberg - son of Mel Goldberg. Sheryl Sandberg has set her goal early. "... From changing the stereotype of gender in the professional world because she doesn't believe that gender is the thing that can hold anyone back, she tries to change how people see gender and women, and treat them equal".

Leszek Moczulski / Robert Leszek Moczulski, born in 1930, the Polish journalist, politician, historian. Leszek Moczulski states that in the 1950s, he made contact with people from the pre-war Pilsudski movement, to create Conspiratorial "Independence" (including General Roman Abraham). After the intervention of British parliamentarians in Warsaw, Leszek Moczulski got a passport. In the first half of 1987 was in Britain, France, USA and Canada. He met, among others with US Vice President George Bush. "The Washington Post" printed his article.

Krzysztof Jakub Król, born October 5, 1963 in Warsaw, is a Polish politician and journalist, 2011-2015 Social Advisor of the President of the Republic of Poland. He is husband of the stepdaughter of Leszek Moczulski - Elżbieta Król. In 1997-2004 he created the "Intermedia" computer add-on; the Polish Chamber of Information Technology and Telecommunications. He assumed the position of deputy director of the communications department of Prokom Software, founded by Ryszard Krauze. He is also an adviser to Asseco Poland.

On June 29, 2011 became the social counselor of President Bronislaw Komorowski, until August 5, 2015. In 2016-2017 sat on the board of the Committee of Defense of Democracy.

Above Asseco Poland today is the result of a merger between Asseco Poland (formerly COMP Rzeszów), Softbank, Prokom Software and ABG. COMP Rzeszów, founded by Adam Góral (current President of Asseco Poland) in 1991, at the beginning of his activity he produced software for cooperative banks, later expanded into banking and finance, insurance, public administration and industry.

Adam Góral, born 1955 in Rzeszów, is the President of Asseco Poland S.A. After returning from the United States, in 1988 he and his brother set up a company called "Jazcoop".

He opened the local branch of the Warsaw "Comp Ltd." in 1991, which then transformed into COMP Rzeszów S.A. In 2004, the company changed its name to Asseco Poland SA after taking over the Slovakian high technology company "Asset Soft AS".

Along with a very interesting association to the network structure with Jaroslaw Slota born near Chodecz and Malgorzata Zieleniewska - directly related to PM Leszek Miller (2001 - 2004).
Since 2005 with cooperation of Slovakia and Romania [PLOESTI];
at present in 2015 even the structure derived from the famous Humer alias Umer from Tomaszów Lubelski - Gliwice / Zory / Katowice {+ Tyszowce, Tomaszow Lubelski, Zamosc}, with connection to ... Katowice [B. Wilczek {+ Tomaszow Lubelski}] ... Korçë {Menkulas} in Albania, Thessaloniki, Tbilisi...]);

the locations of these people in society in 1988 clearly suggested further direction of my historical research.


Note to above data:
Teofil Adam Humer / Adam Umer b. 1917 in Camden; son of Odilia and Vincent (Wincenty was killed by the Polish Underground State on May 31, 1946; this action performed by a group led by Jan Leonowicz); in September 1939 the Humer / Umer family organized anti-Polish uprising in Tomaszow Lubelski, Łaszczów, Tyszowce, Zamosc, Szczebrzeszyn, Hrubieszow; in 1944, organized the structure of the Soviet police in Tomaszów Lubelski together with Alexander Żebruń, who in 1939 belonged to the Communist Party of Western Ukraine. Żebruń had helpers: Umer Vincent and his sons - Adam, and Edward. They prepared proscription lists of Poles in 1939 and 1944; the brothers Adam and Edward Umer found in Tomaszów Lubelski "secret police". Adam Humer was in 1939 a member of the Communist Youth Union of Western Ukraine. Adam Umer, later known as Humer quickly promoted, in the early 50s was deputy director of the Investigation Department of the Ministry of Public Security.
Vincent Umer, in 1946 was the deputy chairman of the District Council in Tomaszow Lubelski;
Teofil Adam Humer / Adam Umer was dismissed from his post of the Ministry of Public Security on March 31, 1955, but later, though formally he was outside the resort, in fact he advised the authorities of the Security service as a specialist of the Polish national movement. Polish underground has issued a death sentence on him.


Note to above named SANDBERG:

Vladimir Putin & Hillary Clinton - Common financial interests - Vladimir Putin's political mentor, Anatoly Chubais, is Chairman of Putin's favored funding front - Rusnano (Russian Nanotechnology Corporation). Bill and Hillary's closest advisor, John Podesta, has been associated with various Dutch companies in which Podesta and Chubais have been directors and in which Rusnano invested $35 million. If this weren't close enough, one of the investors with Rusnano is the Wyss Foundation that made an up to $5 million donation to The Clinton Foundation.

"... Chubais helped lead the disastrous Russian privatization voucher program in the early 1990's pressed by then World Bank chief economist, Larry Summers. Summers later served alongside Podesta in the Clinton and Obama White Houses. Summers' aids in the Russian privatization debacle were Sheryl K. Sandberg and Yuri Milner, who were later placed in charge of global email and social networking via Gmail, Mail.ru, Facebook and VKontakte. In short, this small group has taken over the Internet by exploiting state powers using the social networking invention stolen from Columbus innovator Leader Technologies as well as core Internet inventions by others...".
More: 'americans4innovation.blogspot.co.uk/2016', October 2016.

Sylwia Barthel de Weydenthal / Sylwia de Weydenthal
was the precursor of Lean In Poland, an organization initiated by Sheryl Sandberg (COO of Facebook). On the Leanin.org: the Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead is a 2013 book written by Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook.

Anecdotes are given in which Judith Rodin questions why highly talented women choose to leave careers and become homemakers and Gayle Tzemach Lemmon gives her opinion.
Above Judith Rodin born Judith Seitz in 1944 is a philanthropist. Rodin was born Jewish in Philadelphia, PA. She was the daughter of Morris and Sally Seitz. Rodin became president of the Rockefeller Foundation in March, 2005.

Sheryl Kara Sandberg born 1969, is an American technology executive, activist, and author. She is the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook and founder of Leanin.org / the Lean In Foundation.
Sandberg was born in 1969 in Washington, D.C. to a Jewish family, the daughter of Adele (née Einhorn) and Joel Sandberg. Sandberg's family was active in helping Soviet Jews make aliyah to Israel during the refusenik era [in Russia]. Her mother ADELE was also an English teacher who co-founded Ear Peace-Save Your Hearing, a nonprofit that teaches teens how to prevent hearing loss, with a Restaurant Noise Survey:
"... The decibel levels in the arena were so loud that she and her husband began putting tissues in their ears in an attempt to muffle the noise. (They later used earplugs after learning that tissues do not provide adequate protection.) Adele was especially concerned when she saw how many young people, even babies, were being exposed to sound levels that could permanently damage their hearing".
ADELE Sandberg - Ear Peace-Save Your Hearing, a nonprofit that teaches teens how to prevent hearing loss, with a Restaurant Noise Survey - 2740 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, FL 33020 - MIAMI; see: Stephen F. Mandel and Miriam Zadek, is director of social work at the Hearing and Speech Agency of Metropolitan Baltimore [a daughter of Mrs. Hyman I. Scharfman of West Palm Beach, Fla. - north of MIAMI - see the Addo Food Group factory in UK - Pork Farms Group has been rebranded as Addo Food Group].

"Aliyah to Israel during the refusenik era" - Refusenik was an unofficial term for individuals, typically but not exclusively Soviet Jews, who were denied permission to emigrate by the authorities of the former Soviet Union and other countries of the Eastern bloc [by Wikipedia]. The coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s, led to major changes, and most refuseniks were allowed to emigrate. The family of Sheryl Kara Sandberg helped to them; she is an American technology executive, activist, and author.
She is the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook and founder of Leanin.org / the Lean In Foundation.

Sheryl Kara Sandberg born 1969, is an American technology executive, activist, and author. Widow of David Bruce Goldberg - son of Mel Goldberg. Sheryl Sandberg has set her goal early. "... From changing the stereotype of gender in the professional world because she doesn't believe that gender is the thing that can hold anyone back, she tries to change how people see gender and women, and treat them equal".


The distillery of spirits in Wola Wiazowa belonged to Pradzynski, but the village was still owned by Walewski.

It is this and not another the Pradzynski family - relatives of the Kiedrzynskis. Pradzynski from Wilkowo Polskie was married to Kiedrzynski - the Kiedrzynski family in Wilkowo Polskie are descendants of Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720.

WILCZKOW belonged to Pstrokonski.

Franciszek Ksawery Pstrokonski, b. in 1715 - died ca 1783, owner of WILCZKOW, m. Agnieszka Nieniewska d. 1776; he was the brother of Marianna, and Wiktoria PSTROKONSKA {born ca 1715/1720} - she was married Marcin Kiedrzynski {b. ca 1715/1720}, son of Jakub Kiedrzynski senior, and Ewa Gomolinska / GOMULINSKA.

Jakub's Kiedrzynski - junior - brother was Izydor Kiedrzynski. Jakub's nephew was Gabriel Kiedrzynski [January 1833 with nicknames].

MOKIEJEWSKI also had several distilleries of spirits, also near to Przysucha - Opoczno. The part of Mokiejowski / Mokiejewski's property, ie Smogorzow and Mariówka, was transferred to the Kiedrzynski family - it is the same family of MARCIN Kiedrzynski from WILCZKOW [see Andrzej Kiedrzynski from Wilczkow and his son Jakub Kiedrzynski - WILCZKOW, WILKOWO POLSKIE, Kalisz] and WILKOWO POLSKIE.

Henryk Kiedrzynski, and his sons were heirs of Smogorzow and Mariowka. This is the same family from Wilczkow. See my information about Bedziechow close to WILCZKOW.

In the village of Mariowka / Mariowka Opoczynska during the second world war the Leszek Moczulski / Lech / Robert Moczulski-Berman or Robert Reimer-Berman family survived the anguish; Berman was educated here in Spring - Summer of 1945. See the fate of Leszek Moczulski after 1977 [a visit to Bush in 1987 in US].

In 1848 the Wola Wiezowa / Wola Wiazowa, and Deby Wolskie farm in the Wola Wiezowa parish, were owned by Ksawery Konstanty Walewski / Xawery Konstanty Walewski.

Here were living three brothers Mieczyslaw Walewski, Ignacy, and Alexander Walewski - sons of Romuald Walewski, with mother Bronislawa Walewska born Cieslinska, widow.
Guardian of the children was Konstanty Walewski owner of Rzasawa in the Czestochowa district.
In 1847 there was a court case between Ksawery Konstanty Walewski, and Marcela born Walewska, wife of Ludwik Walewski, versus above Bronislawa Walewska. This property Wola Wiazowa was divided between children of mentioned Romuald Walewski, and others the Walewskis.
Father's of STANISLAW Walewski was Franciszek Walewski junior [Ksawery Franciszek Walewski, official in Ostrzeszów, 1739-1796 - he was the son of Franciszek Walewski, senior, official in Rozprza, b. 1710 - died in 1745 in RUSIEC + Teodora Walewska b. ca 1710] with unknown wife
[Franciszek Walewski, junior, m. 1st in 1784, in the Kobyla Góra parish, in Myslniew, to Konstancja Psarska, the daughter of Fryderyk Jakub Psarski; the 2nd to unknown {see son Stanislaw Walewski}; 3rd to Teresa Niemojowska b. ca 1730].

Mentioned Stanislaw Walewski, 1779-1830.

Romuald Blazej Wincenty Walewski was the son of named above Stanislaw Walewski and Zuzanna BRODZKA / Brocka; Romuald was born 1813 in the Rusiec parish in Wola Wiazowa.
Romuald Blazej Wincenty Walewski, 1813-1847, m. Bronislawa Cieslinska, b. 1822.

Mieczyslaw Walewski b. 1839, Ignacy Walewski b. 1842, and Alexander Walewski born 1844 in Kolonia Luslawice, east to Czestochowa - south-east to MSTOW, d. 1907,
all were sons of named Romuald Walewski and Bronislawa Walewska born Cieslinska.
Alexander's son was Aleksander Bronislaw Walewski, 1887-1946; daughter was Deaodata.

Named above village Mariówka is the main center of activity of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Blessed Virgin Mary founded in 1878 by Father Honorat Kozminski. Mariowka - is situated 5 km north-west to PRZYSUCHA, the east to OPOCZNO.
The Congregation of the Sisters of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1903 bought MARIOWKA from the hands of Henryk Kiedrzynski, land owner from SMOGORZOW.
Smogorzow belonged to Wasowicz until 1871, then to hands of Franciszek Krassowski and his wife Natalia Zajtekajn Krassowska. In 1896 son of named Franciszek and Natalia, that is junior Franciszek Krassowski, all Smogorzow donated for a arrear to hands of Jekow Klajner from Przysucha. Named Franciszek Krassowski, junior, married baroness Ludwika Reysha / REYSHE.
From named JAKOW KLAJNER, all estate Smogorzów, Adam Mokiejowski bought in 1897.
See next Adam MOKIEJEWSKI born in 1900, married to Janine ZYLINSKA b. 1910 with son Jean-Paul Adam MOKIEJEWSKI.
In Rzucow mentioned Adam Mokiejewski founded a school in 1901.
Wola Kuraszowa - 12 km south-east to PRZYSUCHA. Manor in Rzucow to Adam Mokiejewski. Jean-Pierre Mocky (born 6 July 1933) is the pseudonym of Jean-Paul Adam Mokiejewski, a French film director.

RZUCOW - the manor was built in 1864, when Rzucow was bought by Adam Mokiejewski. Then to Witold Mokiejewski / Mokiejowski. Witolda died in 1940; next to his wife Wanda to 1948.

1903 - Smogorzow was bought by Henryk KIEDRZYNSKI and his wife Wanda Lucja Bogumila Geneli / Wanda Geneliek of Kiedrzwica. HENRYK Kiedrzynski / Ostoja-Kiedrzynski Henryk was a judge for 28 years. He died in 1929 or 1927.
Smogorzów took Ludomir Kiedrzynski and Stefan KIEDRZYNSKI [they had a brother Witold Henryk Kiedrzynski, born 1895].
Named Wanda Lucja Bogumila Geneli b. ca 1870, her mother 1831-1893; Wanda married in Warsaw in 1885, to LEON KIEDRZYNSKI, that is Leon Henryk Kiedrzynski or named Henryk KIEDRZYNSKI - Ostoja, born in 1859 in Grzymaczew [the estate Grzymaczew - Wojkow, close to WRZACA, 9 km south to BLASZKI; 25 km west to Sieradz].
His father born in 1840 - Kalisz, died 1859 - Grzymaczew, married to woman b. 1830.
His grandfather born 1806. Maybe born in 1806 in Staw, in the Kalisz county, married a wife b. 1810; his borother 1813-1869.
His great-grandfather Franciszek Kiedrzynski b. 1772 May or ca 1770. Franciszek Kiedrzynski married in Staw or Staw Kaliski, 9 km north-west to BLASZKI, in 1804. Staw - 25 km south to BEDZIECHOW of Kiedrzynski. Franciszek Kiedrzynski was son of Pawel Kiedrzynski and Dorota Kiedrzynska born Karlinska in 1740.
Pawel was born in 1739 / 1740. Franciszek had 3 siblings: Klemens Kiedrzynski. Franciszek married Marianna Grygowska b. 1770, with son Aleksander Kiedrzynski.
PAWEL had a brother Florian Kiedrzynski; they were sons of Marcin Kiedrzynski b. ca 1715/1720 - died in 1788, mother Wiktoria Pstrokonska / Wiktoria Poraj Pstrokonska [b. 1715/1720] of WILCZKOW.
His great-great-grandfather PAWEL Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1739 / 1740 - d. in MEKA in 3 September 1809.
Meka - 5 km east to Sieradz.

Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798].
Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family. Józef MADALINSKI, b. 1774, died after 1809, Captain in 1809, m. Julianna nee Bogdanska, 1st voto JAKUB Kiedrzynski; she d. in Orpiszew / Orpiszewko / ORPISZEWEK in 1809 (Orpiszewko was owned by the Kiedrzynskis); with daughter Kunegunda born before 1809 in Orpiszewek, m. in 1835 in Restarzew, to Grzegorz Chrzanowski b. ca 1784, son of Zofia Tymienicki.
Jozef Madalinski was son of Kajetan Madalinski, 1740-1784 and Dorota Kiedrzynska 1740 or 1750 - 1784.
Jakub Kiedrzynski was born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798. His two wives: Brygida Bardzka [in 1767]; and Julianna nee Bogdanska [ca 1788].

JAKUB'S brother was Kasper Kiedrzynski !
MICHAL Arcichowski or Arciechowski Michal, b. ca 1717, inf. 1748, died in Chodziez [northern Grand Poland and close to ex-Prussian border !], in 1771. Before 1747 he was married to Antonine (Agnieszka ?) Golinska, d. before 1779, with son Anastazy, and daughters: Marianna in 1779 m. to Kasper Kiedrzynski / KACPER KIEDRZYNSKI [see family of Izydor Kiedrzynski !]; Nepomucena in 1778 m. Zygmunt Grudzinski; Michalina; Karolina in 1779 was unmarried.
Arciechowski Józef Wojciech, b. in Milicz in 1785, Captain of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, landowner of Dziewoklucz in 1815, owned Margonin in 1817, m. in 1813 to Dominika Gembicka, daughter of Ignacy and Cecylia Kurdwanowska, divorced as Jaworowicz, b. ca 1784, with son Jan, b. in Margonin in 1821, and with daughter
Monika, b. ca 1814, married in 1838 to Apolinary Kiedrzynski;
Eufemia, b. ca 1818 and died in 1820 in Margonin.
Margonin - 14 km east of above CHODZIEZ.

They were relatives of Marcin Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1715/1720, and they come from Jakob / Jakub Kiedrzynski senior b. ca 1675 - owner of Dymki in the Lututow parish since 1698, inf. 1709 Wielun. Dymki and Lututow - Dymki estate of the Kiedrzynskis is situated 5 km east of Lututow, in the Wieruszow county.

Mentioned above Grzymaczew and Wojków, 9 km to BLASZKI, 2 km south to WRZACA.

STAW KALISKI and STAW - 9 km north-west to BLASZKI, 25 km south-west to GLUCHOW; south to Bedziechow.

Compare -
when Andrzej Kiedrzynski junior was died before / in 1855, his estates and properties - Suliszewice [5 km north-west of BLASZKI; 4 km to STAW KALISKI], and Mikolajewszczyna, with Suliszewice Jarki, and Koldów [west of Kalinowa - see below], were divided between heirs in 1856 in Kalisz.
Suliszewice and Koldów are situated close to Blaszki; Suliszewice, 2 km west of Koldow; Koldow is west of Kalinowa, and north of Blaszki.

The managers in Grzymaczew: Jan Wolanski in 1818 and Roman Kuninski, 1840.

Mentioned Marcin Kiedrzynski b. ca 1715/1720. Wiktoria Pstrokonska [b. ca 1715/1720 !], married Marcin Kiedrzynski; Marcin Kiedrzynski was the son of Jakub Kiedrzynski - senior - and Ewa Gomolinska / GOMULINSKA.

Named Florian / Floryan Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1730 / 1740, owner of Noskowo - inf. 1776, 16 km east of Koszkowo and 27 km east of Kunowo. The same Florian Kiedrzynski b. ca 1730 (1740 ?), married in 1759, his wife was living 1730-1786. His son Leon Kiedrzynski b. ca 1760. His uncle was Kazimierz Kiedrzynski m. Katarzyna Swierczkowska. Above Florian Kiedrzynski's father was Marcin Kiedrzynski b. ca 1715/1720 - died in 1788, mother Wiktoria Pstrokonska / Wiktoria Poraj Pstrokonska [b. 1715/1720];
brothers of FLORIAN:
Jan Antoni Maciej Kiedrzynski 1738 - d. ?;
Stanislaw Kiedrzynski ? - 1774 [married Marjanna nee Zamoyska; he was the writer of the customs chamber in WSCHOWA];
Pawel Kiedrzynski born ca 1739 / 1740;
Józef Kiedrzynski born 1745 [his son - Franciszek Placyd Kiedrzynski born 1812, to Tekla Kiedrzynska born Kossewska; Tekla was born ca 1780. Franciszek had 3 sisters: Józefa Eleonora Kiedrzynska. Franciszek married Emilia Nadolska, born 1822, with 8 children: Julian Franciszek Kiedrzynski, Jozefa Kazimiera Duplicka];
sister Bona [b. ca 1745 ?] from KARSY; Karsy - 13 km north-east to BIEGANIN, north-west to KALISZ.
Acc. to Dworzaczek:
in 1771 Kajetan Lipnicki, son of Gabriel LIPNICKI and Marianna Bojanowska, m. Bona Kiedrzynska, daughter of Marcin KIEDRZYNSKI and Wiktoria Pstrokonska.

Note to Ignacy Kiedrzynski / Ignacy Kiedrzynski
[b. ca 1730; acc. to my research he was the brother of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720. Andrzej Kiedrzynski was the landowner of Biegacino in 1760, that is Bieganin / Bieganino ca 23 km west of Kalisz and 16 km south of Orpiszewko; married Franciszka Jackowska]:
In 1764 in Wielgomlyny, Ignacy Kiedrzynski of Malowana Wola (5 km east of DMENIN; 9 km north-west of WOLKA BANKOWA; 5 km north of Kobiele Wielkie) married Zofia nee Zablocka 1 voto Swiecicka (widow, a woman who has lost her husband by death).

Marcin Kiedrzynski was the next of kin of above Ignacy Kiedrzynski b. ca 1730 and to above mentioned Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720. Marcin and Kazimierz Kiedrzynski were the brothers.

Franciszek Kiedrzynski b. 1772, m. Marianna b. 1785, with daughter Anna b. 1808 in Brzezno; and son Jan Nepomucen Kiedrzynski b. 1813 in Brzezno, d. 1869 in Peczniew; and daughter Lucja Wasinska b. 1809, died in Dec. 1885 in Radoszewice in the Siemkowice parish, south-west to RUSIEC, west to CHORZEW.

Peczniew - south to PIEKARY; east to WILCZKOW, north-west to PRUSINOWICE.
KOTLOW, inf. on a marriage in 1818 - Julianna / Juljanna Kiedrzynska, Mss of Kotlow, b. ca 1800; Kotlów - 18 km north of OSTRZESZOW.

1844, Gorzyczki:
Józef Debinski of Sieroszewice, b. ca 1820/1821, son of Wojciech and Konstancja Kiedrzynski [b. ca 1795 ?], married to Zuzanna widow from Gorzyczki, b. ca 1806, daughter of Jan and Agnieszka Lawicki. Gorzyczki - the Koscian county, close to Czempin. At half way from KOSCIAN to SREM; north-east of LESZNO. GORZYCZKI - ca 1830 owner Edward Potworowski; Golembin (Stary Golebin), owner Melchior Szoldrski [see WILKOWO POLSKIE].
Compare: Kiedrzynski, Jakub, died on 4 February 1798. His wife Brygida Bardzka - marriage in 1767, died in 1786. They had 3 daughters:
Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska b. in 1770;
Franciszka BAJKOWSKA b. ca 1768; and
Petronela Kiedrzynska
{Wilkowo Polskie: it was an estate of Kazimierz Radomicki, next of Andrzej Szoldrski. In Wilkowo Polskie in 1818, November, Józef Jakub Wronski - the Judge and public notary in Miedzyrzecz, born in 1769, son of Jan WRONSKI, the owner of Golanice [near to Jezierzyce Koscielne and Krzycko Male], and Urszula Goczkowska - married Katarzyna Pradzynska, born in 1793, the daughter of Jan Pradzynski - died before 1818 - and his wife Petronella / Petronela Kiedrzynska, b. ca 1767/1769}.
And son Franciszek Kiedrzynski b. ca 1770, married to Kreska of the Baranow parish. Franciszek was brother of Franciszka - daughter of Jakub junior, she m. in 1785 / 1791 to Michal Bajkowski.
Jakub Kiedrzynski / Jakób, born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798, had son Józef Kiedrzynski - inf. in the Kingdom of Poland in 1837. His brother was Kasper Kiedrzynski !
GRZYMACZEWO - Grzymaczew, 9 km south-west to BLASZKI, north-east to GRABOW by Prosna.
1837, Józef Wstowski and Alexander Schmidt, co-owners of Grzymaczew, and Wloczyn in the Sieradz county.

Inf. in Kalisz in 1836 - after childless death of Jan Kiedrzynski in 1832, ex-owner of Dziadkowice, in the Szadek county, 6 km south-east to SZADEK, north of Zdunska Wola.

We back to MARIOWKA:
1910-12 - the Tsarists were conducting searches in Mariowka to detect the chapel and the "secret monastery". Mariówka has become a well-known educational center in 1928.
The outbreak of World War II broke the activity of these schools. School buildings were occupied by the German army and despite the difficult neighborhood with Germans, sisters took care of wounded Polish soldiers. During the war, the sisters also organized secret primary and secondary education. Mariówka - after March 1945, started a Private Coeducational General Gymnasium, then Private Coeducational General High School.

RZUCOW: 14 km south-east to Przysucha.
1762 - owned by Franciszek Leszczynski; 1837, Wojciech Krigar bought it from Eleonora Leszczynski-Swietoslawska;
1852 - Lukasz Mokiejewski was living in Warsaw.
1852 Adam Jan Mokiejewski was born;
1859 - Lukasz Mokiejewski built an alcohol distillery plant, in Warsaw; 1853 in Rzucow Andrzej KRIGAR is owner. Andrzej Krigar opens match factory. 1879, Adam Mokiejewski son of Lukasz, married Helena Julia Genelich, daughter of Albin. Genelich bought Rzucow.
1882 - Opening of Adam Mokiejewski distillery branch, in Lodz; Ca 1884, Adam Mokiejewski bought Rzuców;
1887, Witold Mokiejewski was born. 1893 in Rzucow Wilhelmina Geneli nee Papka, was died.
1895 Adam Mokiejewski m. 2nd Maria Geneli, sister of Helena.

Born Jean-Paul Adam Mokiejewski in 1933 to a Polish Jewish family in Nice.


On the http://studioopinii.pl/waldemar-kuczynski-jarek-nie-byl-z-nami/ on 2013-11-08 appeared the text of the eminent political thinker Waldemar Kuczynski [but two years later in November 2015...], who accurately
summed up the years 1944 - 2013 / 2015, and in them the key to solving many puzzles - of General Czeslaw Kiszczak network and the Smolensk airplane crash 2010 -
to put it more clearly:
Jaroslaw Kaczynski "...led a country that he openly denied, even he hated this country.
Just as he hated people and political structures standing at back of this country.
And, unfortunately, there is no reason to think that this attitude is changing something.
Outline of the nation composed of two tribes can be seen in Poland since a very, very long time. But that common ground linking these tribes melts, and two tribes are more and more alien and hostile, results from the rejection of the current state by one of their.
The rejection [of the current state founded in 1944 by aliens against Poles] by the political and cultural conglomerate ... with a no small part of the clergy, with many circles of opinion leaders and the great faction of the nation.
This part of the Poland is in the attack, the rest [of the Polish citizens] defended himself, or does not care about this. The attacker sing 'The free homeland deign us back Our Lord', defending [of the Polish citizens] sing 'free country, bless the Lord'. The same song is split into two camps of the cold civil war at the moment. Were it not for the fact that we are in NATO and the European Union, in the two structures which a gravity stabilizes the base of the political order in our place, it would have been a time of great 'outcry over the Vistula'. Today it seems that there is no possibility of reducing the tears on two snarling at each other tribes, that our policy must be violent, with war rhetoric and roll from the electoral battle to battle. It can take a very long time ... Everything in Poland is to discuss. ... Even whether the Third Republic lasts a quarter of a century, should be replaced by some other. ... Both parties must sing the same version of 'God Save Poland'...".

The Special services of the Polish State are completely responsible for the death of my father and his brother (and his wife); any Wojciech - their neighbor - involvement in this affair unfortunately died a year after that, as I have begun track down his.

These people hated Poles, Poland and my family, and me personally; and they also hate now, no matter what country they come from. Their obsession of hate my family is dangerous and lasts several decades.
People of these structures always broke Constitutions, because they consider ourselves higher and better than some Poles there. Such attitude is racism. Extremely anti-democratic and opposed to Polish democratic and libertarian traditions.

Curiosity!

The webpage 'Executive Intelligence Review www.larouchepub.com/.../eirv15n03-1988011' was founded on 21 November 1987, but EIR, Executive Intelligence Review, was ed. on January 15, 1988, vol. 15, No 3. EIR: Founder and Contributing Editor: Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. and Editor-in-chief: Criton Zoakos
(Criton M. Zoakos is President of Leto Research, Inc., an economic research and consulting firm in Ft. Lee, NJ. Formerly, he was a columnist for the Asia Times. Earlier, he worked with Norman A. Bailey, Inc. of Washington, D.C., a firm headed by Dr. Bailey, formerly the President Reagan's Special Assistant for International Economic Affairs at the National Security Council. Dr. Norman Bailey, a native of Chicago, Illinois; Dr. Bailey in 1981, joined the Reagan administration as Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and Senior Director of International Economic Affairs on the staff of the National Security Council in the White House),
Editor: Nora Hamerman.

EIR is published by New Solidarity International Press Service.
Executive Intelligence Review is a newsmagazine founded in 1974 by the American political activist Lyndon LaRouche.
The article "New KGB history skirts lessons of the...", by Aleln and Rachel Douglas, is about "A History of the KGB" by John J. Dziak, Lexington Books, edited on October 1, 1987, 234 pages.
'Chekisty: The KGB...' was ed. the first by 'Free Press' on 28 September 1987, and then
'Los Angeles Times', on November 22, 1987 by Michael Krepon about 'CHEKISTY: A HISTORY OF THE KGB' inf.: "The Soviet state security apparatus has a wide-ranging portfolio, including internal security, foreign espionage, kidnaping, assassination, and control over nuclear weapons. Many of the sordid details are provided in John J. Dziak's short history of the KGB, 'Chekisty'."
And again 'Chekisty: The KGB...' was ed. by 'Free Press' on 01 January 1988.

The Lexington Books edited this book on 01st October 1987, but second publisher 'Ballantine Books' ed. on October 31, 1988.

AP published on March 18, 1988 in BOSTON, that on

March 17, 1988 "Lawyers for Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr. introduced today three letters between Henry A. Kissinger and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and said they were evidence of a Government effort to harass Mr. LaRouche. A Government prosecutor said later that he might put Mr. Kissinger on the stand to rebut the harassment charge. ... Today's developments came in a months-long Federal trial of Mr. LaRouche, a political extremist who, along with six of his aides and five of his organizations, is charged with conspiring to obstruct a grand jury investigation of credit card and loan fraud attributed to his 1984 Presidential campaign. Among the letters introduced today was one written in August 1982 by Mr. Kissinger to William H. Webster, who was then the F.B.I. Director and is now Director of Central Intelligence. ... Oliver Revell, the F.B.I.'s executive assistant director, responded with two letters saying that the bureau would investigate Mr. Kissinger's complaint and that there appeared to be some evidence of illegal telephone use by LaRouche supporters to harass him. John Markham, an assistant United States attorney, told Federal District Judge, Robert Keeton, that he might call Mr. Kissinger as a witness after the testimony of a former LaRouche aide scheduled to appear Friday. ... Mr. LaRouche contends he has been the target of a 20-year Government vendetta that climaxed in 1984 because of his outspoken criticism of the Administration's efforts to aid the rebels in Nicaragua...".

(Some on Lyndon LaRouche:

"...an internationally known economist, and his exceptional successes as a long-range forecaster, are the outgrowths of his original discoveries of physical principle, dating from a project conducted during the 1948-1952 interval".

Acc. to http://www.larouchepub.com/larouche_biography.
"In his subsequent search for a metrical standard for this treatment of the functional role of cognition, he adopted the Leibniz-Gauss-Riemann standpoint, as represented by Bernhard Riemann's 1854 habilitation dissertation. Hence, the employment of Riemannian conceptions to LaRouche's own discoveries became known as the LaRouche-Riemann Method. That work was further enriched by his study of the Riemannian biogeophysicist Vladimir Vernadsky, whose concepts play a major role in LaRouche's scientific work".

At https://larouchepac.com/vernadsky we read: "Throughout the work of Ukrainian-Russian [Pole!] biogeochemist Vladimir Vernadsky, we find a powerful argument for why processes on Earth, and in the Universe, are organized according to a top-down principle of life, and, even higher, human cognition. This is a concept found throughout the writings and speeches of economist Lyndon LaRouche, who has often referenced the work of Vernadsky".

Vernadsky's life's work ended up culminating in a similar investigation, of the unique distinction of man from animal, something Vernadsky approached from the standpoint of a biogeochemist. Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky wrote 'Revolutionary Theory of the Biosphere and the Noosphere'.
Irina Trubetskova of the Department of Natural Resources, University of New Hampshire: After years of silence, the West finally started to discover and scientifically recognize a prominent Russian researcher, organizer of science, educator, public figure, person of encyclopedic knowledge, philosopher, and thinker - Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky, a genius that belongs to all of humanity.

GRANDPARENTS of Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr., among others:
Ella Stevens Lougee, b. Lynn, Mass., 1869;
George Weir, b. Bridgeton, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland, in 1860, emigrated to US in 1863, lived in 1920 in Perry Co., Ohio;
George Weir married Martha H. Wood, daughter of Daniel Heveland Wood Jr. and Caroline Almira Starr, in 1890.
The WEIRs come of Bridgeton and Hamilton.

История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Wernadski, Modzelewski and Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz family in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia.

At http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/cult/larouche
informed by By John Mintz from Washington Post, on January 14, 1985:
It was January 1974, and Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr., the leader of a left-wing sect, was telling his followers why they had to believe his story that one of them had been brainwashed by the Soviet secret police. ... The story of how Lyndon LaRouche transformed himself from Marxist theoretician to red-white-and-blue conservative in 10 years is a tale of a political chameleon. ... He has taken with him on his ideological journey a worldwide organization that follows his every instruction and mimics his every political twist and turn, according to interviews with former LaRouche associates and experts on the group, as well as the group's internal documents. ... his organization, known as the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC), according to interviews with former NCLC members, others familiar with its activities, published reports and an examination of the group's internal documents, some of which were filed in a recent libel suit in Alexandria. ... A top associate, Nancy Spannaus ... LaRouche associates point to the Schiller Institute's sometimes large conferences as evidence that his followers do not constitute a cult. ... Paul Goldstein, a top LaRouche aide, said descriptions of the group as a cult come from former members who "have gotten burned out because of the pressure" of outsiders' attacks.
Another source: Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort by Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, New York: Guilford Press, 2000: ...Though often dismissed as a bizarre political cult, the LaRouche organization and its various front groups are a fascist movement whose pronouncements echo elements of Nazi ideology. Beginning in the 1970s, the LaRouchites combined populist antielitism with attacks on leftists, environmentalists, feminists ... They developed an idiosyncratic, coded variation on the Illuminati Freemason and Jewish banker conspiracy theories. ... A former Trotskyist, Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr., founded the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC) in 1968 as an offshoot of the radical student movement. But in the early 1970s, LaRouche engineered a political about-face, using cult pressure tactics to consolidate his grip over the NCLC and initiating a campaign of physical attacks on Communists and Black nationalists...
During the 1970s and 1980s, the LaRouchites built an international network for spying and propaganda, with links to the upper levels of government, business... The LaRouchites traded information with intelligence agencies in the United States, South Africa, East Germany, and elsewhere. ... Food for Peace and the Schiller Institute, and put out such publications as New Solidarity (later The New Federalist) and Executive Intelligence Review. In 1976 LaRouche's original electoral arm, the U.S. Labor Party (USLP), published a conspiracist attack on President Jimmy Carter...
In 1989, LaRouche was sentenced to fifteen years in prison for mail fraud conspiracy, based on illegal and manipulative fund-raising practices, as well as tax evasion. His organization continued to operate while he was in prison...
At Metapedia.org:
... LaRouchism, also known as the LaRouche movement, is an idiosyncratic political movement based on the views of Lyndon LaRouche, an American political activist. ... the LaRouche movement has attracted a significant amount of Jews (Anton Chaitkin, Jeffrey Steinberg, Paul Goldstein, Phil Rubinstein, Harley Schlanger and others). ...
Gregory Rose, a former chief of counter-intelligence for LaRouche who became an FBI informant in 1973, said that while the LaRouche movement had extensive links to the Liberty Lobby, there was also copious evidence of a connection to the Soviet Union. George and Wilcox say neither connection amounted to much-they assert that LaRouche was "definitely not a Soviet agent",
by Wikipedia.
By Wikipedia
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Caucus_of_Labor_Committees and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Labor_Party):
"...Beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Lyndon LaRouche formed a variety of political organizations, including the U.S. Labor Party and the National Democratic Policy Committee. These organizations served as the platforms for presidential campaigns by LaRouche starting in 1976, and by his followers in scores of local races. According to one candidate, supporters viewed LaRouche as "the greatest political leader and economist of the 20th century, and they're proud to be associated with him. They feel he's leading the battle to save Western civilization." The Survey of Jewish Affairs, 1987 called the LaRouche movement one of the two most prominent "extremist political groups" of 1986. ... The U.S. Labor Party (USLP) was a political party formed in 1973 by the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC). It served as a vehicle for Lyndon LaRouche to run for President of the United States in 1976, but it also sponsored many candidates for local offices and Congressional and Senate seats between 1972 and 1979. ... According to Dennis King, the USLP chairman advocated launching ABC (atomic, biological and chemical) warfare against the Soviet Union as well as the military crushing of Britain (which his newspaper described as the headquarters of the "Zionist-British organism"). ... The National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC) is a political organization in the United States founded and controlled by political activist Lyndon LaRouche, who has sometimes described it as a "philosophical association". ... According to the Los Angeles Times, LaRouche said he met with representatives of the Soviet Union at the United Nations in 1974 and 1975 in order to discuss attacks by the Communist Party USA on the NCLC, and to propose that the CPUSA should be merged into the NCLC. He denied receiving any assistance from the Soviets. ...
The NCLC had it origins in the 1968 convention of the Students for a Democratic Society. It comprised people who had been expelled from the Maoist Progressive Labor Party, an SDS faction, and students from Columbia University in New York City. It called itself the "SDS Labor Committee" or the "National Caucus of SDS Labor Committees". Led by LaRouche, it included "New Left lieutenants" Ed Spannaus, Nancy Spannaus, and Tony Papert, as well as Paul Milkman, Paul Gallagher, Leif Johnson, Tony Chaitkin, and Steve Fraser.
According to Dennis King, Papert and Fraser had been targets of the FBI's COINTELPRO operatives. ... It was originally a New Left organization influenced by Trotskyist ideas as well as those of other Marxists such as Rosa Luxemburg, but opposed other New Left organizations which LaRouche said were dominated by the Ford Foundation, Institute for Policy Studies and Herbert Marcuse. ... The LaRouche criminal trials in the mid-1980s stemmed from federal and state investigations into the activities of American political activist Lyndon LaRouche and members of his movement. They were charged with conspiring to commit fraud and soliciting loans they had no intention of repaying".

Helga Zepp-LaRouche founded the Schiller Institute in Germany in 1984. In the same year, LaRouche was able to raise enough money to purchase 14 television spots, at a cost of $330,000 each.
By http://www.lyndonlarouche.org/fascism19.htm:
"...Between February 1982 and February 1983, with the approval of the National Security Council, LaRouche met with Soviet embassy representative Evgeny Shershnev. Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld reported in his 2011 memoir that at a 2001 dinner in Russia with leading officials, he was told by General Yuri Baluyevsky, then the second highest-ranking officer in the Russian military, that LaRouche was the brains behind SDI. ... In 2012 the former head of the Russian bureau of Interpol, General Vladimir Ovchinsky, also described LaRouche as the man who proposed the SDI. ... The LaRouche organization's relationship with the Soviet Union ranged beyond military and scientific matters. Former NCLC intelligence staffer Kevin Coogan writes that in 1979 LaRouche met in West Germany with Julian Semenov, a Soviet spy novelist widely believed to be linked to the KGB. Semenov asked the LaRouchians to investigate the disappearance of a czarist treasure looted by the Nazis. The LaRouchians found no treasure, but they did publish an EIR teaser about it. They also published an article by Semenov on the Kennedy assassination. Predictably, he speculated that Peking was involved. Another key Soviet contact was Ioni Andronov, a correspondent for Literaturnaya Gazeta. Andronov frequently chatted with Paul Goldstein, whom he occasionally quoted as a counterintelligencc expert. In one interview Goldstein told Andronov he thought the so-called Bulgarian role in the attempted assassination of Pope John Paul was a hoax. On this point he was probably right, but he went on to suggest that the CIA might have been involved - an allegation for which there is no evidence whatsoever. ... According to Coogan, the LaRouchians met regularly with Soviet officials in Washington as late as 1983. The LaRouchians claim they provided reports on these contacts to Judge Clark's office at the NSC. Whatever the truth, LaRouchian publications until the death of Leonid Brezhnev displayed a certain degree of affection for hard-line Stalinism because of its no-nonsense attitude toward Zionists and other dissenters and its commitment to central economic planning. New Solidarity's obituary on Brezhnev praised him as a "nation builder" and avoided any mention of his invasions of Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan. Thereafter, as LaRouche became more heavily involved in supporting Star Wars and NATO, the NCLC line changed. Moscow became the "Third Rome," a center of unremitting Russian Orthodox evil. When Gorbachev took power, the LaRouchians said he was the Antichrist. The Soviets in turn took serious note for the first time of LaRouche's West European political intrigues. In the wake of the 1986 assassination of Olof Palme, the Soviet press depicted the LaRouchians as the prime suspects. ... LaRouche countered that the KGB did it, a charge for which there was no more rhyme or reason than Goldstein's allegations about the CIA and the Pope. Meanwhile, LaRouche claimed that the October 1986 government raid on his headquarters in Virginia was Soviet-inspired. According to LaRouche, when Reagan and Gorbachev met in Iceland, Gorbachev delivered an ultimatum: Either you get rid of LaRouche or there'll be no arms deal. In Paris, LaRouche sued the pro-glasnost Soviet magazine New Times for calling him a "Nazi without the swastika." It was basically the same suit he had brought repeatedly without success in American courts. The pro-glasnost Soviet magazine chose to play by Western legal rules: They mounted an aggressive courtroom defense, entering LaRouche's own writings as evidence. The Paris High Court rejected LaRouche's suit and ordered him to pay costs as well as damages to the magazine and its distributors...").


We back to my work.
Then came the second exploration period, since September 1989 to 2002. I traveled through West Berlin + West Germany (1989), Vienna,
Georgia / Sakartvelo
(when I was unemployed during the period 1989 - 1992, I met on my way Soviet intelligence services in all 1990 which cooperated against me with Polish counterintelligence),
Azerbeidzan, Ingushetia, Kabardino - Balkaria, Ossetia, Abkhazia, Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Lithuania, Slovakia, Hungary.

I met Georgians, Russians, etc, ... but mostly tens people of Poland and other countries has granted me accurate genealogical data, and not just about family Konstantynowicz;
thanks to this I could - in 1992 - provide a working thesis of particular importance: "in our family was someone on the top of the Soviet military intelligence" , and our family Konstantynowicz moved in Tsarist Russia very close to the Russian intelligence core. The parts it turned out to be true; I am writing that only partially, because the key person was a Swiss with Italian - Estonian origin, and this man had no affinity with our family, but was created by the military system, whose my Konstantynowicz family was a part: in Miezonka, Swolna, Moscow, Estonia, St. Petersburg, Kazan, the Vaud canton and the nearby Swiss villages, Riga.
This search took me 27 years, but it took 20 years to Stalin it came up on the trail military conspiracy in May 1937 - probably as long, because the key person - Artusov surely created a Soviet counterintelligence, and next he took the position as head of civilian intelligence, then deputy head of the military intelligence of the Soviet Union. In the period February 2003 to date (31 January 2014) in 2014, communicate to all with the help of Yahoo servers in California, knowledge on the history and genealogy of the Konstantynowicz family, by using further of the factual help my readers .

So...
Sebastian Rybarczyk, journalist and publicist, specializes in the history of special services, at 'historia.focus.pl/swiat/' on January 15, 2014 write about Artuzow
(my webpage was writing on Artuzow on January the 01st, 2014 and on 08th January, 2014):
"...Strange that he did not defend himself, using his knowledge of the most senior (Soviet) leaders, eg, at early 20s (of the 20th cent.) he was responsible for the 'protection' of Clare Sheridan - an attractive young British sculptor, Churchill's cousin and lover of Trotsky and Kamenev, the personal enemies of Stalin...".
Well, unfortunately, I lost on 02 January 2014 the previous workplace.

Part 1 - Intelligence. Scotland, Ireland, Estonia, Switzerland, Russia. Bolshevik Revolution 1917. Key note.

Part 2 - Intelligence. Scotland, Ireland, Estonia, Switzerland, Russia. Bolshevik Revolution 1917. Key note.

Espionage and intelligence in Russia 1772, 1914, 1917, 1937, 1989.

At the beginning of 2014, the first on the world I am showing very interesting network! Lenin and Inessa Armand, Konstantynowicz, Breguet, Duflon, nobility from Scotland, Italy, Ireland, France, Switzerland, the German noble families in Estonia.
This military - political intelligence network has a different appearance depending on, which side you watch from. It's like the external universe, which expands. It has a chaotic structure, but only to the viewers. For top executives of the network, it is extremely bright and clear.
It works like clockwork.
Time passes, and this network is expanding, as the universe, at that time some stars turning pale, faded and disappeared.
Maciej Pietraszczyk on 19 January 2015 wrote down: "A feature of the network operation is the lack of central leadership but actions are run in a fixed overall direction; they are not necessarily coordinated. This causes the highest effectiveness and practically physical impossibility of liquidation".

The underground structure has clearly defined objectives at the beginning of the 20th century:
Europe 1789, 1815, 1914, 1917, 1937. Belarusian, Estonian, Polish and Russian genealogical and historical database
1. call up the chaos in Europe (see below on Major Edmund Charaszkiewicz and Gavrilo Princip);
2. to bring the continental war (Bogdan Hutten-Czapski);
3. overthrow of the Romanovs in Russia (Hanecki, Radek, Parvus, Armand, Konstantynowicz);
4. lead to anarchy in Russia (Lenin, Dzierzynski, Artuzow Frutchi, Pilar Pilchau);
5. starting the war between the invaders, who take away the Polish independence (Pilsudski);
6. pulling the western countries into the war, and in due time also America (Koziell Poklewski, Ricord, Anjou).
Overarching objectives are:
1. Polish independence (Jodko Narkiewicz, Pilsudski, Sudzilowski, Krzyzanowski, Konstantynowicz),
2. The independence of the Baltic States (Pilar Pilchau of Parnu);
3. The creation of a Jewish state in Palestine (Zionist movement of Odessa).

Odessa and French intelligence:

1. In 1801 Maleszewski interested in the problem of the Black Sea. He wrote the memorial to the French Government, published in 1802; has demonstrated the benefits of French trade with Ukraine (Sur le commerce de la Mer Noire). Maleszewski / Maliszewski in September 1802 was in Warsaw, and in November he was elected active member of the Warsaw Society of the Friends of Science under Ignacy Zaborowski. Maleszewski / Maliszewski was shareholder of the "Trzecieski, Horodyski et comp." in Odessa for the development of trade in the Black Sea. He also participated in other commercial companies. In June 1803 was in Odessa, where he investigated the conditions for the development of trade with France. Maleszewski / Maliszewski in 1803 returned to Paris.

2. Walenty Wankowicz studied in Polock at the Jesuit Order school;
Gabriel Gruber was his teacher ? But we know that Gabriel Gruber b. 1740, Vienna - died 1805 in St. Petersburg, General of the Society of Jesus in Russia. 1784 Gruber arrived in Belarus until 1800; Napoleon kept secret correspondence with Gruber; Gruber created the Jesuit mission in Saratov (1803), Odessa (1804) and Astrakhan (1805), 1803 in Riga.
Walenty was then in Wilno 1818 - 1824. Around 1821 Wankowicz / Vankovich met at university in Vilna, a countryman - Adam Mickiewicz; they were listening to the same lectures, became closest friends.

Tools to achieve these goals are:
1. The money from the Scottish (Perth), Jewish and American banks; revenue from the Mediterranean trade - Marseille, Greece, Naples, Crimea; and plantations in Ceylon and from the Asian trade - Ceylon, India, Japan (Nagasaki);
2. the use of secret non-goverment organisations (NGOs) in Europe and America (masonry);
3. The creation of favorable underground structures inside the intelligence networks of Western Europe and American countries (MI5 in 1909).

I managed to investigate and decipher a system in 2013 after 26 years of my researches: this is a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military intelligence of the Tsarist Russia:
deep political espionage (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic technological-scientific intelligence (Breguet + Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company, also Nobel and Armand families:
telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.).

Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence.

An influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign UK policy ca 1895 to ca 1921 played Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, a British statesman.

Acc to Aydelotte:
"...in 1888 Rhodes made his third will ... to LORD ROTHSCHILD (his financier in mining enterprises), but ... for strategic reasons Lord Rothschild was subsequently removed from the forefront of the scheme. Professor Quigley reveals that Lord Rosebury, replaced his father-in-law Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes' next and last will. ... Quigley informs us that the central part of the 'secret society' was established by March, 1891, using Rhodes' money.

The organization was run for Rothschild by Lord Alfred Milner - the ROUND TABLE worked behind the scenes at the highest levels of British government, influencing foreign policy and England's involvement and conduct of WW I.
... Between 1894 and 1907 a number of international treaties were signed to have Russia, France, England and further nations unit against Germany in the case of war. It was the task of the
COMMITTEE OF 300 to set the stage for the First World War. From the ROUND TABLE group emerged as a front the 'Royal institute for International Affairs' ... known as 'Chatham House' and had among its founding members Lord Albert Grey, Lord Arnold Toynbee ... of the MI6, H. G. Wells, Lord Alfred Milner - head of the Round Table, and H. J. Mackinder - inventor of the so-called geopolitics.
... sums of money from the international bankers, among others from ALFRED MILNER - by Jan Van Helsing - who later took over the secret Round Table, were poured into the Ochrana that already had infiltrated the Bolshevik movement. Agents steered many of its activities. The infiltration was so strong that in 1908 four of the five members of the Petersburg committee of the Bolshevik party were Ochrana agents".

Some details:

Hubert Bland, a bank-journalist, worked for the London Sunday Chronicle, a paper owned by newspaper magnate Edward Hulton, formerly of the Liberal Manchester Guardian. Bland was a co-founder of the Fabian Society in 1884 and became a treasurer. He also recruited Bernard Shaw. Bernard Shaw was working for the London Pall Mall Gazette, where William T. Stead served as editor and Alfred Milner as his assistant, both Stead and Milner were close to diamond magnate and Rothschild associate Cecil Rhodes and were involved in the formation of the influential secret organisation known as the Milner Group. Having been recruited to the Fabian Society by his friend Bland in 1884, Shaw recruited Annie Besant and his friends Sidney Webb, Sydney Olivier and Graham Wallas in 1885 and 1886.

Shaw married Charlotte, daughter of Horace Payne-Townshend, a wealthy Stock Exchange investor. He was employed by millionaire William Waldorf - Lord Astor, owner of the Pall Mall Gazette, and became a close friend of the Milner Group leader - Waldorf and his wife Nancy. Shaw's friend, Sidney Webb married Beatrice - a close friend of Rothschild associate and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, the daughter of Richard Potter, a wealthy financier with international connections, the chairman of the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railways of England and Canada.
Shaw, Webb, Olivier and Wallas became the Fabian Society's dominant Big Four with John Passmore Edwards, an leader of the Liberal Manchester School, and with Richard Cobden. The Fabian Society was in close touch with the Rothschilds both directly and through Lord Arthur Balfour, and has also been close to David Rockefeller. Cecil Rhodes the South African diamond millionaire, used his fortune to promote the scheme of federating the English speaking peoples around the globe.
Rhodes and other acolytes of Ruskin, formed a secret society known as the Round Table Group, were able to gain access to Rhodes' fortune after his death in 1902. The Milner Group, the secret society formed by Cecil Rhodes, dominated the British delegation to the Peace Conference of 1919, founded the UK Royal Institute for International Affairs in 1919 / 1920 (the British Institute of International Affairs was founded in London in July 1920), the US Council on Foreign Relations, and parallel groups in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India.
In 1919 British and American delegates to the Paris Peace Conference, under the leadership of Lionel Curtis, conceived the idea of an Anglo-American Institute of foreign affairs to study international problems with a view to preventing future wars - at Chatham House, Number 10 St. James's Square in 1923 (Professor Arnold Toynbee became the leading figure until his retirement in 1955).

Retinger was very close to Lionel Curtis, the founder of Chatham House and Retinger was politically active in London exactly at the same time when Chatham House was established in 1921-1923; the Chatham House / the Royal Institute of International Affairs represented by both ideologies of the Rhodes - Milner ideology with the ideology of the Fabian society and Retinger had links to both these groups; his the Bilderberg Group had their first meeting in May 1954 at the Bilderberg Hotel, near Arnhem in Holland.

"Revolution in Russia 1: Understanding Influences", by Jim and Gerry:

"... In March 1919, The Times reported, 'One of the most curious features of the Bolshevist movement is the high percentage of non-Russia elements amongst its leaders. Of the 20 or 30 leaders who provide the central machinery of the Bolshevist movement, not less than 75 per cent are Jews…'. Note that The Times differentiated between Russian and Jew, as if it were not possible to be both, while the Jewish Chronicle emphasised the importance of the Jewish influence on Bolshevism: 'There is much in the fact of Bolshevism itself, in the fact that so many Jews are Bolsheviks, in the fact that the ideals of Bolshevism at many points are consonant with the finest ideals of Judaism'.

Another Jewish journal, American Hebrew, reported: 'What Jewish idealism and Jewish discontent have so powerfully contributed to produce in Russia, the same historic qualities of the Jewish mind are tending to promote in other countries.... The Bolshevik revolution in Russia was the work of Jewish brains, of Jewish dissatisfaction, of Jewish planning, whose goal is to create a new order in the world. What was performed in so excellent a way in Russia, thanks to Jewish brains, and because of Jewish dissatisfaction and by Jewish planning, shall also, through the same Jewish mental and physical forces, become a reality all over the world.' ...

Rabbi Stephen Wise later commented on the Russian situation: 'Some call it Marxism I call it Judaism.' Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, a victim of the communist regime who spent many years exiled in Siberia and was a later recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature, was emphatic that Jews were not involved in the first revolution: 'The February Revolution was not made by the Jews for the Russians; it was certainly carried out by the Russians themselves... We were ourselves the authors of this shipwreck.' Solzhenitsyn, however, added: 'In the course of the summer and autumn of 1917, the Zionist movement continued to gather strength in Russia: in September it had 300,000 adherents. Less known is that Orthodox Jewish organisations enjoyed great popularity in 1917, yielding only to the Zionists and surpassing the socialist parties.' He observed: 'There are many Jewish authors who to this very day either deny the support of Jews for Bolshevism, or even reject it angrily, or else ... only speak defensively about it ... These Jewish renegades were for several years leaders at the centre of the Bolshevik Party, at the head of the Red Army (Trotsky), of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, of the two capitals, of the Comintern...'. Given the repression of the Jews in Russia, it is hardly surprising that they swelled the numbers of active revolutionaries during this period. They had suffered the horror of the pogroms. They had nursed a genuine resentment for Czarist repression. They were determined to change the world. The relationship between Jews and revolutionaries was explained by Theodor Herzl, one of the fathers of the Zionist movement in a pamphlet, De Judenstat, addressed to the Rothschilds: 'When we sink, we become a revolutionary proletariat, the subordinate officers of all revolutionary parties, and at the same time, when we rise, there rises also our terrible power of the purse'. On Herzl's death, his successor as president of the World Zionist Organisation was the Russian born David Wolfsohn. In his closing speech at the International Zionist Congress at The Hague in 1907, Wolfsohn pleaded for greater unity among the Jews and said that eventually 'they must conquer the world'. He did not expand on the role that Jewish Bolshevik revolutionaries might play in this Jewish global aspiration, but from his position it seems apparent that political Zionism and the future 'homeland' certainly would. Wolfsohn's successor as president of the Zionist organisation in 1911 was Otto Warburg, a noted scientist and relative of the Warburg banking family which features heavily in this book. Warburg later spoke of the ‘brilliant prospects of Palestine’ and how an extensive Jewish colonisation would 'expand into neighbouring countries'.

A report in 1919 from the British Secret Service revealed: 'There is now definite evidence that Bolshevism is an international movement controlled by Jews; communications are passing between the leaders in America, France, Russia and England, with a view toward concerted action.'

Hilaire Belloc, Anglo-French writer, philosopher and one time Liberal MP at Westminster, wrote: 'As for anyone who does not know that the present revolutionary movement is Jewish in Russia, I can only say that he must be a man who is taken in by the suppression of our despicable Press'. Contemporary commentators failed to link the Balfour Declaration and the Russian Revolution in October / November 1917, despite their links to Zionism and the 'concerted action' from both sides of the Atlantic. ...".

Copyright by Jim Macgregor and Gerry Docherty in September 2017.

I wrote above that the Round Table was started by Freemason and Rothschild agent, Lord Alfred Milner; but Rhodes, who was connected to the Freemasons, first formalised his idea with William T. Stead;
in 1910, The Round Table Journal: A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire was founded by Lord Milner and members of Milner's Kindergarten: Lionel Curtis, Philip Kerr and Geoffrey Dawson; by 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries: in the United States acted George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Erwin D. Canham.

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, b. 1862, known as Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary from 1905 to 1916, was closely politically, intellectually, and socially affiliated with the Milner Group according to Prof. Quigley; he got Russia and France to sign secret agreements that committed them to join England if there was a major war in Europe. Several years later, when World War I was imminent, Sir Edward Grey denied the existence of the secret agreements.
Sir Edward Grey met few times with Edward Mandell House, the son of a successful banker and land owner; House in 1911 became acquainted with Woodrow Wilson; he confered with British foreign secretary Sir Edward Grey in 1913, and in the spring of 1914 again; Colonel Edward House was a superb behind-the-scenes operator whose talents made him an invaluable diplomat and presidential advisor. "...Wilson proclaimed neutrality and in January 1915 dispatched House back to Europe on board the Lusitania for a second official mission. House hoped to change British blockade policies and end German attacks on merchant ships. House found that both sides were so heavily invested in the conflict that they feared a public backlash if peace were sought without victory...".
A third mission took place in 1916, when House met with Lord Grey; in January 1919, House accompanied Wilson to Paris for the peace conference.
Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner; others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included: Bertrand Russell, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.
The Illuminati, who also called themselves the Society of the Elect: Cecil John Rhodes, Baron Nathan Rothschild, Sir Harry Johnston, William T. Stead, Reginald Brett - Viscount Esher, Alfred Milner - Viscount Milner, B. F. Hawksley, Thomas Brassey - Lord Brassey; Edmund Garrett; Alfred Beit; Sir Abe Bailey; Albert Grey - Earl Grey; Archibald Primrose - Earl of Rosebery; Arthur James Balfour; Sir George R. Parkin; Philip Lyttelton Gell; Sir Henry Birchenough; Herbert A. L. Fisher; William Waldegrave Palmer - Earl of Selborne; Sir Patrick Duncan; Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian, and others.
The Association of Helpers:
1. The Inner Circle:
Sir Patrick Duncan, Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian; Lionel Curtis, William L. Hichens, Geoffrey Dawson, Edward Grigg - Baron Altrincham; Herbert A. L. Fisher, Leopold Amery, Richard Feetham, Hugh A. Wyndham; Sir Dougal Malcolm, Basil Williams, Flora Shaw, Nancy Astor, Arnold J. Toynbee; and others;
2. The Outer Circle: John Buchan - Baron Tweedsmuir, Sir Fabian Ware, Sir Alfred Zimmern; Gilbert Murray, Robert Cecil - Viscount Cecil of Chelwood; Sir James W. Headlam-Morley, and others.
Members in other countries: a. Canada; b. United States: George Louis Beer, Frank Aydelotte, Jerome Greene; c. South Africa: Jan C. Smuts, Sir Patrick Duncan, Sir Abe Bailey, and others; d. Australia; e. New Zealand; f. Germany: Helmuth James von Moltke and Adam von Trott zu Solz.

Victor Rothschild (Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild b. 1910 d. 1990; son of Charles Rothschild; a member of the Apostles Club at Cambridge, a secret society, there he became friends with the future Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt, and Kim Philby - not a member; he was recruited to work for MI5 during World War II, and was the head of B1C, continued to work in security as an adviser to Margaret Thatcher; 1971 to 1974 The Think Tank), who worked for J. P. Morgan & Co., was one of the members of the Round Table.

The Rothschilds had financed Cecil Rhodes, co-operated with the Morgans and the Rockefellers, and they financed the activities of Edward Harriman (railroads) and Andrew Carnegie Steel.

Roundtable inner Circle of Initiates included Lord Milner, Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Balfour, Albert Grey and Lord Nathan Rothschild (Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild b. 1840, d. 1915, a British banker in issuing loans to the governments of the USA, Russia and Austria; a close relationship with Benjamin Disraeli, he also funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and the De Beers diamond conglomerate, and administered Rhodes's estate from 1902 and set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford).

According to Gary Allen's expose, Milner financed the Russian Bolsheviks on Rothschild's behalf, with help from Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg.

The Round Table movement, founded in 1909 - acc. to historian Carroll Quigley - was connected to a secret society named the 'Society of the Elect' with
Cecil Rhodes, Stead and Lord Rothschild as his designated successors, and also Milner, Reginald Baliol Brett Lord Esher, Cardinal Manning, Lord Arthur Balfour, Lord Albert Grey and Sir Harry Johnston;
Carroll Quigley claims in 'Tragedy and Hope' that Rhodes's 'Society of the Elect' was established in 1889 - 1891; an outer circle known as the Association of Helpers was later organised by Milner as the Round Table;
its sister organisations: Lionel Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920, and Walter Lippmann in 1921 - the Council on Foreign Relations, in America.
See also: Alexander May, The Round Table, 1910-66, ed. by University of Oxford.


At this same year, 1909 descendant of Samuel Konarski founded the groundwork of modern English MI5 counterintelligence. KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel b. 1802 in Cracow or in 1803 in Praszka, west of Czestochowa; he was son of Joachim Konarski. That is maybe Rajmund Konarski (1783 - 1863) / Rajmund Joachim Konarski (Rajmund Konarski was son of Józef Konarski and Tekla Laskowska / Tekla Kunegunda Laskowska; and was brother of Tomasz Konarski (General) 1792 - 1878; Jan Konarski and Feliks Konarski; probably father of Samuel Aleksander Konarski).

Alexander Samuel or KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel was wine merchant in England, like Paul Armand who opened in Moscow own wine shop. Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski married to Harriet Fraser Lucas; he was transcribed as 'Alexander Kowaraki'.
She come from the Irish family, Philip Monoux was the West India and Colombia merchant, plantation owner and slave-factor.
Philip Monoux Lucas was a partner in a number of companies and resided in the West Indies between about 1802 and 1810, acted in the Lang, Chauncy & Lucas (address: at 39 Wilson Street Finsbury Square in 1834). Monoux Lucas died in 1830. Emma, the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872. "James Mad Lucas" or "The Hermit of Hertfordshire", was son of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah nee Beesly.
Above Nathaniel Snell Chauncy, 1789 - 1856, son of Charles Snell Chauncy ne Snell, who died in 1809, and brother of Charles Snell Chauncy. West India merchant, partner with Philip Monoux Lucas and Charles Porcher Lang in Chauncy, Lucas & Lang until Lucas's death in 1830.
Harriet Fraser Lucas / Harriet Fraser Konarska was daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah and she was one of the "heirs of Philip Monoux Lucas" identified as a beneficiary of his estate. She married above mentioned Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski at St Pancras in London, 1839. Died in 9 Bedford Place, Brighton in 1871.
Children of Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski / Samuel Konarski / Konasski / Alexander Kowaraki:
a. Samuel Philip Lucas Konarski b. 1843,
b. Marie Konarska b. 1853 / Maria Alexandrina Stuart Konarski or Marian Alexandrina Stuart died 1926, in 1845 living in Kensington, 1846 court against George Lucas;
c. Georgina Augusta Konarska b. 1855 / Georgina Augustus Kell nee Konarski;
d. Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (1847-1933) daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, (inf. of 1895) m. in 1870 to Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney / Valentine MacSwiney / Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY
(son of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom / Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 who married 1st Margaret Cremen, m. 2nd to Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903)
b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897;
her son Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII
(Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938, he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1828 or 1829 and Amelia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852; and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children:
Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at 'gw.geneanet.org/ygobilliard').
Acc. to: A representation of North Paraiba in the House of Representatives of Brasil, 1821 to 1900; LEGISLATURE 1857 - 1860, district - Areias, copyright by Carlos Eduardo Barata.
Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born in 1828 in Mill Keys Farm, in Paraiba; baptized 1829, in Gurinhem, died 1899, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. He was son of Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, of Nazareth, Pernambuco, and Angela Sofia Teotonia; degree of Pernambuco Univ. in 1851. He was the District Attorney of the District of Areias in Paraiba. In 1871, in Rio de Janeiro, m. to Amelia Machado de Castro Coelho, born 1852, Rio de Janeiro, died 1946, Viscountess Cavalcanti, daughter of Dr. Constantine Machado Coelho de Castro and Mariana Barbosa de Assis Ferreira; her children:
1. Velho Fernando Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born 1873, in Rio de Janeiro. Civil engineer, graduated from the Polytechnic School of Rio de Janeiro, 1899;
2. mentioned above Maria Estela Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Marchioness of Marchesini, for your 2nd wedding.

Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski was died on 14 January 1893 in Nice, France; was a doctor, emigrated to England.
We know also on Thomas / Tomasz Paschalis Seweryn Konarski / KONARSKI Tomasz Paschalis (1792-1878) General 1830-1831, from Zarczyce close to Malogoszcz; in Zarczyce Duze in 1700 was born Stanislaw Konarski actual name Hieronim Konarski; died 1878 - Auxerre. His father lieutenant of the Austrian Army born 1742. Grandfather 1699-1756. Tomasz Konarski married two times: in 1822, Warszawa, and in France.
Marie Melanie Edwige KONARSKA 1855-1940 m. 1880, Auxerre to Isidore ROZE 1848-1934 with Marie Therese Eleonore ROZE 1881-1971 m. 1899 to Henri LIONS with Hedwige LIONS b. 1900.

Auxerre - half way from Paris to Dijon.
We know also that Samuel Alexander Konarski played at roulette in the casino in Monte Carlo with high luck; a surgeon by profession, a participant of November Uprising 1830 - 1831, during which he was wounded, awarded the Golden Cross of the Virtue Military;
after the uprising, he emigrated to England, where he was occupied at large scale in wine trade, thanks to help of Treasury (see below a note).
He spend the winter in warmer corners of Europe, including Monte Carlo, Nice, Monaco.
He left a considerable wealth, for which his daughter Emma bought a large collection of art. Unfortunately, after her death, none of this collection was provided to Polish museums, but only to the collections of the Vatican Museum, the Museum of Cluny in Paris and the City Museum in Pau (France).
Explanation!
1. Emma was the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872.
2. Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney m. in 1870 to Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (Emma KONARSKA 1847-1933).
Her son Valentine Emanuel Patrick MacSwiney (1871-1945) was born in Paris and created a Marquess by Pope Leo XIII.
We know on the copy of confirmation of arms to the descendants of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom married Margaret Cremen
(or Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 m. Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903, her parents John MAC LEOD ca 1774-1839 and Honora RIORDAN; under copyright by Yves GOBILLIARD):
his grandson, Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII (Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938,
he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1829 and Amélia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852;
and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children: Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at 'gw.geneanet.org/ygobilliard')
and who was only son of Valentine MacSwiney (Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897) by Emma Issabella Countess Konarska daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, inf. in 1895.
This MacSwiney family come also from Mashanaglass.
3. Major, 25th Regiment, King's Own Scottish Borderers (b. 1843, died at Torquay in 1887; the only son of Count Alexander Konarski) Konarski Samuel Phillip Lucas / Samuel P. L. Kouasaki / Samuel Konarski m. Emma Cecilia Konarski / Emily L. Kouasaki / Emma Cecilia nee Walker b. ca 1844 in Paddington, living in 1881 at Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire.

National Treasure, the immigration funds collected in order to promote the fight against invaders on the country, used to promote Polish foreign affairs. The idea of the creation of the National Treasury in exile after the fall of the January Uprising already gone back to Agaton Giller.
The base of this treasure was a gift of Louis Michalski residing in Switzerland; in 1887 Sigmund Milkowski edited the famous book 'The thing about the active defense and on the National Treasury', where he outlined the idea of creating a fund.
Agaton Giller b. 1831 in Opatówek, was a Polish journalist and writer, conspirator and independence activist, a member of the National Government; brother of Stefan Giller.
Ludwik Michalski born Louis Matyasek / Ludwik Maciaszek, b. 1836 in Krakow, d. 1888 in Hilfikon in Switzerland, was Polish-Swiss engineer and entrepreneur, a participant of the January Uprising.
Milkowski in 1859 thought on the idea of national permanent Insurgency, and as Z. F. M. wrote 'Rzecz o obronie czynnej i o skarbie Narodowym', ed. in Paris, 1887; expanded ed. Krakow, 1912: Polish question, so-called 'Polish Intrigue' should be most important for Europe.
He also reminded all the time, on the pattern of Ireland, on the establishment of the National Treasury, with the national voluntary Taxation;
in August 1887 (? 1886) Milkowski / Jez moved to the castle Hilfikon in Switzerland, where he studied with Ludwik Michalski, the Polish emigrant, Maximilian Hertl from Paris, and the curator of the Ossolinski library in Lviv - Dr. Alexander Hirszberg who met Polish Democrats in Lviv, especially the Director of the Lemberger Savings Bank, insurgent of 1863, Fr. Zima, and the Warsaw patriots, to organize a democratic society with a centralization at the top, and the result of those deliberations was the Polish League.
In Switzerland in 1887, by a group of former participants of the January Uprising living in the Prussian and Austrian partitions, as well as abroad, Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez, Maximilian Hertel and Alexander Hirschberg at Hilfikon castle near Zurich, was established the Polish League.
Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824 in the village Saracei in Podolia, d. 1915 in Lausanne, Polish writer, was the son of an noblemen, Joseph, was a Napoleonic officer; the gymnasium in Niemirow; he was graduated from Richelieu high school in Odessa 1843 - 1846, then the University of Kiev 1847; 1848 he went to Hungary via Galicia and served in the Polish Legion during the Hungarian campaign of 1848-1849, where he advanced to the rank of lieutenant.
Since the time of the Hungarian uprising was in the sphere of influence of Stanisław Worcell b. 1799, Heltman Victor b. 1796, Darasz Wojciech b. 1808, and Limanowski Boleslaw b. 1835.
He emigrated to Turkey where he was interned for a year,
1850 he left for England, where, while he was working in a factory producing printing blocks for wallpaper patterns, he joined the Polish Democratic Society.
In 1851 he went to Moldavia as an agent of the Central Committee of European Democracy. During the Crimean War he was on the Balkan Peninsula, and was also an observer attached to the Turkish army. He stayed in Walachia then left for Serbia, Bulgaria, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople,
then in 1858 he returned to London.
After the outbreak of the January Uprising in Poland in 1863, he became commander of the army in Ruthenia and was appointed colonel by the National Central Committee. He organised an insurgent troop in Tulcza, which was to enter Russia through the territory of Romania. 1864-1866 he stayed in Belgrade, then he moved to Brussels, Lausanne and Geneva. Towards the end of his life he settled in Lausanne.
In 1866 he initiated the establishment of the National Treasury to fund future insurgent actions and develop Polish propaganda abroad.
Darasz was the editor of Polish Democrat, a member of the Centralization - Polish Democratic Society and a member of the Revolutionary Committee of the Centralization of Europe.
Heltman was one of the ideologues of Polish Democratic Society and European activist, with
Jastrzębowski Wojciech Bogumil b. 1799, who can safely be called the first theorist of a United Europe; the National Guard soldier, battles at Wawer and Olszynka Grochowska in 1831; his ideas about Europe were echoed in the views of Massini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Ledru - Rollin and Ruge Anolda b. 1802.
Massini fought with MONARCHS EUROPE, already in 1832 he founded YOUNG ITALY, helped organize the YOUNG GERMANY and Young POLAND. These were the steps involved in creating YOUNG EUROPE because he believed that only the young generation could rebuild Europe's monarchs in Europe of Nations.
We back to Milkowski, who was sent back to England 1850 (again 1858); active involvement in the Polish Democratic Society, closer to the international revolutionary circles. Since then, he was theorist of the European revolution.
The Central Committee of European Democracy commissioned colonel Zygmunt Miłkowski task of forming a resistance movement in Russia; detailed instructions on this matter received from the German revolutionary Arnold Ruge; besides Miłkowski, to Galicia was sent Louis Jastrzebski.
Milkowski with a passport in the name of Williams Smith went (1851) to the east, had letters of recommendation from Massini and Bratianu Dmitri; this mission was a tragedy for his family, his brothers Joseph and Felix in Romania were arrested and handed in 1853; Joseph, as the tsarist officer was shot in Izmaiłow; Felix sent to Orenburg. The third brother John was killed in a battle with the Turks at Oltenica. The mission of the European Democracy agents was thwarted by the church and the aristocracy, because some European Democracy activists were Freemasons;
the European Democracy top members:
Giuseppe Mazzini, Ledru-Rollin, Arnold Ruge, Darasz Wojciech and Dimitrie (1818-1892); they shared a need to organize a European revolution. Massini though Mason was the believer man; Arnold Ruge was a atheist. Darasz and Rollin were radicals.
Colonel Sigmund Milkowski did not agree with the policy of Czartoryski, who financed the trip to America, for former insurgents 1863; Society of the Third of May led by Adam Czartoryski also called the Hotel Lambert and the Society for Military of gen. Rybinski Maciej deprived to participate in the fight against the aggressors.
But the League of Liberty and Peace was established in 1867 in Geneva. At the Congress in Lausanne, speech in defense of Polish affairs gave Colonel Zygmunt Milkowski in 1872; the congress was attended by representatives of the Poles, French, Germans and other nationalities. "Almost all the congresses of the League felt the spirit of the EUROPE of NATIONS ... by the inspiration of Charles Lemonnier, at the Congress in Lausanne, Polish independence was considered as a prerequisite for peace in Europe".
Milkowski was one of the founders of the Polish National League, which was transformed into the National Democracy Party.
Also with Louis Matyasek Michalski, an engineer, who opened his castle Hiltikon for this meeting; he was born in a family of teachers. 1863 he joined the January Uprising under Kopernicki Francis (1824-1892). After the uprising got to Switzerland, Sumatra, and back to Switzerland; provided financial support for Polish initiatives.
Hertel was also an engineer, poet, worked for the Ministry of Roads and Transport in Paris. He had a big impact on the French Polonia.
Dr. Hirschberg, historian, the history of diplomacy and Polish-Russian relations. The source of the new organization were manifestos of the POLISH DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY (1832-1862), with the reconstruction of Poland from 1772, but with the right of minorities to autonomy.
Milkowski was also the President of the Supervisory Council of the National Treasury, a member of the Board of the Polish Emigrant Union and of the Executive Board of the Polish National Museum in Rapperswill. In 1900 he made a journey to the USA; he died in Lausanne on 11 January 1915.
Above data under copyright by Dr Marek Adamiec.
On his initiative Zygmunt Balicki came to Warsaw, and founded a secret Polish Youth Union modeled on Freemasonry, at the turn of 1886-1887, among university students; fought on the independence of Poland.

Interesting notes on wine commerce:

1. Trading House "Heirs of A. F. Poklewski-Koziell" / Pakleuski Kozell - the Company founder was Alfons Fomich Poklevskii-Kozell / Alfons Koziell Poklewski who in 1869 bought a large estate in Kurgan, built here a stone wine warehouse.
2. The ARMAND family from Moscow:
Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia ca 1790 - 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow) daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution; Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably). The 29 year-old general Paul Armand came from Paris in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay. He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine.
After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then after 1815 the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.
Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demonet / Demontet family ran in Moscow a sales of these French wines.
When Paul Armand married, he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.
Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage to Elizabeth Osipovna (1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker.
In 1811 in Moscow lived:
Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1787, and his son Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808, French nation; his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787 and daughter Elizabeth b. 1807. Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived (again?) to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica daughter of Charles, was born 1767.
Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808 that is Yevgeny born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow.
Paul was killed and Paul's son, Jean - Ivan, started a wine-import business. It was Ivan's son, the first Eugene, who founded the Armand fortunes.
3. Alexandra Constantinovna Countess von Zarnekau b. 1883 married in 1900 Prince George Alexandrovich Yurievsky, a son of Alexander II of Russia. In 1884, they bought a local wine cellar established by the Frenchman Shote in 1876 for bottling champagne, doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).
4. On July 30th Bronislaw Pilsudski left Nagasaki by ship, on August 3rd left Japan for Galicia (Austrian Poland) via America.
On the main street of Ginza in Tokyo, Pilsudski rented a room from the end of January to July 1906 - had a connection with Russian merchants in Vladivostok and sold natural ice transported from Hakodate in Hokkaido and milk, as well as ice cream and foreign-made wines later. In 1908 Futabatei visited St. Petersburg as a special correspondent for the newspaper Asahi and met Zarnowska - wife of Bronislaw Pilsudski - who was staying at a relative's home there. He did not, however, manage to see Pilsudski.
5. GAILLARD, J. Jeune / Jeune GAILLARD, 1896, a General Store was opened at Nagasaki at 12 Oura under the name of J. Gaillard, the Nagasaki branch of Gaillard & Co., which was led by Jean Sirot. Sirot came from Shanghai. The Nagasaki branch provisioned the French Navy with coal, food and other provisions and in 1897 the branch specialized in wine and spirits. From 1889 to 1903 only C. Joana is listed as head of this branch and J. Gaillard is only mentioned in 1901, with Rene Chevalier Lavaure, to 1904.
6. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829 in Paris, France, d. 1904 / 1908 in London, England; he was son of John O'Meara and Elizabeth Sophie. John O'Meara, b. 1797 in Borrisokane, Co Tipperary, central part of Ireland, south-west of Dublin; died 1867 in Paris.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was husband of Marie Camille and father of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara b. 1861; Henrie Marie Bulkeley b. 1857, Charles Louis Thomas b. 1862, John Herbert Lewis b. 1860, and Camille Alfred O'Meara. Camille Alfred O'Meara b. 1858 in Piltown - south-east of Ireland, d. ?; son of Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara and Marie Camille; husband of Rosalee Julia nee Guilloux; from this family was Louis Fançois Marie GUILLOUX, b. 1899 in Saint-Brieuc, France, his father was a socialist activist of 'Proudhonism'; Guilloux befriended the philosophy tutor Georges Palante, an anarchist. Camille Alfred O'Meara was father of Rose Julie Taylor, Harry O'Meara, Charlie O'Meara, Tom O'Meara, Alf O'Meara, Pat and Camille Cammie; half brother of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - was half brother of Josephine Camille O'Meara and Mathihilde O'Meara. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was born on the 9th December 1829 in Paris and died at Addison Gardens, London, in 1904; he was secretary of the Cercle Imperial Club in Paris, was a cashier in Salt Manufacturing of his brother-in-law's company at Stoke Prior in England, and finally was a wine merchant; married to Marie Camille nee Blot.
Parents of above named Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829: John O'MEARA 1797-1867 and Elisabeth Sophie FITZPATRICK 1809-1889. Acc. to http://gw.geneanet.org: parents of mentioned John O'Meara: Jack O'MEARA and Ann MORAN.
Why James Augustin FITZPATRICK found himself in France between 1805 and 1809, we do not know; France and England at that time were fighting at many fronts; maybe he traded wine from southern France as Paul Armand?! Maybe he traded tea from India? The economic blockade of the UK economy by France, created by closing the trade of this country with the countries of continental Europe and imposed allies of France to introduce trade embargo against Great Britain, resulted edition in Berlin by Napoleon Bonaparte's decree of November 21, 1806. The closure of European ports for the British fleet cut off the United Kingdom from markets and supply. It was notoriously broken because its effects were also negative for the European economies. For example, the cost of wine production in Scotland and France. France also losses because it was the recipient of the English wool.


The creation of a secret society (the Round Table of Milner) had been planning for more than seventeen years. "Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890".
According to Carroll Quigley, "...Rhodes embraced the ideas of Stead much earlier than they actually have met (on 4 April 1889), and then they jointly set up their secret society for the establishment of the Anglo-American Union ... in 1891, February 5. Stead continues: The conception in those day (1880) was confined to few, but nowadays the parties led by Lord Rosebery and Lord Salisbury would vie with each other in asserting their readiness to recognize the European Concert as the germ of the United States of Europe, and to develop the concerted action of six Powers in relation to the question of the East into a Federated Union of all the European States...".
This is not a joke on the readers of this website, that 100 years and 1 day later, the general Kiszczak also closed the debate of his Round Table.
This Round Table that are negotiations conducted to April 5, 1989 by the representatives of the People's Republic of Poland in Magdalenka near Warsaw.

When Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland, then Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, from December 1916 to November 1918, was one of the most important members of David Lloyd George's War Cabinet. His mother was a daughter of Major General John Ready, former Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island and later the Isle of Man.
Upon his return from South Africa, Viscount Milner occupied himself mainly with business interests in London, becoming chairman of the Rio Tinto Zinc mining company, a director of the Joint Stock Bank, in January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson, in Russia, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed; he was an advocate of inter-allied cooperation, in St. Petersburg in February 1917.
But Trotsky in his book 'My Life' tells of a British financier, who in 1907 gave him a large loan to be repaid after the overthrow of the Tsar. Arsene de Goulevitch, who witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution, has identified both the name of the financier and the amount of the loan: over 21 million rubles were spent by Lord Alfred Milner in financing the (October 1917 Revolution) Russian Revolution.
It was a big dream of Pilsudski and Poles to Tsarist Russia collapsed, and then in the revolutionary chaos appeared Lenin had passed into Russia by the Germans.
A documents made it clear, that this above mentioned funding was provided by Milner and channeled through Sir George Buchanan, who was the British Ambassador to Russia at the time, acc. to Goulevitch, p. 230.

In March 1832, Adam Mickiewicz stayed in Dresden, Saxony, where he wrote the third part of his poem 'Dziady'. July 1832 he arrived in Paris, accompanied by Ignacy Domeyko; in Paris, Mickiewicz published articles in 'Pielgrzym Polski', and wrote 'The Books of the Polish People and of the Polish Pilgrimage' - in the part: 'Pilgrim LITANY' we read:
"...The universal war for the freedom of peoples,
We ask you, Lord.
The weapons and national eagles,
We ask you, Lord...".

Tadeusz A. Kisielewski in "The Great War and Polish independence" ed. Rebis Publishing House, 2014, shows the First World War (the Great War 1914-1918) as a game of powers, which fight each other for dominance over Europe and domination in the colonies.

In 1832 the author of 'Pilgrim LITANY', Adam Mickiewicz, although romantic poet, but cool, wrote that
an essential condition of Poland's independence is the conflict between the invaders, and it must be converted into a European-wide war.

In 1895, Pilsudski published an article titled "Russia", in which he formulated for the first time
a basic condition for independence by Poland: to "slit the seams of ethnic Russia" and other non-Russian parts of the empire (to split the seams of ethnic Russia and other non-Russian parts).

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins, Serbs and Bosniak, coordinated by Danilo Ilic, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society.
"...In May of 1914 Colonel Dmitrijevic, a secret way from his own government, introduced the idea of the assassination of Archduke. The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow, was not able to decide, and reached an agreement with friends from the General Staff in St. Petersburg, and after a few days passed acceptance: 'Works ... we will not leave you alone'. Today we know that these words were not empty. We do not know who made the decision. Whoever he was, he had to be close to the heads of the party pro war; it was leading by the uncle of the Tsar, Grand Duke Nicholas (Nikolai); and operate at the interface between the military and diplomacy, he soon began a covert operation to observe long-term Russian ambassador in Belgrade, Nikolai Hartwig. One thing is certain: the decision of St. Petersburg, and then ... shots of Princip started the chain of events that led to the global carnage...",
according to http://foxmulder2.blogspot.com/2014/06/najwieksze-sekrety-kryptonim.html by Hubert Kozieł.

The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow / Viktor Alekseevich Artamonov / Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov / Виктор Алексеевич Артамонов, had a close relationship with Apis;
"...accessible records do not explain what role, if any, Artamonov had in the plot. To make matters murkier still, just before his execution by his own government at Salonika in June 1917, after being accused of involvement in yet another plot, this time against his own leaders, Dimitrijevic boasted in writing of his role behind the Sarajevo plot and admitted that Artamonov funded the terrorist operation, something that Yugoslavia's Communists revealed in 1953 to discredit the royal regime that preceded them in power in Belgrade. As Artamonov died in exile in 1942 without fully explaining his role in the assassination... something undertaken by direction from St. Petersburg. ... Given that Russian radio intelligence was able to read Austro-Hungarian diplomatic ciphers before the war, it seems likely that St. Petersburg was aware of what Vienna's probable reaction to the assassination would be and, as Sean Meekin has recently observed, the Russians subsequently acted as if they have something to hide: 'gaps in the record strongly suggest a good deal of purging took place after 1914', to cover whatever tracks Artamonov left behind. The attaché conveniently managed to be out of Belgrade on the day of the assassination, yet it was well known in Serbian military circles that, in the weeks before the assassination, he and Apis saw each other almost daily. A Serbian colonel who was close to Apis conceded that Artamonov had encouraged the plot... it seems very likely that St. Petersburg knew more about the plot that it later proved politic to admit...".
And "...Serbian military intelligence, whose chief, Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević, colloquially known as Apis (The Bull), was a violent conspirator with impressive credentials even by high regional standards", copyright by http://20committee.com/

Apis ordered the murder of Franz Ferdinand, and he said that the Russian military attache Artamonov promised protection of Russia from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when Serbia's intelligence operations will be disclosed, and that Russia has financed the killing. In an interview, Artamonov categorically denied any involvement of Russia in this case. Artamonov said that at this time he was on vacation in Italy, leaving only military assistant of Attache Alexander Verkhovsky; and although he had the daily contact with Apis, he learned about the role of Apis only at the end of the war, acc. to Albertini.
Verkhovskii / Alexander Verkhovsky first admitted involvement of the Attache Office, and then completely stopped talking about it.
There is evidence that on June 14, 1914 Russia was at least aware of the plans of terrorists.
Shelking wrote: '...01 (14) June 1914, Emperor Nicholas had a conversation with King Charles in Constanta in Romania. I was there at the time ... as far as I could tell from my conversation with the members of his entourage (Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov) he (Sazonov) was convinced that if the Archduke (Franz Ferdinand) will go in the direction of peace in Europe will not be threatened'.

Mentioned above
Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Верхо́вский / Verkhovsky, Alexander / Aleksander Wierchowski - b. 1886, St. Petersburg, d. August 19, 1938; nobility.
In 1905, for the liberal-constitutional view expelled from the Corps of Pages and sent in Manchuria, was the gunner; awarded the George Cross and promoted to officer. In 1905-1908 he served in Helsingfors, the 3rd Light division in Finland, 1909 lieutenant. Graduated from the Nikolaev Military Academy (1911); 1911 he graduated from the Academy of General Staff. 1911 staff-captain, 1913 - Captain. 1911-1913 he commanded a company of the 2nd Infantry Regiment in Finland. 1913 the senior aide of Staff of the 3rd Finnish Infantry Brigade.
He was sent to Serbia (1914) to study the experiences of participation of the Serbian army in the Balkan wars.
Since the beginning of the First World War he returned to Russia, participated in the battles in East Prussia. Since 1915 head of security section of Staff to the 22nd Corps on the South-Western Front; at the headquarters of 7th Army. Since March 1916, Lieutenant Colonel, Chief of Staff of Army Group, designed to capture Trebizond from the sea. In September - December 1916 in Romania, he was assistant of the security section of the Russia's representative at the headquarters; he arrived in Petrograd and wrote: 'Only a change of political system could save the army from the new misfortunes, and Russia from the ignominious defeat. Army has lost patience...', acc. to '...From the diary of a marching 1914-1918', Moscow.
In early 1917 appointed Chief of Staff of the Chernomorskoy division, designed for landing on the Turkish coast.
After the February Revolution of 1917 he participated in the meeting of officers of the garrison to support the Provisional Government.
On August 30, 1917 Kerensky appointed Verkhovsky the Military Minister;
on Sept. 1st, 1917 introduced him to the Directory, giving the rank of Major-General;
on Sep 7, 1917 Verkhovsky made a presentation on the reorganization of the army;
on Sep 8, 1917 appointed to the Bureau of the Central Executive Committee;
on October 20, 1917 the joint meeting of the Pre-Parliament Committee Defense and Foreign Affairs - Verkhovsky analyzed the state of the army and said we can't fight;
on October 22, 1917 / 04 Nov. "he went on to Balaam" (?), where only on 29 Oct. learned about the October armed uprising.
Nov. 3 / 16, 1917 returned to Petrograd, and together with members of the Central Committee went to headquarters where the All-Army committee and leaders of some socialist parties tried to form a 'general-socialist government';
Nov. 1917 moved to Mogilov.
In 1922 he was a military expert of the Soviet delegation at the Genoa International Conference.
On 18 July 1931 on charges of anti-Soviet activities sentenced to death. December 2, 1931 sentence to 10 years in the camps.

Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov born October 9, 1873 and died August 23, 1942 in Antwerp, Belgium.
"He graduated in 1890 from the Cadet Corps Simbirsk, in 1892 the Military Academy in 1900 and Pavlovsk Academy of Staff of Mykolayiv. ... the Volhynian Guard Regiment, ... and Odessa in 1904. ... military liaison officer 1907 to 1909 in Greece and then from 1909 to 1918 in Serbia. ... 1919 to 1920 he was representative in Belgrade Armed Forces of South Russia, under the direction of Anton Ivanovich Denikin then under those of Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel...".

Very interesting research of Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire, 'Dictionnaire de la Franc-maconnerie', Paris, Armand Colin, 2014, p. 307-314: the conspiracy theory, a whole section of contemporary American literature to have become a topic of academic research among Americanists; revolutions from the eighteenth century.

But the first was John Robison (1739 - 1805), a Scottish physicist and mathematician. He was a professor of philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. A member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, the first General Secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1783 - 1798). See Becu in 1803 in Scotland (Dzierzynski, Becu, Pilar-Pilchau, Bulhak, Pilsudski). Robison also worked with James Watt on an early steam car. Following the French Revolution, Robison became disenchanted with elements of the Enlightenment. He authored Proofs of a Conspiracy in 1797, a polemic accusing Freemasonry of being infiltrated by Weishaupt's Order of the Illuminati. Born in Boghall, Baldernock, Stirlingshire, close to Thornhill, north-west of Stirling; west of Drummond, south-west of the Doune castle.

See: Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD; the Douglas family from Bothwell - 15 km south-east of Glasgow, Kincardineshire, 30 km south of Aberdeen, and from Fordoune, Scotland - 14 km north-west of Srirling; see: Douglas from Italy, Napoli. James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, a Scottish soldier, was born at Inverugie Castle near Peterhead - north of Aberdeen in eastern Scotland, the second son of William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland who b. ca 1664, and was also a Jacobite politician of Scotland. Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta.

Back to John Robison:
"...In 1770 he travelled to Saint Petersburg as the Secretary of Admiral Charles Knowles, where he taught mathematics to the cadets at the Naval Academy at Cronstadt, obtaining a double salary and the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. ... Robison returned to Scotland in 1773 and took up the post of Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He lectured on mechanics, hydrostatics, astronomy, optics, electricity and magnetism (see Gernet, Duflon, Breguet, Konstantynowicz). Towards the end of his life, he became an enthusiastic conspiracy theorist, publishing Proofs of a Conspiracy, ... in 1797, alleging clandestine intrigue by the Illuminati and Freemasons ... carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies. The secret agent monk, Alexander Horn provided much of the material for Robison's allegations. ... In 1798, the Reverend G. W. Snyder sent Robison's book to George Washington for his thoughts on the subject in which he replied to him in a letter. ... Modern conspiracy theorists, such as Nesta Webster and William Guy Carr, believe the methods of the Illuminati as described in Proofs of a Conspiracy were copied by radical groups throughout the 19th and 20th centuries in their subversion of benign organizations...".

Weishaupt (Johann Adam Weishaupt b. 1748 in Ingolstadt, d. 1830) was trained by friend of Moses Mendelssohn - Hartwig Wessely / Hartog Naftali Herz in 1771. Over the next five years
Weishaupt formulated a plan, all secret systems be reduced to a single powerful organization. On May 1, 1776, he formed it to live as a secret Order of the Illuminati or "Enlightened"
and stood at the forefront; see at http://www.eioba.pl/a/3it4/teorie-spiskowe-zakon-iluminatow; this organization essentially acting as a "over-Freemasonry", to take control on all of Freemasonry. Weishaupt himself to be even accept to lodge "Zur Behuntsamkeit" in Munich, and began to arrange his Order within Freemasonry. Please compare the text: http://www.klubinteligencjipolskiej.pl/2015/03/wall-street-i-rewolucja-bolszewicka-w-rosji-2/; and notes by Douglas Reed, translated by Krzysztof Edmund Wojciechowicz, at http://spiritolibero.neon24.pl/post/107504,rewolucja-swiatowa.


And now back to England:
Edward VII, b. 1841 in London, in 1874 the Prince of Wales attended the marriage at St. Petersburg of his brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, with the grand-duchess Marie of Russia. He was first elected grand master of the Freemasons of England in 1874; a bencher of the Middle Temple, he was son of Queen Victoria; initiated by the King of Sweden, at Stockholm in 1868, the rank of Past Grand Master of England was conferred upon him in 1870. Patron of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland and was an honorary member of Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1. Grand Master Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (then the King of Great Britain and Ireland as Edward VII from 1901), 1874 to 1901.

The network:
Montenegro - Potapov - Parvus - Berezyna - Konstantynowicz - Artuzow - Volpi - Venetia - electricity:
Prince Arseny Karageorgievich / Karadjordjevic b. 1859, d. 1938, was educated in Paris lycee and graduated from the 2nd Konstantinovskoye Military College in 1888; served until 1916 to the Russian military, Major General of the Russian Imperial Army, participated in the Russian-Japanese War and in the First World War; the pretender to the Serbian throne, who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion; the friend of Drzewiecki, Duflon, Breguet in St Petersburg (see: Potapov in Montenegro; the Azbelev / Azbelew family, and the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Petersburg; Nagasaki and Bronislaw Pilsudski, Volpi; Neuchatel in Switzerland).
Arseny was the son of Serbian Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic and Princess Persia.

The first genealogy of Arseny:

Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov / Demidoff, 2nd Prince San Donato, 1839-1885, owned approximately 100 factories in Russian and 1 million squares kilometers of land in Russia, France and in Italy. He move to Villa Pratolino, named as Villa Demidoff, and m. 2nd time to Helena or Elena Petrovna, Princess Troubetzekaya, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, b. St. Peterburg in 1853, d. Odessa in 1917; Aurora Pavlovna Demidova, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, Princess of Serbia, and later Countess Noghera, born in San Donato in 1873 or 1874, d. Marseille, in 1943 (? - Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), eldest daughter of the second marriage of the above Prince Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; Aurora m. first to Arsene Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1859-1938, son of Alexandar Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1806-1885 and Persida Nenadovic, 1813-1873. General of the Russian army; Comander-General of the Yugoslavian army. He was brother of Peter I, King of Serbians, Croats and Slovens, later King of Yugoslavia, 1844-1921. Prince Arsene divorced in 1896. Paul Karadordevic, Prince of Yugoslavia, b. 1893, was educated at the University of Oxford.

The second genealogy of Arseny:

A wife 1891/2 - 1896 of above Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich:

Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev; her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; her grandfather Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826, her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804; her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817; her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731 died 1812.

Above mentioned Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic / Alexander I of Yugoslavia (1806 - 1885), Prince of Serbia in 1842 - 1858. After his father's death in 1817, he was living in Russia and served to the Russian army to 1840. He left two sons: Peter I of Yugoslavia (1844-1921), 1903 the king of Serbia, 1918 the King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; and above named Arseny (1859 - 1938); his son, Prince Paul was a regent of Yugoslavia in 1934 - 1941.

Mentioned Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato (b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), her father Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d.
1885, Pratolino near Florence),
Russian industrialist, 1871-1872 and 1873-1874 Kiev; the Red Cross during the Turkish war of 1877-1878. He was son of Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov and Aurora Karamzina.

Baroness Eva Aurora Charlotte Stjernvall / Eva Aurora Charlotta Stjernvall; 1836 the name Demidov, 1846 as Karamzin; she was born in 1808, Bёrneborg, died 1902, Helsingfors; the Swedish-Finnish roots, a maid of honor of the imperial court, a large philanthropist.
Her husband was Count Pavel Demidov (1798 - 1840, Mainz), Russian businessman, the owner of the richest Ural iron foundry (see Koziell-Poklewski family), the actual state councilor, honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, philanthropist; the son of Count Nikolai Nikitich Demidov and Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov.

On the other hand we look at
Emmanuel Karaso, Karassu / Carasso / Emanuel Karasu (Salonica, 1862 - died in Trieste in 1934), a lawyer of the Sephardic Jewish Carasso family of Salonica / Thessaloniki, Greece; a member of the Young Turks; a member or a founder, president of the Macedonian Risorta Masonic lodge in Thessaloniki; he worked for Jewish organizations in Turkey, and negotiated the treaty ending the Italo-Turkish War.

And next network in the Balkan kingdom of Montenegro, owned by Volpi, and the Russian military attache from 1903 to 1915 - N. M. Potapov.

Potapov in 1915 taken the position of Quartermaster General and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Russian Army, in charge of all army intelligence.
In the summer of 1917, Potapov began Bolshevik, but he was known since the 1890s.
He help to the transformation of the Tsarist War Ministry into the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs (see the Bonch-Bruevich brothers, Lenin, and village Zbyszyn close to Miezonka).
He was the first Red Army Chief of Staff; close to A. A. Artuzov (see Saanen in Switzerland, Lenin, Dzierzynski in Switzerland, Duflon) - who was a cousin of Potapov.

And at present back again to Montenegro and Serbia, Venetia and Turkey:

"...Parvus's status in Switzerland was secured by his longtime colleague, Adolph Muller, the German Ambassador in Berne, and a Munich publisher. According to authors James and Suzanne Pool ... he had done business with the Nazis since before the putsch. ... The money that Hitler used to purchase the newspaper came from a White Russian and former Okhrana associate, Vasili Biskupsky. ... At the close of World War I, Parvus wrote the following profile of the European situation:
'There exist two possibilities only: either the unification of western Europe, or Russia's domination. The whole game with the buffer states will end in their annexation by Russia, unless they are united with central Europe in an economic community, which would provide a counter-balance to Russia'.
Under any circumstances, Parvus argued that the era of the nation-state system had ended in Europe...".

Acc. to the article on September 23, 2005, Executive Intelligence Review, ... Parvus Permanent War Madness, by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas. This article was based on an exhaustive study by Allen and Rachel Douglas, 'The Roots of the Trust: From Volpe to Volpi, and Beyond - The Venetian Dragomans of the Russian Empire', and on published and unpublished research by Scott Thompson, Marjorie Mazel Hecht, and Joseph Brewda:
"...a doctrine which the Russian-born British intelligence asset Alexander Helphand, also known as Parvus, dictated to Leon Trotsky's effort to overthrow Russia's Tsar in the revolution of 1905. What Helphand dictated to his dupe Trotsky, in writing, personally, there at that time, is a doctrine of 'permanent revolution / permanent war', which Trotsky himself defended up to the moment of his murder by a Soviet assassin, in Mexico in 1940. Alexander Israel Helphand (a.k.a. Parvus). Both (Shabotynsky / Zabotynski) Jabotinsky and Parvus edited publications of the British / Venetian-spawned Young Turk movement, which helped ... the overthrow of the Ottoman Empire.
Like Jabotinsky, Parvus (1867 - 1924) came from (born in Berezyna in 1867) an Odessa family steeped in the grain trade. By 1886, Helphand / Parvus had already become involved in the Okhrana-spawned Russian socialist scene, travelling to Switzerland to participate in the Emancipation of Labor group, led by a number of documented Okhrana agents, including Lev Deutsch, and suspected Okhrana man Georgi Plekhanov / Plechanow.

... By 1900, Parvus had joined the inner circle of the Bolsheviks, using his Munich, Germany apartment to house the printing press for the group, and hosting V. I. Lenin and other leaders (see Brilling, Duflon and Konstantynowicz family, Inessa Armand, Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand).
According to several biographical accounts, by 1902, Parvus was receiving direct Okhrana funding through Gorky, who gave Parvus the rights to publish his works abroad (see Neapol and Capua in my research).
When the entire leadership of the Petersburg Soviet, including Trotsky, was rounded up and jailed in December 1905, Parvus escaped the police clutches. When he was later captured, he escaped police custody, courtesy of the Okhrana agent Lev Deutsch. Parvus next turned up, via Germany, in Constantinople, as a 'journalist' covering the Young Turk rebellion against the Ottomans ... It would be at this moment that Parvus's ties to the leading European 'Venetian Party' factions would be publicly shown.
In 1908, the Committee for Union and Progress, otherwise known as the Young Turks, carried out a military coup, overthrowing the Sultan and seizing power over the Ottoman Empire. ... The actual founder of the Young Turk movement was an Italian Freemason and grain trader named Emmanuel Carasso. Jewish by birth, Carasso had been a founder of the Italian Masonic lodge in Salonika, called the Macedonia Risorta Lodge.
Virtually all of the members of the Young Turk leadership were lodge members. The forerunner of the Macedonia Risorta Lodge was founded by a follower of another Palmerston agent and revolutionary provocateur, Giuseppi Mazzini. ... Carasso was a leading financier (see electricity, Duflon, Konstantynowicz, Venetia) of the entire Young Turk insurrection, and during the Balkan Wars, he was not only the head of Balkan intelligence operations for the Young Turks; he was in charge of all food supplies for the Ottoman Empire during World War I, a lucrative business which he shared with Parvus (see Berezyna and Odessa). ... Another of Carasso's 'business' associates was Parvus, who became economics editor of another Young Turk journal, The Turkish Homeland. Parvus also became a partner of Carasso in the grain trade, and in the arms business, and became independently wealthy. ... Carasso was a protege and business partner of Volpi di Misurata, the leading Venetian banker of the early 20th century, who not only sponsored the Young Turk insurrection, but also promoted the Black Shirt takeover of Rome and went on to run the Mussolini Fascist regime ... The Venetian banker Volpi was closely allied with City of London financiers throughout. And the Young Turks, once they took power, made no secret of their London ties. In 1909 the Ottoman Navy was put under the command of a British admiral; ... banker, Ernst Cassel, established and managed the National Bank of Turkey; and British officials advised the Ministry of Finance, the Interior Ministry, and the Ministry of Justice.
... Parvus also got into the tightly controlled arms business, probably under the patronage of Sir Basil Zaharoff of the Vickers Arms cartel, a prominent Anglo - Venetian enterprise. Once the Balkan Wars had started, leading directly into World War I, Parvus turned his attention back to Russia, laying plans to finance a revolution, to be led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Parvus set his scheme for revolution down in a March 9, 1915 memorandum to the German Foreign Ministry, vowing that the Bolsheviks would take power in Russia in 1916, and seeking financial support. ...
One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski, the head of the Political Section and a longtime business associate of none other than Young Turks financier, the Venetian Synarchist Party operative Giuseppi Volpi, the future controller of Mussolini.
According to his own memoirs,
von Hutten-Czapski had seen the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War as an opportunity 'to smash the Tsarist Empire',
a view shared by Parvus.
... Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark ... Stinnes, too, was tied to Volpi and the Banca Commerciale Italiana. In May 1915, Parvus met with Lenin and Karl Radek in Switzerland (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), and then created a string of front groups in Stockholm and Copenhagen. ... By April 1917, Parvus had pushed the German government to grant secret safe-passage to the Bolshevik leaders back into Russia, and arrangements were soon made, through Parvus and Radek, to smuggle Lenin and 40 other leading Bolsheviks from Switzerland, through Stockholm, back to Petrograd. Parvus remained in Stockholm, in constant communication with the International Mission of the Petrograd Bolshevik Central Committee Abroad...".

On the above Synarchist movement, by LYNN PICKNETT & CLIVE PRINCE:
"...This shadowy politico-occult movement is synarchy, which was developed by the Frenchman Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves, the Marquis d'Alveydre, in opposition to the rise of anarchy in the second half of the nineteenth century. ... The most high-profile late nineteenth-century devotee of Saint-Yves was the physician Gérard Encausse (Papus), a leading light among French esoteric societies. ... Encausse's death in 1916 resulted in a schism in the Martinist Order over its involvement in politics. The activists, under Victor Blanchard - head of the secretariat of the Chamber of Deputies of the French Parliament - formed the breakaway Martinist and Synarchic Order, which established the Synarchic Central Committee in 1922, designed to pull in promising young civil servants and younger members of great business families...".

Acc. to 'Cheney Revives Parvus "Permanent War" Madness', by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas:

"...The German government was deeply split over the issue of backing a Russian Bolshevik revolution. Close advisors to the German Kaiser argued that Germany should push a separate peace with the Tsar, while a faction, centered in the General Staff and around Foreign Minister Zimmerman, pushed for a war-to-the-death with Russia, arguing that war with Russia was inevitable, and it made sense to get on with it before Russia became more powerful. One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski ...
In addition to the German Foreign Ministry and the German General Staff, Parvus was also given access to an exhaustive amount of funds for his Russian regime change scheme from a leading German Synarchist industrialist and close associate of Hjalmar Schacht (later Hitler's Economics Minister), Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark, from which Parvus made millions of gold marks per month...".


Some on Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki:
A.
Von Fürstenberg was a powerful family lived in Germany in the 19th and the 20th centuries.
Maria Felicitas Ferdinanda von Fürstenberg married ca 1920 to Friedrich Carl von Westphalen zu Fürstenberg b. 1900. Sophie Therese de Longueval Gräfin von Buquoy b. 1879, the daughter of Karl de Longueval Graf von Buquoy and Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz, married Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg in 1897.
Her children: 1. Friedrich Carl Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1898, and 2. Carl Philipp Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1907.
Above Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1864. Above mentioned Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1858, the daughter of Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Countess Aloisia Morzin.
Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1819, the son of Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Therese Gräfin von Orsini und Rosenberg.
Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born on 4 November 1796 at Vienna, Austria, the son of Rudolf Graf Czernin and Maria Theresia Gräfin von Schonborn-Heussenstamm.
B. We know that:
1. after the First World War Stanisław Furstenberg lived in Poland, he was prosecutor, inf. 1931.
2. Fürstenberg Stanisław died in Warsaw, on 06.08.1911. Maybe father of Hanecki.
3. History of the Fürstenberg (Furstenberg) beer originated to the 13th cent. in Donaueschingen, Germany; commercial production of the drink starts from the XVIII century; beer brewed at Hallertau, now Fürstenberg Lager brewed in Munich.
At the beginning of the 19th cent. in Warsaw brewed beer: Krembitz, Schaefer and Glimpf, Wojciech Sommer, in the second half of the 19th cent. in Warsaw: Herman Jung, Karol Machlejda, Władysław Kijok, Edward Reych;
Haberbusch and Schiele since 1846 (Błażej Haberbusch, Konstanty Schiele and Henryk Klawe) in Warsaw and Odessa;
Herman Jung since 1840 from Silesia to Warsaw, 1846 the Grzybowska street, then with Knopf taken K. Bochenek brewary and from Antoni Boenisch plant, also the Karol Osterloff brewary at Grochow.
Jakub Fürstenberg / Kuba / Mikola, b. 1879, came from an assimilated German family, his father was a wealthy merchant and industrialist of Polonized German family.
His father Stanislaw von Fürstenberg / Stanislaus von Furstenberg was the producer of beer, and a factory owner.
The first owner Samuel Krauze, next Waldemar Beorner leased a brewery from Anna Krauze (see Krauze / Krause in Estonia), and then became it owner, a subsequent owners: S. Fürstenberg / Stanislaw von Furstenberg, next was Z. Katz;
main gate of this brewary at Grzybowska / Wronia street (Grzybowska 61 then 65, and Wronia No 12); at Grzybowska No 34 a brewary of A. LENTZKI of 1874, then 1891 to Samuel Krauze; but 1889 Waldemar Boerner was owner.
C.
Our Polish-Jewish-German revolutionary, Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki b. 1879, killed in 1937 in Soviet Union; Lenin had received money and instructions from Jakub Fuerstenberg / Yakov Ganetsky, and from Alexander Parvus of Berezyna. Jakub Hanecki since 1896 in the underground movement, since 1901 in Berlin as a salesman, 1902 top member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania; a friend of Feliks Dzierżyński in Warsaw.
According to the book by Berberova "Iron Lady", the Fuerstenberg or Fürstenberg / Furstenberg family was in a relationship with A. Parvus from Berezyna - Odessa (maybe Stanislaw Furstenberg or his wife was next of kin with the Helphand family of Berezyna?).
We read on an announcement of executions for espionage against the German army, in Warsaw during the German occupation, by the martial court due spy sentenced to death:
1. Leo Sommerfeld,
2. Alexander Petrajtys,
3. Jacob Fürstenberg,
on 23 October 1915, acc. to the German form of 1916.
But immediately after Gelfand had visited Lenin in May 1915 in Switzerland, first appeared one of the most efficient agents of Lenin in Copenhagen, in the place which the Gelfand had chosen as the base for his anti-Russian campaign - the agent was mentioned above Jacob Fürstenberg - Ganetzky.
Lenin asserted in the summer of 1917, Ganetzky had never been a Bolshevik.
The journey of the April 1917 went via Frankfurt to Berlin, where the train was stopped for some time; on the evening of April 12, 1917, the train reached Saßnitz,
24 hours later, Lenin went ashore in Malmö. There, his agent Fürstenberg - Ganetzky received him with a message from Parvus: It is now high time to direct German-Russian peace negotiations in the way.
Ganetzky / Ganetsky / Hanecki was a treasurer of Lenin.
Yakov Stanislavovich Ganetsky / Hanecki / Jakub Fürstenberg / Fuerstenberg / Jakub Ganezki / Jakow Stanislawowitsch Fürstenberg was the connection to Parvus, and was the immediate link to Lenin.
Hanecki - Fürstenberg killed on 26 November 1937, was "...one of the financial wizards who arranged, through his close working relationship with Alexander Parvus, the secret German funding that saved the Bolsheviks ... (with) Karl Radek, was involved in secret negotiations with the German General Staff regarding funding of the Bolsheviks and was one of the organizers of the (Copenhagen operation) as well as a mediator between Lenin and the Germans. He was one of the organizers of Lenin's return in a sealed train from exile in Switzerland to Russia in 1917 ... After the October Revolution of 1917, Ganetsky served as Chief Soviet banker, trade representative and Ambassador to Latvia...(copyright Wikipedia)", by Wikipedia in 2015: he signed the Peace of Riga and Treaty of Kars.
D.
At margin:
Franz Jacob Furstenberg b. 1856 to Franz Johannes Furstenberg and Elizabeth Gerlach. Franz Johannes Furstenberg 1823-1879 married in 1849 to Elizabeth Gerlach b. 1823, her children:
Heinrich b. 1851, August 1853, Furstenberg, Franz Jacob b. 1856, and 4. Franz Joseph b. 1861. The Gerlach family was from Helmsdorf bei Leinefelde.
Franz Johannes Furstenberg born in Helmsdorf, Germany in 1823 to Adam Furstenberg and Dorothea Wachtel. His brother (?) Franz Joseph Furstenberg 1831-1930.

By Wikipedia:
"Karol Sobelsohn / Karl Berngardovich Radek, b. 1885 in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary, d. 1939, acted in the Polish and German social democratic movements; during the Great Purge of the 1930s, he was accused of treason and confessed, after two and a half months of interrogation, sentenced to 10 years of penal labor; killed in a labor camp in a fight with another inmate, or was killed by an NKVD operative under direct orders from Lavrentiy Beria".
1901 Karl set out for Cracow (classmates: Marian Kukiel); met with Boleslaw Drobner, 1902 wrote to 'Promien'; met with Emil Haecker of 'Naprzod'; 1903 in Cracow with Feliks Dzierzynski at the Jagellonian University, but late in 1903 Radek emigrated to Zurich!
took a job as librarian, met with Max Nomad (see Machajski and Trubecki Nestor); then met with Adolf Warski Warszawski, who was his sponsorship to SDKPiL; through Warszawski Warski, he began a correspondence with Rosa Luxemburg; and she arranged for him to publish some articles in the newspapers of the German socialist;
in December 1905 he crossed the Austro-Russian border to Warsaw, was arrested in March 1906 (see Nestor Trubecki); emerged from prison in early 1907;
in May 1907 he became the editor of 'Czerwony Sztandar'; 1908 had transffered some trade union funds to Stanislawski, and Radek must left Warsaw for Berlin;
met with Warszawski and his immediate acceptance into the top socialist circles in Germany in 1908 could been through the intervention of Warszawski, Marchlewski, Luxemburg and Leo Jogiches, Paul Frolich in Berlin.
Then Radek moved to Leipzig (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), under command of Luxemburg; by 1910 Radek was well known in German socialist circles; 'married' 1909/1911 to a German girl Rosa;
summer 1910 in Copenhagen (see Anna Konstantynowicz and Inessa Armand); met Lenin the first. Radek returned to Leipzig; 1910 moved back to Berlin, 1911 with Hanecki Furstenburg and Unszlicht; 1911 disagreement with Marchlewski, but close friendships with August Thalheimer, Konrad Haenisch from Bremen.
Karl Radek in spring 1912 published for Karl Kautsky; but in July 1912 aimed his attack directly at Kautsky.
'Through Germany in the Sealed Coach', ed in 1924, originally published in German in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66. This is the first time this text has been published in English. Translated and transcribed by Ian Birchall. Translation © Copyright 2005 Ian Birchall. Used by kind permission of the translator. Marked up by Einde O'Callaghan for the Marxists' Internet Archive; at https://www.marxists.org/archive/:
"...On behalf of Vladimir Ilyich I turned, in association with Paul Levi, who at the time was a member of the Spartacus group, and who was temporarily staying in Switzerland, to the representative of the Frankfurter Zeitung, who was known to us. If I am not mistaken, it was a Dr Deinhard. Through him we asked the German Ambassador Romberg whether Germany would allow emigres returning to Russia to pass through its territory. In turn, Romberg enquired of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin and received a reply that was in principle favourable. Thereupon we elaborated the conditions on which we were willing to undertake the journey through Germany. The main conditions were as follows: the German government should allow all applicants to pass through, without asking for their names; those travelling through should enjoy the protection of extraterritoriality and nobody would be entitled to enter into negotiations of any sort with them during their journey. With these conditions we sent the Swiss Socialist deputy Robert Grimm, the secretary of the Zimmerwald Union, and our political ally and comrade Platten to see Romberg. After the meeting with the German Ambassador we met in the trade-union premises. Grimm related how surprised the Ambassador had been, when they had read out to him our conditions for the journey. ...
Grimm, who continued the negotiations in the name of Martov group, had undoubtedly already in Switzerland engaged in negotiations about conditions for peace, and later from Petrograd he sent communications about the prospects for peace from his government, which the Swiss government then probably passed on to the Germans. The attempts to represent him as a German spy or agent are absurd. He wanted to play an important role; Ilyich had already considered that such ambition was the principal motive of his activity. The Germans hoped that in Russia the Bolsheviks would act as opponents of the war and declared themselves in agreement with our conditions. I recommend those gentlemen who are still raising an outcry against the Bolsheviks on this account to read Ludendorff's memoirs, for he is still tearing his hair out over the fact that he let the Bolsheviks through; he has finally grasped that in so doing he was not performing a service for German imperialism, but for the world revolution.
So we set off and travelled in a Swiss train as far as Schaffhausen, where we had to change into the German train. ...
In Trelleborg we made a very striking impression. Ganetsky invited us all to supper which in the Swedish fashion involved Smörgas. We poor fellows, who in Switzerland had been accustomed to have no more than a herring for our dinner, looked at this enormous table with innumerable hors d'oeuvre: we rushed at it like a swarm of grasshoppers and completely emptied the table, to the astonishment of the waiters, who were used to seeing only civilised people at the Smörgas table. Vladimir Ilyich ate nothing. He tried to find out from Ganetsky everything he could about the Russian revolution - but Ganetsky knew nothing. The next morning we arrived in Stockholm. Swedish comrades, journalists and photographers were waiting for us. At the head of the Swedish comrades was Dr Karleson in a top-hat, an inflated chatterer who now, fortunately, has returned from the Communist Party to Branting's camp. ...
In Stockholm Parvus tried to meet Lenin as a representative of the central committee of the German Social Democracy, but Ilyich not only refused to meet him, but charged me, Vorovsky and Ganetsky, together with the Swedish comrades to make a formal record of this attempt. The whole day passed in discussions; we went here and there; but before Lenin left another real deliberation took place. The moment of departure was approaching. Together with the Swedish comrades and a part of the Russian colony in Stockholm we went from the Regina hotel to the station. When our comrades had already boarded the train, one of the Russians took his hat off and made a speech to Lenin. ...
This account by Radek was published in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66.
According to Robert Service, Lenin: A Political Life Volume 2: Worlds in Collision, Basingstoke 1991, p. 153, an account of the journey by Radek appeared in Pravda, no. 91, 20 April 1917, p. 4. However, the 1924 version had clearly been revised, since there is a reference to Ludendorff's Memoirs, first published in 1920.
... Last updated on 18.10.2011".

And more information
(on 26th January 2015 by Hubert Koziel) at http://foxmulder2.blogspot.co.uk/2015/01/najwieksze-sekrety-archanio-cz-4-miecz.html.
'Antidotes to Empire: From the Congress System to the European Union' by Stella Ghervas of Harvard University, Center for European Studies, Department Member;
'Blockade 9: Sustaining The Enemy – Tea, Coffee And Plenty Denials' by Jim Macgregor (First World War Hidden History) and Gerry Docherty.


Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski: his father - Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 in Smogulec + Eleonora Mielżyński; his grandfather Józef Grzegorz Longin Hutten-Czapski 1760-1810
(he was brother of Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski Count 1753 - 1833, who was father of Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1862, and Antonina Skórzewski; and grandfather of Matylda Fabianna Jadwiga Osiecimska; Kazimierz Antoni Fabian Hutten-Czapski, and Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1837 - 1884 in Paris);
and his great-grandfather General Antoni Michal Hutten-Czapski (ca 1725) 1725-1792,
great-great-grandfather Ignacy 1699 - 1745.
Wywiad brytyjski, niemiecki i rosyjski, a niepodleglosc Polski w 1918.  Lista teorii konspiracyjnych - najwieksze teorie konspiracyjne w historii.  Teorie konspiracyjne, historia i genealogia rodu Konstantynowicz z Bialorusi.  Masoneria. Rosyjski wywiad wojskowy. Kluczowe zagadnienia.  Wstep i glowne uwagi o historii rodu Konstantynowicz na Bialorusi i w Rosji 1772 - 1917.

Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten born 1725 (ca 1725)
(son of above mentioned Ignacy Hutten-Czapski b. ca 1699 / 1700, who was brother of Franciszek Hutten-Czapski [m. Katarzyna Skorzewska], Józef Piotr Hutten-Czapski, and Teresa Pawłowska),
d. 1802 in Warsaw; his children:
a. Maria Hutten-Czapska b. 1760 m. Gen.-Major Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski of Bukowiec, 1804 Count, with children: 1. Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski b. 1797; 2. Antonina Skórzewski;
b. Anna m. to Józef Oskierka;
c. Ignacy born 1770,
d. Franciszek b. ca 1770;
e. Karol b. in Mińsk 1777-1836 m. Fabianna Obuchowicz (next generation - Emeryk b. 1828);
f. Stanisław 1779-1844 m. Zofia Obuchowicz, Colonel under Napoleon.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Francis Servatius Hutten-Czapski b. 1851, d. 1937, in 1890 negotiated with Pope Leo XIII end of the Kulturkampf in Germany; he was friend with the Cardinals of the Vatican; persuaded the German general staff to support the Bolsheviks (1916 - 1917) and in the independent Poland (since 1918) was the president of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta.
His father Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to
(January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833;
1833 - 1837 Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834, including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland. Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to H. Koziel, in
1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
The republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini.

Explanations:

1. At http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1832/feb/29/count-czapski we read:
"...It appeared that Count Czapski had made his escape from Warsaw, with great difficulty, and was so fortunate as to get to Belfast; on his landing there, he was told, it was necessary to give information of his arrival to the office of the Secretary, under the Act regarding Aliens. On his arrival at Dublin, he had made several inquiries at the Custom House and the Castle, and 966 was told at the latter place, as he only intended to stay a few days, he need not apply again. ... After he had landed in Ireland, he came to Dublin, and when he had been there a short time, he was informed, that, in conformity with the Alien Law, he must state to the Government whether he intended to fix his residence there...".
2. "...THE ALIEN LAW - COUNT CZAPSKI. It will be seen from our Police report in this day's FREEMAN, that the distinguished, but unfortunate Pole, who has been sojourning in Dublin for a few weeks. A was yesterday fined 50Ł by the Magistrates at the Head office of Police, under...", on 3 February 1832 in Dublin.
3. "...I DINNER TO COUNT JOSEPH NAPOLEON CZAPSKI. On yesterday, upwards of seventy gentlemnen sat ... I o 'plendid dinner' at Challoner and Hunt's hotel, Davsonstie, WILLIAM FRANCIS FINN, Etq. in the Chair. The, CHAIMIMANI (??), in proposing the first... Saul, be a about to propose the...", on March 02, 1832, by 'Freeman's Journal', in Dublin.
4. Aliens Act; Petition from Dublin respecting Case of Count Czapski.
"Upon reading the Petition of the Inhabitants of the Parishes of the City of Dublin, in that Part of the United Kingdom called Ireland, whose Names are thereunto subscribed; taking notice of the Arrest and Punishment by Fine of Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski, a Native of Poland, for an unintentional infraction of the Aliens Act; and praying their Lordships 'to take such steps as may be best calculated to vindicate the Character and Nature of the British Laws; and to cause a strict Investigation to be instituted into all the Facts of this Case, with a view to a Redress and Reparation of the Injury sustained, and the Punishment of the guilty...".
5. 1832. The House resumed, and the report was ordered to be received next day. The other orders of the day were then disposed ... COUNTRY MISCELLANEA. AFFAIRS OF GERMANY. A meeting, rather thinly but respectably attended, was held on Wednesday at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand, to express, as the requisition stated, their indignation and abhorrence at the invasion lately made by the Diet of Frankfort on the ancient liberties of the Germanic States. Colonel Evans, M. P., Mr. Wyse, M. P., Sir W. Brabazon, Mr. Murray, Count Czapski, M. Bach, with several other foreigners were present. Mr. T. Campbell as chairman, opened the proceedings in a feeling and energetic speech, towards the conclusion of which he said, 'If England allowed Germany to be enslaved by Princes who were themselves the slaves of Russia, she might, when too late, repent in sackcloth and ashes over her departed liberties. The measures of Napoleon against English commerce would be but a jest, a mere feather, compared with the hostility of the present continental despots...".
6. Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski / Czapski left Dublin for London in April 1832.
7. "William Francis Finn was an Irish politician in the United Kingdom House of Commons", by Wikipedia. "He was elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in (on 20 Dec.) 1832 (with Pierce Butler, b. 1774, held post to 1846), and held the seat until 1837".
Pierce Butler (1774 d. 1864) was an Irish politician, elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in 1832, and held the seat until 1846.
Acc. to http://genealogy.links.org/links-cgi/readged?/ we read:
Pierce Butler 1774 - 1846 son of Edmund Butler 1745 - 1793 and Lady Henrietta 1750 - 1785; grandson of Edmund Butler, Charlotte Bradstreet, Somerset Hamilton Butler 1718 - 1774, and Juliana Boyle d. 1774.
William Francis Finn died in December 1862 in Tullaroan, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland; wife Alicia; a member of Carlow town family; William Francis Finn's father, also named William, was a prosperous Carlow merchant and tanner, who resided in Carlow.
His brother, Edmund Finn (d. 1777) produced 'Finn's Leinster Journal' / 'Leinster Journal' of Kilkenny. William Snr. helped finance the paper, then to Patrick Kearney.
Carlow is situated on way from Kilkenny to Dublin, south-east of Mountrath!
William Snr. was one of the Carlow delegates to attend the Back Lane Parliament in 1792.
William Francis senior held lands in Graiguecullen, and farms in Kilkenny. William senior had four sons: Thomas, William - Francis, Patrick and Michael. Thomas 1772 - 1842 resided in Carlow. He was an able journalist and accurate historian, in 1798, in "The Irish Magazine and Monthly Asylum for Neglected Biography 1811, Vol.4"; died 1842, at Bellfield, Clontarf.
William Francis, the second son, educated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1805;
a friend of Daniel O'Connell, O'Connell was a frequent visitor to Carlow town, where he stayed with Alicia and William at their residence at Evergreen Lodge in Cox's Lane. Patrick Finn - William's brother, was actively involved in the County Carlow committee, and was also for many years secretary of the "Friends of Civil Religious Liberty... County", with William as chairman; A Liberal club was established in the town, with the Finn family prominent among its leaders. Peter Gale from the Queen's County, William Francis Finn - Carlow, Nicholas Aylward Vigors - Old Leighlin, and Francis Bruen - Enniscorthy, who represented the Tories. Finn to represent the Liberal party.
William Francis was well known and respected in the Leinster and Munster areas, through his involvement in the Catholic Association.
August 1832 - a Baronial meeting at Ballyhale met with William Finn. William Francis finally declared his intention to stand as a candidate for the constituency of County Kilkenny;
he had settled in Tullaroan, County Kilkenny.
In 1837 William Finn withdrew from parliamentary representation; While residing in Tullaroan, he donated land to the clergy, for the erection of a church and school;
The KILKENNY COUNTY: north of Waterford, north-east of Clonmel and east of Tipperary.
County Kilkenny / Contae Chill Chainnigh is a county in Ireland, in the province of Leinster, of the South-East Region.

Very interesting that the family of Countess Maria Dorota Leopoldyna Czapska (nick-name Dorota Obuchowicz, Maria Strzalkowska, and Dorota Thun), b. 1894 in Praga, died 1981, Maisons-Laffitte, Polish historian, sister of Józef Czapski,
grand-daughter of Emeryk Hutten-Czapski, met and was talking in Belarus with (in 1892) Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, the next of kin of the Belarussian branch of the Czapskis, who described an estate of the Czapski family close to Minsk;
she was living in Paris, 1925 - 1930.
Maria Leopoldyna Hutten-Czapska / Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapski, b. 1894 / 1895 in Prague, died in 1981, was the daughter of George and Josephine;
above George / Jerzy Hutten-Czapski 1861-1930, was son of Emeryk Zachariasz 1828-1896 and Elzbieta Karolina Meyendorff b. 1833 in Sankt Petersburg, d. 1916;
and mentioned Jerzy was grandson of Fabianna Obuchowicz b. ca 1800 and Karol Hutten-Czapski 1777-1836;
also Jerzy was grandson of Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795 (Georges de Meyendorff d. 1863, diplomate) and Zofia Stackelberg b. 1806.
Above named Josephine / Jozefa Thun-Hohenstein 1867-1903, was daughter of Fryderyk Franciszek Józef Thun-Hohenstein 1810-1881 and Leopoldyna Lamberg 1825-1902.
Above named baron Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795, died in Würzburg, Bawaria, acc. to Maria (Maja) Anna Górska-Zabielska.

Copyright by Claude Trudel:
Jerzy / George Baron Meyendorff (1795-1863) recounts his journey from Orenburg to Bukhara made in 1820 in his travelogue published in 1826. He was then a colonel in the General Staff of the Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825).
This expedition is part of Russian expansionism initiated in the 18th century by Catherine the Great (1729-1796).
An extract of this travelogue is contained in the anthology 'The trip to Central Asia and Tibet' published by Michel Jan in the Editions of Robert Laffont. This extract contains two parts: Preparation and dangers of the journey, Manners and customs of Kyrgyz. Acc. to http://cltr.blogspot.co.uk/2014/10/expedition-en-asie-centrale-1820.html.

Józef Kazimierz Sulpicjusz Napoleon Hutten-Czapski / Józef Napoleon, b. 1797 d. 1852, was the father of famous Bogdan Hutten - Czapski. Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski was born 1851, d. 1937.
Bogdan was grandson of Marianna Kornelia Pławińska and Józef Grzegorz Longin Hutten-Czapski Count, 1760 - 1810, who was son of
Antoni Michał Hutten-Czapski

(1725 - 1792; he was brother of Anna Kospot Pawłowska;
Józef Hutten-Czapski [born 1722, father of Ignacy];
Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Hutten-Czapski b. 1725
[father of Maria; Augustyn Szymon Michał Hutten-Czapski; Anna; Karol Hutten-Czapski
{b. 1777, father of Adam Józef Erazm Hutten-Czapski Count b. 1819
who was the father of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk b. 1847
(wife of Wojciech Jan Plater-Zyberk who was son of Henryk Wacław Ksawery Plater-Zyberk b. 1811 and Adelaida von Keller b. 1817 in St Petersburg, who was the daughter of Sophie Eleonore Marie von Borch and grand-daughter of Eleonore Christine Gräfin Browne / Элеонора Христина Юрьервна Борх - Броун born 1766 in Riga),
and Alexandrine Bacheracht.
Karol Hutten-Czapski was also the father of famous Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski Count, and Karol Ignacy Hutten-Czapski}
and Stanisław Hutten-Czapski
],
and Ludwika)

and Kandyda Rozalia Lipska.

Above mentioned
Emeryk Zachariasz Mikolaj Seweryn Hutten-Czapski, Count, b. 1828, was son of Karol Józef Czapski, friend {?}

(Karol Czapski was owner of Stankow / Stan'kava in Belarus!; b. 1777, died in 1836 in Danilovichi / Daniłowicze
[Daniłowicze / Danilavichy (Данілавічы, Даниловичи, Daniłavičy), ca 11 km east-south-east of Stan'kava / Stankowo of the Hutten-Czapskis, and 18 km south-east of Dzyarzhynsk / Dzierzynsk / Kojdanow of the Hutten-Czapski family; west of Dukora of the Oginski family; ca 40 km south-west of Minsk in Belarus now. In 19th cent. it was the Minsk government, the Ihumen county (Cerven now), the Uzda region];
he was son of Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten of the Chelmno province in Poland, and Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł, daughter of Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko; Karol Czapski married to Fabianna Obuchowicz, daughter of Michał Obuchowicz of Minsk in Belarus; Karol was brother of Stanisław 1779-1844 / 1845, Colonel of the Polish Army; Marshal of the Minsk county, married Zofia Obuchowicz, owner of Kiejdany - son of mentioned Stanislaw was Marian Czapski Count: born in Łachwa in 1816 Belarus now, d. 1875, Więckowice in the Posen province / Poznan province, studied in Wilno / Vilnius, 1845 owner of Kiejdany close to Minsk, exiled to Siberie in 1864, Tomsk to 1867, 1867-1871 Czapski was living in Dorpat, Estonia)

of last Polish king Stanislaw August Poniatowski
(see: Sulkowski, Poniatowski genealogy, Venture, Breguet, Konstantynowicz and villge Miezonka),
and Fabianna nee Obuchowicz; this branch come from Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Czapski, of the Chelmno province, and from Belarus (Radziwill family and Wittgenstein - Radziwill).

Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski studied in St Petersburg, 1863-1864 governor of Great Nowogrod, in 1865 was deputy of the Petersburg governor.

Karol Józef Czapski leased Miezonka from Radziwill 1832 - 1842; then Miezonka was the Konstantynowiczs estate (see: Breguet in Kazan and Armand in Moscow).

Above named Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko / Prince Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila / Міхал Казімер Радзівіл, b. 1702, Olyka, owner of Niasviž, Olyka, Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk and Kopyła. Court Marshal of Lithuania since 1734, Grand Hetman of Lithuania since 1744, 1725 he married Urszula Franciszka Wiśniowiecki, 2nd married Anna Luiza Mycielski in 1754 in Lviv; his children: Michal Krzysztof Radziwiłł, Janusz Tadeusz, Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł - Panie Kochanku, Anna, Ludwika, Teofilia Konstancja Radziwiłł / Teofila Morawska, Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Rzewuska / Katarzyna Karolina, Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł / Weronika Joanna Hutten-Czapska, Hieronim Wincenty, Maria Wiktoria / Maria Wiktoria Maja Moricone / Morykoni, Józefina Grabowska, and last Konstancja.
Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila Žuvelė / Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł / Rybenko d. 1762 in Nieswiez, son of Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1669 - 1719, Karol was brother of Mikołaj Franciszek Radziwiłł; Bogusław Krzysztof; Jerzy Józef Radziwiłł; Ludwik Radziwiłł; Tekla Adelajda; and Jan) and Anna Katarzyna;
he was brother of Katarzyna Barbara Branicka; Tekla Róża Korybut-Wiśniowiecka; Karolina Teresa Pia Sapieha; Hieronim Florian Radziwiłł, and Konstancja Franciszka Sapieha.

In May 1900, Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (acc. to Bogdan Hutten Czapski) gave the political leadership - Chancellors Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst and Bernard von Bulow - "an early opportunity to object to the politically risky portion of his military thinking ... Accepted by Gerhard Ritter, Fritz Fischer, and Norman Rich, he sought to determine what the Reich political leadership thought about violation of Belgian and Dutch neutrality.
In May 1900 Schlieffen asked Graf (Bogdan) Hutten-Czapski, confidential and private secretary to Chancellor Hohenlohe, to visit him. He asked (Bogdan) Hutten (Czapski) if he would sound out Holstein and the Chancellor confidentially.
... Schlieffen apparently did not name the country to which he referred, but Graf Hutten (-Czapski) immediately thought of Belgium. Hutten-Czapski broached the matter with his friend Holstein, the influential advisor to the Foreign Office. ... A few days later Holstein arranged a social gathering at his house to which the Chancellor and the Chief of the GGS were invited. ... Schlieffen apparently carried out the same procedure with Chancellor Bulow. Schlieffen got a different reaction from Herman Freiherr von Eckhardstein, German Counselor in London...", acc. to Moltke, "Schlieffen, and Prussian War Planning", p. 176.
The Schlieffen Plan of the German General Staff in 1905, with the Deployment Plan Aufmarsch I in 1905, "...would not involve Russia but was expected to include Italy and Austria-Hungary as German allies ... In Aufmarsch I, it was stated that Germany would have to go on the offensive to win this kind of war, which entailed all of the German army being deployed on the German–Belgian border, so it could launch an offensive into France, through the southern Dutch province...".
Alfred von Schlieffen, b. 1833, d. 1913, a German field marshal, the Chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906.
Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was at the time the confidential adviser and secretary to Prince Hohenlohe. Acc. to J. Bradford DeLong on July 16, 2014.
In July 1914, Germany had prepared nothing diplomatically, not even the ultimatum to Belgium. Count Hutten-Czapski, records that in May 1900 immediately thought about Belgium. The whole conversation lasted only a few minutes. The name of the country to which Schlieffen referred was never mentioned.
Count Hutten Czapski claims to have been of a different opinion - that it was a momentous decision which would need careful thought. "...Fundamentally he was against any violation of neutrality without the permission of the states involved, because the consequences could not be predicted".
Schlieffen still had close contact with Holstein, also no less significant and influential Count von Hutten-Czapski.
Big play began in the eighties of the 19th century, when Hutten-Czapski, who was the Polish largest landowner in the Prussian officer corps, also enjoyed the full confidence of Holstein, was as a personal secretary at the Imperial Chancellor Hohenlohe; and under his successor Bulow.
Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow b. 1849, in 1905 Prince, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs for three years and then as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909.
Senior military officials, foreign diplomats and military attaches met in the Bogdan Hutten Czapski house. His connections with the ruling circles and members of the imperial government and the Prussian officer corps were very needed to Schlieffen,
"who conducted non-public life. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote about it: 'When he was chief of the General Staff, he let me go to him often and I honored his confidence, using my connections'. ... 'Hutten-Czapski had ample contacts in Poland and Russia and use them to gather political information and military espionage for the Chief of the General Staff...'. The high trust placed him close to Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, evidenced by the fact that Hutten-Czapski to find out about how to Hohenlohe and Holstein relate to the violation of Belgium's neutrality, which was the highest level of state secrets, acc. to Theodor Schiemann. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote, among other things about him: 'Even when he resigned from his position, he allowed me to visit him and said to me, laughing, that I am now the one who delivers to him the most interesting information about court life and politics'. ... On the other hand, Ritter, Wallach and Craig, wrote that between Holstein and Alfred Graf von Schlieffen 'often marked confidential talks on the political situation', and in appreciation of contacts with Hutten-Czapski. ... Contact with Hutten-Czapski proved that among other things it was about foreign policy issues; Helmut Otto said that since August 1891, established contacts between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Caprivi. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen on all important matters consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski (Hague Peace Conference in 1899 Hutten-Czapski). ...
Soon after Hutten-Czapski had a long conversation between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Hohenlohe, also Otto said: 'At the turn of the century to strengthen cooperation with the Government and the General Staff...'.
... In general, we should agree with Otto ...
Helmut Otto also confirms the existence of contacts and cooperation with the Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Hohenlohe ... consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski ... Schlieffen was fully aware of this need and ... foreign events and issues and their impact on military and strategic planning.
These included the Franco-Russian alliance, the peace conference in The Hague, the first Moroccan crisis, relations with partners in the Triple Alliance of Austria-Hungary and Italy and the problems of coalition military preparations, the military objectives and expansionist colonial policy of German imperialism, primarily intervention in China from 1900 to 1902. ... colonial wars in South-West Africa, the struggle against the revolutionary workers' movement...".

It was 1914, the start of the Great War.
But when this war finished, Beseler, as German Governor-General in 1916, proclaimed the German Empire by the occupying powers and Austria - Hungary agreed establishment of an independent Kingdom of Poland. With active help of his close employee Bogdan Hutten - Czapski, he created the new Polish-language Warsaw University and the Technical University of Warsaw. On 10 November 1918, back to Warsaw, Józef Piłsudski; Zdzisław Lubomirski and Adam Koc in the night 09/10 November, 1918 received message about Pilsudski; by Lubomirski's car, Piłsudski arrived to Lubomirski house. Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was looking at this situation from distance, but at Warsaw Castle talked with Hans Hartwig Beseler on Pilsudski; at this moment Sosnkowski moved at Moniuszki avenue. Beseler fled on November 12, with his two aides and Polish officers on a ship on the Vistula river, from Warsaw to Thorn and from there to Berlin.
His contemporaries Hutten - Czapski, Prince Hermann von Hatzfeld and Maria Princess Lubomirska - wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski - expressed their praise of him; Hutten - Czapski: 'The Inspector General of the engineer and pioneer corps and the fortresses had also acquired management experience. ... with a refined and perfect - looking character...'.
Above Prince Zdzisław Lubomirski, a Polish aristocrat, landowner, chairman of the "Central Civil Committee" in 1915. 1917 to 1918 member of the Regency Council. Zdzislaw Lubomirski born 1865 in Nizhny Novgorod, the son of Prince Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski, and Maria Zamoyska; he attended Krakow's St. Anna High School; Jagiellonian University and University of Graz.
Maria Lubomirska b. 1841, d. 1922, daughter of Zdzisław Zamoyski Count; she was wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski Prince, and she was mother of Zdzisław Lubomirski (b. on April 4, 1865, in Niżny Nowogrod, d. 1943); above Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna in the Mohylow region, d. 1908, m. Maria nee Zamoyska; Zdzisław Lubomirski m. Maria nee Branicka; mentioned above Nizhny Novgorod / Nizhniy Novgorod / Nizhny Novgorod in Russia.
Above Zdzislaw Zamoyski:
Zdzisław Zamoyski Count, 1810 Warsaw - d. 1855 in Vienna, Austria, son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia; husband of Józefa Jadwiga Zamoyska; father of:
Stefan Zamoyski, above Maria Lubomirska;
Wanda Grocholska and Zofia Tarnowska;
brother of Konstanty Zamoyski, Andrzej Artur, Jan Zamoyski, Władysław Zamoyski, Celestyna Gryzelda Działyńska; Jadwiga Sapieha; Artur Zamoyski, Elżbieta Brzozowska; Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski and August Zamoyski.
Above named Władysław Zamoyski Count, 1803 - 1868.

Count Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Władysław Zamoyski b. 1852 was a Polish aristocrat and landowner, the grandson of Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski, and of Count Przemysław Potocki. Andrzej Przemysław married Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, granddaughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies, and had eight children.
Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski b. 1775, d. 1856, politician, landowner of Zamość estates. In 1809 he became the chairman of the "Provisional Government" of Galicia. He was Senator-Voivode of the Duchy of Warsaw and the Congress Kingdom from 1810 until 1831. He married Princess Zofia Czartoryska in 1798 in Puławy.
Róża Maria / Marianna Ewa Zamoyska nee Potocka, b. 1831 in Tomaszpil, Ukraine, d. 1890, daughter of Przemysław Potocki and Teresa; wife of Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski b. 1820 in Vienna, who was son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia;
Roza was mother of Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Zamoyski b. 1852 - d. 1927, landowner, born in Warsaw - the grandson of above named Count Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski 1775 in Warszawa, d. 1856 in Wien / Vienna.

On October 7, 1918, on initiative of Prince Lubomirski, Polish declaration of independence was announced and 14th October 1918, Polish Army soldiers pledged allegiance to the Polish flag.
Lubomirski supported Pilsudski's nomination (on 10th Nov. 1918 - 14th Nov.) for the post of the head of state.
Above mentioned Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna / Dubrovno, the Moghilov government; d. 1908, son of Eugeniusz Lubomirski, studied in St Petersburg. Then in France and England. 1863 the Foreign Affairs of Polish Government.
Above named Дубрoвно / Dubrowno in the Sienno (north-east of Miezonka) catholic area; the Orsha county, Moghilev government; at present in the Vicebsk oblast; 90 km to Vicebsk, 19 km north-east of Orsza / Orsha. Dubrovno to 1774 to Sapieha; then Count R. A. Potiemkin / G. A. Potemkin to 1791 (a watch factory!), close to Ksawery Lubomirski estate (and his daughter Klementyna girlfriend of Piotr Kroer);
since 1791 Lubomirski taken Dubrovno - now this place is "capital" of the government; next to Eugeniusz Lubomirski - 1809 new Orthodox church; Dubrovno was the Lubomirski family estate to 1917!
Eugeniusz Lubomirski b. 1789, d. 1834, landowner of Dubrovno close to Orsha from his father;
son of Ksawery Lubomirski (Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski 1747-1819) and Teofila Rzewuski (Teofila Beydo-Rzewuska 1762-1831), and brother of the Russian General Konstanty Lubomirski.

Bogdan Hutten - Czapski had met with the family of Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Hutten-Czapska in 1892.
She was the daughter of George and Josephine, and was born in Prague. Her mother came from the highest aristocracy of the Roman Empire. Maria was a prominent figure who has registered in history primarily as an editor collaborating with Paris 'Culture'. Also worked on biographies of her family, written in collaboration with her brother Jozef Czapski / Joseph.
Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapska, b. 1894 in Prague, died in 1981, Maisons-Laffitte; the granddaughter of Emeryk Czapski / Emeric Hutten-Czapski of the family who had a huge estates from Radziwill, around Minsk, in Curland, Lithuania and Volhynia, acc. to Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski, vol. 1-2, Berlin 1936.
Ferdinand Radziwill of the Polish Knights of Malta, has come after Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, an old friend of the Prussian court and military.
The estate of Pryluki to the Hutten - Czapskis was situated on Ptych river; a house of 1882 and terraced park. Pryluki / Priluki ca 14 km south-west of the Minsk core, and 15 km west of Koroliszczewiczi / Korolishchevici of the Konstantynowiczs; 13 km west of Gatovo / Hatowo, and 23 km north-east of Kojdanow / Koidanov; south-west of Minsk in Belarus, on way to Dzierzynsk / Dzierhinsk / Kojdanow / Koidanov.
Kuchcicze / Kuhtichi of Zawisza and the Radziwill family at the Minsk district; the palace complex, the facade with stone accents.
The first secret missions Bogdan Hutten - Czapski received in 1890, to the Vatican; over the next two years he worked as observer - the German embassy in Paris, where he was ambassador; the later Chancellor, Prince Hohenlohe, which entered into a close friendship with Czapski, and the later Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow, send him on missions; Duke Hohenlohe send Czapski to maintain contacts and research sentiment of the ruling class, also among the well-known from his youth - Bonapartists; he was residing in Paris, and known Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck, and his wife Teresa primo voto Marquise de Paiva; then he moved to Strasbourg, where he was an aide of the Field Marshal Manteuffel.
Then he received from the German General Staff a very important intelligence mission, a trip to the Russian and Austrian ex-Polish districts, to explore moods and relationships (1892). Bogdan Hutten-Czapski met with Karol Czapski of the Minsk goverment;
in 1891 Karol Czapski Hutten in Minsk opened the first pawnshops; in 1892 Hutten-Czapski launched full-scale operations, 1894 Karol Czapski was one of the most wealthy man not only in Minsk, but also in the whole of Belarus.
He know the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company. In the same year in Minsk there was the first power plant, which was able to provide electricity to much of the city. This power was located on Independence Avenue near the Belarusian State Circus.
Karol Hutten-Czapski died in Germany, in Frankfurt on January 17, 1904.


And next very interesting woman:

Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin, wife of Wilhelm Bacheracht, ex-wife of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt;
sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Above Wilhelm Bacheracht, the Russian diplomate, b. 1851, d. 1916 in Berne, the Bern District, in Switzerland; son of Robert von Bacheracht; husband of above mentioned Alexandrine.

Above Robert von Bacheracht b. 1797, died 1884 in Genova, Liguria, Italy. Ex-husband of Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, and father of above named Wilhelm Bacheracht. Also was the Russian diplomate, Vicekonsul in Hamburg, and the generale consul in Genova.
Above Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, born in 1804 in Stuttgart, to a father who was Russian legation secretary Heinrich von Struve; she lived in Hamburg; she was sent to Weimer in 1820, and in St. Petersburg,
married Robert von Bacheracht in 1825,
in 1841 / 1848 she started writing using the Pseudonym Therese. She sepparated from Robert von Bacheracht in 1849 (her love affair with the writer Karl Gutzkow / Karol Guczkow), back to her cousin, Heinrich Freiherr von Lützow (he was the Dutch officer, and she followed him to his post to Surabaya on Java) in August 1849. Therese died in 1852.

Mentioned above
Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin / Hutten-Czapski Alexandra b. 1854 / 1853 - d. 1941, the 1st husband Kolemin;
then entered into a morganatic marriage with the Grand Duke of Hesse Ludwig IV b. 1837; Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and other Royal Houses of Europe. Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany; his mother was the granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
1862, Louis married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. The couple had seven children, among others Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia b. 1864, and Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of All the Russias b. 1872.
Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage in 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska / Aleksandra Czapski Hutten b. 1854 in Warsaw, d. on 8 May 1941, in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland; she was the former wife of Aleksander Kolemin, the Russian charge d'affaires in Darmstadt;
now the Countess von Romrod.

Alexandrine Bacheracht / Alexandrine Countess von Hutten-Czapska died in Vevey / Switzerland, close to La Tour de Peilz; 8 km noerth-west of Montreux (see: Duflon, Konstantynowicz); 18 km south-east of Lutry; 6 km north-west of Clarens!
Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska, Grafin Romrod, daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski, and Countess Mariane Rzewuska / Marianne von Rzewuska Grocholska / Maria Anna Katarzyna Hutten-Czapska nee Rzewuska b. 1827; Alexandrine was the sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Bacheracht, Alexandrine nee Countess von Hutten Czapska, Kolemine, Countess Romrod (1854-1941) has grave with Georg von Kolemines in the cemetery of St. Martin in Vevey, Switzerland; but her husband was Alexander von Kolemin.
Who was Georg v. Kolemines?

"According to L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome I (1986), Grand Duke Ludwig (b. 1837, d. 1892) married morganatically at Darmstadt on 30 April 1884 Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapski (b. 1853 or 1854, d. 1941). Alexandrine was Ludwig's young Warsaw-born mistress of some years, was a recent widow, her husband Alexander von Kolemine, a Russian diplomat, having died the previous month in March. The von Kolemines had been separated since 1884, according to L'Allemagne Dynastique, but according to other sources, Alexandrine and von Kolemine were divorced. She is known as Alexandrine or Alexandra, and her first husband's name is rendered as Kolemine, Kolemin, Kalomine, or Kolomine. ... The Queen wrote to Victoria in reply that she was angry with Ludwig's plan to marry... Queen Victoria acted quickly and decisively. She more or less forced Ludwig to agree to end his marriage ... See 'From Battenberg to Mountbatten', by E. H. Cookridge, London, 1966, ... E. Corti (Salzburg, 1936). ... Ultimately, Alexandrine had no choice, accepted the situation, and left for Moscow. A few years later, in 1892 or 1893, Alexandrine married for a third time, to Basil von Bacheracht, who died in 1916. Finally, as for a child born of Ludwig and Alexandrine's brief marriage, one source mentions his existence, ... by David Duff (London, 1958). ... the child, a son, 'was adopted as a brother by the Empress of Russia'. ... Duff, using information supplied by Lord Mountbatten (Victoria's younger son), states that Grand Duke Ludwig's marriage to Alexandrine was not consummated",
acc. to Yvonne Demoskoff on 14 Mar 2003.

It was different Alexander von Kolemin who in 1842 m. to Marija Aleksandrovna Tolstoj b. 1822, daughter of Alexandr Stepanovich Tolstoj 1788 - 1850 / 1859, and Marija Ivanovna Golovina.

Jurij Alexandrovich Kolemin, was son of above Alexandrina nee Hutten Czapska.

I wrote above that
Alexandrine von Hutten-Czapska was the daughter of Adam Graf von Hutten-Czapski (1819 - d. 1883 in Nice or 1884) and Marianne Countess of Rzewuska-Grocholska (1827-1897).
Her father was raised along with his brothers and Ignacy Hutten-Czapski (Emmerich) on 12 June 1874 to the Count title in the Russia.

Above Adam Józef Erazm Hutten-Czapski b. 1819 was son of Karol Hutten-Czapski and Fabianna;
above Karol Hutten-Czapski b. 1777 d. 1836,
was son of Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Hutten-Czapski and Weronika Joanna, husband of Fabianna;
he was father of Adam Józef Erazm;
Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski;
and Karol Ignacy Hutten-Czapski;
brother of Stanislaw Hutten-Czapski; half brother of Augustyn Szymon (Michal) Hutten-Czapski; Anna Hutten-Czapska and Maria Hutten-Czapska.

In 1894 Karol Hutten Czapski was top figure in Minsk in Belarus; this Jan Karol Alexander Hutten-Czapski, usually as Karol Czapski (August 15 1860-1904) the Mayor of Minsk from 1890 to 1901, a Catholic, Count; born in Stankow close to Minsk Litewski, d. 1904 in Frankfurt;
he was the eldest son of Count Emeryk Czapski, known numismatist and Elizabeth of Meyendorff barons.
The owner of an estates: in Minsk belonged to him orchard, three stone and five multi-storey wooden houses, 34 thousands acres of land in Minsk and the Ihumen / Igumen districts, namely Stankovo:
Negoreloye (11 km south-west of Kojdanow, and north-east of Stolbcy; 12 km south-west of Stan'kowo / Stankovo),
Prusinovo (15 km east of Stolbcy; north-east of Nesvizh / Nieswiez),
Zubarevichi (Glussk / Hlusk area),
Stankovo (in Stankovo library there were more than 2,500 books), forest cottage on the way of Tslyakovo;
Sallenen estate / Sallienien in Courland / west Kurland, Saliene (Saliena), south-west of Kuldinga.
In 1894, a friend of Bogdan Czapski, Hohenlohe was Chancellor of the Reich and Czapski, along with his good friend, gray eminence of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Baron Holstein, became the main adviser to the Chancellor on matters of foreign policy;
Czapski also brokered between Berlin and the Vatican; Czapski at that time supported the candidacy of Edward Likowski on nomination, which Berlin did not want to agree. In 1895, Bogdan Hutten - Czapski was appointed hereditary member of the Prussian House of Lords.
Colonel Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, one of the closest collaborators of General Hans Hartwig von Beseler resided in the Potocki Palace in the years 1915-1918.

In 1914 Max Isidor Bodenheimer set out his vision to Count Hutten-Czapski of the General Staff, chief of sabotage operations on the eastern front.
With support from the General Staff and the Wilhelmstrasse, Bodenheimer established the German Committee for Freeing of Russian Jews in 1914; Bodenheimer wanted the German army to assault the power of the Tsarist empire in the Baltic states, Poland, White Russia and the Ukraine, where he hoped for an 'East European Federation' in which 'all ethnic groups were to enjoy national autonomy', including the Jews, by Wikipedia.
Max Isidor Bodenheimer b. 1865, Stuttgart, the main figure in German Zionism, 1898 he visited Palestine, in August 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, he submitted an Expose on the Synchronization of German and Jewish Interests in the World War to German military headquarters in Cologne. The League of East European States or Federation of East European States was a political idea conceived during World War I for the establishment of a buffer state, which would be a de facto protectorate of the German Empire.


Florence, a node of this network in Italy:
1.
a.
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d. 1885, Pratolino near Florence).
b.
Nikolai Nikitich Demidov, b. 1773 in Moscow, Russia; died in 1828 in Florence, Tuscany, Italy. Since 1815 - Russian Ambassador to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In Florence, where he founded an orphanage and a school, it was built a monument (1871) on the square called Piazza Demidoff.
In 1793, "Demidov married an heiress Baroness Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov, so was able to improve their financial situation. Upon his retirement, Demidov went with his wife in foreign travel, visiting Germany, England, France and Italy, and never missed a chance to get acquainted with the success of the mining equipment ... Returning to Russia in 1806, Demidov, wanting to have at its plants all the latest improvements on the part of technology, ordered from France Professor Ferri, then famous expert in the mining business. Demidov sent at his own expense abroad in England, Sweden and Austria to study specific industries of metallurgy more than a hundred serfs. The Nizhny Tagil plant of Demidov, ... was considered at that time the most advanced around the ridge of the Ural Mountains. ... Appointed in 1815 to Florence as Russian envoy, Demidov arranged here at their own expense an art museum and art gallery, which contains works by famous artists. In Florence Nicholas Nikitich arranged for their money a home for the elderly and orphans charity and donated to his special affairs. Living in recent years in Florence, Demidov though he lived a very luxurious and spare no means patronized scientists and artists, could, however, skillfully manage their affairs in Siberia, America, France and other countries...".
His son with Baroness Elisabeta Alexandrovna Stroganova:
Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov, b. 1798 in Saint Petersburg, died in 1840 in Mainz; husband of Aurora Karamzin; Count Pavel (called Paul) Nikolaievich Demidov as an officer in his father's regiment fought at the battle of Borodino in 1812. After the war he entered the Chevalier Guards regiment; in 1831 he entered civil service as governor of the province of Kursk. In 1834 he entered service in the Ministry of the Exterior as court Huntsmaster, later State Councillor. In Helsinki he married the maid-of-honour to Her Majesty the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Aurora Stjernvall (1808-1902) - they had one son, above Pavel Pavlovitch Demidov (1839–1885), whose daughter Aurora was mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia.
Above Eva Aurora Charlotta Karamzina (nee Stjernvall) was a Finnish-Swede philanthropist. "...Karamzina was born in Ulvila (Ulvsby), in Saaren Kartano, Finland. She was the daughter of Carl Johan Stjernvall (1764-1815) and Baroness Eva Gustava von Willebrand (1781-1844). Her father was a high official in the Grand Duchy of Finland and became the First Governor of the Viipuri Province in 1812. Von Willebrand was a distant niece of Gustav I of Sweden. Following Stjernvall's death in 1815, the Baroness remarried and became the wife of Finland's Procurator, Carl Johan Walleen ... Karamzina had an older brother, Emil Stjernvall Walleen (1806-1890) who became a Finnish Minister of State and a Baron. Karamzina also had two sisters, Emilia (1811-1846) and Alexandra Aline (1812-1851). Emilia married Vladimir Musin-Pushkin while Alexandra became the second wife of Jose Maurício Correia Henriques, the 1st Count de Seisal. Karamzina also had three half-brothers ... Aurora was appointed as a lady-in-waiting to Empress Alexandra Fedorovna the elder (consort to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia), and a lady of the bedchamber of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna the younger and Empress Maria Feodorovna. She was made a dame of the Order of Saint Catherine, the highest honour for ladies in Imperial Russia. ... In 1836, she married Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov ... In 1846 ... she remarried to Andrei Karamzin. ... She was considered a great benefactor in many cities such as Saint Petersburg and Florence. Karamzina's only child was Pavel Pavlovich Demidov ... In 1870, Pavel succeeded his childless uncle, Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, as the 2nd Prince of San Donato. Her granddaughter ... Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova married Arsen Karadordevic, Prince of Serbia and became the mother of the Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia...".
Above named Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato, died in 1885, Pratolino, Florence, was a Russian industrialist, jurist, philanthropist; first m. in 1867 to Princess Maria Elimovna Meshcherskaya (b. Saint Petersburg, 1844 - d. San Donato (or Vienna, per Ferrand), in 1868).
Her son Elim Pavlovich Demidov, 3rd Prince of San Donato, at Hietzing in the suburbs of Vienna born 1868.
In Saint Petersburg in 1871 he remarried to Princess Elena Petrovna Trubetskaya (Saint Petersburg, 1853 - Odessa, 1917), with whom he had six children:
Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, 1873 - d. Bussolino Torinese, Torino), mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia;
Anatoly Pavlovich Demidov, 4th Prince of San Donato (b. San Donato 1874 d. in Marseille);
Princess Maria Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, d. Pratolino), married in Helsingfors to Prince Semyon Semyonovich Abamelik-Lazarev;
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov (b. San Donato, 1879);
Elena Pavlovna Demidova (b. Saint Petersburg, 1884 - d. Sesto Fiorentino), married firstly in Saint Petersburg to Count Alexander Pavlovich Shuvalov, married secondly in Dresden in 1907 to Nikolai Alexeievich Pavlov.
Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato moved to Villa Pratolino / Villa Demidoff next to Gaston Mestayer.
c.
Evgenia Klimentievna Demidova had daughters Evgenia, Avrora and Helena; in Saint Petersburg in 1894 he married Podmener.
d. Look at
http://www.angelfire.com/realm/gotha/Part54.htm, on Florence, Bobrinski and Oginski:
da. Pr Dimitri Obolensky, b. St. Petersburg in 1882, d. Cannes in 1964; m. 1st Berlin in 1905 (div 1916) Css Helene Bobrinsky (St. Petersburg in 1885 - died in Bordeaux in 1937); m. 2d in Moscow 18 Jul 1917 (div 1921) to Css Maria Schouwalowa (b. Berlin in 1894, d. Oxford in 1973); m. 3d in London in 1923 to Natalia Fedorov (b. Simbirsk 1894).
db. Ct Alexis Bobrinsky, b. St. Petersburg in 1893, d. London in 1971; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1915 to Css Natalia Fersen (b. Paris in 1890); m. 2d Paris in 1940 to Olga Kosolup-Pchenitchny; m. 3d to Css Olga de Bertren;
dc. Css Catherine Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1883, d. Nice in 1954; m. in St.Petersburg 1908 to Ilya Miklachevsky (b. Odessa in 1877).
dd. Pr Jerome Bonaparte (b. Trieste in 1814, d. Florence in 1847).
de. His sister:
Pss Mathilde Bonaparte (b. Trieste 1820, d. Paris in 1904); m. in Florence in 1840 to Anatole Demidov, Pr di San Donato (b. Moscow in 1813, d. Paris in 1870).

df. Ct Alexander Schouwalow / Szuwalow / Shuvalov, b. Vartemiagui in 1881, d. London 1935; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1903 (div) Pss Helene Demidova di San Donato (b. St. Petersburg in 1884, d. Florence in 1959); m. 2d in Paris in 1916 to Css Sophia Fersen (b. St. Petersburg 1888, d. Davos in 1927).

2.

Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florence / Florencja.
See: 'Freemasonry and Fraternalism in Eighteenth-Century Russia' by Andreas Önnerfors and Robert Collis (eds.), Sheffield Lectures on the History of Freemasonry and Fraternalism, Volume Two, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, 2009, ©2009 CRFF and the authors, ISBN: 978-0-9562096-1-0.
Andrzej Ignacy Oginski: b. 1740, Freemason; 1772 in Vienna wanted to establish failed contact with the French Ambassador, de Rohan; was talking with the British Ambassador in Vienna, David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield (David Murray b. 1727 d. 1796, known as The Viscount Stormont from 1748 to 1793; Minister to Saxony and Poland, 1755-1763; Ambassador to Austria, 1763-1772; Ambassador to France, 1772-1778; married 1st to Henrietta Frederica Bunau, daughter of the British ambassador to Saxony - child, Elizabeth Murray b. 1760 in Warsaw, and she was friend of Dido Elizabeth Belle b. 1761; David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield married secondly Louisa Cathcart, they had five children - Caroline, David, George, Charles, and Henry), but Oginski believed Kaunitz;
his wife Paula Szembek / Paulina Szembek, with son Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florencja.
Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Oginski, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski, Franciszek Ksawery Oginski, Amelia Zaluska, Ida Oginska, Emma Oginska.
In 1796 Catherine of Russia died. 1796 - Paul, the new Tsar, and refugees were accepting amnesties already offered by Catherine. Ca 1797 Kajetan Nagurski joined this re-immigration, and he took Maria Neri back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau. Acc. to Iwo Zaluski: ca 1798, Kajetan Nagurski himself returned to Russian Lithuania, to reclaim and sort out his estate. Kajetan, unable then to get a passport allowing him back into Prussia, and thus to Warsaw, asked Morawski's father, Apolinary, to visit Maria Neri. Apolinary Morawski became lover behind Kajetan's back, with Maria Neri ca 1798. Nagurski brought her to his estate in Lithuania, where he married her, ca 1799. Ca 1800 Maria began to be seen in the company of the dashing young Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania. The affair came to an end when Count Kajetan Nagurski decided to go to Vienna with Maria, where he hoped to find a cure for his jaundice. Kajetan died soon afterwards in Vienna 1800 / 1801. His widow, now an independent lady, returned to Vilnius, and in 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska's life changed direction after she caught the attention of General Count Levin August von Bennigsen, Governor of Vilnius.
1801, Michal Kleofas Oginski
(1790, to The Hague as a diplomatic representative of Poland in the Netherlands; in 1795 Konstantynopol, 1796 Venice, Tuscany; Paris; 1810 Petersburg;
moved abroad in 1815?,
1822 Italy, 1823 Firenze / Florence to death 1833)
was living with his wife Izabela and two infant sons, Tadeusz and Xavier, at his wife's family's estate at Brzeziny, to the south west (see Otrebusy) of Warsaw.
Tsar Paul refused him permission to return, and new Tsar Alexander offered him an unconditional amnesty. Michal Kleofas Oginski, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in inevitable divorce, accepted the amnesty, and returned to Vilnius in 1802. Maria Nagurska / Maria Neri accepted marriage 1802, and in 1804 settled at his estate at Zalesie close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk. Michal Kleofas had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg in 1810.
Her children: Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska, Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813. Her son Ireneusz, born in 1807 / 1808 was conceived of the singer Giuseppe Paliani.

Michal Kleofas Oginski with his parents in 1772 - 1773 was living in Viena; 1773 back with mother to Guzow again; 1785 memeber of Parliament in Warsaw; in March 1794 the Uprising began, which was led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Count Mikhail-Cleophas Oginski was in the front ranks of the rebels. Donated 188000 zlotys, was in command of 480 riflemen. He was elected to the National Council.
Twice attempted to enter the Minsk Governorate to raise Belarusians against Russian occupation; actions under him to Dyneburg / Dinaburg on August 12, 1794; also struggled against Prussian intervention.
When the Russians occupied Vilnius 1794, Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Warsaw.
The Russians outlawed him and seized all his lands. In fall of 1794 he, along with Isabella, flees to Vienna and Venice in Italy, but she soon returned to Poland after learns that her husband has spent on the case "revolution" even her family jewels. Thereafter Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Paris.
He swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1802 and settled in Zalesie village 1804, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow.
1807 - Oginski met Napoleon in Italy,
in Venice; he told with Napoleon but next Oginski moved on Tuscany in 1808, where he was 12 years before; here in Florence General Menou was appointed governor, and Oginski was in the Pitti Palace; after the peace of Schoenbrunn, Oginski repaired to Paris, at the invitation of the Russian minister Prince Kurakin; Oginski was in Paris the seventh time; from Paris back to Wilno, and was entrusted with a memorial from the nobility of Lithuania, and he repaired to Petersburg in 1810 to Alexander who appointed of Oginski to be Senator of Russia and the Russian Emperor gave Oginski the rank of Privy Councilor. In 1810, the nobility of Vilna and Grodno provinces decided to send a representative to the Alexander I on economic and administrative affairs of the region, and this representative was elected Michal-Cleophas Oginski and supported by the Governor-General Mikhail Kutuzov. Then he rejoined his family at Paris; he again appeared at the Tuilleries in 1810, where Napoleon and Duroc again received him about the project re-establishment of the kingdom of Poland. In April 1811 Oginski back to Petersburg to Emperor with regard to Poland.
Michal Kleofas Oginski, not once (1810-1811) met the Russian Emperor Alexander I in St. Petersburg, Vilnius, Mogilev and Vitebsk, developed the latest project of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, known as the Oginski Plan;
this Plan for the restoration of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, to unite the eight provinces, in 1810-1812 offered to Alexander I, however, was rejected by the Emperor in May 1811;
in June 1812, Michal Kleofas / Michael Cleophas Oginski with troops stationed in St. Petersburg. After the war with Napoleon returned to Zalessie, where he remained until 1822, slowly moving away from political affairs;
in 1817 Oginski moved from St Petersburg to Vilna.
I wrote down in 1810 Oginski moved to St. Petersburg, Russia. There he met the Russian Emperor.
"...In 1814, the tsar decreed that the Retow / Rietavas manor be sold to M. K. Oginski for the sum of 277,600 silver rubles. In this way, Rietavas became a private manor of the Oginski family, and soon after that, their most important residence in Lithuania. Duke M. K. Oginski was a multifaceted personality: a prominent figure in the life of the state, the last treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a composer, a man of letters ... (by Jeffrey Andrev Clarke, Liucija Balkevičiūtė).
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, M. K. Oginski lost hope that the Lithuanian state would be restored, and he decided to emigrate. In 1822, he transferred ownership of his Rietavas property to his wife Maria nee Neri / Marija and to his children, and in 1823 he left for Italy. M. K. Oginski never returned to Lithuania".
"...After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Ogiński considered the Polish puppet Kingdom of Poland, with the Tsar himself as King, a sell-out, and he lost faith not only in politics, but also in his marriage, which, like his first one, had gone sour. In 1823 he wrote his most famous Polonaise No 13 in A minor, known as Farewell to the Fatherland, and exiled himself to his beloved Florence...",
by Iwo Załuski, at http://www.oginskidynasty.com/Kleofas.aspx.
In 1815, his marriage came to divorce, said love life of his wife probably condemned his reputation and now Oginski as a senator of the Russian Empire, after the creation of the Congress Kingdom in 1815, left for Italy, settling in Florence again.
By Jerzy Jan Lerski, ‎Piotr Wróbel, ‎Richard J. Kozicki:
"Disappointed again, Oginski emigrated to Western Europe in 1815. ...".
In 1817 Oginski resigned as senator,
"...in 1822 he became seriously ill, he had drove to Florence (again) to cure itself. From this time Oginski gave away the music and composition ... In 1831 he gave his note book (collection of his notes) with more than 60 works for piano and some songs out".
But different sources wrote:
In 1823 (1815, 1822?) failing health forced him to move to Italy, where he spent the last 10 years of his life.
But in 1820, when finally disappointed policies of Alexander I, Oginski agreed to move to a second wife's home in Napoli / Naples.

And now the most important notes on:
1. The Scotti Douglas / Scotti family of Naples and Nola (below at this webpage); 2. the Neri family from Florence, Venice, Zalesse; 3. also the Mercier / Mercer family from Estonia, Petersburg, Ceylon and south India; 4. tea plantations at Ceylon island. 5. the Weiss family of Estonia.

We need to check all data on Michal Kleofas Oginski trips:
1815 abroad, 1817 ?, 1822 Italy, 1823 Florence.

Explanations to Naples in 1820:

1.
Leonard Borejko Chodźko, historian and writer, born in Oborek, the Palatinate of Vilna, in 1800; son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria; cousin of the Orientalist Aleksander Chodźko; studied at Molodeczno, with Zan, and at Wilna, under the historian J. Lelewel.
In 1819 was the personal secretary of Michael Cleophas Oginski, and together in 1822 left Lithuania, through nearly all Europe; Chodzko after a four-year stay in Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and England, settled in Paris in 1826;
he published Histoire des legions polonaises en Italic in 1829; 1830, "...Lafayette appointed him his aide-de-camp; and after the outbreak of Nov. 29 of the same year in Warsaw, he acted as agent of the revolutionary government in France. He was an active member of the French-Polish and American-Polish committees...".
Member of the Polish National Committee and 'Zemsta Ludu', 1832 / 1833, with Joachim Lelewel and Józef Zaliwski, and also with Józef Kazimierz Sulpicjusz Napoleon Hutten-Czapski / Józef Napoleon, b. 1797 d. 1852,
the father of famous Bogdan Hutten - Czapski (see Pilsudski, Lubomirski, 1892 Minsk in Belarus, Miezonka before 1842.
Members of the 'Zemsta Ludu':
Stanisław Gabriel Worcell, Bolesław Gurowski, Mjr Antoni Krąkowski, Józef Zaliwski; Ostrowski moved to Paris, Krąkowski to Posen, Worcell to Lviv,
Joachim Lelewel who was republican conspirator, a close collaborator of the Carbonari, and of the
Société des Amis du Peuple

[see Inessa Armand:
Inessa Armand born in Paris on 8th May, 1874. Name variations: Ines Stéphane / Eлизавета Фёдоровна / Ines Elisabeth Stephane / Elise / Elisabeth / Elisaveta / Стеффeн / Steffen / Comrade Inessa and Elena Blonina. Born Elizabeth Stephane, was daughter of Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville and Nathalie Wild; married Alexander Armand, Oct 3, 1893.
Alexandre Dumas points to Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux and Ernest Duchatelet were involved in political trials at the time but the person who shot Alfred Galois (a duel) was by the initials L. D., a member of the Society of Friends of the People (La Societe des Amis du Peuple, in France created in 1830, fighting for a republic and for political enlightenment of progressive workers. After the 1833 trial, the society ceased to exist,
acc. to 2010 The Gale Group, Inc). And after - when she was only five - Elizabeth Stephane or Ines / Inessa was brought up by an aunt - new governess and grandmother living in Moscow - around 1880. Anna Asknazi vel Askenazy was friend of Inessa Armand in Moscow of 1909 and also doctor N. N. Pechkin, Boris Armand, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Константинович who helped out financially, Natalia Emil'evna, the twin Brilling brothers-in-law, Alexander Armand. At the age of eighteen she married Alexander Armand, the son of Evgenii Armand, a successful textile manufacturer in Pushkino near by Moscow. At the age of 19 she knew only two languages until as adult she learned German and Polish.
Above mentioned Société des amis du peuple / The Society of Friends of the people was a Republican organization, dissolved October 2, 1830 on the basis of Article 291 of the Criminal Code, but it does not disappear. In April / May, 1831, 19 Republicans are accused of conspiracy, of which ten were members of the Society. New associations take over, such as the League of Human Rights. Member of the Society of Friends:
Evariste Galois was born 1811 in Bourg-la-Reine, died on 31 May 1832 in Paris after a duel; May 9, 1831 in the restaurant Harvest Burgundy, Faubourg du Temple, Evariste Galois was at garden-party, but the next day, arrested with nineteen Republicans, including Ulysses Trélat, Joseph Guinard, Godfrey Cavaignac and Pescheux Herbinville of accused of plotting against the security of the State; on July 4, 1831, Fish and Lacroix make their report on Galois; release on 29 April 1832. Galois's fatal duel took place on 30 May, 1832. There has been much speculation, about a Mademoiselle Stéphanie-Félicie Poterin du Motel; Alexandre Dumas names Pescheux d'Herbinville, one of the nineteen artillery officers whose celebrated at the banquet on the occasion of Galois's first arrest and du Motel's fiance.
Dumas is alone in this assertion, and only a few days after the duel give a description of his opponent that more accurately applies to one of Galois's Republican friends, most probably Ernest Duchatelet, who was imprisoned with Galois on the same charges. There were plans to initiate an uprising during his funeral.
See: John Stillwell of 2010.
Société des droits de l'homme / The Society for Human Rights (SDH) is a republican association from 1830, developed from 1832, after the disappearance of the other great republican association the Society of Friends of the People;
it is organized on the model of the Carbonari.
The note on:
François Etienne Pecheux or Pescheux of Herbinville, former member of the League of Friends of the People / Pescheux d'Herbinville (but also PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE / Théodore Pécheux d'Herbenville):
Evariste Galois confronted Pescheux d'Herbinville in a duel to be fought with pistols, and was shot through the stomach. Évariste Galois, b. 1811.
See: Alexandre Dumas, My Memoirs, p 61 and 247.
Pescheux was named Administrator at Compiegne Palace on May 4, 1848, he took office on June 1 to August 25, 1848 and then at Château de Fontainebleau, on September 2, 1848 until April 15, 1850. He published "Fontainebleau and charming walks to sites and rocks that surround" in 1850.
The genealogy of Inessa Armand:
Henri Lucien PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE born on 14 August 1875 in Asnieres;
parents: Leon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849, marchant, and Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854;
grand-parents:
Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1809 and Marie-Josephine DESCHAMPS / Marie-Joséphine Jenny DESCHAMPS by
http://gw.geneanet.org/pierfit?lang=en&p=henri+lucien&n=pecheux+herbinville.
Her children:
Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE 1839-1904,
Lucien PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1845 married in 1876, in Paris to Caroline GAVIOLI 1842-1924,
Théodore PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1847 - father of Inessa Armand;
Léon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849 married to Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854.
Above Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX des HERBENVILLE / Etienne François PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE, b. on 5 April 1809 in Paris, Artillery Officier, member of the 'Société des Amis du Peuple';
m. 1st to Marie-Joséphine DESCHAMPS;
m. 2nd in 1859 in Paris to Lucie Marie Dorothée PÉPIN; he was awarded the Cross of July]

and
Société des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen,
Filip Buonarotti, Michał Chodźko in Lyon in 1833; Kalikst Borzewski of Plock, Zawisza, Sperczyński, Kisielewski, Aleksander Psalmart, Józef Dąbkowski).
Mentioned Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski was born 1851, d. 1937.
In 1833 Colonel Zaliwski, co-operated with The Carbonari movement (see Oginski in Naples in 1820; the Scotti-Douglas in Nola and Naples / Napoli and also Scotland), secret revolutionary society founded in early 19th century in Italy.
The Italian Carbonari influenced other revolutionary groups in Spain, France, Portugal and possibly Russia: Bazard, Silvio Pellico, Pietro Maroncelli, Giuseppe Mazzini, Marquis de Lafayette (see Chodzko), Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis Auguste Blanqui, Byron and Giuseppe Garibaldi.

We back again to Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to (January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833; 1833 - 1837 Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski / Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834
(Mazzini's Young Europe, founded in Bern by seventeen exiles; the center of a European movement, acc. to Alberto Mario Banti:
"...according to whom, in a peaceful future, Europe would take the form of a harmonious community, in which all free nations would cooperate both politically and culturally, to their mutual benefit".
"...Mazzini obtained the cooperation of the principal representatives of the various nationalities in the organization of a new association to be called Young Europe. ... appointed delegates, who on April 15, 1834, solemnly agreed to abide by the political, social, and religious platform which was laid down by Mazzini. The main object of Young Europe, according to Mazzini, was to lay the foundation for a universal development of thought and action, which would lead to the discovery and practical application of the divine laws of human government. Mazzini defined the league as the young Europe of the people, which was to supplant the old Europe of kings...",
acc. to 'chestofbooks.com/reference'),
including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland.
Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to Hubert Koziel, in 1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski was the republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini of the Carbonari.
Who was above mentioned an Irishman O'Brien?
Notes:
Journal of Political Ideologies 06/2008 "...analyses the political economy of James Bronterre O'Brien, most important intellectual of 1830s' British working-class radicalism. It examines O'Brien's critique of 1830s Britain ... The article argues that O'Brien's work of the period 1832–1841 is best viewed as the first example of a genuinely democratic anti-capitalist political economy. The article goes on to analyse changes that occurred to O'Brien's democratic anti-capitalist political economy ... was partially abandoned in 1841. The article concludes that the reasons for these changes are to be found not in ideational factors internal to O'Brien's political economy, but rather in O'Brien's personal circumstances and relationship with his imagined audience", copyright by Ben Maw.
Acc. to Richard Brown at http://richardjohnbr.blogspot.co.uk/
"...Bronterre O'Brien was born at (near by) Granard (28 km south of Cavan, 36 km north-west-north of Mullingar), County Longford, Ireland, in February 1804 (or 1805), the second son of Daniel O'Brien and his wife, Mary Kearney. His father, who was a wine and spirit merchant and a tobacco manufacturer in co. Longford, failed in business during O'Brien’s childhood, and died soon after. O'Brien was educated at ... Edgeworthstown School, which had been promoted by Richard Lovell Edgeworth. He then went to Trinity College, Dublin ... 1829. He entered the King's Inns, Dublin, and then went to London, where he was admitted as a law student at Gray's Inn in March 1830. In London he met Henry Hunt and William Cobbett. In 1831, ... contributed to Hetherington's Poor Man's Conservative. ... called himself James Bronterre O'Brien. ... visited France on three occasions in 1837-8. In 1836, his translated edition of Buonarotti's History of Babeuf's Conspiracy was published and in 1838 the first volume of his eulogistic Life of Robespierre appeared. ... In 1837, he began Bronterre's National Reformer, but it soon failed and in 1838 The Operative that ended publication in July 1839. ... he had four children. From the beginning of the Chartist movement, O'Brien was one of its most prominent figures. He was a member of the original London Working Man's Association, and was a delegate to the Chartist meeting in Palace Yard ... 1838 ... He represented the Chartists of Manchester at the Chartist convention ... 1840. O'Brien acted in his own defence ... on a charge of conspiracy, but was found guilty at Liverpool in April ... He was sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment. ... Released in September 1841, O'Brien continued the series of bitter personal quarrels with O'Connor ... edited the British Statesman between June and December 1842, and in 1845 became editor of the National Reformer. ... He wrote several pamphlets on Lord Palmerston, Lord Overstone, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Robespierre. He was a member of the Stop-the-War-League during the Crimean War ... died at his home in Pentonville, London, ... 1864. His wife survived him...".
A short on his son Bogdan Hutten-Czapski:
"...On the German side, the emperor had himself as early as July 31, 1914, a day before Germany declared war on Russia, given the German-Polish magnate Count Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Hutten-Czapski (b. 1851), a personal acquaintance of his, a non-binding assurance that the Polish state should be restored when Russia was defeated. The imperial promise may have been vague, but the Imperial Chancellor confirmed it on the same day. ... immediately on the outbreak of war this same Hutten-Czapski, who was a lieutenant-colonel in the Prussian army, was attached to the general staff in charge of Polish and Ukrainian questions. His first commission was to foment insurrection in Congress Poland by means which included the raising of a Polish Legion - the counterpart to Pilsudski's in Galicia - and the dissemination among the Poles of leaflets and cartoons to awaken sympathy for the Central Powers. A month later Hutten-Czapski was relieved of this commission but only, it would appear, because his sympathies were too strongly nationalist ...
See: Fritz Fischer, Germany's Aims in the First World War, New York, 1967 pp. 114-5. Note 4 referring to Hutten-Czapski, 60 Jahre Politik etc., Berlin, 1936, Vol 2, pp. 145 f.;
... Szescdziesiat lat zycia politycznego i towarzyskiego. Warszawa, F. Hoesick, 1936. 2 v. plates ... At head of title: Bogdan Hutten-Czapski...".

Leonard Chodzko died in Poitiers in 1871; he was born 1800, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria;
husband of famous Olimpia (see Venture, Sulkowski and Breguet, Konstantynowicz and Armand in Moscow; Duflon from Switzerland);
brother of Aleksander Chodźko (died 1877)
acc. to Leszek Mila.


Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis, was a French orientalist. The son of a family of diplomats
(his father had been consul in the Crimea and in other countries of the Levant)
and military, he studied at the School of Languages of Louis-le-Grand College in Paris where he learned so well the Arab and Turkish, and at the age of fifteen, was working at the French Embassy in Constantinople. He was a secretary and interpreter of the Embassy of France; he held various positions in Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunis in 1779 and Algier. He also participated in the inspection mission of the Levant, by Baron de Tott. He returned to Paris in 1797 at the School of Oriental Languages, the Turkish​​. The member of the Commission on Science and the Arts, military interpreter of the Army of the East. Member of the Institute of Egypt on August 22, 1798, at the section of literature and arts.
Jean-Joseph Marcel, who was his pupil, said he died of dysenterie, others talk of plague. Another hypothesis says he died on April 19, 1799 in Nazareth, ill after the Siege of Saint John of Acre.
He was married in Cairo to Victoria Digeon (on June 14, 1774), he had two daughters, one of which, Jeanne Venture de Paradis married in 1810 (?) to watchmaker Antoine Louis Breguet, son of the famous Abraham Louis Breguet, which is a branch of Clementine Célarié.
But we know that Breguet, Louis François Clément / Louis Clément Bréguet, b. December 22, 1804 (!) in Paris.
Clémentine Célarié (born 1957) is a French actress and singer, was born as Myriem Célarié in Dakar, living in the United States, back in France to Aix-en-Provence.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis in 1764, as interpreter in Sidon, and in 1770 in Cairo, until 1776, making a number of services to politics and commerce of France.
Above mentioned Digeon Victoria (next of kin ? with Alexander Elisabeth Michel vicomte Digeon / Alexandre Elisabeth Michel Digeon, Major General, b. on June 26, 1771 in Paris, died on August 2, 1826 in the village of Ronqueux, annexed in 1834 to Bullion, near Paris) had two daughters.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis returning to France to report to Cabinet on the art of Egypt, had to leave for Marseilles, to accompany Barone Tott, who inspected the French warehouses in ports of the Levant, 1778 Cairo. This mission taken two years. In 1779 Venture was in Tunis, where he remained for five years as interpreter for the Consulate of France; recalled in Paris, as Secretary of interpreters of the East; then posted in Algiers, in order to renew the treaties between France and Algier, in 1790 returned to France; again in 1793 as Secretary - interpreter, together with the French ambassador to Constantinople; he was arrested in Switzerland at the hands of the Austrians; had expected to Venice 1793 ?, then gone alone to Constantinople where he stayed until 1797; then returned to France, accompanying the Ambassador Ali Effendi. In Paris at the Turkish Special School of Oriental Languages​​. When Napoleon undertook the expedition to Egypt, Venture de Paradis was appointed primary interpreter.
During the stay in Egypt, he was appointed member of the Institut of Egypt since its founding, on August 22, 1798 at the section of literature and the arts. He gone with the emperor in Syria, but during the siege of Acre fell ill of dysentery, in the convent of Nazareth, died during the retreat, or he was transferred to Egypt. Venture de Paradis was one of the most famous Arabists of the time, not only for his languages, but also for his perfect knowledge of the habits and customs of the eastern populations.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis that is Jan Michał Venture de Paradis was father of Janina 'Egipcjanka' Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska / JeanneFrançoise Venture / Jeanne Françoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France, wife of Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet, and mother of Louis Clément Bréguet.
She was also wife of Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski.
Her father Jean-Michel de Venture de Paradis, born 8 May 1739 in Marseille, died 16 May 1799 in Acri / Acra.
Janina Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska, with Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski had children:
Victoire Clementine de Laqueuille,
Olimpia Chodźko
and (different father !) Adela married to Mortier (Adelajda? b. ca 1813 or ca 1815 ?).
So Little Louis had a sister, Adela!
And their mother knew the Polish language:
although she knew a bit the Polish language from first husband. So half-siblings of Little Louis also come to know from their father, the Polish language and Polish history.
Adela had the surname, which suggests that she could be in St. Petersburg already in the 30's of the 19th century? And Breguet, when he was in Kazan in the 40's of the 19th century, could know the Polish language and some Russian language!?
Antoine Louis Breguet ran, with his cousin Lassieur, the team of watchmakers working in a studio on the Quai de l'Horloge.
The 'little Louis' - called as its size does not exceed 1.55 m - was sent in 1824 to Geneva, where he worked as a common laborer.
On his return to Paris in 1827, he devoted himself to the construction of marine chronometers, wrote in 1847 in a notice on its work presented at the Academy of Sciences. In 1832, 'Little Louis' decided to become an electrician.
1833, Louis married his cousin Caroline Lassieur, the daughter of Louis Lassieur and Sophie Courbin.
Lassieur Louis was the son of Marie-Louise a younger sister of Abraham Breguet.
May 20, 1833 Antoine Louis Breguet signed the sale of his 'Breguet house, nephew and Co.', formed by Louis Breguet and Louis Lassieur; the price of 270.000 francs paid by the three members.
Now, he invented a mechanical counter in 1841, published on induction with Masson and Savart, in the Annals of Physics; at that time Louis Breguet realized thermometrograph who recorded at the University of Kazan in Russia temperatures of minus 42 degrees; he was appointed a member of the Kazan university in 1843.
Also in 1843, Louis Breguet devised, upon request by Arago and using a method assigned Wheatstone, apparatus of rotating mirror, 540.000 per minute! This time was full of activity with the electric telegraph in France, after its discovery by the English.
Louis Breguet and Alphonse Foy, invented the first telegraph line from Paris to Rouen (1845). Then he participated in the development of the telegraph dial (1849), created a mobile telegraph, a speed controller, a telegraph printer; Lassieur died in 1851, "Breguet, nephew and Co." became simply the "House Breguet" a name that the company retained for a century.
Louis Breguet had one son born in 1851 named Anthony as his grandfather.
Around 1855, the Breguet built telegraph across Europe, and even in Brazil and Japan; led a studio in Montparnasse; among the new productions appeared exploders knuckle-fist for the army and navy, invention of Louis Breguet.
In 1856, he worked for Lyon; 1857, it was the realization of the time resetting mechanical clock; at Breguet workshops also were born devices of Marey, Yvon Villarceau, Berlin, the seismograph Grye, the chronograph Captain Fleuriais, and many others including accumulators; after the War of 1870, his son Anthony worked out with Graham Bell from the USA, the first phones to Paris; the first theatrical stereo transmissions in 1881.


By Bohdan Urbankowski at http://niniwa22.cba.pl/czy_towianski_byl_szpiegiem.htm:

"...Paris, May 30, 1848, meeting of the Society of Slavs. ... speaks Desprez. When the French writer refers ... on Mickiewicz, at the place leaps Leonard Chodźko: 'Mr. Mickiewicz authority is more than suspect, as we believe it all he is a Russian spy!' Chodźko was not a dull fanatic, he has a reputation ... He was written in French - the work of Polish history and literature (two-volume history of the Legions, biographies Kosciuszko, Pulaski et al.), Editor, and what is important: he was a friend - since college - of Mickiewicz in Vilnius, activist of the Filaret Society and publisher of the two-volume Mickiewicz Poetry in 1828. Shocking opinion, which gave, echoed, unfortunately, to our countrymen. Animosity towards earlier beloved poet began to grow after Mickiewicz started in the Towiański movement; because the "Master" Andrzej Towianski also, and even more, was deemed to be an agent of Russia. ... Rumors about Towiański appeared shortly after his arrival in Paris, behind him ... In fact, the way of the future "Master" Andzej Towianski was similar to the way of the future 'Prophet' Adam Mickiewicz, and even a few times with him crossed. A reconstruction of the biography. Towianski was born ... on 1 January 1799 in Antoszwińce (the name of the farm is also present in the plural), was given to schools in Vilnius, ... made friend with Ferdinand Gutt, ... on this friendship has left a shocking record Zbigniew Krasinski, dated 19 March (April), 1848 letter to Delfina. Gutt's father was a pharmacist. It seems that demanded from him poison to someone, apparently Wittgenstein that had married to Radziwiłł (Stefania Radziwill Wittgenstein of Miezonka among others). Old Gutt did not want to bring out the poison, it seems that it was Towiański who advised to bring out the poison... Old Gutt disappeared. I have not known what happened to him, and finally discovered that his body was carved on pieces, and thrown into the river. ... this terrible murder. ... The beginning of the mission of Towiański dated on May 11, 1828. It seems that was in Vilnius and in the neighborhood, but the result was rather unexpected. Edward Wołodko wrote about it in 1907, in the "Library of Warsaw", in the article 'Memories of Towiański' ... Here are a result of denunciation of Towiański by another neighbor, and Towianski was arrested and subjected to a psychiatric examination. ... admits Wołodko - these studies, however, killed of Towianski movement in the eyes of the residents of Vilnius. ... "Master" Andrzej choose somewhere else.
In 1832 he went to St. Petersburg, he met with the Illuminatis, a heirs of Grabianko, but it does not seem that it is only now formed his doctrine.
He tried to convert, so the St. Petersburg police forced him to leave the Russian capital. Yet in 1834 he went to Carlsbad, he was also in Dresden, where he met Odyniec, which inquired about the exact details of Mickiewicz life. Thanks to Odyniec, he met 'Dziady'... Towiański also met and charmed General Skrzyneckiego ... In 1837, after his father's death, he returned to the family farm ... For the second time, as we know, ... on May 23, 1839 before leaving, he wrote "constitution" - a set of moral rules for the peasants, he visited his mother, who settled in Vilnius ... also visited the appropriate authorities. On June 28, 1840 received a passport valid for one year. After arriving at the West, Towiański tried to entrap Skrzyneckiego again - but this time did not work out. There were a lot more serious charges - the destruction of Mickiewicz. In March 1845 the Brussels-writing "White Eagle" published an anonymous article titled 'The Intrigue of the St. Petersburg crowned'. The content gives '...life and works of Adam Mickiewicz', which should rewrite the relevant passages: 'Anticipating that the cathedral of Slavic literatures at the College de France can be used to the detriment of Russia, St. Petersburg government decided to prevent this with the help of his agent, Towiański. The goal has been achieved...'. The accusation of spying, Zygmunt Krasinski slipped in a letter to Trentowski on 10 III 1849: 'The Towianski movement and demagogy of our Paris...'. ... To conclude this section, let us add that suspicion of Krasinski and other immigrants coincided with the French suspicions. As proof, we quote the letter of
Duchatel, the Minister of the Interior, to the Minister of Enlightenment - Villemain ... '...can assume that Towiański is actually Russian secret agent.
For several months ... they develop an animated action, some crisscross of France, the others set their meeting in Switzerland or Belgium, try to establish contacts with the former Imperial Army soldiers remaining in active service...'.
... it was introduced by Becu Joseph / Jozef Becu, brother of the doctor known for 'Dziady'. Krasinski noted in a letter to Dolphina Potocka on 26 November 1841: Towiański actually knew the doctor Becu
... Zygmunt Krasinski on June 15, 1851 sent a letter to Count Zamoyski, in which he wrote of the ... rumors about "Master" like the Russian spy...".
Napoleon Stanisław Adam Felix Count Zygmunt Krasinski b. 1812 in Paris, d. 1859, the greatest poet of Polish Romanticism; the biggest influence on his views and all life had a father Vincent Krasinski - General of Napoleon, and later a loyal subject of the Russian Tsar. From the autumn of 1832 to the spring of 1833 he was in St. Petersburg with his father, who wanted to get him to the service of the Russian court; moved to Krakow, Vienna, he went to Italy, in Rome in 1834, 1836 in Rome, he met Julius Slowacki, December 1838 an affair with Delfina Potocka. During the revolution in Rome in 1848 with Cyprian Kamil Norwid defended Pope Pius IX. Zygmunt Krasinski died on February 23, 1859 in Paris. His parents Vincent Krasinski and Maria Ursula Radziwill; marriage with Eliza Branicka, children Władysław Krasiński, Jerzy Zygmunt Krasinski, Maria Beatrice and Eliza Krasińska. Above Władysław Krasiński b. 1844 in Warsaw, d. 1873 in Menton, son of Sigmund and Elizabeth Branicka, during the January Uprising worked in Paris together with Prince Władysław Czartoryski. Marriage to Rose Potocki, was the father of three children: Adam Krasinski (1870-1909), Elizabeth Krasińska (1871-1905) and Sophia Krasińska (1873-1891). Count Adam Krasinski (b. 1870 in Krakow, d. 1909 in Ospedaletti, Liguria), editor of the Library of Warsaw (1901-1909),
1897 marriage to Wanda Mary of Badeni (1874-1950), daughter of Casimir Badeni, Prime Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


BÉCU Jan Ludwik born ca 1741, died after 1797, industrial and commercial activist.
We know on du Barry Jeanne Becu, Comtesse (1743-1793); Jeanne goes by his mother, from the family of Bécu known as the family of roasters; Jean Bécu was a cook recognized under the reign of Louis XIV. His maternal grandparents, Fabien Bécu and Husson Jeanne, they were serving to Isabelle Ludres; they had seven children together Bécu Anne, mother of Jeanne, born April 16, 1713.

In Poland we know on Bécu August, the royal adviser, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" in Grodno, chairman after 1781 and before 1784. Bécu Jacob, the brother of Jan Ludwik Becu / Louis, a royal adviser, 1771-1780 Inspector General of the Tyzenhauz factories in Grodno, 1780-1787 supervising them, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" (Grodno) in 1781;

Bécu Louis / Jan Ludwik, brother of Jacob, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" (Grodno), secr. in 1786.
Dignitaries Officers and Members from Grodno and J. V. Antoine Godin, Chair of the Master of Wilna; freemasons in Grodno in 1817: J. E. Gilibert, J. Becu, Louis Wiazowski, J. Sacco, J. Gimel, Charles Gottlieb / Golt, Jean Godefroi Walter, J. H. Müntz, Zacharius Büttner, Jean Louis Becu, Ephraim Gottlieb, Kaus, François Narwoysz, Chresteon Ernst Fechner, Gembowski, Siegfrierd Schmidt, Jurewicz, V. S. Antoine, Fr. Schreiber.

Александр Карл Пилар фон Пильхау / Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 in Wilno / Вильнюс, d. 1871, his sister - Sophia.

He was married to Ионна Станиславовна Кульвинска / Joanna nee Kulwinska daughter of Stanislaw Kulwinski.

His father was born in 1768 or 1769 - Магнус or Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, then was Major of the Russian army,
married to

Maria Cecylia von Bécu / Мария Цецилия фон Бекю

(she was closest next of kin of Augustas Ludvikas Becu / August Ludwik Becu / August Ludwik Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno - his father was

Jan Ludwik Bécu;

August Ludwik Bécu was owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816 and he has two daughters:

Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki,

and Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872;

Teofil Januszewski, was brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki;

August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki).

His grandfather was Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau / Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау born 1734, married 1756 in Tallinn / Ревель, to Catharina Helena von Tausas / Катарина Хелена фон Таузас;
place of living: Халлик and Йоггис; Hagar / Hallik in Tamsalu, Estonia, county of Laane-Viru, south-west of Rakvere - eastern Eesti;

Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia also came from Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau b. 1734;

Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau was retired major of the Polish army, died in 1801 in Jöggis / Jőgisuu / Jogisoo
(see Kennedy and Lee Oswald at the beginning of this website!),
he was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia;

his sons and daughter:

1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830.
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.
Recorded in service 1780, above Yegor Maksimovic exactly one year later was promoted to sergeant. Received his primary education at home, with the rank of lieutenant was transferred to Narva Infantry Regiment; next to the Vyborg Infantry Regiment; Yegor Maksimovic Pilar participated in a battle with the Swedes under Nyslott; 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811.

2. Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769
(his wife was Maria Becu with her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802.
Magnus Fabian's closest next of kin: Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein; фон Людер / Luder who died 1857),

3. Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Baron / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774.

Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870, and Sauga. Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough. Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia. Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland.

The father of Adolf Pilar von Pilchau was Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, Baron, born and died in Audru / Audern, 1814 - 1870. Grandfather was named above
Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814.

On the Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt family:
Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina. She was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano.
She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Charlotte Julie Pila von Pilchau; Ada Pilar von Pilchau (Helene Bertha Johanna Adele von Gruenewaldt 1853-1889); Theodor Gustav Otto Peter Pilar von Pilchau; and Hilda Pilar von Pilchau.
We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano from Neapol. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau or Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor Mariano.

We back now to the first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com) Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar.
Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.
and
4. Reinhold Woldemar / Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

5. Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau 1734 - 1801 in Jöggis / Jogisoo had daughter:
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau / Katarina Elizabiet Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1769 in Hallik, Estonia, d. 1835;
she was wife of Johan Diedrich Benjamin Althan / Althann; and she was mother of Johan Heinrich Althan; Georg Benjamin von Althann and Emilie Helene Althan; von Althann were living in 1839 in Pernau (Pärnu).
Her family:
Margarethe Elisabeth Gfin. Manteuffel;
Gotthard Johann III Reichsgraf Zoege von Manteuffel;
Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau

6.

Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 was also a son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena;
married to Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein;
her son was Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791.
Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922, was daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau;
Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of
Ottilie Gustava von Lüder,
Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau,
Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and
Georg Pilar von Pilchau.

Sofia Pilchau Pilar / Zofia nee Januszewski / Zofija Pilar von Pilchau d. 28 Jan. 1898 in Wilno (Zofia Januszewska b. 1836, died 1920 - acc. to 'geni.com'), was sister of
Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena / Helena nee Januszewski voto Dzierżyński (1849 - on January 15, 1896), mother of Feliks Dzierżyński / Felix Dzerzhinsky;

Helena Dzierzynska died 1896
(married to Edmund Rufin Dzierżyński with children:
Witold;
Aldona Kojałłowicz (Bułhak) - see HLUSK and BOBRUISK;
Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska;
Stanisław;
Kazimierz and 4 others).

And next sister was Emilia Zawadzka
(that is Emilia Januszewska 1.voto Krzywiec, 2.voto Zawadzka, b. 1834 - d. 1883 in Wilno?, wife of Feliks Zawadzki with Jadwiga Rapacka; Józef Zawadzki and Feliks Zawadzki; and from 1st marriage son and 5 daughters).

Zofia Januszewska had son:
Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau (Адольф Александр Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1860), married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec; he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierzynski; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; she had son
Romuald Ludwik Adolfovitch / Roman Aleksandrovich / Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937
(see ARTUZOW Frautchi and Saanen).

Parents of above Zofia Januszewska were Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806 (Kazimiera Januszewska nee Gorecka 1806 - 1897).

Stanislaw Count Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska.

His father - Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 and died d. 1871. This Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, the Judge of the district of Vilnius, was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar! His sister Sophia nee Pilar Pilchau;
his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida.

Above Jadwiga Rapacka nee b. ca 1870, d. 1956, Warsaw, wife of Tadeusz Rapacki with Janina Kowalska 1909 - 2002 in Poland.

Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau / Пилляр Роман Александрович / Роман Людвиг Пилар фон Пильхау / Ромуальдас-Людвикас Адольфович Пилляр фон Пильхау, that is Roman Pilar von Pilchau / Roman Pilljar / Romuald Pilar von Pilchau, 1894 - 1904 in Mickuny close to Wilno / Vilnius. 1905 to September 1910 - Vilnius secondary school, followed by Zurich in real school (1910 - 1911), where he graduated in 1911. The Pilars then were not wealthy, but still Helena Pilar sent Roman Pilchau Pilar to study in Switzerland. Nothing helped. He came back. Then he went in the other direction, to Russia, to Petrograd, where he studied law. From Dzerzhinsky not departed. In September of the same year, 1911, he continued study in Kuressaare Gymnasium. When German troops occupied the Saaremaa, in Estonia, Pilar von Pilchau evacuated (it is inf. on Dorpat in 1917) to the Yaroslavl Province. Roman Pillar (1895-1937) before World War I, began (1914 ?) to study law at the University of St. Petersburg, where he was soon involved with the Bolsheviks activity of Felix Dzierżyński.
From Mickuny / Mickūnai of the Becu family and the Pilar Pilchau property (near by Terlecki, Ozieblowski, Januszewski, Dzierzynski and Pilsudski families), to Zalesie / Zalesse / Залесье of the Oginski family - close to Smorgon / Smargon / Smorgonie - is ca 60 km to south-east.
Roman Pilar was the cousin of the Dzerzhinsky - Roman Adolfovich / Romualdas Liudvikas Adolfovich Pillar Pilhau was one of the prominent of the initial period of the Cheka - the Deputy Chief of counterintelligence Cheka, deputy chairman of Belarus GPU, then People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Belarus, then worked at senior positions in the Central Asia in 1937, as chief of the NKVD in the Saratov region, was arrested and executed (pay attention to his last post - in the Saratov region was larger numbers of Germans, there was even a Republic of the Volga Germans).
Roman Pilar Pilchau / R. Pillar Pilhau was one of closest personal friends and relatives to the known leaders of the security organs Artuzov.
Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service from August 1931 to May 1935.
Artuzow created on May 8, 1922 the counterintelligence department of the GPU. Artusov / Artuzow / Fraucci knew French. This counterintelligence department was structural unit of the GPU - OGPU, because on May 6, 1922 on the management meeting of the State Political Administration DECIDED to ESTABLISH the structure of a special unit to combat with foreign espionage; the first leaders: Felix Dzerzhinsky, Vyacheslav Menzhinsky and Arthur Artuzov. Everyone from the structure of the Swiss-Estonian and of the Polish nobility of Belarus, I have discussed. Artuzow was in years 1927-1931 - Assistant Chief of the Secret operational management. Artuzov / Artuzow - Frautchi on 01/01/1931 Deputy (Deputy Head of the Foreign Department INO OGPU) and 31 July 1931 headed Foreign department of the OGPU; when creating 10 July 1934 NKVD he headed foreign intelligence, but replaced 21/05/1935 by Slutsky and transferred to the Main Intelligence Directorate on the post of Deputy, (11th January 1937) 01/11/1937 lost this post; Corps Commissar on 21/11/1935; Artuzow / Artuzov on 13.05.1937 appointed on the registration Department and Artuzov Frauchi was arrested on the same day May 13, 1937 as part of the 'Plot of the Generals' (he was executed on August 21, 1937).
Wife of Artuzow: Inna Mikhailovna, in 1938, June 20 accused of spying for the French intelligence service on the grounds that she went twice 'under the guise of treatment' in Paris, where she was recruited; Artuzov Hristianovich Arthur was her husband, living with her from 1934. On August 26, 1938 Ulrich announced the verdict: the death penalty; first wife Lydia Artuzov Slugina escaped arrest; mother of Artuzov, Augusta Avgustovna died shortly after the arrest of Arthur Christianovich; father Christian Petrovich Fraucci / Frautchi and uncle Peter Fraucci / Frautchi died in 1923. Son Kamil / Camill was arrested in 1941; on March 23, 1938 was arrested brother Rudolph Hristianovich Frauchi, was shot by the NKVD in Butovo; the second brother, Victor Hristianovich, moved to Kazan, and became well-known professor; Artusov disagreed with Stalin in matters of Poland and Germany, has also tried to observe certain standards of conduct during the purges of the thirties.
After arrest of Artuzow / Artuzov was a secret trial, and Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Iona Yakir, Ieronim Uborevich, Robert Eideman, August Kork, Vitovt Putna, Boris Feldman, Vitaly Primakov and Yakov Gamarnik (suicide) were accused with planning a military coup on May 15, 1937; they were executed on the night of June 11-12, 1937. Marshal Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Corps Commanders Yefimov, Eideman and Appoga were all arrested on the same day - 22 May 1937; on 24 May 1937, the Politburo passed the following resolution: '...Tukhachevsky, as participant in an anti-Soviet Trotsky-Right conspiratorial bloc ... having engaged in espionage activity against the USSR on behalf of Fascist Germany'. Between 01 and 10 June 1937, Tukhachevsky was describing the conspiratorial organization and plans for defeating the Red Army.
Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi was born in the family of Swiss origin, but Italian nationality.
His father Christian Frautschi came to Russia, where he was engaged in reindeer cheese; cheesemaker, a citizen of the Swiss Federation.
Mother Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938, had the Latvian and Estonian roots, and one of her grandfathers was a Scot;
her father Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik, her mother Bertha Sterling / E'sterling / Stirling / EASTERLING born 1835 d. 1891 - her parents:
Edward Sterling from Scotland / Esterling / EASTERLING and Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland.

Acc. to Józef Mackiewicz:
'Old' Pilar send Roman Pilar to Wilno, then chief of the GPU in Mińsk in Belarus; he was oldest of 4 sons of above Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau, owner of Mickuny, very near to uncle Feliks Dzierżyński.
Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau had only 160 cm tall!
In Mickuny were living the Szabłowskis, among other Ignacy;
a main administrator of the Pilar estate was unknown Szostak, from a family of 5 sons and one daughter; then the Lachowicz family.
At the Bernardin cementery in Vilna we have tombs of the Pilar von Pilchau family:
1. Aleksandra Pilar von Pilchau, d. 25 Oct. 1901;
2. her sister Wilunia, b. 1866, d. 1 Jan. 1872;
3. Pilar Joanna nee Kulwiński, d. 1876;
4. Izabella Pilar von Pilchau Kulwińska, b. 1808, d. 1891;
5. Zofija Pilar von Pilchau d. 28 Jan. 1898;
6. her sister - Helena nee Januszewski, Dzierżyńska, d. 1896, mother of Feliks Dzierżyński;
7. Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, grandfather of Roman Pilar.
Acc. to Czeslaw Malewski:
1. Pilar von Pilchau, Wilno 1818 - 1881; 2. Becu, Wilno 1801 - 1862, inf. 1823.
The von Pilar estate, Mickuny: here was living father of above Roman Pilar, Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau jr. who died 12 Oct. 1939. On 12 Oct. 1826 in Mickuny was consecrated a chapel built by Alexander Pilar senior in 1825 (Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, judge of the border in the county of Vilnius); he was friend of young Juliusz Słowacki, and his sisters Hersylia and Aleksandra Becu. The Mickuny estate owned first August Becu (1771-1824) - August Becu was Professor of Medicine at the Imperial Wilno Univ.
In 1923 in Mickuny was the catholic parish, and Aleksander Pilar, father of Roman, given a home for priest; a father of Roman, above Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau died aged 79, and was buried at the Mickuny cementery; his wife, mother of named Roman, was Helena Pilar, d. on 8 August 1955, aged 91. Acc. to http://dokumente.ios-regensburg.de/ Becu, August Ljudvigovič was son of Ludwik Becu; August Becu was Professor, b. 3.5.1771 in Grodno, died in 1824 in Wilno.

On the other hand:
Mianowski Jozef / Joseph b. 1804 in the district of Human at Ukraine, d. on January 6, 1879 in Ancona, Italy, Polish physician, social activist,
Nowosilcow suspect Mianowski.
Next of kin of Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and her sister Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872.

Aleksandra Mianowska (Bécu) was daughter of August Ludwik Bécu; wife of above Józef Mianowski, mother of Jan Mianowski, she was sister of above named Hersylia Łucja Januszewska.
Above Józef Mianowski 1804 - 1879, was son of Ignacy Mianowski, husband of Nadieżda Mianowska and Aleksandra Mianowska; father of Jan Mianowski. He was graduated in Human, soon was admitted to
the University of Vilnius. There he met a number of interesting personalities, one of them was Adam Mickiewicz, who, according to historian A. Krauschar, was a friend for life.
Mianowski become a doctor. In 1828 in Vilnius became assistant of Jędrzej Śniadecki; 1840 Mianowski was hiding Simon Konarski in the clinic in Vilnius, and when he was executed, Mianowski was in trouble. For a year he was in prison, next he was released.
In 1848 was the court physician of the daughter of Nicholas I. He enjoyed great influence at court in St. Petersburg,
but in Poland in 1857 Medical-Surgical Academy was founded, and Mianowski moved to Warsaw under A. Wielopolski.
Above August Ludwik Bécu / August Louis Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno, d. 7 September 1824 in Vilnius, Polish surgeon, professor of medicine, hygiene and pathology at the Imperial University of Vilnius; Julius Slowacki stepfather.
He came from French Protestant family settled in the seventeenth century at Pomerania; his father, Jan Ludwik Bécu / Jean Luis Bécu, settled in Poland under King Stanislaus Augustus. In 1775 was knighted.
Mother was Caroline of Hein. He was struck by lightning. August Ludwik Bécu was husband of NN and Salomea Bécu; father of Aleksandra Mianowska and Hersylia Łucja Januszewska.
Above BÉCU Jan Ludwik born ca 1741, died after 1797, industrial and commercial activist.
Jan Ludwik Bécu was son of Jakub Bécu; husband of Karolina Bécu; father of August Ludwik Bécu; brother of NN Bécu.

Different CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO b. 30 August 1804, in Krzywicze, Poland, d. Noisy-le-Sec or Juvisy-sur-Orge, Essonne in 1891, Polish poet and diplomat, work on Persian folklore; son of Jan Chodźko and Klara;
above Jan Chodźko / Jan of Świsłocz or Wajżgantos, 1776 - 1851, son of Józef Chodźko and Konstancja;
above Józef Chodźko 1729 - 1783, son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Michał and Franciszek (the branch of Leonard Chodzko who was friend of Oginski).
Mentioned above Leonard Chodźko 1800 - 1871, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria; above Ludwik Chodźko 1769 - 1843 son of Franciszek Chodźko;
Franciszek Chodźko was son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Józef and Michał.
Mentioned CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO between 1820 and 1823 studied at the university of Wilno / Vilna, arrested in 1823 as the Society of Philarets member, went to St. Petersburg, where he studied Arabic, Persian, Turkish (see Venture!) from 1824 to 1830;
the Russian diplomatic service (to 1844) in Persia, as translator in Tabriz, Tehran and Rast until 1841, then traveled in Greece and Italy,
1842 he joined the Polish emigre community in Paris, with Adam Mickiewicz and Andrzej Towiański;
1847 married Helena Jundzill in Switzerland;
1852 - 1855 served the French foreign ministry as an expert on Oriental affairs; Chodźko wanted to send his two sons to Tehran to serve the Persian government.
Borowsky's (Barowski) testamentary executors were above Chodźko / Alexandre Chodikoff / A. Khodzko, and Edouard Goutte, also Polish by birth from the Russian mission in Tehran.


Izydor Borovsky / Isidor Borowski in 1776 born in Warsaw, Poland - d. 1837 or 1838, his mother was a Jew and his father was a Polish nobleman (the illegitimate son of Prince Radziwill ?); 1794 under Kosciuszko in Poland; 1797 in Italy - the Polish Legions;
in 1801 - 1802 / 1803 at Haiti served the French Army (Napoleon Bonaparte dispatched a large expeditionary force of French soldiers and warships to the island, led by Bonaparte's brother-in-law Charles Leclerc, to restore French rule; it ended in November of 1803 with the French defeat at the Battle of Vertieres. Haiti became an independent country on January 1, 1804, with Jean-Jacques Dessalines),
then (ca 1802) in 'Les freres de la cote', a pirat;
a general and an adjutant under Simon Bolivar (1783 - 1830) in Venezuela and Colombia (a successful rebellion led by the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was finally defeated in 1822 in the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela, by Wikipedia),
then under Muhammad Ali / Mehemet Ali (1769 - 1849) in Egypt (in 1829 he was teaching mathematics and English),
and under Abbas Mirza (1789 - 1833) to capture Herat in Afghanistan;
by jewishencyclopedia.com/ was reared in the United States (after 1805 ?),
1831 he was in Bushire, Persia (1821 ?);
and "...was afterward recommended by Sir John Campbell, the British minister, to Prince Abbas Mirza, the son of Shah Fatḥ Ali, as a useful and talented man. Borowski developed great military abilities in the service of that warlike prince, and took for him the strong town of Cochan in Khorassan. Later he took the castle of Sarakhs and made prisoner the leader of the Turkomans. After the death of Abbas in 1833, Borowski gave most essential assistance to Abbas' son, Mohamed Mirza (Muhammad / Mahmud 1834), and enabled him to ascend the throne of his grandfather. The English were behind most of the military undertakings of the Persians in those days, and Borowski was looked upon as an English general, and even wore the uniform. But he forsook the interests of the British government and joined the Russian party in Persia, and was shot at the siege of Herat (war 1838 against the Turkmens; but close to Herat in 1836 fought Count Antoni Aleksander Iliński). His wife, a Georgian captive of war, received a pension from Mohamed Shah on account of her husband's distinguished services. Bibliography: Jos. Wolff, Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara, pp. 138-140, New York, 1845; S. Orgelbrand, Encyklopedya Powsiechna, ii., s.v., Warsaw, 1898".
Son of Izydor Borowski was General of Persia, Antoni Radziwiłł-Borowski, 1803–1858, in 1821 in Persia with the father; 1850 was taken Herat.


And more on Poles in Asia:

Jan Prosper Witkiewicz / Yan Vitkevich / Виткeвич, Ян b. 1808, d. 1839, a Polish orientalist, explorer and diplomat in the Russian service. He was the agent of Russia at Kabul just before the First Anglo-Afghan War.
Witkiewicz was the uncle of the renowned Polish painter, and writer Stanisław Witkiewicz, who was father of Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, killed by Soviet troops in September 1939.
He was born close to Wilno. His father, Wiktoryn Witkiewicz, was a vice-marshal of the Rosienie county and his mother was Justyna nee Mikulicka.
Witkiewicz reached Kabul in Dec. 1837 and met with the British representative Sir Alexander Burnes. Dost Mohammed favored the British; but on receiving Lord Auckland's ultimatum he turned to Witkiewicz. Meanwhile, in London, Palmerston called the Russian ambassador and complained about Russian activities in Afghanistan.
Wikiewicz back to Saint Petersburg in 1839. Met with Nesselrode, but a week after reaching Petersburg he was found shot dead in his hotel room.
Burnes was born in Montrose, Scotland, to the son of the provost, who was first cousin to the poet Robert Burns.
When the Lord Auckland ultimatum has sent the Emir postponed Burnes. Sir Alexander Burnes demanded that Dost Mohhamad concluded an agreement with Ranjit Singh and renounced claims to Peshawar; at the same time Witkiewicz returned to St. Petersburg with nothing.
Above George Eden, 1st and last Earl of Auckland, 1784 - 1849, was an English colonial administrator. He served as Governor-General of India between 1836 and 1842.
Captain Sir Alexander Burnes, 1805 - 1841, was a Scottish traveller and explorer who took part in The Great Game. He was nicknamed Bokhara Burnes; born in Montrose, Scotland, his father was James Burnes 1780 in Montrose, Angus, Scotland, d. 1852 in Edinburgh;
son of James Burness and Anne;
grandfather was mentioned here James Burness 1750 - 1837 in Montrose,
son of James Burness senior.
At the age of sixteen, Alexander joined the army of the East India Company and while serving in India, he learned Hindi and Persian, interpreter at Surat in 1822. Transferred to Kutch in 1826; he went to Afghanistan.
Above Montrose is a coastal town and former royal burgh in Angus, Scotland. 61 km north of Dundee, north-east of Perth.
Named above Robert Burns 1759 d. 1796, as Robbie Burns, Rabbie Burns, a Scottish poet and lyricist. Born 1759 in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland; died 1796 in Dumfries, Dumfriesshire, Scotland; he was son of William Burns / Burnes / Burness, b. 1721 in Glenbervie, Kincardineshire, Scotland, died 1784 in Tarbolton, Ayrshire, Scotland;
Rabbie was grandson of Robert Burnes / Burness, 1694 in Glenbervie, d. 1759 in Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, Aberdeenshire, and Annabella / Isabella Keith;
and great-grandson of James Burness and Margaret Falconer;
Robert was brother of Elspeth Brock; Christian Crab; William Burnes; James Burness; Margaret Gavin; George Burness; Thomas Burness; Jane Burness; Isobel Burness and Mary Alexander Burnes 1732 - 1733.
Rabbie Burns was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the eldest of the seven children of William Burnes (1721-1784).
William Burns / Burness b. 1721,
had brother James Burness b. circa 1717 in Glenbervie, Kincardineshire, Scotland, died in 1761 in Montrose, Angus, Scotland.
His grandson was James Burnes 1780 Montrose, Angus, Scotland, died 1852 in Edinburgh.
Mentioned above William Burns b. 1721, d. 1784 in Tarbolton, Ayrshire, Scotland.

2.

A strongest organization in the region of Napoli / Naples was the Carbonari movement in 1820; they proclaimed a constitutional monarchy in Naples.
King Ferdinand I accepted vision of social revolution political changes. Vienna and the Holy Alliance directed intervention against the revolution in 1821. Reintroduced the absolute rule of Ferdinand I.
There are many theories about the creation of the Carbonari movement; creators were to be French Freemasons in opposition to the Masonic Swedish Rite or officers who came to Italy with Joseph Bonaparte and Murat to propagate fighting with the reign of Ferdinand IV; there is also a view that English created in Sicily the Carbonari movement, either Queen Maria Carolina of Austria or the Italian Illuminati at the end of the eighteenth century.
Giuseppe Garibaldi b. 1807 in Nice, politician, and fighter for the unification of Italy, was a Freemason, Grand Master of the lodge Grande Oriente d'Italia, but his grandfather and father were shipowners, owners and captains of small vessels in the northern and western Italy; he joined the revolutionary Carbonari. In February 1834 he took part in a failed uprising led by Mazzini in Piedmont, in Genoa.
Giuseppe Mazzini b. 1805 in Genoa, a journalist, a fighter for freedom together with Garibaldi, also Mazzini was a Freemason; maintained close contacts with Albert Pike, also a Freemason.
We must back now to Napoli / Naples / Neapol:
Silvati, Joseph b. in Naples 1791, lieutenant of the Bourbon cavalry, former officer of Murat, affiliated with the Carbonari, together with M. Morelli stationed in Nola (1-2 July 1820), and started the riots of 1820-21;
after the revolution failed he fled to Ancona; arrested by the papal authorities and handed over to the Bourbon government, was sentenced to death and executed.
In Naples, the conspiracy, which was not intended to overthrow King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies but only to ask a constitution, was growing rapidly and involved senior officers. In March 1820 the message from Spain across quickly in the Kingdom of Naples to strengthen the Carbonari and Masonic movements.
Lt. M. Morelli, head of the section of the Carbonari in Nola, decided to involve his cavalry regiment in the conspiracy. He was joined by Giuseppe Silvati, also lieutenant, and Luigi Minichini, anarchist and priest from Nola.
In the night of 1 to 2 July 1820, head of the Carbonari, Morelli and Silvati gives the kick off of the conspiracy by deserting with about 130 men and 20 officers. Quickly, Minichini joined and he wants to come the countryside to recruit peasants; Morelli, meanwhile, wants to go directly to Avellino where General Pepe was in command; Minichini leaves the expedition; the young officer Michele Morelli, supported by his troops, headed Avellino; on 2 July, in Monteforte, he was welcomed triumphantly. The next day, Morelli, Minichini and Silvati are entering in Avellino. Welcomed by the municipal authorities, and the constitution on the Spanish model is proclamed;
Morelli passes the power in the hands of Colonel De Concilij, Chief of Staff to General Pepe. Minichini goes back to Nola; on July 5, the insurgency extends to Naples, where General Guglielmo Pepe gathered around him many military units.
King Ferdinand I was forced to give Constitution. Elections are held and parliament seat for the first time on 1 October 1820.
But the first spark of uprising was in Nola in the night between 1 and July 2, 1820; Lieutenant Michele Morelli 30 years, was a native of Monteleone Galasso (near Foggia) and Lieutenant Joseph Silvati was from Naples; it's a list of 21 conspirators who journeyed from Nola, on the night between 1 and July 2, 1820: Luigi Minichini from Nola, priest; Dominic Gentile of Nola; Antonio Montano from Naples, coffee makers; Camillo Sepe from Nola, pharmacist; Rossi Giovanni of Nola; others from:
Santa Maria a Vico, Armigeri, San Giovanni in Teduccio, Pozzo Ceravolo, and Piazzolla Nola.
The Revolutions of 1820 was a revolutionary wave in Europe: in Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Italy for constitutional monarchies; and in Greece. The 1820 revolution began in Naples against King Ferdinand I; this success inspired Carbonari in the north of Italy to revolt too. In October 1820 and in February, 1821, Austria send an army to crush the revolution in Naples. The King of Sardinia also called for Austrian intervention. The Neapolitans, commanded by General Pepe, made no attempt to defend, and were defeated at Rieti on 7 March 1821. The Austrians entered Naples.


In 1823 or 1822, Michal Kleofas Oginski traveled with relatives in Italy, lived in Florence, where he died on October 15, 1833 in Florence; his main business was a literary and musical editorial work. He was buried at the monastery cemetery close to the Church of Santa Maria Novella, and later reburied in the Pantheon of Santa Croce.
The father of Michal Kleofas Oginski b. 1765, was Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.
Michal Kleofas Ogiński, owner of the Helenow palace, Otrębusy, Komorów, Helenow and Opacz, was born as Michal Kleofas Ogiski in Guzów close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765; was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer; his father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paulina nee Szembek.
Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 / 1730 or in Warsaw in 1731, d. on May 31, 1800 Slonim or Warszawa, in 1755 was landowner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800, next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow) was Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833, and after Helenow village of the Oginski family, in ca 1800 come to hands of the Ostrowskis.



Interesting note:

Al Capone's right hand was Abram "Alex" Sycowski. Even describes as "the second after Capone".
His real name was Alexei Sycowski, he came from a Jewish family living in
Wielgomlyny, approx. 25 km from Radomsko;
was born around 1894. In 1900 went to Hamburg, and from there to the United States. According to other sources Alexei Sycowski came to the United States together with his family. He was a manager at one of the commercial enterprises in Chicago. Soon after Kid Tiger (his nickname) became the treasurer of the gang and the main manager of smuggling alcohol. Al Capone showed the authorities that high income reaches through the activity belonging to him laundries.

Note to above Wielgomlyny close to Przedborz:

1. Adam Kiedrzynski born 1783 / 1784 / ca 1787, landlord of Sulmierzyce near LUBIEC - brother of IZYDOR; Adam Kiedrzynski was godfather in Wola Blakowa in 1803 like nobleman with Joanna Lepicka. His relatives Felicjan Kiedrzynski and Tekla Lepicka of Wola Blakowa.
Sulmierzyce is situated close to Rzasnia, north of Jedlno; in the Krepa parish since 1769, close to LGOTA WIELKA.
Adam Kiedrzynski married in 1808 in Krepa to
Anastazja Bleszynska / BLESZYNSKI b. ca 1792, from Bakowa Góra close to Przedborz,
with children:
a. Apolonia Scholastyka Joanna 1809-11 in Krepa, 6 km north of Wola Jedlinska; north-east of Jedlno, 11 km north-west of Radomsko, south-east of Sulmierzyce.
b. and Franciszka Aniela b. 1824, Jan. 25th, in Sulmierzyce.

Above Bakowa Góra - near Reczno, 7 km north of PRZEDBORZ (see Wielgomlyny).

2.

Bleszynski, Boleslaw b. 1915-10-18 in Karlin;
Bleszynski Michal, from Przedbórz; in 1813.

Ignacy Błeszyński, senior, born 1742 in Zloczow / Zloczew - died in 1813 or 1815,
son of Kazimierz Błeszyński and Teresa Jordan Struss (m. 1st to Jan Jordan or Ignacy Jordan of Zakliczyn);
he was half brother of
Wojciech Ludwik Jordan (1725 - 1793),
Konstancja Urszula Walewska,
and Spytek Rogatian Jordan.
Ignacy Błeszyński senior, born 1742 was married 2nd time to PETRONELA RADOLINSKA.

Henryk Kacper Tarczałowski b. ca 1820 m. in 1852 in Wierzbie, in the Tczyca parish, to Teodora Błeszyńska b. ca 1825, daughter of
Anna (b. ca 1780) and
Ignacy Franciszek Błeszyński (b. 1783) junior, son of
Ignacy Bleszynski senior (1742 in Złoczów close to Sieradz - died 1813), member of the Bar confederation 1768, and the 1794 Uprising, and Apolonia Sudrawska;
2nd wife of above Ignacy Błeszyński (1742 - 1813) in 1789 was mentioned above Petronela Radolińska (1765 - 1821), daughter of
Jan Radolinski (1726 - 1796) and
Maria Brygida Gałecka.

Michał Jerzy Ludwik Poniatowski was brother to Kazimierz Jakub Poniatowski; Franciszek; Aleksander; Ludwika Maria Zamojska; Izabela Antonina Mokronowska - Branicka; and Andrzej Ksiaze Poniatowski / Duke. Above Ludwika Maria Zamojska nee Poniatowska, 1728 - 1781, was wife of Jan Jakub Zamoyski; and was mother of Urszula Maria Wandalin-Mniszech and above named Brygida / Maria Brygida Gałecki / Brygida Gałecka.

PETRONELA Radolińska (b. ca 1764-1821), was a daughter of Jan Radolinski 1726-1796 and Brygida or Maria Brygida Gałecki / Brygida Malecka; Petronela nee Radolinska was granddaughter of Józef Stefan Radoliński of Wschowa b. 1680 - died in 1740.
Józef Stefan Radoliński lived at the court of Polish King, Jan III Sobieski; clerk in Wschowa (see Sulkowski). Józef Stefan had 7 children:
youngest son Jan Radolinski 1726-1796 was owner of Jarocin, but his brother
Józef Stanisław was officer in Wschowa and in 1757 Józef Stanisław married to Katarzyna Raczyńska (see Kiedrzynski).
Józef Stanisław Radoliński born 1730 - died in 1781 in Winnogóra, the Szamotuły County, was father of
Antonina Maria Breza and
Wiridianna / Wirydianna Fiszer
(see General Stanislaw Fiszer, Radolinski of Wola Pszczolecka, General Franciszek Paszkowski, Armand + Konstantynowicz, Lenin + Inessa Armand, Tadeusz Kosciuszko).

Józef Stefan Radoliński of Wschowa b. 1680 - died in 1740 was brother of Zofia Walewska 1677 - 1723 who married Kazimierz Walewski. Kazimierz Walewski was son of Stanislaw Walewski and Katarzyna Lanckoronska.

Teodora Ludwika Walewska, Marianna Radolińska and Józef Kazimierz Colonna Walewski b. ca 1710, d. 1763 (he had son Atanazy Colonna-Walewski 1733-1815 and daughter Jadwiga Walewska who married in 1762 in Bielawy to Michal / Michael Walewski 1735 / 1740 - 1806) were children of Kazimierz Walewski and Zofia.

In 1774 Józef Stanisław Radolinski from hands of Stanisław August Poniatowski had taken Jeziorki, Słupia and Piekary; Józef Stanisław died in 1781.
Józef Stanisław Radolinski and Katarzyna had daughter Wirydianna (1761 - 1826), who married two times;
1st in 1788 to Maciej Antoni Kwilecki, officer in Wschowa;
Wirydianna m. 2nd time to General Stanisław Fiszer, the Chief of Army Staff of the Duchy of Warsaw and longtime friend of Tadeusz Kosciuszko
(see General Franciszek Paszkowski who had daughter - Armand's wife, and relatives to the Konstantynowiczs!).

Adam Kiedrzynski married in 1808 in Krepa to Anastazja Bleszynska b. ca 1792, from Bakowa Góra close to Przedborz.

Note:
In 1778 in Mroczkow close to Skarzysko Kamienna was built blast furnace, produced iron; in 1832 taken by Ignacy / Ignatius Błaszczyński junior, under Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł.
Ignacy / Ignacy Franciszek Błeszyński junior was born 1783 to Ignacy Bleszynski senior and Apolonia Sudrawska; Ignacy junior married ca 1810.
Ignacy Blaszczynski the 3rd (Bleszynski) was grandson of Bibianna / Biblianna Gierowska Blaszczynska (Anna ?).
Ignacy Blaszczynski / Bleszynski the 3rd died in 1864, fought in the January Uprising in 1863 together with Jozef Kalasanty Gierowski 1822-1873, who was exiled after 1863, and also with Franciszek Ksawery Gierowski 1832-1878, both sons of
Sylwester Gierowski 1790-1854, was owner of Wielgomlyny, and was son of Stanislaw Gierowski.
In 1863 they acted with Jan Szubert who was son of sister of Sylwester Gierowski wifes' who was from the Porczynski noble house.
Daughter of Sylwester Gierowski was Klementyna Rychlowska died in 1852 in Wielgomlyny.
Also Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont was born in 1867 in Kobiele Wielkie close to Wielgomlyny.
Kobiele Wielkie is situated around 9 km south-west of Wolka Bankowa and 11 km west of Wielgomlyny.

Some additional details:
1.
Bibianna Gierowska was living in Kobiele Wielkie. She married to Marceli Bleszynski (ac. to me: Ignacy Franciszek Błeszyński junior, b. 1783) - inf. in Radomsko.
2.
Wincenty Myszkowski (born 1789) married 2nd time - wedding in 1829 in Myśliwczów, near Wielgomłyny - Antonina Suchowicz (born in 1808); witnesses at the wedding were: M. Sylwester Gierowski, owner of Wielgomłyny; and Łukasz Musnicki, owner of Niedośpielin.
3.
In 1835 Sylwester Gierowski married to Angela Podkańska in Wielgomłyny.
4.
Named above
Ignacy Antoni Błeszyński b. 1840; died in 1864, Lieutenant of the Finnish infantry regiment of the tsarist army; officer of the insurgent forces in 1863. Born in Rogoźniki;
he was son of Józef Błeszyński born 1813, and Izabela Malczewska;
grandparents were
Ignacy Franciszek Błeszyński (junior) b. 1783 and Anna (that is Bibianna / Biblianna Gierowska Blaszczynska).
Great-grandparents:
Ignacy Błeszyński senior 1742-1813 and Apolonia Sudrawska b. 1750.
Great-Great-grandfather:
Kazimierz Błeszyński, 1703 - 1757, member of Parliament, writer of the Crown Treasury, and judge in Sieradz; Kazimierz Błeszyński was born in 1703 in Błeszno;
he was the son of Joseph / JOZEF Błeszyński and Marianna Linowski.
He owned, among others, Złoczew and Brzeźno in the area of Sieradz. He introduced a uniform system of weights and measures; 1746, he was re-elected as a member of parliament.
He married Teresa - widow of Ignacy Jordan of Zakliczyn, officer in Cracow (Kazimierz Błeszyński married to Teresa Jordan Struss; she married 1st time to Jan Jordan);
founded a church in Brzeźno; died in Wroclaw. He was buried in Złoczew.

5.
Above
Ignacy Antoni Błeszyński (1840 - 1864) was living in St. Petersburg,
then in Tula, in 1860 he was an officer of the Finnish Infantry Regiment but in 1861 he lived in Warsaw, witnessed the patriotic demonstrations. In 1862 he defected from the regiment. In 1863, after the outbreak of the January uprising, he was adjutant of General Józef Wysocki, in Volhynia / Volyn. Then he was sent in Kalisz, to Oxiński; in Piotrkow, then together with Joseph Turczynowicz, close to Rozprza. Błeszyński using the name Malczewski.
He spent Christmas Eve 1863 in Wielgomłyny, with Joseph and Frances Gierowski; the mansion was surrounded by Cossacks, and arrested Błeszyński as Malczewski, also taken Jan Schubert and Stanislaw Lipinski; after investigation has been sentenced to death and was executed on March 5, 1864, with Mosiński and Sukhoi.

6.
Mentioned above Rogoźnik - village near Bobrowniki, 17 km south-east of Tarnowskie Gory, and south-west of MYSZKOW (see Kalinowski).

7.
Marianna Magdalena Błeszyńska nee Łącka, I voto Szczawińska, born in 1704 in Wielgomłyny, daughter of Andrzej Łącki of Nadole and Teofila Teresa SZCZAWINSKA of BOROWIEC, wife of Aleksander Błeszyński and Józef Szczawiński.
Marianna Magdalena Błeszyńska nee Łącka was sister of Helena Zuzanna Bielska born 1716 in Wielgomłyny - wife of Stefan Bielski.

Above Aleksander Błeszyński born ca 1700, was husband of Marianna Magdalena LACKA, and father of
Wojciech Jan Nepomucen Błeszyński born 1738 in Mierzyn, close to Rozprza, south of Piotrków Trybunalski, and
Agnieszka Sułkowska, b. 1736 in Wielgomłyny
(wife of Stanisław Sułkowski and mother of Jan Nepomucen Józef Sułkowski born 1755 in Rozprza; Roch Hipolit Sułkowski; Marianna Agnieszka Sułkowska; Antoni Onufry Sułkowski born in 1765 in Piotrków Trybunalski, and Andrzej Sułkowski).

Above named
Wojciech Jan Nepomucen Błeszyński born 1738 was half brother of Zuzanna Wolska
(Zuzanna Wolska nee Szczawińska, b. 1726 in Wielgomłyny, daughter of Józef Szczawiński and Marianna Magdalena Błeszyńska);
Michał Hieronim Józef Szczawiński and
Jan Józef Wincenty Szczawiński
(Jan Józef Wincenty Szczawiński b. 1729 in Wielgomłyny, son of Józef Szczawiński and Marianna Magdalena Błeszyńska nee LACKA).

8.
WZDULSKI Andrzej Wojciech b. 1781, Zagórze, d. 1848, owner of Sokola Góra (south-west of PRZEDBORZ), married in 1840 in Wielgomłyny, to Michalina Grzymała Skoczyńska.

9.
In 1764 in Wielgomłyny, Ignacy Kiedrzyński of Malowana Wola (5 km east of DMENIN; 9 km north-west of WOLKA BANKOWA; 5 km north of Kobiele Wielkie) married Zofia nee Zabłocka 1 voto Święcicka (widow, a woman who has lost her husband by death),
with witnesses:
Mikołaj Zabłocki from Rogi (6 km south-east of Wielgomłyny),
Antoni Maj / MAY of Wola Życińska (5 km south-east of above ROGI), and
Antoni Zaręba. Zofia nee Zabłocka 1 voto Święcicka - no data.

10.
Jan Kanty Szaniawski (ca 1764 - 1839), landowner of Ochle close to Łask and owner of Gromadzice in the Wielun county, married in 1803, Osjaków, to Agnieszka Psarska b. ca 1770 - died after 1844,
daughter of Władysław Psarski 1700-1787.
Jan Kanty Szaniawski had daughter:
Petronela Szaniawska 1809-1835, married
Feliks Bonawentura Szulimierski / Sulimierski b. 1800
with son Stanisław Jan Szulimierski / Sulimierski b. 1830 - Widawa;
Feliks Bonawentura Szulimierski / Sulimierski was son of Ludwik Szulimierski / Sulimierski born 1770 + Marianna.

Brief explanation to above MARIANNA + SULIMIERSKI:

Marianna Cielecka b. ca 1770, died before 1833, m.
Jan Nepomucen Sulimierski b. ca 1770 - died in 1818, owner of Brzeski / Brzesko, son of
Michal Sulimierski and Jadwiga Jaroszewska;
with children:
Maciej, Filip, Teresa,
that is:
1. Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. ca 1795 / 1798, owner of Stronsko in the Lask county
(9 km south-west of Zdunska Wola and north-west of Widawa),
leaseholder of Wiesiolka, and landowner and Mayor of Zielecice / Zielecice (in the Lask county; here is his manor), the future godfather and uncle of Filip Sulimierski; he had been pardoned although he was investigated in 1833 / 1834.

2. Filip Rafal Sulimierski (1797 Tumusin, close to Zgierz - d. 1843 in Brzeski, in the Szadek county), owner of Chotyszów and Brzeski; married to

Balbina Psarska b. ca 1800,

2nd time in 1831 to Bibianna Barbara Dzwonkowska (1810 in Leszczyn, in the Sieradz county - 1882), daughter of Tekla nee Borowska b. ca 1780;

children of above Filip:

Klotylda Sulimierska b. ca 1835, m. Józef Zaremba son of Józef Zaremba;

Bronislawa Sulimierska (1827 - 1928 !), 1863 Uprising, 1st m. Edward Szenk, 2nd m. in 1871 in Cieszecin to Boleslaw Tarczalowski;

Artur Alfons Sulimierski (1831 in Stolec, the Sieradz county - d. 1902),

Kornelia Sulimierska (1836 - 1837),

Filip Koronat Sulimierski (1843 Sieradz - 1885 Warsaw), author of 'Slownik Geograficzny...'.

Shortly after the outbreak of the Uprising in 1831 Filip Rafal Sulimierski, father of Filip KORONAT, has been appointed a member of the Welfare Committee to collect contributions and financial assistance for the wives of officers.

The members of the uprising in 1831 were Faustyn, Walenty (also in 1833) and Antoni Sulimierski - sons of Mateusz and Justyna Sulimierski.

Father of Faustyn, Walenty and Antoni Sulimierski that is Anthony, Faustyn and Valentine, was Mateusz Tomasz / Matthew Thomas Sulimierski who - for providing food to the partisans in 1833 - was in accordance with the decision of the Commission of Inquiry, placed under court-martial in 1833.

In 1834 mentione above Filip Rafal Sulimierski (1797 Tumusin, close to Zgierz - d. 1843 in Brzeski, in the Szadek county), that is Philip Rafal Sulimierski was sentenced (the future father of Philip Koronat Sulimierski) because he received at his home Faustyn and Walentyn Sulimierski and the commander of Sieradz - Potocki. On May 3, 1833, the Sulimierski brothers troops fought with the Cossack patrol stationed in Szadek.

Filip Koronat Sulimierski (1843 Sieradz - 1885 Warsaw), author of 'Slownik Geograficzny...', was the son of Philip Raphael Sulimierski (1797-1843) and his second wife, Barbara Bibianna nee Dzwonkowski (1810-1882). Filip Rafael Sulimierski was the owner of the village Chotyszów and Brzeski (in the Sieradz county).

Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski born 1798, married Marianna Kempista - uncle of Filip Koronat - who was heir to the village Zielencice, was witness the birth registration of Filip Koronat Sulimierski together with Leon Labecki, teacher of the School District of Sieradz; witnesses to the baptism were Maciej Sulimierski, Karolina Nowicka, Joseph Zaremba and Teresa Starzynska.

The future editor of 'Wedrowiec' had two sisters - Bronislawa (1827-1928) and Kornelia (1836-1837 !) and brother Arthur Alfons (1831-1902) - the first one was a participant of the January Uprising, repressioned after its fall; Arthur worked as a teacher in Warsaw high schools;

the younger brother Filip Koronat was also the author of a book published in 1872. F. Sulimierski in 1856 moved with his mother and siblings to Piotrkow Trybunalski; after graduating in 1862 he started his studies in Warsaw on the newly created the Main School (now University of Warsaw) at the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics. F. Sulimierski also participated in a series of lectures on the philosophy of Henry Struve.

Acc. to Nejman:

Wojciech Sulimierski owner in 1728 of Losieniec, married to Dorota Trzebnicka,
with son:
Józef Sulimierski d. 1787, m. Antonina Przeradzka;
with children:
1. Jan died 1809,
2. Salomea;
3. Agnieszka m. Jan Kossobudzki;
4. Ludwik Sulimierski born ca 1758, died ca 1826, owner of Stronsko, m. to Marianna Julianna Kempista, daughter of Maciej Kempista and Joanna Szeliska,
with children:
a) Faustyna born ca 1799, Stronsko, m. Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki;
b) Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski of Wesola and Tyczyn, m. Nepomucena Pradzynska;
with daughter Ewa Józefa born 1836 in Zielecice;
c) Feliks Bonawentura Sulimierski married in 1829 to Petronela SZANIAWSKA - she was b. 1810 in Gromadzice, daughter of Jan Kanty SZANIAWSKI b. ca 1764, owner of above Gromadzice, and Ochle, and Agnieszka Psarska.

Acc. to Nejman the second branch of the Sulimierskis:

come from
Michal Sulimierski owner in 1752 of Kalów, Nowa Wies, Potok, Dury, Borowiska, married to Jadwiga Jaroszewska.
Them children:
1. Adam died ca 1832, with son Wincenty owner of Kalow,
2. Stefan d. ca 1832;

3. Justyna Sulimierska d. 1842, m. Mateusz Sulimierski son of Ignacy Sulimierski and Marianna Wyszlawska; the members of the uprising in 1831 were Faustyn, Walenty (also in 1833) and Antoni Sulimierski - sons of Mateusz and Justyna Sulimierski. Father of Faustyn, Walenty and Antoni Sulimierski that is Anthony, Faustyn and Valentine, was Mateusz Tomasz / Matthew Thomas Sulimierski who - for providing food to the partisans in 1833 - was in accordance with the decision of the Commission of Inquiry, placed under court-martial in 1833.

4. Mikolaj, d. 1831, owner of Wola Dzierlinska, m. Marianna Psarska d. 1819 daughter of Tomasz PSARSKI;

5. Jan Nepomucen Sulimierski died ca 1811, owner of Brzeska / Brzesko, m. Marianna Cielecka daughter of Andrzej,
with daughter Teresa Karolina born ca 1800, Marzenin, m. in 1820 in Kliczków, to Adolf Józef Starzynski b. ca 1782, owner of Chorzeszow;
and with son:
Filip Rafal Sulimierski born in Tumusin in 1797, m. 1819 in Biala, to Balbina Psarska born ca 1799, daughter of Franciszek, 2nd married in 1831 to Bibianna Barbara Dzwonkowska 1810-82;
with children:
Klotylda b. 1820, m. 1837 in Marzenin, to
Józef Waclaw Zareba;
and
Filip Koronat Sulimierski b. 1843 in Sieradz.

Jan Kanty Szaniawski (ca 1764 - 1839) had sons:
1. Józef Gabriel Szaniawski (1805 in Gromadzice close to Wielun - d. 1879) married in 1841 to Aniela Zbijewska (b. 1816);
2. Jan Chryzostom Ignacy Szaniawski (born 1813, Gromadzice), owner of Chodaki in the Szadek county, and also owner of Kraszyn, and Zwiasty;
3. Ludwik Bartłomiej Szaniawski (b. 1816 in Gronów, the Sieradz county),
owner of Kroczyce in the Lelów county and Malowana Wola (see KIEDRZYNSKI)
and married in 1844 in Rędziny to Aniela Rotkiewicz from Kroczyce (1824, Kroczyce - died 1860, Piotrków) daughter of Marianna Dobińska (Dabińska, Drabińska).

11.
In Wola Malowana was living Zabierzewski.

12.

Above Ignacy Błeszyński (1742 - 1813) senior, in 1789 was married 2nd time to Petronela Radolińska (1765 - 1821), with daughter Anastazja (?).
Adam Kiedrzynski married in 1808 in Krepa to Anastazja Bleszynska b. ca 1792, from Bakowa Góra close to Przedborz.

RADOLIŃSKI Jan b. ca 1726, owner of Jarocin and Radlin, m. Brygida Junosza Gałecka daughter of Ludwika Poniatowska, with:
a. above named Petronela RADOLIŃSKI b. 1765 in Jarocin, m. in 1789 to Ignacy Błeszyński 1742-1813, owner of Złoczew, son of Kazimierz and Teresa Struss (she m. 1st to Ignacy Jordan of Zakliczyn or Jan Jordan);
b. Piotr Józef Antoni;
c. Antoni Jan Piotr;
d. Franciszek Salezy Walerian Stanisław RADOLIŃSKI b. 1767 in Jarocin,
e. Ignacy RADOLIŃSKI born 1771, d. 1825, owner of Jarocin, Kowale Szlacheckie, m. 1804-13, to Anna Kwilecka daughter of Wirydianna Radolińska,
with:
1. Petronela RADOLIŃSKI b. ca 1811, married to general Habe, 2nd to general Jakub Wagner;
2. Gabriela b. 1808;
3. Władysław RADOLIŃSKI b. 1806, died in 1879 in Neapol, 1836 Count, m. in 1840 to Józefa Radolińska 1808-1880, with son
Hugo Juliusz RADOLIŃSKI b. 1841, Prussian diplomatist, m. 1863, Londyn, to Lucy Catherine Wakefield / Łucja Wakefield b. 1842, d. 1880 at Madera, 2nd to Joanna von Oppersdorf.
Hugo Juliusz RADOLIŃSKI b. 1841 that is Hugo Juliusz Raoul Edward Radoliński, duke von Radolin, died 1917 in Jarocin, Ambassador in Sankt Petersburg, Stambul / Konstantynopol and Paris, known Otto von Bismarck and Atanazy Raczyński; 1863 in London married
Lucy Catherine Wakefield, born in India, to Colonel Alfred Howard Wakefield, and Mary Suffolk Wakefiled, daughter of Indian Raja Busscher / Bussaher - Keeroo Visiera.
1864 born his son Alfred, 1866 son Hugo.

Mary Suffolk was born in 1814 in Pakistan. She was married in 1832 to Alfred Howard Wakefield with daughter Lucy Catharina Wakefield 1838-1880 and son George Edward.
Or she married to
John Howard Wakefield b. 1803 in Ipswich, London; wedding in London, 1832.
Above John was son of Edward WAKEFIELD, b. 1774, d. 1854, and Susanna CRUSH;
grandson of Edward WAKEFIELD, b. 1750, d. 1826, and Priscilla BELL, b. 1751, Tottenham.

Above Priscilla Wakefield, nee Priscilla Bell (1751 - 1832) was an English Quaker philanthropist who wrote on feminist economics and scientific subjects, as well as producing children's fiction, acc. to Wikipedia.

Above mentioned Mary Suffolk died in 1852 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

We remember on the governors of British Ceylon

(see my domain on tea in Ceylon, and Pilsudski in JAPAN):

James Campbell, 1822 to 1824, Major general, was succeeded by Edward Barnes.
Colin Campbell b. 1776 d. 1847, Governor of British Ceylon 1841 to 1847 under Queen Victoria; 1792, ran away from the Perth Academy, returned to Scotland to enter a Navigation Academy in Perth, 1792 sailed for India, he was the fifth son of John Campbell of Melfort
(Colonel John Campbell, laird of Melfort - western Scotland and north-west of Glasgow, Kilninver - close to Melfort, and Kilmelfort - close to Melfort, in Argyllshire, Scotland, born 1730, his children:
1. Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell, b. 1767, Killin - half way from Melfort to Perth and west of Perth, in Perthshire, Scotland,
2. John Campbell, b. 1769, Killin, Perthshire,
3. Allan Campbell, b. 1770, Killin, and others children)
and Colina, daughter of John Campbell of Achallader - west-north-west of Perth, whose mother Katherine was a daughter of
Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel - southern Glasgow.
His brother was Vice-Admiral Sir Patrick Campbell.

See in Bengal:
1. Latour;
2.
and Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill.
Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.

See BREGUET, Konstantynowicz, Duflon, Chopin:
Alfred Léon Jean O'MEARA 1834-1899 married 1862, Calcutta in India, to Mary Anne PRICE-BROWNE with children:
Walter Alfred O'MEARA 1863-1939 married 1892 to Annie Mary McKinnon GRAVES;
Frederick Arthur O'MEARA 1864-1887,
Anna Beatrice Edith O'MEARA b. 1865 and married 1886, Lahore (Pakistan).

3.

Siegfried Mendel Wolinski b. February 2, 1903 in mentioned above Wielgomlyny - 12 km south-west of Przedborz, Radomsko County, Lódz Voivodeship, Poland
- east of Kobiele Wielkie and south-east of DMENIN; died 1936 in Tunisia.
Husband of Lola Sarah Bembaron.
Father of Georges Wolinski and Ella Wolinski. Georges Wolinski (b.Tunis) was the son of Siegfried Mendel WOLINSKI of Wielgomlyny, Poland.
Wielgomlyny:
in 1717 the Kampanowski family built chapels dedicated St Anna; in 1726 the Moszynski family founded a second chapel on the south side.

4.
Florian / Floryan Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1730 / 1740, owner of Noskowo - inf. 1776, 16 km east of Koszkowo and 27 km east of Kunowo. The same Florian Kiedrzynski b. ca 1730 (1740 ?), married in 1759, his wife was living 1730-1786. His son Leon Kiedrzynski b. ca 1760. His uncle was Kazimierz Kiedrzynski m. Katarzyna Swierczkowska. Above Florian Kiedrzynski's father was Marcin Kiedrzynski b. ca 1700 ? - died in 1788, mother Wiktoria Pstrokonska / Wiktoria Poraj Pstrokonska;
brothers of FLORIAN:
Jan Antoni Maciej Kiedrzynski 1738 - d. ?; Stanislaw Kiedrzynski ? - 1774; Pawel Kiedrzynski; Józef Kiedrzynski;
sister Bona from KARSY, married Kiedrzynska.
Karsy - 10 km south-east of DMENIN and 11 km west of Wielgomlyny.

1787 in Lgota Wielka:
Kazimierz Bleszynski of the Kodrab parish (see above Wielgomlyny), owner of Widawka, and Róza Bleszynska b. ca 1770 (sec. voto Kiedrzynska), daughter of Marianna Stobiecki, were married in the church, witnesses the wedding were Jan Bleszynski and Bonawentura Bleszynski, Ludwik Kiedrzynski the burgrave of Piotrkow, and Roch Wielobycki; Kacper Kepista of Ostrzeszow.

Kodrab - 17 km east of Radomsko. East of Jedlno. Dmenin is close to Kodrab.
Widawka - 4 km north-west of Kodrab.

5.
The MOSZYNSKI family owned WIELGOMLYNY.

Jan Kanty Moszynski died 1737 in Warsaw, was Treasurer of the Crown in 1736, trustee of both the Saxons, marries the daughter of Augustus II the Strong and Countess Cosel; his grandfather was
Andrew Louis Moszynski (d. 1683),
he came from a noble family of his father Michal Alexander who lived in Podlasie and served as treasurer.
Aleksander Michal Moszynski / Aleksander Moszynski married to Teresa Ossolinski of Tenczyn; Teresa Ossolinska b. circa 1668, d. 1756;
she was mother of Józef Moszynski and Jan Kanty Moszynski.
Above Aleksander Michal Moszynski b. circa 1664, d. 1700, was son of Andrzej Moszynski and Anna.
Jan Kanty served to the court of Augustus II as a cabinet minister and Secretary of State for Poland, with title chamberlain, allowed the uncle Francis Maximilian Ossolinski.
Frederick Joseph and also August Fryderyk Moszynski / Frederick Augustus Moszynski b. 1731 in Dresden, d. 1786 in Padova, freemason, and economist, expert in the mint, Earl, were sons of Jan Kanty / John Cantius Moszynski and Frederica Augusta, the illegitimate daughter of Augustus II the Strong and Countess Cosel.
Frederick Augustus Moszynski since 1737 has remained under the care of Henry Brühl. He was educated at a military school in Dresden.
In 1765 taken the Bolimowska Wies estate, 10 km west of Guzow of Oginski (see Michal Kleofas Oginski)!
In 1769 he became Grand Master of the Masonic lodge in Poland; he has split the Masonic lodges into three - German, French and Polish, with the mysterious names: Three Brothers, the Perfect Silence and Virtuous Sarmatian chaired by Count Luigi Frederick von Brühl.

Above named Bolimowska Wies is a village in Poland in the Lodz region, in the district of Skierniewice, close to Bolimów.

6.

Michal Kleofas Oginski, owner of the Helenow palace, Otrebusy, Komorów, Helenow and Opacz (see above BOLIMOW), was born as Michal Kleofas Ogiski in Guzów close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765;
was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer; his father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paulina nee Szembek.
Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 / 1730 or in Warsaw in 1731, d. on May 31, 1800 Slonim or Warszawa, in 1755 was landowner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800.
After him the next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow to 1800) was Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833.
Helenow village of the Oginski family, in ca 1800 come to hands of the Ostrowskis (see below!).
Tomasz Adam Ostrowski was owner of HELENOW in ca 1800 to 1817 (and Tadeusz Ostrowski - see below!),
then 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki and Jakub Ksawery Potocki.

7.
Piotr Wojciech Pawel Ostrowski d. 1773 was son of Wojciech Ostrowski born ca 1710, and Katarzyna; husband of Konstancja Katarzyna Ostrowska / Konstancja Stoinska; father of Tomasz Adam Roman Ostrowski; Aleksander Ostrowski and Wojciech.
Above
Tomasz Adam Roman Ostrowski - see owners of HELENOW, GUZOW, OTREBUSY, BOLIMOWSKA WIES - b. 1735 in Krupa-Ostrów / Ostrów Krupski close to KRASNYSTAW. Died 1817 in Warszawa.
Father of
Julia Halka-Ledóchowska;
Antoni Jan Ostrowski (1782 Warszawa, d. 1845 in Les Madéres, France; father of Julia Olimpia Michalowska; Tomasz Antoni Ostrowski; Agnieska Eigert; and Tekla Dzierzykraj-Morawska);
Ludwika Mechtylda Potocka;
Wladyslaw Tomasz Ostrowski (1790 - 1869);
Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski
(1792 - d. 1842 in Wien, father of Maria Morsztyn 1821 - 1907 and Stanislaw Julian Roman Ostrowski);
brother of Aleksander Ostrowski and Wojciech Ostrowski.
His mentioned brother Aleksander Ostrowski died 1790.

8.
The Moszynskis were owners of Wielgomlyny.
Village Wielgomłyny was the home parish of Konstanty that is Constantine Moszyński, who was born in the village of Rudka in 1670.
He was the son of Alexander / Aleksander Moszynski and Magdalena Ujejska.
Wielgomłyny came into possession of this family, through Jerome, who took over the estate after his mother nee Koniecpolski
(Wielgomłyny with Kruszyna, included Zagorze, Trzebca, Myśliwczów-Kolonia, Januszowice and Rudka).
The family had close relationships with the Order of the Pauline.
James / Jakub Moszyński was the grandfather of Constantine Moszyński. He served at the court of Emperor Ferdinand III, died in 1648.
Antoni Moszyński and Magdalena Dobiecka from Rudka / Rutka (1st wife ?) - inf. in 1706, April.
Antoni was the last owner of Wielgomlyny, inf. 1726 and in 1739.
Antoni Moszyński married Jadwiga Wolska (2nd wife ?), with son Adalbert, who died at a young age in 1737, and daughter Petronela.
Petronela Ostrowska, 1713 - 1785, was daughter of Antoni Moszynski who died 1767.
Antoni and Konstanty were sons of Aleksander Moszynski and Magdalena Ujejska of Wilkowice.
Aleksander Moszynski born circa 1640, died in 1700, was son of Jakub Moszynski and Marianna.
Wilkowice - north-west of Rawa Mazowiecka.
Above Petronela nee Moszynska was the last landowner of above named Wielgomlyny. She married Kazimierz Ostrowski of Maluszyn, and this estate found themselves already in the hands of the OSTROWSKIS.
Petronela married Kazimierz Jan Ostrowski in 1730, at age 17. Kazimierz was born in 1710, d. 1755 in Maluszyn; he was son of
Jan of Ostrow Ostrowski that is OSTROW WIELKOPOLSKI;
Kazimierz was Colonel, officer in Sieradz, friend of the KING Stanislaw Poniatowski, and Stanislaw Leszczynski; owner of
Wielgomlyny, Kruszyna, and Sulmierzyce
(see KIEDRZYNSKI).

In 1738 KAZIMIERZ bought Maluszyn
(here lived - samples only -
Aleksander Ostrowski, 1810-1896, with wife Helena Morstin, and 6 children:
August, b. 1836 in Cracow, m. Elżbieta Niezabytowska; Jan b. in Maluszynie in 1840; Konrad in 1846; Józef in 1850; Maria born in Radoszewnice in 1838, married to Stanisławow Jan Władysław Potocki; Ludwika b. 1851.
And next person: Jozef Ostrowski since 1896)
from hands of Malczewski - 20 km of Koniecpol.
The Uncle of KAZIMIERZ Jan / John was Kazimierz Ostrowski, a Jesuit, known Polish philosopher.
Kazimierz Jan Ostrowski had two daughters -
Aniela and
Zofia Helena or Helena born in Rzasnia (baptism with closest friends: Jan Walewski and Elzbieta Mecinska of Wielun),
and 5 sons:
Alexy; Antoni; Kazimierz; Michal and Swietoslaw;
above Michal Ostrowski was next owner of Maluszyn and Wielgomlyny; he was the great-grandfather of Joseph Ostrowski, Polish politician, a member of the Regency Council of the Kingdom of Poland.
Above Aleksy / Alexy Ostrowski son of Jan Kazimierz Ostrowski and Petronela; husband of Jadwiga; father of Ignacy Blazej Ostrowski married Tekla with Brutus Ostrowski and Barbara Ksawera Ostrowski wife of Filip Szaniawski.
Above Brutus Ostrowski husband of Julia with children:
Augusta Bogumila Teofila Belza; Milosz Ostrowski and Konstancja Ostrowska b. 1828 + Leonard Rudzki.
Above Milosz Ostrowski b. 1830 m. ca 1855 to Zawadzka.
Above Augusta Bogumila Teofila Belza b. 1829 wife of Józef Belza.

Mentioned above Kruszyna – village near Wielgomlyny.

Above Jan Kazimierz Ostrowski, died in 1755 in Maluszyn south of PRZEDBORZ, Radomsko County, Lódz Voivodeship; he was son of Jan Ostrowski.
Above Michal Ostrowski b. 1738 in Rzasnia (12 km north-west of Sulmierzyce - see KIEDRZYNSKI) and died in 1805,
married Marianna TYMOWSKI with son
Michal Wojciech Ostrowski 1782 - 1847;
and grandson - Aleksander Ostrowski.
Wife of Michal Wojciech Ostrowski was Józefa Potocka b. ca 1781, d. 1859 in Maluszyn, Radomsko County, daughter of
Aleksander Potocki and Teresa Ludwika HUTTEN CZAPSKI.

Above Aleksander Ostrowski b. 1810 in Maluszyn, d. 1896; husband of Helena; father of Augustyn Ostrowski; Maria Potocka; Jan Ostrowski; Józef August Ostrowski and Ludwik.

Above Augustyn Ostrowski 1836 - 1898 was husband of Elzbieta Wielopolska, that is Elzbieta Wielopolska Niezabitowska Ostrowska b. 1840, daughter of Stefan Niezabytowski and Celina;
she was wife of Augustyn Ostrowski and Zygmunt Andrzej Wielopolski (Count, politician of the conservative pro-Russian orientation; mayor of Warsaw from 1862 to 1863).

Note at margin:
Ludwika Ostrowska Ronikier daughter of Roman Ronikier and Maria Anna Dorota; wife of Tadeusz Ostrowski; sister of Katarzyna Krasicka and Teresa; half sister of Leonila Leontyna Siemienska and Maria Katarzyna Leonia Goetzendorf Grabowska. Ludwika Ostrowska, born Ronikier in ca 1860; her mother was Maria Anna Dorota Ronikier Goetzendorf Grabowska born Lubomirska. Roman Ronikier was born in 1832, in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Maria was born in 1832, in Saint Petersburg;
Tadeusz Ostrowski b. ca 1855/1860.
Maybe he was son of Feliks Augustyn Ostrowski b. ca 1831 / 1834 - d. 1891, and grandson of Jan OSTROWSKI and Magdalena Tyszka (her children: OSTROWSKI Henryk Seweryn born in Kuleszki in the Miastkowo parish in 1832, close to LOMZA; OSTROWSKI Hieronim Mateusz; Wincenty Kryspianin).

On Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski and others brief note:

1. J. B. O. Ostrowski (Nov. 1832; see Frédéric Guillaume de Vaudoncourt; J. B. Ostrowski, 'Czy jest jaka Litwa', Nowa Polska, 3 (1835), folios 28 and 29) or J. B. Ostrowski (Dec. 1832) was a member of the 'Zemsta Ludu' together with Stanislaw Gabriel Worcell, Smolikowski, Czynski, Pulawski, Boleslaw Gurowski, Mjr Antoni Krakowski, Józef Zaliwski, and Joachim Lelewel who was republican conspirator, a close collaborator of the Carbonari, and of the Société des Amis du Peuple (see Inessa Armand).
Acc. to www.ipsb.nina.gov.pl/index.php/a/jozefat-boleslaw-ostrowski
on Józefat Boleslaw Ostrowski born in 1803 or 1805 - 1871; that is Ostrowski Józefat Boleslaw, nickname Ibus, B.J.C., J.B., J.B. of Pobujany, born in Pobujany / Pobuzany north-east of Lwow / Lviv, son of Jan. 1830 co-operated with Adam Chledowski; emigree to France, 1837–9, escaped to England, then served France counterintelligence, died in Meaux.

2.
Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski b. 1792 - d. 1842 in Wien.

3. Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski was owner of HELENOW 1817 - to 1833 (? Helena was sister of Tadeusz Ostrowski) but after the Józef Zaliwski MOVEMENT in 1833 escaped to France and Austria.
Before him Tomasz Adam Ostrowski - his father - was owner of HELENOW in ca 1800 to 1817.
Then 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki in 1855 and Jakub Ksawery Potocki; Maria Konstancja nee SAPIEHA in 1855.

Count Tomasz Adam Ostrowski 1735 - 1817 a Polish nobleman, politician, statesman and Count since 1798, Colonel of the Crown Army in 1765, the Chamberlain of King Stanislaw II Augustus in 1767,
son of Piotr Ostrowski and Konstancja Stoinska;
a member of the Andrzej Mokronowski Confederation in 1776, MP in 1776 of the Upita county.
Andrzej Mokronowski 1713 - 1784, MP in 1776, the Masovia governor, general lieutenant in 1759, General Major in France in 1754, the Freemason. See about Mokronowski at my webpages.

Count Tomasz Adam Ostrowski 1735 - 1817 in 1765 married Józefa Godlewska, with whom he had a daughter Julia.

1781 he married Apolonia Ledóchowska with nine children:

Antoni Jan Ostrowski, General Commander of the National Guard during the November Uprising (since 1809 he was a member of the Provisional Government, 1828 he was a member of the Parliament Court, 1831 he was appointed President of the Senate, since 1831 in exile);

Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski - owner of HELENOW, and

Wladyslaw Ostrowski, Marshal of the Parliament of the Polish Kingdom in 1830.

In 1795, Count Tomasz Adam Ostrowski 1735 - 1817 married Apolonia Kunegunda Brzozowska.

4.
Meshonka:
here lived Antoni Konstantynowicz the first son of Dominik derived from area of Krycau and verified noble descent in the Hrodna government 1861, and his son Stanislav Konstantynowicz (born c. 1855) with wife Anna nee Malkiewicz / Malkevicius came from the Dryssa ujezd (= the Werchnedwinsk district; the place Asveja) in the Government of Vicebsk; she was near related to the families
Brzezinski / Bžezinskis (Konstancja Bžezinskis / Brzezinski), and
Ostrowski (from Piotr Ostrowski de Kaki in 1697; 1760 by the Czerowacz lake in Livonia).

5.
Konstanty Ludwik Plater built in Kraslaw new church, together with Antoni Ostrowski and Jerzy Mikolaj Hylzen in 1768, Jerzy de Ludingshausen-Wolff.

6.
Krystyn Piotr Celestyn Józef Ostrowski, 1811 - 1882, son of Antoni Jan Ostrowski and Józefa Zofia Karolina MORSKI.
Antoni Jan Ostrowski b. 1782, d. 1845 in Les Madéres, France, was son of Tomasz Adam Roman Ostrowski and Apolonia, father of Julia Olimpia Michalowska, Tomasz Antoni Ostrowski, Krystyn Piotr Celestyn Józef Ostrowski, Stanislaw Kostka; Agnieska Eigert; and Tekla Dzierzykraj-Morawska.
Brother of Ludwika Mechtylda Potocka; Wladyslaw Tomasz Ostrowski; Tadeusz Jan Karol Ostrowski of Helenow; Maria Morsztyn and Julia Halka-Ledóchowska.
Christien Ostrowski / Kristien Ostrowski / Krystyn Piotr Celestyn Józef Ostrowski, born in 1811 in Ujazd 11 km north-west of Tomaszow Mazowiecki, died in Lausanne, September 1831 the family went into exile in France; Christien then settled in Belgium, served the Belgian army from 1832 to 1836. He then returned to Paris, and published numerous articles to support the restoration of Poland (Mickiewicz to Krystyn Ostrowski, on 13 November 1840); he is best known as a translator; he translated into French works by Mickiewicz. In 1876 he moved to Lausanne, where he died in 1882.



In 1781 above named
Michal Kazimierz Oginski
was appointed deputy of the Lithuanian provinces, and a year later went abroad. He was in Brussels, Amsterdam, Berlin, Vienna, traveled to England. Visiting Prussia, asked for help of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm II, to regain their estates in Russia.

Michal Kazimierz Oginski, General lieutenant, provincial governor since 1764, composer, writer, poet, cousin of Andrzej Ignacy Oginski / Andrew Ignatius, who was the father of the composer Michael Cleophas Oginski.

His parents: Joseph Tadeusz Oginski and Anna Korybut-Wiśniowiecka;
marriage with Aleksandra Czartoryska.

Countess Olga Kalinowski born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in (1840 acc. to Russians) 1844 and her son:
Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1848 or 1849.
We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow.

Countess Olga Kalinowski was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818.
This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women:
with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867
and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki.

Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.

Дузи Козрое / Хозрой / Cosroe Dusi b. 1808, was an Italian painter, active for many years in St Petersburg, Russia; Cosroe was born in Venice, his mentor was the painter Teodoro Matteini, in 1838, he painted for the Fenice Theater. He traveled through Monaco, Germany, and Russia. In 1838, Drusi designed prints celebrating the visit of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. Dusi had briefly lived in Munich, Bavaria, but around 1839 / 1840, the Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia, after visiting his Venetian studio, invited Dusi to St Petersburg. In Russia, he painted portraits of the Grand Duke and members of the imperial family and the court; he had over the years periodically revisited his native Venice. He returned to Venice in 1856, and died in 1859 / 1860 near Vicenza.
Dusi become best friends of the Earl and Countess Orlov (Orlov Denisov), and they introduced him to families Laval, Branicki, Potocki, Buturlin, with artists Bryullov, Whigs, Vendramin, architect Cavos, Count Tolstoy, the Secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts, with Olenin, director; on the pages of his diary known Stackenschneider, Montferrand, Rossi, Bruno, Grech, Bulgarin; the Grand Duke Alexander, Countess Kalynovska / Kalinowski, merchant Gromov, Countess Orlova.
He wrote down: 1840, on 27 June, the family Branicki with Countess Kalinovsky leaves Petersburg; they ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. July, 12: I went to Tsarskoye Selo, where the Countess Kalynovska-Plautin / Plautyn first posed for me and paid 3500 rubles for two portraits of her sisters Olga Kalinowska and Josephine / Jozefina Kalinowska.
Olga Kalinouski / Kalinowska first love Crown Prince Alexander. Olga Kalynovska born to a noble Polish family. Her mother was from a noble family Potocki, her father served as a cavalry general. Olga was at the Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna's / Nikolayevna court. Soon Olga met the Crown Prince Alexander - young people are often seen in the palace, dancing on shiny balls and masquerades; Olga became the first lover of Alexander Nikolayevich Romanov.
Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna wrote of her beloved brother;
Countess A. A. Tolstay / Tolstoj also noted Kalinovskaya eyes; ... the beautiful eyes of Olga Kalinouski; this young lady, Polish descent, grew up in one of the schools of St. Petersburg. However, Emperor Nicholas I would never agree with such a choice son. Olga Kalynovska was not a princess, she still was not Orthodox.
L. V. Dubbelt recalls about Olga Kalinouski: it was scary!
However, on the Crown Prince Alexander return to St. Petersburg, romance with Olga Kalinovskaya erupts with renewed vigor.
In St. Petersburg Olga Kalynovska lived in the house of his sister Seweryna Kalinowska / Severina, who was married to General Nikolai Fedorovich Plautin / Plautyn;
this is probably why sometimes mistakenly called her as wife of N. F. Plautin.
In fact Kalynovska in 1840 (?) was married to the former spouse of her sister, rich Polish, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski (1808 - 1863). He was the son of the composer, author of the famous polonaise, M. K. Oginski.
The eldest son Ogiński will argue later that he was the son of Alexander II.
We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow.
Ольга Калиновская / Olga Kalynovska was lover since January 1837 on the so-called Chinese masquerade in which Kalynovska shows a first court lady. Tsarevich was then 19 years old. Then he was the Russian Emperor Alexander II (1818 - 1881 St. Petersburg), imperator all-Russian, and Polish king, Grand Duke of Finland (1855-1881) of the Romanov dynasty. 1837: Alexander was ready to abdicate, to marry her. in late April, Alexander once again went on a long journey. For a year, he visited Scandinavia, Austria, has traveled all the Italian and German states.
June 23, 1839, he returned to St. Petersburg and again met Olga Kalinovskaya, then, on March 4, 1840, Alexander went for his bride in Darmstadt. He returned to Russia with her in early September. December 5th, Grand Duchess of Hesse-Darmstadt Maximilian-Wilhelmina-Augusta Sophia Maria was baptized in the Orthodox rite and became Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna (1824-1880).
1839: Alexander spent the month of May in London, where he was warmly received by English aristocracy, was in Parliament, in Oxford, the Tower, the Bank of England and Westminster Abbey.
June 23, 1839 he returned to St. Petersburg to Olga Kalinovska.
A Diaries of 1840 by Zhukovsky:
November 1840: Glazunov and Zaikin, then Ungern. Visits: Nesselrode, Kalinovsky. I dined with Velgorskih. 1840, May, 9 - my doctor Schildbach ... Talk about the Empress and the Grand Duke. Grancy and Ricour. In the evening ... Bariatinskii. Talk about Strauss and Orlov. Kalynovska, the evening.
From the book by Leonid Lyashenko "Alexander II ... history of three solitudes":
... the heir to the throne has fallen in love for the first time in a serious way. The object of his passion became again a maid of honor ... of the Empress Alexandra Fiedorovna, Olga Kalynovska. Love heir to Kalinovskaya was for the royal family even more unacceptable than flirting with Borozdina. ... she also was a Catholic.
1840 acc. to Cosroe Dusi:
May 30. This morning began the portrait of Countess Josephine Kalinovskaya / Jozefina Kalinowska ... 1840, June, the 27. This morning the family Branicki leaves with Countess Kalinovsky. They ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. Then I went to Tsarskoye Selo, where the Countess Kalynovska-Plautin first posed for me and paid 3500 rubles for two portraits of her sisters Olga and Josephine. ... Vladimir Korf's masquerade ball: Korf invites to dance the beautiful Olga Kalinowski - first lady of the Empress and the beloved of heir Alexander, ... Vladimir Korf causing Alexander to a duel. ... but rumors of duel reach the emperor, ... Vladimir and his friend, an adjutant of the Crown Prince - Mikhail Repnin, miraculously escaped the shooting, deprived of all ranks and come under close observation of the head of the Third Division, Alexander Benkendorf.
And Olga Kalynovska goes away from court, to his native Poland, where she get married; Alexander agrees to marry Mary Hesse-Darmstadt.
Oginski, Michal Bogdan, 10 October 1848 - 25 March 1909 in Retow / Reutov, married to Countess Maria Gabriella Potulitskoy (b. 1855). Michael-Bogdan Oginski, Prince Oginski was the son of Aleksandr II Nikolaievich Romanov, Tsar of Russia and Olga Kalinovskya, Countess Kalinovskya.

3.

Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899.

Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Swiatopelk Mirski took part in the Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878; he studied at the General Staff Academy to 1881, in 1887 he was the commander of staff of 3rd Grenadier division; 1895 the Governor of Penza, and in 1897 the Governor of Yekaterinoslav. 1900 Sipiagin appointed him Assistant Minister of the Interior and Commander of the Imperial Corps of Gendarmes. 1902 Governor-General of the North-Western province: Vilna, Kovno and Grodno; was credited with successful liberal reforms, stopping pogroms against the Jews. 1904 Minister of the Interior after Plehve's assassination. His appointment was seen as a victory of liberals, as a victory of the party of widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna who supported the liberal reforms; the Sviatopelk-Mirski's plan included transferring more power to the State Council of Imperial Russia.
On January 22 / January 9, 1905 occurred the massacre known as Bloody Sunday; he never had authorised the shooting of the demonstrators, but his opponents said that he not only did authorise the shooting but also in order to push his own political agenda actively encouraged the demonstration.
He was replaced (on 18 January) as Minister of the Interior by Bulygin in February 1905.
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski 1857 - 1914, married to Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska;
she was from a branch of Wassili Bobrinsky, b. 1804, d. Moscow in 1874, son of Alexei Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1752, who married 1796 to Anna Dorotea / Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg (1769 Tallinn - St. Petersburg in 1846) daughter of the Tallinn commendant Woldemar Conrad von Ungern-Sternberg b. 1739;
Wassili Bobrinsky 1 m. 1824 to Pss Lydia Gortschakova b. 1807, 2 m. 1830 to Sofia Sokownina b. 1812, 3 m. 1869 to Alexandra Utschakova
(his brothers:
A. Alexei Bobrinsky, 1800 - 1868, m. 1821 to Css Sophia Samojlowa b. 1799,
B. Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899 ?).
Her daughter was
Julia Pawlowna Bobryńska / Julia Broel - Plater, Gołąbek - Jezierska, nee Bobrinski / Bobryńska, 1823 - 1899, married Waldemar Gołąbek-Jezierski Count, b. 1822, died 1855 in Warsaw. He was son of Jan Nepomucen Paweł Gołąbek-Jezierski Count and Karolina.
Julia 2nd time married Cezar August Broel - Plater in 1859; Cezar / Cezary August Plater was born on September 8, 1810, in Wilno. They had 2 sons including Cezary Broel-Plater.
Julia 1st married Waldemar Gołąbek - Jezierski in 1851; Waldemar was born in 1822. They had one son Aleksander Gołąbek - Jezierski.
The father of mentioned above Julia was above named Pavel Alekseevich Bobrinski / Paweł Aleksiejewicz Bobryński and Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska Junosza, Countess, nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska.
Paweł Bobrynski / Bobrinski was born on October 27, 1801, in Saint Petersburg; Julia Sonocka Bielińska was born in 1790 or 1804. Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska, ca 1790 / 1804 - 1892; m. 1822, after death of husband she moved to Paris;
her father Stanisław Kostka Bieliński died 1812 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, served on the court of the King Stanisław August Poniatowski; Marshal of the Parliament in 1793, m. Katarzyna nee Golicyn, b. 1775, d. 1825 in Saratów.
The family of above Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
a. Elżbieta Bielińska m. 1779 in Mogilany to Franciszek Wielopolski,
b. Franciszek Bieliński 1740 - 1809, 1776 Nat. Educ. Com., 1794 the Kosciuszko Uprising, owner of Kozłówka to 1799, and the Otwock palace, m. Krystyna Sanguszko.
The father of above named Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
Michał Bieliński died 1747, the Chelmno province governor, Sztum office, 1725 the King court, 1736-42 Kozłówka palace near by Lubartow,
m. 1st to Aurora Maria Rutowska daughter of Fryderyk August II and Fatima, grand-daughter of Jan Jerzy II Saxon / Sas and Anna Zofia of Danmark, 2-v. Claude Marie de Bellegarde;
m. 2nd time to Tekla Pepłowski grand-daughter of Jadwiga Niemyski, of the Kozłówka estate.

Wassili Bobrinsky / Wasyl Bobrzynski had 2 children:

I. Alexei Bobrinsky 1831 - 1888, 1st m. 1855 to Pss Catherine Lvova b. 1834, 2nd m. 1859 Sofia Cheremeteva b. 1842.

He had 4 children:

1. Wassili Bobrinsky 1860 - 1861,
2. Ct Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937, he m. twice,
3. Ct Wladimir Bobrinsky 1862 - 1938, married to a French woman,

4. Css Catherine Bobrinsky / Ekaterina Alexeiievna 1864 - 1926 m. 1886 to Pr Peter Swiatopolk-Mirski / Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski d. 1914;

II. Css Sofia Bobrinsky 1837 - 1891 m. Viktor von Keller d. 1906.

The father of Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
Michał Bieliński / Michael Belinsky, coat Junosza, d. 1746, the provincial governor of Chelmno. Son of Casimir Louis Bielinski, a Polish diplomat and Louisa Maria Morsztyn (d. 1730),
daughter of the poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn / John Andrew Morsztyn.
Brother of Franciszek / Francis Bielinski, also the governor of Chelmno and the Grand Marshal of the Crown.
Michal's 1st wife Aurora Maria Rutowska (d. 1750), illegitimate daughter of the Polish king Augustus II the Strong Saxon, divorced.
The second wife was Tekla Popłowska (d. 1774) with son Franciszek Bielinski / Francis (d. 1809), the writer of the Crown and Stanislaus Kostka (d. 1812), Marshal of the Grodno Parliament. Michal was in 1738-1746, the voivode / governor of Chelmno.
Above mentioned Franciszek Bielinski / Francis Belinsky, coat Junosza, b. 1683, d. 1766 in Warsaw, the Grand Marshal of the Crown 1742 to 1766, the court marshal of the Crown 1732 to 1742, the provincial governor of Chelmno 1725-1732, treasurer of Prussia 1714 -1738.

Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski 1788-1868, Duke in 1861.
His son: Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron back to Russia in 1840, 1841 served at Caucasus -
his brothers and sisters:
1. Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, wife of Wilhelm Rodys, mother of Pelagia Joanna Findeisen

[Pelagia Joanna b. 1849 in Lublin - 1875 in Smilowice, wife of Gustaw Adolf Findeisen, and she was mother of
a. Jadwiga Pawinska
(1868-1924, married in 1886, social activist, had a son Thaddeus, philologist; her husband Pawiński Joseph (1851-1925), a doctor of the Hospital of the Infant Jesus and St. Spirit in Warsaw, the Polish co-founder of cardiology. Born in Zgierz, was the son of John and Amalia Krohn and was brother of Adolf; schools in Łęczycy and in Warsaw, studied medicine at Imperial Univ. in Warsaw 1869-1874. He worked then at the clinic of diagnostic under Ignacy Baranowski; His brother was Adolf Stanisław Pawiński b. 1840 in Zgierz, d. 1896 in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Polish historian, archivist and assistant professor of the Warsaw School of Economics and professor of general history of the Imperial University of Warsaw. In 1862 Pawiński moved to the University of Dorpat in Estonia, 1864 he received the degree of Candidate of Sciences. Theodore Witte from Dorpat, admitted Pawiński to study abroad. First, he moved to Berlin, where he met Ranke. Later, he attended lectures of Jaffe and Droysen. He then went to Göttingen, 1868, after returning to Polish has been an associate professor at the Warsaw School of Economics and the Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw),
b. Stanislaw Findeisen (1873-1970) + Alicja Paulina Handke 1896 - 1994
(her parents Hugo Handke and Matylda Zalern; Alicja Paulina Handke born in Pultusk and died in Warszawa; her son:
Wladyslaw Findeisen b. January 28, 1926 in Poznań, Polish engineer, a professor of technical sciences, rector of the Technical University of Warsaw (1981-1985), automatic, co-founder of systems theory in the context of the wider science of control / adjustment, the chairman of the Primate Social Council, a senator I and II term in Warsaw. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle);
c. and Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 + Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt - Jastrzebiec 1889-1975: his children:
Gustaw Findeisen b. 1912 Smilowice, d. 1992 in Warszawa;
Andrzej Findeisen 1915 - 1944 with daughters:
c1. Bellert Zieleniewska,
c2. Grocholska;
Tomasz Findeisen 1919 - 2004 + Aniela had 3 children;

and last son of Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 and
Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1889-1975 was
Krystyn Tadeusz Findeisen 1924-1944]

and next daughter of above Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, was
Zofia Joanna Saturnina Sliwicka;
and next brothers and sister of above Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron:
2. Ekaterina d. 1879;
3. Vladymir 1823 - 1861, and
4. Dmitri / Dmitry Ivanovich / Dmitrij 1824 or 1825 - 1899, Infantry General and politician, Caucasus and Russo-Turkish wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia;
his son Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857 - 1914), the governor of Penza and Vilna governments, Minister of Interior of Russia;
5. Mikolaj / Nicholas Ivanovitch Sviatopolk-Mirski 1833 - 1898; a godson of Tsar Nicolas II, and was "aide de camp" of the Tsar, General-Adjutant 1874 (1877-1878 war), the Caucasus wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia, 1881-1898 The Don Cossack chief;
1891 he bought at Princess Mary Lvovna Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst the estate of Zamir, located in the Minsk government, the Novogrudek county, after death of Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg; 1898 Member of the State Council; he died at his estate Mir;
1st m. Princess Vera Ilyitchnina Gruzinsky / Grouzinzky in Tiflis, Georgia on 4 May 1860; 1842-1861 or 1863, daughter of Ilija Georgijevich, with son Ilija;
2nd m. in St. Petersburg in 14 April 1868 to Cleopatre Mikhailovna Khanykov, 1845-1910.

4.

Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937.

5.

John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig, and Caroline Margaret Clayton. His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt.
Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas.
Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green, Scotland - on border of England. Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.
Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas. Gretna is 1 / 2 km south of Gretna Green! After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison.

6.

NERI MICHELE (born 16 OCTOBER 1750, Firenze / FLORENCE, ITALY, died ca. 1822 in Firenze).

7.

Ancestors of Johann Laval Anton Maria Viktor, count Nugent-Pallavicini-Centurioni-Fibbia b. 1877 in Graz - died 1930;
parents:
Laval Jeremias Anton, count Nugent b. 1843 in Triest (d. 1923 in Florence: 1st m. to Baroness Emma von Zahony b. 1847 in Triest, 2nd to Maria Pallavicini Fibbia of Centurioni, 3rd to Karoline von Steininger), and Maria Pallavicini Fibbia, marquise of Centurioni b. 1850.
The parents of above Jeremias:
Johann, count Nugent b. 1796 in Dublin, died in Brescia, and Regina Contessa Abriani b. 1813.
The father of above Johann b. 1796:
Michael Anton Nugent b. ca 1750, who was also father of above: Laval Graf Nugent von Westmeath 1777 - 1862, served the armies of Austria and the Two Sicilies; born at Ballynacor, Ireland.

8.

Józef Hieronim Retinger (17 April 1888 – 12 June 1960) was a Polish political adviser. Since 1906 in Paris, among his new friends was the Marquis de Castellane, and an artists from Left Bank cafes; 1908 docteur of Sorbonne, next Univ. of Munich,
Florence ca 1907?, 1908 met masonry in London, 1911 Cracow under protection of Count Zamoyski and the Godebski family, and again in 1911 or 1912 to London, 1912 return to Cracow,
married Otylia Zubrzycka; sometimes to Paris and again London where Józef Hieronim Retinger opened a bureau of the Supreme National Council; met with Joseph Conrad, 1914 ? and next he fled to Spain and met L. N. Morones and P. E. Calles, moved in 1917 to Mexico; Józef Hieronim Retinger travelled to USA and met Felix Frankfurter and Sir Edward Bedington-Behrens.

9.

Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, b. 1784 in Livorno, west of Firenze / Florence, banker, his grandfather, Moses Vita Haim Montefiore had emigrated from Livorno to London in the 1740s, but had close contact with Livorno; his parents, Joseph Elias Montefiore and Rachel Mocatta, were in Italy on a business journeys;
Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet began his career as tea merchants, was Jew broker in the City; married Judith Cohen and her sister, Henriette / Hannah married Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777 - 1836), for whom Montefiore's firm acted as stockbrokers.
Nathan Rothschild was a London banker, but was born in Frankfurt am Main, as child of Mayer Amschel Rothschild; 1806 in London he married Hannah Barent-Cohen (next of kin with Karl Marx).

10.
The Bobrinsky family and the Demidov di San Donato:
Andrei SCHUVALOV b. 1802, m. Fekla Valentinovich or Tekla daughter of Walenty b. 1801, (Andrei was son of Pjotr SCHUVALOV b. 1771, and grandson of Andrei b. 1743);
his daughter and son:
a. Sophia (b. 1829), m. in 1850 to Ct Aleksander Bobrinsky (d. 1903);
b. Pawel SCHUVALOV (Schouwalov; Schuwalov) b. 1830, m. 1st in 1855 to Pss Olga Belosselsky-Belozersky and m. 2nd to Maria Aleksandrovna Komarov;
his son Aleksander b. in Vartemiagui in 1881, m. 1st in 1903 (div) Pss Jelena Demidov di San Donato / Elena Demidov b. St.Petersburg 1884 - died in Florence in 1959, m. 2nd in 1916 to Sophia Gfn von Fersen;
Jelena / Elena b. Switzerland, Vevey in 1864 - d. Paris 1932, m. in Batignolles 1881 to Ct Andrei Bobrinsky (d. Paris); she was daughter of Pjotr (b. 1819), and grand-daughter of Pawel SCHUVALOV (b. 1776) m. Pss Barbara Szachowska / Warwara Shakhovsky (b. 1796), the great grand-daughter of Andrei (b. 1743 - above mentioned!) m. Css Jekaterina Petrovna Saltykov (d. Rome 1816).

11.
Николай Никитич Демидов / Nikolay N. Demidov (1773 - 1828 in Florence) in 1822 moved to Florence (1815?); he was one of the richest people in the Russian Empire; Demidov, was living in San Nicolo in Oltrarno, a poor part of Florence; immediately after the death of Nicholas Nikitich, his children Anatoly and Peter ordered the sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini to marble monument; with family Demidov closely related two buildings in Florence - Villa San Donato and Villa Pratolino (also called Villa Demidoff). Villa San Donato is located half a kilometer to the north-east of the park Kashin, outside the historic part of Florence, was built in 1822 - 1831;
a grandson of Nicholas Nikitich Demidov - Paul II did not like San Donato, preferring Villas Pratolino - the estate of the Medicis;
1881, the villa San Donato and the collection of art and minerals were auctioned.
Villa Pratolino (now often called the Villa Demidoff) was built on the ruins in 1822 in Pratolino town, 15 km north of the historic part of Florence.

12.
Павел / Паоло Трубецкoй / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866, Intra, north-west of Milano, south-east of Saanen in Switzerland; son of Петр Петрович Трубецки (1822-1892) and Ада Винанс / Ada Winans, 1835-1917, who lived in Florence; his half-brothers:
Пётр Николаевич Трубецкой (1858-1911), and Сергей Николаевич Трубецкой (1862-1905) of the Moscow Univ.; Paolo in 1914 - 1921 lived in USA.
Above Pyotr Trubetskoy / Петр Петрович Трубецкой / Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy was a Russian diplomat, administrator and general. He was born in Tulcin / Tulchyn, Ukraine, died in Menton, France; son of Пётр Иванович Трубецкой and Emilia Petrovna, husband of Varvara Yuryevna 1828 - 1901, governor of Smolensk and Orel in 1844, friend of Tolstoi. He has 3 daughters:
Мария b. 1863, m. to Александр Александрович Прозоровски - Голицын (1853 - 1914).
Prince P. Troubetzkoy, was attached to the Russian royal court; in 1863, he came to Italy as a diplomat of the Russian embassy in Florence, known the pianist Ada Winans 1835 - died 1917 / 1918 in Intra, who came to Florence to study singing. In 1865 he went again to Florence (Italy) on a diplomatic mission which included the supervision of the Russian church there.
Ada / Ада was daughter of Anthony Van Arsdale Winans and Mrs Jay, from New York; Ada in 1853 started work at the Doane Academy in Berlington, the New Jersey; moved to Florence to learn of bel canto (and to Spain). 1864 Ada finished a work in Milano and Florence; moved to Ghiffa / Ghifa in Lombard, in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 120 km northeast of Turin and about 7 km northeast of Verbania on the western shore of the Lake Maggiore. 1870 he was divorced, but were living in Intra; Ada had 3 sons:
Пьер, Паоло and Луиджи / Luigi:
Pierre / Пьер / Петр b. 1864, m. in 1896, to the American writer Louise Amélie Rives (or Amelie Louisa Reeve 1863-1945, an American novelist and poet, her novel, World's End, became a bestseller in New York in 1914), he died in Charlotesville, VA;
Павел / Паоло / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866;
Луиджи 1867-1959, Navy military engineer (electricity), d. in Ghiffa 1957.
Ada's friend Аchille Tominetti, Leonardo Bazzaro, Paolo Sala, Augusto Laforet, Ulisse Grant, Stefano Turr, Cesare Correnti, the Cairolis;
1884 moved to via Borghetto, close to Porta Venezia, Venice. 1887 Ada and Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy separated, Pyotr lived in Milano with Marianna Chan / Han (?), and had son Питер Хан / Piotr Han (?) in 1886.


Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Ogiński, Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński, Franciszek Ksawery Ogiński, Amelia Załuska, Ida Ogińska, Emma Ogińska.


Above mentioned Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata Count (b. Venice, 1877 - d. Rome, 1947), was an entrepreneur and Italian politician. Become rich by exporting tobacco from Montenegro, invested the gains acquired in the emerging electrical industry and in 1905, returned to his homeland, formed the Adriatic Society of Electricity.


Time of life of Parvus:

Parvus was born in 1867 Berazino / Berezyna; moved to Odessa;
ca 1885 in Odessa with political satirist Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin;
in 1886 Gelfand first traveled from Russia to Basel, Switzerland; 1887 - returned to Russia; the fall of 1888 Gelfand enrolled at the University of Basle;
ca 1892 Gelfand moved to Germany, joined Rosa Luxemburg; 1900 he met Vladimir Lenin in Munich;

1902 to 1908 worked for M. Gorki

(to Autumn 1917 Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff worked in the Russian Embassy in Berlin where she became acquainted with British diplomat R. H. Bruce Lockhart. They owned the mansion Jendel in Jäneda, in Estonia where he was shot dead in 1918; 1918, she was arrested in a suspicion of spying for England and transferred to the Lubyanka prison. Bruce Lockhart, tried to vouch for her; they were lovers; Lockhart was expelled from Russia soon after, Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff was released as well under the condition that she would cooperate with the intelligence service; then she met Maxim Gorky as secretary and wife of Gorky, with a few interruptions from 1920 to 1933; 1920 she met H. G. Wells and became his mistress, renewed in 1933 in London, where she emigrated. Later, she was married to Baron Nikolai von Budberg-Bönningshausen, as a double agent for the Soviet Union and British intelligence.
Her older half-sister, Alexandra Alla Ignatievna Zakrevskaya b. 1884, married Baron Arthur von Engelhardt before 1909, was the great-grandmother of Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 2010);

1905, Parvus arrived in St. Petersburg with false Austro-Hungarian papers and coordinated an agitation; he was arrested on 21 March 1906 and imprisoned with Trocki and Lev Grigorievich Deutsch in St Petersburg - was visited by Rosa Luxemburg; emigrated to Germany 1906, acted again with Maxim Gorky (1902 - 1905) 1906 - 1908, and Rosa Luxemburg;
moved 1908 and 1910 - 1915, to Istanbul in Turkey; he was a business partner of the Krupp concern, of Vickers Limited, and of the Basil Zaharov, German ambassador Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim, also to Enver, Talat and Cemal, and Finance Minister Djavid Bey;

Parvus arrived to Berlin on the 6 March 1915; like Sulkowski, he recommended the division of Russia by encouraging ethnic separatists in various Russian regions, and its loss in the First World War was the best way to bring a revolution.

The plan of the Russian Revolution 1915. Copyright by Chronos. World History on the Internet (Подготовка массовой политической забастовки в России / A preparation of massive political strikes in Russia). ХРОНОС. Retrieved 2006-12-17. This document was produced by Alexander Parvus (Israel Gelfand) in February 1915 and contained a preliminary plan for the destruction of existing political system in Russia, the revolutionary movement for the German money. ... at
http://www.hrono.ru/dokum/191_dok/1915parvus.php. Part of the plan he had already finished writing in Berlin. ... Printed from the book: Heresh Elizabeth, Bought Revolution. Secret deal Parvus. Translated from the German I. G. Binevoy, Moscow 2005, p. 21-27.

The plan was handed over to the Germans on March 9, 1915, and they immediately began to finance its implementation. When reading the document easy to see that Lenin in 1917, acted in accordance with this plan. Import of money, weapons and subversive literature was carried out to the territory of Russia by the German money through neutral countries. Lenin maintained relations with Pravus connected via Karl Radek and Jacob Ganetsky (Furstenberg). The plan of the Russian Revolution covers twenty pages:

"1. Preparation of the mass political strike in Russia.

By the spring in Russia should start preparing mass political strike under the slogan 'Freedom and peace'. Center of the movement will be in Petrograd and Obukhov, Putilov and the Baltic Shipyard. The strike should cover rail networks between Petrograd and Warsaw, as well as the South-Western Railway. Railway strike will be mainly carried out in the major centers with large teams of workers, railway workshops and so on. To expand the scale of strikes wherever possible, will broken railway bridges, as well as during the strike movement of 1904-1905.

2. Conference of leaders of the Russian Social-Democrats:

The plan can only be achieved under the leadership of the Russian Social-Democrats. The radical wing of the party has already begun to take action. But it is important that joined them moderate faction of the Mensheviks. ... But two weeks ago, their leader Lenin himself raised the question of unification with the Mensheviks. Unity can be achieved through a policy of compromise; ... And thus begin active operations against absolutism. It should be noted that a group of moderates always is under a strong influence of German Social Democracy. Due to the personal authority of some leaders of the German and Austrian Social Democracy ... you can still achieve a lot with them. ... it is necessary to convene in Switzerland or in any other neutral country ... It should take part:
1. Social Democratic Party of Bolsheviks. 2. Menshevik party. 3. Jewish Bund. 4. Ukrainian organization Spilka. 5. The Polish Social-Democratic Party. 6. The Social Democratic Party of Poland. 7. Social Democratic Party of Lithuania. 8. The Finnish Social Democrats.
Congress can take place only if it is absolute reached a preliminary agreement to launch immediate action against the tsarist regime. ... Additional possible participants of the congress are: 9. Armenian party Dashnak-tsutyun. 10. Hindshak.
... the Congress by their decisions will have a major impact on public opinion in France and England.

3. Russian Socialist Revolutionaries.
Separate negotiations need to lead a party of Russian Socialist - Revolutionaries. These people are most inclined to nationalism. However, their influence to the working community is minimal. In St. Petersburg, they have only a small number of supporters at the Baltic Shipyard. On the question of the mass strike, they can be eliminated without prejudice. Their scope - it is the peasantry, where they have a significant impact, using teachers of public schools.

4. Individual movements.
Preparing the creation of an institutional framework for the mass strike should immediately start doing direct agitation. Through Bulgaria and Romania can establish links with Odessa, Sevastopol, Rostov-on-Don, Batumi and Baku. Russian workers in these areas ... have not stopped fighting for these requirements: only two years ago, the big strike of sailors and dockworkers, which again put on the agenda of the previous suggestions. Agitation should be ... and at the same time acquire a political nature a general strike at the Black Sea ... under the domination of unemployment, ... probably take place in Nikolayev, Rostov-on-Don and among workers in certain occupations in Odessa. Such a strike would have a local character ... To carry out such a campaign is necessary above all restores the organization of Russian sailors who settled in Constantinople, then to Alexandria. Now this center should be in Constanta or Galati. Since the war at sea cause severe disturbances in the Black Sea city, this will make them particularly susceptible to political agitation. Special forces must be applied ... in Odessa, ... as in 1905, ... And it would help to give a new impetus to the universal revolutionary movement. If in Odessa uprising broke out, it could be supported by the Turkish fleet. Prospects for the uprising in the Black Sea Fleet can be determined after the establishment of contacts with large Sevastopol. In Baku and the oil area can easily bring the strike. Can not be ignored ... workers are Tatars, ie Muslims. ... Strikes are also possible in the mining region of Donetsk. Particularly favorable conditions in the Urals. There Bolshevik Party has its loyal and strong supporters. Political strike among miners ... as the population is very poor.

5. Siberia.
Particular attention should be paid to Siberia. In Europe it is known only as a place of exile. But along the large Siberian routes, the railway and river banks lives strong peasant class, proud and independent, who wish to maintain independence from the central government. In the cities live energetic businessmen and intellectual layers, which consists of political exiles and which is under their influence. Siberian constituencies sent to the Duma socialist representatives. During the revolutionary movement of 1905 all the management was in the hands of the revolutionary committees. The administrative staff is extremely weak. The armed forces have been reduced to a minimum ... These circumstances make it possible to create some centers in Siberia action. At the same time it is necessary to take care of political exiles who want back to European Russia. This is purely a question of money. Thus, we can send thousands of ... agitators ... in the above campaign centers and in St. Petersburg. ... All of these actions will be developed and ... more co-ordinated their activities will be. On the other hand ... customize party centers must be immediately included, and lead them to unite.

6. Campaign in the press.
At the same time you need to give a boost to Russian Socialist Party, mentioning it in the press and brochures, as well as the direction of its actions. Brochures in Russian may be issued in Switzerland. In Paris goes Russian newspaper 'The Voice', which is edited by some leaders of the socialist Menshevik Party ... In spite of the exceptional circumstances in which it goes, this newspaper has maintained an objective attitude towards the war. ... May be mentioned and considered Swiss, and Italian, and Danish, and Dutch, and Swedish socialist newspapers, as well as the socialist press of America ... German socialist leaders ... easily be able to participate in this discussion in the media campaign would have a significant impact on the position neutral countries, especially Italy, ... in the socialist circles of France and England. ... which can reach up to England and France with great difficulty, would be of great value. ... easily make an impact in the sense ... against the tsarist regime in the socialist press of Bulgaria and Romania. Since Romania will be a central point of revolutionary agitation in the south of Russia, ... for this reason the position of the Romanian daily press is important, not counting, of course, its importance to determine its own position in the war. All major Romanian newspapers are in the service of Russia. ... It is not difficult to organize a group of recognized journalists for publishing large independent daily newspaper with a pronounced tendency to early accession of Germany. ...

7. Campaign in North America.
Particular attention should be paid to the United States. Many Russian Jews and Slavs in the United States and Canada are a very sensitive element for agitation against the tsarist regime. Russian Social-Democracy and the Jewish Bund were sent to tour to these places. ... they can inspire to energetic performances by local forces, to strengthen the organization, strengthen widely represented Russian and Jewish press and thus achieve the heyday of planned activities. ... with millions Russian immigrants, most of whom have only recently left their homeland, are also of great importance. Movement among Russian immigrants in America would have an impact on public opinion of America. ... The German element also needs to act more actively in this war ... A strong movement among the Russian, that is Russian Jews in America would contribute to performance of the Germans. It should be send here a few agitators from German and Austrian Social Democracy.

8. The growth of the revolutionary movement.
Campaign in neutral countries will have a strong reaction on the campaign in Russia, and vice versa. Further development is largely dependent on the military action. ... If the Russian army during the winter will also be tied to their former positions, the disorder will go across the country. Planned propaganda machine will use this disorder, expanding and deepening its across the board. Strikes here and there, food riots, the growing political agitation - all mislead the tsarist government. If it will lead to an repression, it will cause a growing resentment ... it will be interpreted as a sign of weakness, leading to an increase of the revolutionary movement. ... If in the meantime, the Russian army will suffer a major defeat, the movement against the regime can take unprecedented dimensions. In any case, you can count on the fact that if all the forces will be directed to act on with the plan, the spring can happen mass political strike. If the mass strike will have a large scale, the tsarist government will be forced to concentrate forces in the country, especially in St. Petersburg and Moscow. In addition, the government will need strength to protect the rail links. ... will be sent to the railways in the west, you can call a strike everywhere. If it succeeds everywhere, the tsarist government will still be forced to use to protect stations, and so on. ... Simultaneously, the administrative apparatus will be given in the confusion that will accelerate its decay.

9. The peasant movement and Ukraine.
Along with the developments of above, the peasant movement is, as in 1905, an important contributing factor. ... In general, the question of protection of land is the basis of Russian peasant question, ... In Ukraine, all these problems are reduced to demand autonomy. As long as the tsarist government prevails, policy in Ukraine is reduced to giving away land to Moscow nobles and large landowners of Moscow, which protects it from ... Ukrainian peasants; farmers have no choice to rebel, unless they feel that the pressure of government weakened that ... One of the main tasks of the Ukrainian government is to establish law and order in places of anarchy ... The education independent of Ukraine can be considered as an exemption from the tsarist regime, and as a solution to the peasant question. ... a Great Russian peasants did not remain calm under any circumstances ...
10. Movement in Finland.
In connection to the global movement, in Finland, you can take important steps. Finnish parties are in an awkward position, since the country has significant Russian military forces. On the other hand, the Finns did not just want to be annexed by Sweden. Swedes do not seek to annex Finland, they want to make it a buffer country that is independent. Swedish party in Finland - a small minority. Therefore it is necessary to reach an agreement between the Swedish government and the stronger Finnish parties, among which the most influential - the Social Democratic. Such an agreement is possible if the Swedes guarantee Finns greatest autonomy and give them the right to decide which group of states they wish to join. ... systematically begin preparations for a general uprising. The Finnish Social Democrats have at their disposal an excellent organization, similar to the German. ... a special role played by differences in language. All preparations for the revolution must be conducted secretly ... Then part of the concentrated forces will be drawn to St. Petersburg. This will be the signal for the start of a general uprising in Finland. ... The plan was developed by a special commission in St. Petersburg, where the participants were members of the General Staff, as well as senior administrative officials. ... the Swedish army will have to intervene and protect the independence of Finland. Although this is good way to crush the rebellion, it makes absolutely defenseless against army intervention of enemy forces. Therefore, probably, the tsarist government will go the other way and will delay the army to administrative centers, that is, to the coast and along the railroad. In this case, may even be destroyed railway lines with Sweden. Then Russian will dominate only on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia. ... the rebels will form the National Guard ... Of course, much depends on the development of events in St. Petersburg. Finns can be of great help even before the Russian general strike. ... They could organize a system of signaling for aircraft ... Then can be created radiotelegraph stations ...

11. Caucasus.
During the revolution, the tsarist government virtually ignored the Caucasus. ... because of the Russian-Turkish war, the situation is quite different. There is a possibility of falling away of the Caucasus ... But in contrast to Finland, where a well-organized general uprising is possible, movement in the Caucasus will always depend on the national division and struggle of parties. Most strongly manifested themselves during the revolutionary years, Georgians. ... they got full control of the government in Kutaisi and established his administration, the courts, and so on. However, this movement is not led by separatists, and the Social Democrats. ... the Social Democrats had a few Armenians, ... But we must bear in mind that after the disappointment to the revolution and the war against the separatist tendencies, of course, have become popular. In strikes participated Tatar workers. In general, the Tatar population played a reactionary role. They were opposed to the Armenian government agents from Petrograd. This led to bloody stikam between them. ... Turkey has signaled to the Caucasian Muslims that to achieve the objectives of holy war... At the same time must be concluded an alliance with the Young Turks and the Armenian parties in Turkey ... The details of this action ... beyond the scope of this memorable letters. It should be mentioned only the fact that the share of the Caucasus Armenians and Georgians would have a big impact on decisive performance of the Russian Social-Democracy. ... Holy War, which aims to raise the huge mass in Persia, Egypt, North Africa, etc., is unlikely to have a significant influence in Russia. Tatars on the Volga and Kama, of course, do not move. It is extremely peaceful and absolutely obedient peasant ... The situation is different in the Caucasus, but there Tatars were pacified ... Old conflict between Caucasian highlanders and Russian was just a struggle against any centralized state. Since then, the tribes were scattered, their leaders became landowners, hardly having contacts with the masses. The people have lost a sense of independence. ... The Turkish army will be favorably received ... In the Caucasus Muslims large-scale guerrilla war is hopeless. Rise of the Kuban Cossacks quite possible, in this case would be useful Ukrainian propaganda.

12. End of motion.
The growth of the revolutionary movement in the tsarist empire, among other things, lead to a general turmoil. In addition to the general course of military operations, it is possible to take special measures to enhance this troubled situation. For certain reasons the Black Sea basin and the Caucasus are more favorable to the area. Particular attention should be paid to the city of Nikolaev ... In Nikolayev need to strike among the workers, not necessarily of a political nature, but simply on the basis of economic demands. ... First of all, the most important - is the mobilization ... young of its citizens. Russian Social-Democracy strongly opposed to the absolute power of the country is sought by the royal diplomacy. ... If the revolutionary movement reaches a certain size - even if the tsarist government hold power in St. Petersburg - created by the Provisional Government may raise the question of the cessation of hostilities and the beginning of diplomatic negotiations for a peace treaty. If the tsarist government have to conclude an agreement on a cease-fire until an interim government, the revolutionary movement will develop more resolutely ... ...

13. Siberia.
It is necessary to pay special attention to Siberia also because huge supply of artillery and other types of weapons from the US to Russia ... through Siberia. Therefore, the Siberian project should be considered separately from the rest. It should send a few energetic, cautious and well-equipped agents to Siberia on a special mission to blow up railway bridges. They will find enough helpers among the exiles. Explosives can be delivered at the Ural mountain plants ... from Finland. Technical guidelines could be developed here.

14. Campaign in the press.
Assumptions about Romania and Bulgaria were confirmed after finalization of the memorandum and in the development of the revolutionary movement. Bulgarian media now ... pro-German ...

Now it is especially important to take the job. 1. Financial support of the Social Democratic faction of the Bolsheviks ... It is necessary to establish contacts with its leaders in Switzerland. 2. Direct contact with the revolutionary organizations in Odessa and Nikolaev through Bucharest and Iasi. 3. Establishing contacts with the Russian organizations of sailors. Such contact is already over one gentleman in Sofia. Other connections are possible via Amsterdam. 4. Support the activities of the Jewish socialist organization Bund - not Zionists. 5. Establishing contacts with authoritative figures of Russian Social Democracy and Russian Social-revolutionaries in Switzerland, Italy, Copenhagen, Stockholm. Support their efforts ... against the tsarist regime. 6. Support of the Russian revolutionary writers who take part in the struggle against tsarism even in war. 7. Communication with the Finnish Social Democracy. 8. Organization of the Congress of Russian revolutionaries. 9. Influence on public opinion in the neutral countries, especially the position of the socialist press and socialist organizations ... In Bulgaria and Romania, it has already been successfully implemented; continue this work in the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland and Italy. 10. Equipment of the expedition to Siberia with a special purpose: to blow up the most important railway bridges and thereby prevent the transportation of weapons from America to Russia. ... with rich cash transfer for the organization of a certain number of political exiles in the center of the country.

11. Technical preparation for an uprising in Russia:
a) providing an accurate map of the Russian railways with the most important bridges that must be destroyed to paralyze transport connection, as well as identifying the main administrative buildings, arsenals, workshops, which should be given maximum attention; b) a precise indication of the amount of explosives needed to achieve the goal in each individual case. Thus it is necessary to take into account the lack of materials and the difficult circumstances in which the action will be carried out; c) a clear and popular instruction on handling explosives to the explosion of bridges and large buildings; d) simple recipes for explosives; d) develop a plan of resistance of the insurgent population of Petersburg against the armed power with particular reference to the workers' districts. Protection of houses and streets. Protection of cavalry and infantry. Jewish socialist Bund in Russia - a revolutionary organization, which is based on the working masses and which played a role back in 1904.
Bund is in opposing relationship with the "Zionists", from which there is nothing to expect for the following reasons:
1) because of their membership in the fragile party; 2) as the Russian patriotic idea became popular in their ranks since the war began; 3) because after the Balkan War, a core of their leadership actively seek sympathy of the British and Russian diplomatic circles, although this did not prevent them also to cooperate with the German government. Because of this, it is not able to make any political action".


Mr. Peter Wodzinski wrote in February 2013:

"...signals in 1939, that the German-Soviet pact is approaching, called then Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact (23rd August 1939/28th September 1939), Polish Intelligence service received much earlier from the British (they knew from listening and decryption of German diplomatic codes) via Colin Gubbins, operating in Poland under the guise of a sales representative in Bielsko-Biala (near the border of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, where the factory, next to the border of Germany, produced a version of Enigma). Colin Gubbins, later head of the SOE, acted within the deep intelligence organization, informally co-operating with our II Department of the General Staff, outside the official structures of MI-6, an organization based on the private relationship between various influential personalities. Stephenson was a Canadian multi-billionaire , having interests in the whole world, including Germany, which served as 'cover'. He was closely associated with the Admiral Reginald Hall, head of the Royal Navy intelligence at the Great War 1914-1918, which has not ceased its activities after the war, and Bill Donovan, later head of the OSS. The organization eludes historians, because there is no written sources. It work outside, and sometimes contrary, the governments of Britain and MI-6 (the latter was too bureaucratic), so do not could leave traces. It also had its anti-Soviet blade. There is one thing ... on the basis of age-old tradition:
'The King was the ultimate authority in secret-intelligence matters. He made the top intelligence appointments. The British had worked out their own system of checks and balances to prevent the monarch abusing such power - and to prevent a governing party exploiting secret agencies to serve its own ends'.
In other words, in addition to what is seen (also in the papers, even undisclosed) the second channel was still completely invisible, acting with 'blessing' of King George V and George VI, like Gubbins, or Major Desmond Morton, head of the structure for 'wet work'. (Republican opponent of Roosevelt in the 1940s? Darlan in 1942? De Gaulle, who was nearly been 'deleted' in May-June 1943? Or maybe Sikorski?).
The ignorance of the 'invisible channel' can lead to completely erroneous applications.
On the other hand, 'arson of Europe' made by Gubbins was not his idea; founder, theoretician and experimentator (on the small scale) was a Major Edmund Charaszkiewicz, the figure in Poland at all unknown ...
There are two important considerations:
1. Colin Gubbins gave it unofficially, because he and the entire organization so just acted on the basis of the King, Admiral Hall, Churchill, Donovan and Roosevelt.
2. The information submitted with a certain manner before the Ribbentrop - Molotow treaty was signed".

More: 'The Polish Underground Army, the Western Allies, and the Failure of...', by Michael Alfred Peszke:
The British were already thinking of helping the Poles develop guerilla forces in 1939, and this all evolved from a visit to London in late June 1939 General L. Rayski, then Stanislaw Wlodzimierz Pawel Gano, head of the Technical Section of the II Bureau, Mieczyslaw Frankowski in London, Charaszkiewicz - his contacts in London were
Col. Holland and Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins, who was seconded by the British War Office MI R, and who always had warm relations with the Poles.
Colin Gubbins, (1896 - 1976), head of the Special Operations Executive 1943 - 1946; October 1939 - Charaszkiewicz received a letter from his British colleague, Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins in which he informed Charasziewicz that he had been personally searching for him; Gubbins was also responsible for setting up the secret Auxiliary Units, a civilian force to operate behind the German lines if the United Kingdom was invaded during Operation Sea Lion, Germany's planned invasion.
Gubbins was born in Scotland (or in Japan) on 2 July 1896, the younger son and third child of John Harington Gubbins (1852 - 1929), Oriental Secretary at the British Legation. He was educated at Cheltenham College and at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.

Colin was half Scottish - his mother was a McVean

(inf. under copyright by Colin Houston:
Colin's full name was Major-General Sir Colin McVean Gubbins - a wiry Scots Highlander;
his mother's father Colin McVean had been Chief Surveyor of Japan;
the third child in the family, Colin McVean Gubbins was born in Japan in 1896 to Noni and Jack Gubbins. His father Jack / John Harington Gubbins had been born in Agra, India in 1852 and worked in the British consular service as Oriental Secretary in the Tokio Legation. His mother Noni / Helen Brodie McVean had been born in Japan in 1868, and was the eldest child of
Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan.
This clan come among others of Glen Lochy, Perthshire, Scotland and in 1753 in Killin, Perthshire.
The McVean clan from Glen Lochy, in Killin, and DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland; that is Glen Lochay / Gleann Lochaidh ca 73 km west of Perth, and 60 km north-west of Stirling. Killin, Perthshire ca 60 km north-west of Sirling, and north of Callander and of Thornhill.
We remember on the governors of British Ceylon:
James Campbell, 1822 to 1824, Major general, was succeeded by Edward Barnes.
Colin Campbell b. 1776 d. 1847, Governor of British Ceylon 1841 to 1847 under Queen Victoria; 1792, ran away from the Perth Academy, returned to Scotland to enter a Navigation Academy in Perth, 1792 sailed for India, he was the fifth son of John Campbell of Melfort
(Colonel John Campbell, laird of Melfort - western Scotland and north-west of Glasgow, Kilninver - close to Melfort, and Kilmelfort - close to Melfort, in Argyllshire, Scotland, born 1730, his children: 1. Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell, b. 1767, Killin - half way from Melfort to Perth and west of Perth, in Perthshire, Scotland, 2. John Campbell, b. 1769, Killin, Perthshire, 3. Allan Campbell, b. 1770, Killin, and others children)
and Colina, daughter of John Campbell of Achallader - west-north-west of Perth, whose mother Katherine was a daughter of Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel - southern Glasgow.
His brother was Vice-Admiral Sir Patrick Campbell.
See in Bengal:
Latour and Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill.
Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of the Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.
Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. was the son of Sir Henry Stirling of Ardoch, 3rd Bt.; he married Christian Erskine, daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling, in 1762; died 1799. Children of Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. and Christian Erskine:
Mary Stirling d. 1847, Margaret Stirling, unknown daughter Stirling.

Above Mary Stirling married Ebenezer Oliphant, son of Laurence Oliphant, 6th of Condie and Margaret Murray, in 1790. Children of Mary Stirling and Ebenezer Oliphant:
Laurence Oliphant, 8th of Condie b. 1791; William Oliphant b. 1792; Anthony Oliphant b. 1793; Christian Oliphant b. 1795; Lt. Col. James Oliphant b. 1796; Thomas Oliphant b. 1799.

Above Christian Erskine was the daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling.

Above John Erskine was born 1695, was the son of Lt. Col. John Edmund Erskine and Anna Dundas.
When the Oliphant family left Ceylon, the estate sold to Sir Harry Dias. Sir Anthony Oliphant's tea estate, the Oliphant Estate, situated in the hill country in Nuwara Eliya - 55 km south-east-south of Kandy, east of Colombo, 26 km east of Hatton, close to Lindula and Meepilimana - was the first estate to grow tea in Ceylon; Anthony and his son Laurence are the first people to grow tea in Ceylon. Sir Anthony's son, Laurence Oliphant, went on become a Member of the House of Commons.

Laurence Oliphant was the only child of Sir Anthony Oliphant (1793 - 1859), a member of the Scottish landed gentry. Laurence spent his early childhood in Colombo, and the Oliphant Estate in Nuwara Eliya.
In 1848 - 1849, he was in Europe,
1851 to Nepal, returned to Ceylon,
travel in Russia at the Black Sea in 1853
(Odessa ?; see below in 1855 on Adam Mickiewicz and Bednarczyk / Hudzik / Chudzik; Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople, then in 1858 he returned to London),
next - to 1861 Oliphant was secretary to Lord Elgin;
visited the Circassian coast during the Crimean War.
1861 Oliphant was appointed First Secretary of the British Legation in Japan, a visit to Korea, where he discovered a Russian force;
met Alice le Strange, married in London, 1872.

Emil (Emilian) Bednarczyk (1812-1888) - he studied at the Polytechnic Institute in Warsaw. He fought in the Greater Poland during the Uprising of 1848, and the January Uprising of 1863-1864; in 1866 he fought as a lieutenant. Since 1832 in France, worked close to Paris, he was one of the first members of the Polish Democratic Society. In the years 1833 - 1835 he was as an emissary in Galicia. In 1853 stayed in Constantinople, where he helped to General J. Wysocki. And he was a friend of Adam Mickiewicz and witnessed his mysterious death. "November 26, 1855 Mickiewicz woke up in the morning, he asked to give a cup of tea and fell asleep. When at approx. 10 came to him Colonel Emil Bednarczyk, saw...".
See:
Dłużyna - a village in the Przemęcki Park. Here in the mid-nineteenth century began the history of the House of Bednarczyk, ancestors of Anna Hudzik / Chudzik. Czeslaw Bednarczyku 1889 - 1980 ran the family chronicle, was born in Radomicko; his parents Stephen Bednarczyk and Anastasia Skorupiński; Stefan / Stephen was involved in trade and moved (back probably!) from the central Polish - around Lodz - to Radomicko ca 1888. Here he met Anastasia Skorupińska. She was born 1860 in Radomicko.
Dluzyna is located 7 km east of Radomierz and north-west of Leszno, close to ex-Polish border before 1793.
ALEXANDER JOSEPH SULKOWSKI, was b. 1695 in Cracow, and died 1762 in Leszno.
Radomicko north of Leszno, and 14 km east of above named Dluzyna.
Rydzyna of the Sulkowskis is located around 10 km south-east of above mentioned Leszno.

In the tradition of the family of Czeslaw Bednarczyk, he was a close relative of Colonel Emilian Bednarczyk 1812 - 1888.
Emilian Bednarczyk 1812-1888, a soldier of the uprisings 1830/1 and 1848/9, 1863/4 insurgent, a volunteer in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. An eyewitness to the death of Adam Mickiewicz, buried in the cemetery in Krakow at Rakowice, acc. to 'sowa.website.pl/cmentarium/Cmentarze/spisRakow'.
Emilian Bednarczyk was born around 1810 / 1812; awarded the Military Virtue. The captain and commander in Pleszew in 1848; the Baden infantry regiment of 1849; the Turkish troops in 1853. The January Uprising in 1863. He died in Krakow in 1888.

At archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com:

DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland; in 1851 he was living in Kinlochscridain / Kinloch Scridain, and died 1880;
Kinloch Scridain is located on east of Bunessan.
he married SUSAN MC LEAN in 1836; stayed in 1837 in Kilfinchen, and 1837 at Iona, minster; Susan was daughter of DUGALD MC LEAN and SUSANNA MC LEOD, she was born 1808 in Ardfinaig
[Ardfenaig is located at the Isle of Mull, west of Scotland, ca 9 km east of Iona Island, 4 km west of Bunessan; Ardfinaig / Ardfenaig / Ardfinnaig. Kinlochscridain, Isle of Mull, Argyllshire: Isle of Mull is east of Iona. That is Loch Scridain (5 km north-east of Bunessan), Isle of Mull],
and died 1883;
children of DONALD MCVEAN and SUSAN MCLEAN are:
1. COLIN ALEXANDER MCVEAN, b. 1838, 2. HELEN SUSAN MCVEAN, b. 1839; 3. ANN CATHERINE MCVEAN, b. 1840, 4. SUSAN ISABEL, 5. MARY HELEN MCVEAN, 6. DUGALD HECTOR MCLEAN, b. 1845, 7. ISABEL MERRIAM; 8. ARCHIBALD ARTHUR MCLEAN, 9. DONALD HECTOR MCLEAN, b. 1855, Iona.
Descendants of Colin Alexander McVean b. 1838, and surveyor in Japan, returned to Scotland 1886; in 1891 Killimore House, m. Mary Wood Cowan b. 1837 in Edinburgh, 1868 (1862 ?) in Edinburgh, with children:
Helen Brodie McVean b. 1869 in Japan; Donald Archibald Dugald McVean b. 1870 in Yokohama; Susan McLean McVean b. 1872 in Japan; Alexander Gillies McVean b. 1873, Flora Ann Phoebe; Colin Arthur Campbell McVean b. 1877; Elizabeth Josephine 1878 in Oban; Norman Neil George Cowan, Janet Lucretia Catriona m. Arthur Manson Huston in 1909.
Note under copyright by Merle & Ida King at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/.

At margin:
In Japan, a public telegraph service was inaugurated using Breguet's one; Louis François Clément Breguet b. 1804, d. 1883, was a French physicist and watchmaker, acted in the early days of telegraphy. Educated in Switzerland, Breguet was the grandson of Abraham-Louis Breguet, founder of the watch manufacturing company Breguet.
He became manager of Breguet et Fils watchmakers in 1833 after his father Louis Antoine Breguet retired. With Alphonse Foy, in 1842 he developed an electrical needle telegraph, and his telegraph system (1847) was applied to French railways and exported to Japan. Four Breguet dial telegraph devices is in the museum's collection in Japan;
the Breguet ABC telegraph was first put into commercial use in 1870; but in 1869 a telegraph service was started between Tokyo and Yokohama (December 25, 1869) with the assistance of an English expert named G. M. Gilbert.
The telegraph apparatus used at that time was called the Breguet letter-point telegraph, and was operated by moving a handle over a disc on which letters were written. This telegraph was operated by pointing to letters on the disc, and was easy for novices to work. The foreign expert then was an Englishman named G. M. Gilbert. In those days, many hired foreigners were invited to Japan to introduce the Western system and technology. The Meiji Government had 300 foreigners at the Industry Ministry; one of these foreigners was an English engineer Gilbert, who in Sept. 1869 adopted a dual instrument; Jan. 1870 the first message was send.
The famous Richard Henry Brunton (1841 - 1901), so-called "Father of Japanese lighthouses", was born in Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland.
He was a foreign advisor to build lighthouses in Japan. Muchalls is a small village in Kincardineshire, Scotland, south of Newtonhill and north of Stonehaven, south of Aberdeen - is the birthplace of Richard Henry Brunton; he was a railway engineer, joined the Stevenson brothers (David and Thomas Stevenson) who were engaged by the British government to build lighthouses.
Japan hired the Edinburgh-based firm of D. and T. Stevenson to chart coastal waters and to build lighthouses, what begun under French foreign advisor Leonce Verny;
Brunton was sent from Edinburgh in August 1868 to head the project.
François Leonce Verny / Leonce Verny born in Aubenas in Ardeche, 1837, d. 1908, a French officer and naval engineer of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in Japan, from 1865 to 1876;
studied at Lyon and École Polytechnique. Verny was sent to Ningbo and Shanghai in China from 1862 - 1864, he was also French Vice-Consul in Ningbo. Verny was persuaded to go to Japan by his distant relative, French ambassador Leon Roches in September 1865; 1865 he briefly returned to France helped in the negotiations for the First French Military Mission to Japan.
Mentioned Léon Roches b. 1809, Grenoble, was a representative of the French government in Japan from 1864 to 1868, then assist friends of his father as a trader in Marseilles! Under Bugeaud's recommendation, Roches joined the French Foreign Ministry as an interpreter in 1845. 1863, Roches was nominated Consul General of France in Edo, Japan. His great rival was the British consul Harry Parkes.
François Leonce Verny cooperated with Jules Brunet b. 1838, a French officer who played an active role in Mexico and Japan, and later became a General and Chief of Staff of the French Minister of War in 1898. He was sent to Japan with the French military mission of 1867.
François Leonce Verny also built four lighthouses in the Tokyo area, and managed the building of the shipyard at Nagasaki.

Above Thomas Stevenson (1818 - 1887) was a Scottish lighthouse designer, was a president of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1884 - 1886); he was the youngest son of engineer Robert Stevenson, and brother of the lighthouse engineers Alan and David Stevenson;
James Melville Balfour was trained under D. & T. Stevenson and then emigrated to New Zealand;
Thomas Stevenson married Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour in 1848 with son, the writer Robert Louis Stevenson; Maggie Balfour was the older sister of James Balfour.
James Melville Balfour (1831 - 1869) was a Scottish-born New Zealand marine engineer, built the network of lighthouses; among his siblings were the physician George William Balfour (1823-1903), and Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour (1829 - 1897) who in 1848 married the lighthouse builder Thomas Stevenson.
Balfour was born in Colinton near Edinburgh, Scotland in 1831. He was the youngest son of Rev. Lewis Balfour (1774 - 1860; but we know on James Balfour Mackintosh 1774 - 1860), a minister for the Colinton parish.
The philosopher James Balfour was his father's paternal grandfather
(James Balfour b. 1705 !, d. 1795, a Scottish philosopher, was born at Pilrig, near Edinburgh; he was studying at Edinburgh and at Leyden, his great-grandsons - brothers George William Balfour and James Balfour were a heart specialist in Scotland, and a marine engineer in New Zealand),
and the physician Robert Whytt was his father's maternal grandfather
(Robert Whytt b. 1714 in Edinburgh, was a Scottish physician, on "unconscious reflexes, tubercular meningitis, urinary bladder stones, and hysteria", acc. to Wikipedia; College of Physicians of Edinburgh; he was the second son of Robert Whytt of Bennochie, advocate, and Jean, daughter of Antony Murray of Woodend, Perthshire).
Above mentioned James Balfour 1774 in Edinburgh, Midlothian, d. 1860, father of Margaret Paul; John Mackintosh Balfour-Melville of Pilrig and Strathkinness; Jane Balfour; James Balfour; Robert Balfour; and Anne Balfour; he was brother of Lewis Balfour, Minister of Sorn and Melville Balfour.
Above named Brunton travelled all over Japan making a survey of sites suitable for lighthouses, and advised the government on their actual construction.
He was a Scotsman, and he introduced a fellow countryman, George Miles Gilbert.
The Gilbert family at present in Aberdeen; we know about: Mollie Gilbert 1706 Baniffshire, Scotland; Jobina Gilbert b. 1853 Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland; main area of this family is the CENTRAL DISTRICT, GLASGOW, LANARK; samples: 1822 Old Monkland, Lanark, in 1856 OLD MONKLAND, LANARK, SCOTLAND. LANARK - 42 km south-east of Glasgow, SCOTLAND, and Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland - 16 km east of Glasgow.
Under the superintendence of an English engineer named George Miles Gilbert, wires were put up to connect Tokyo with Yokohama, a distance of eighteen miles, in 1870. George Miles Gilbert, was a telegraphic technician.

Acc to http://www.kosmoid.net/lives/mcvean:
Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan married in Edinburgh in mid 1862 (1868 ?), come for a long voyage and life together in Japan.
Rev. Donald McVean of Iona, Scotland, and Susan MacLean of the Moy Castle clan,
were living together with Colin's younger siblings Mary, Dougald, Ann, Isabella and Archie McVean. Mary Wood Cowan's sister in 1857 married to the Reverend Boog Watson.
Her father Alexander Cowan was the papermaker but died in 1859. Mary's mother Helen Brodie, was Alexander's second wife, died in 1863. Alexander Cowan and his first and second spouses had twenty children, Mary was the seventeenth. Mary and Colin sailed to Japan after their wedding, in the company of Richard Henry Brunton, the father of Japanese lighthouses, to the Japanese Imperial service.
In Japan, Colin and Mary McVean had a first children, Helen / Noni, later Mrs Gubbins, and Donald / Dondo in 1869 and 1870. Helen Brodie Noni McVean later Mrs Gubbins born 22 March 1869),

but his father was born in India, educated in England;
he was Irish by an ancestor Joseph - George Gubbins, a Captain of Dragoons who campaigned for Oliver Cromwell in Ireland, in 1649 moved to County Limerick
(Limerick / Luimneach is a city in Ireland, located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster);
the family prospered; next soldier in the family was
Colin's great-grandfather Joseph born in 1775;
and next soldier was in 1896 when Colins was born; but above Joseph Gubbins in 1802 returned from service abroad and spent 3 years fortifying the southern counties of England against French invasion; Joseph b. 1775 died 1832, married Charlotte Bathoe of Bath; he served in Santo Domingo with the South Hampshire Regiment, in Holland, Malta, and Egypt with the 2nd Somersetshires and in 1810 he went to Nova Scotia as Inspecting Field Officer of Militia, then in New Brunswick in Canada; was living in Fredericton with 3 children; 1816 returned to England as retirement; his wife Charlotte died 1824, he was now major-general, died 1832;
their third son was Martin Richard Gubbins, 1812 - 1863, Colin's grandfather, joined the Bengal Civil Service of Bombay; in 1856 Martin was Financial Commissioner for the Oudh Province in India; adviser of Sir Henry Lawrence, Chief Commissioner.
Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence b. 1806, d. 1857, a British soldier and statesman in India, who died defending Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny; he was born into an Irish family at Matara, Ceylon, as the eldest son of Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander William Lawrence and was the brother of John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence. Educated at Foyle College, Derry in Ireland, and then Addiscombe, next in 1823 he joined the Bengal Artillery at the Calcutta, where Henry Havelock was also stationed.
Above John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, 1811 - 1879, 1858 to 1869, was the British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Lawrence came from Richmond, North Yorkshire, but spent his early years in Derry, Ulster, then the East India Company College, went to India in 1829 to Delhi with Henry Montgomery Lawrence.
We back to Colins:
in 1919 joined the staff of General Sir Edmund Ironside in the North Russia Campaign serving as his ADC in Murmansk from 13 April to 27 September 1919.
His father John Harington Gubbins was a British linguist, consular official and diplomat: he was appointed to the British Japan Consular Service in 1871
- see 'Collected Writings of Ian Nish', by Ian Hill Nish; then to the Conference at Tokyo in 1883; 1889, became Japanese Secretary at Tokyo; in London at the Foreign Office in 1894, a close friend of Satow's. He wrote among others things 'The civil code of Japan', Tokio 1897-1899.
By Peter Wilkinson and Joan Astley:
in 1857 Martin Gubbins at siege of Lucknow, in 1858, Martin Gubbins was a Judge of the Supreme Court in Agra, he returned to England in January 1863, to his brother's house in Leamington Spa.
A grandmother of Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins had five sons, another had died very young in India; and a daughter;
his father going to Harrow's school, then Cambridge;
Colin's father John was the youngest of Harriet's five sons.

Edmund Charaszkiewicz, was born in 1895 in Punitz / Poniec, in the Province of Posen, the German Empire; the son of Stanisław Charaszkiewicz; on 15 November 1918, Charaszkiewicz joined the Polish Army in the rank of sublieutenant.
1919–21 he participated in battles against Soviets and was taken prisoner by the Lithuanians; 15 December 1920 was assigned to the Second Division of the General Staff. Edmund Charaszkiewicz in 1922 was assigned to Division II of the General Staff, with intelligence and counterintelligence offensive against the neighboring countries of Poland - later became head of the Branch No. 2 in Warsaw - so-called "Promethean action".
Eugene Edmund Charaszkiewicz specialized in clandestine warfare, coordinated Marshal Józef Piłsudski's Promethean movement, aimed at liberating the non-Russian peoples of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union; the Promethean concept was based on the fight against the Soviet imperial state by supporting the activities of independence among the nations belonging to the Soviet state. In 1928 (?) took over the management of the Branch No. 2 of the Division II, with the organization of sabotage.
1931 - 1939, Charaszkiewicz served, last in the rank of major, as chief of "Office 2" of the General Staff's Section II: with the planning, preparation and execution of clandestine-warfare operations, and was also responsible for "Promethean operations," conceived by Józef Piłsudski.
"...The idea was to combat Soviet imperialism by supporting irredentist movements among the non-Russian peoples of the Soviet Union. Thus the Prometheists' ultimate goal was nothing less than the dismemberment of the Soviet Union. The movement's leaders included ... Colonel Walery Sławek, and ... Tadeusz Hołówko. Great importance was attached to Prometheism by Section II's successive chiefs, Colonel Tadeusz Schaetzel and Colonel Tadeusz Pełczyński, and by deputy chief Lieutenant Colonel Józef Englicht. The movement's intelligence operations were directed by Edmund Charaszkiewicz. Contacts were maintained with Ukrainians and Cossacks, and with representatives of several peoples of the Caucasus: Azeris, Armenians and Georgians" - under copyright by Wikipedia. "...In its prosecution of the Promethean agenda, Office 2 worked with official institutions such as the Institute for Study of Nationality Affairs ... and the Polish-Ukrainian Society ... and its Polish-Ukrainian Bulletin ... as Leon Wasilewski, Stanisław Łoś and Stanisław Stempowski, ... Włodzimierz Bączkowski, a leading figure in the "Promethean movement." ... From March 1934 Charaszkiewicz was a member of the Commission for Scientific Study of [Poland's] Eastern Lands ... and the Committee on [Poland's] Eastern Lands and Nationalities ... at the Council of Ministers...".

At the conference of the Central Committee of the Polish Socialist Party held on 17-20 October 1904 in Cracow, Jozef Pilsudski spoke on the new tactics as the results of discussions with the Japanese. No one expected to overthrow of the tsarist regime in Russia, but had to use the new elements related to the internal situation in the country. Jozef Pilsudski advocated the use of the tactics of action, involving the creation of national events and to force society to action; he believed that the new tactics must even led to the blood. On November 13, 1904 a manifestation at the Grzybowski Square in Warsaw was the first organized with arms against the government in Congress Poland since the fall of the January Uprising in 1863/1864; it gave a signal to the revolution of 1905.
During these events, Pilsudski was in Zakopane in Austria-Hungary. It was in September 1904. Pilsudski with Mrs. Maria came to Bukovina Tatrzanska, highland village near Zakopane, where his close friend, the poet Andrzej Strug had a hut, acc. to Landau; this is the only source from which we get to know more details on the visit of Pilsudski in Bukowina; it is not known how long he stayed here, and who else was among the guests invited by the poet. Then Jozef Pilsudski in April 1905 took part in a conference of socialist and revolutionary parties of Russia in Geneva. Here was also Vladimir Lenin, representative of the Social Democratic Party of Bolsheviks.
The house in Bukowina, where Pilsudski arrived was located on Olczanski Peak.
Kazimierz Dłuski in 1897 visited Zakopane, and Kościelisko village was a part of the city; 1898 Bronisława and Kazimierz went to Zakopane, but 1900 permamently because Kazimierz was without the right to return to the Russia; they created a sanatorium in Kościelisko in 1902; the ville 'Dyrektorówka' of Bronisława and Kazimierz Dłuski was here; the board of directors: Maria Curie-Skłodowska, Ignacy Paderewski, Henryk Sienkiewicz. Close to the sanatorium in Koscielisko was the 'President's House' of the Dluski family. In 1904 Jozef Pilsudski visited Bukowina Tatrzanska close to Koscielisko and Zakopane; ville 'Za bramką II' at the Nowotarska street in Zakopane, belonged to Kazimierz Dłuski; in Zakopane 1899 were together Piotr Curie, Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Erazm Dłuski a brother of Kazimierz, Józef Skłodowski, Józef Dłuski a brother of Kazimierz.
Kazimierz Dłuski got married a sister of famous Maria Sklodowska. Bronislawa Dłuska b. 1865, d. 1939, the Polish doctor, the older sister of Maria Sklodowska-Curie, the first director of the Radium Institute, the wife of Kazimierz Dłuski (see on the Breguet family genealogy). Joseph Skłodowski grandfather was a teacher in Lublin. Father Wladyslaw Skłodowski was a teacher of mathematics and physics and director in Warsaw; father was an atheist;
Bronislawa went to Paris to study medicine, and her sister Mary was in the country and tried to help her financially; Bronislawa in 1890 married to Casimir Dłuski, political exile and invited Maria to himself; Kazimierz Dluski was graduated in Paris with political science and medicine; the Paris apartment of Dłuski was open to the Polish political emigrants, among others, later Presidents of Poland: Ignacy Moscicki and Stanislaw Wojciechowski; in 1892 was born a daughter, Helena, later known mountain-climber. After returning home in 1902, Dluski created in Zakopane a hospital of tuberculosis; in 1919, he was send by the Head of State Jozef Pilsudski to the Polish National Committee and was a member of the Polish delegation to the peace conference at Versailles. Kazimierz Dłuski b. 1855 in Sosnówka near Mohylow Podolski; 1878 emigrated to Switzerland, where he met with Polish socialists staying there. Published to the "Equality", was the author accused of anarchist sympathies and had conflict with Boleslaw Limanowski; 1881, Dłuski took part in the convention in Coire, replaced Louis Waryński there. In 1882 Kazimierz Dłuski went to Paris with a letter of recommendation from Johann Philipp Becker, where he had contact with Karl Marx. Dłuski remained in Paris, and was a member of the National League, a secret political organization, established on April 1, 1893 from the Polish League - the center of the national movement; see Milkowski / Jez. In 1894, the National League held a series of demonstrations across the country.

"Piłsudski's elaboration of Prometheism had been aided by an intimate knowledge of the Russian Empire gained while exiled by its government to eastern Siberia. The term "Prometheism" was suggested by the Greek myth of Prometheus...",
at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheism.
And a text below also from Wikipedia:
"...A brief history of Poland's Promethean endeavor was set down on February 12, 1940, by Edmund Charaszkiewicz, ... Charaszkiewicz wrote his paper in Paris...
The creator and soul of the Promethean concept [wrote Charaszkiewicz] was Marshal Piłsudski, who as early as 1904, in a memorandum to the Japanese government, pointed out the need to employ, in the struggle against Russia, the numerous non-Russian nations that inhabited the basins of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas, and emphasized that the Polish nation, by virtue of its history, love of freedom, and uncompromising stance toward [the three empires that had partitioned Poland out of political existence at the end of the 18th century] would, in that struggle, doubtless take a leading place and help work the emancipation of other nations oppressed by Russia.

A key excerpt from Piłsudski's 1904 memorandum declared:
Poland's strength and importance among the constituent parts of the Russian state embolden us to set ourselves the political goal of breaking up the Russian state into its main constituents and emancipating the countries that have been forcibly incorporated into that empire. We regard this not only as the fulfilment of our country's cultural strivings for independent existence, but also as a guarantee of that existence, since a Russia divested of her conquests will be sufficiently weakened that she will cease to be a formidable and dangerous neighbour.
The Promethean movement, according to Charaszkiewicz, took its genesis from a national renaissance that began in the late 19th century among many peoples of the Russian Empire. ... this was so in Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia and Azerbaijan. These socialist parties would take the lead in their respective peoples' independence movements. ... Ultimately the peoples of the Baltic Sea basin - Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania - won and, until World War II, all kept their independence. The peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins - Ukraine, Don Cossacks, Kuban, Crimea, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Northern Caucasus - emancipated themselves politically in 1919-1921 but then lost their independence to Soviet Russia.
In 1917-21, according to Charaszkiewicz, as the nations of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins were freeing themselves from Russia's tutelage, Poland was the only country that worked actively together with those peoples.
... Immediately after the loss of independence by the peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins and the annexation of those lands in 1921 by Soviet Russia, Poland was the only country in Europe that gave material and moral support to the political aspirations of their Promethean (pro-independence) emigres.
... Throughout the years 1918–39, according to Charaszkiewicz, the Polish Promethean leadership consistently observed several principles. The purpose of the Promethean enterprise was to liberate from imperialist Russia, of whatever political stripe, the peoples of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins and to create a series of independent states as a common defensive front against Russian aggression.
Each Promethean party respected the political sovereigny of the others.
... Poland's role in the Promethean process was marked by the conclusion of a Polish-Ukrainian political and military alliance (the Warsaw Agreement, April 1920) with Symon Petlura's Ukrainian People's Republic, Piłsudski's expedition to Kiev (begun April 25, 1920), the designation (February 1919) of Bohdan Kutylowski as Polish minister to the Ukrainian People's Republic, the accreditation of a Polish minister to Caucasus, the naming of a military mission to Caucasus, and the Crimean Republic's motion at the League of Nations (May 17, 1920) that Crimea be made a protectorate of Poland.
Marshal Piłsudski's immediate collaborators in this period included Witold Jodko, Tytus Filipowicz, Gen. Julian Stachiewicz, Col. Walery Sławek, Col. Tadeusz Schaetzel, a Maj. Czarnecki, August Zaleski, Leon Wasilewski, Henryk Józewski, Juliusz Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz Hołówko, Marian Szumlakowski, Jan Dąbski, Mirosław Arciszewski, Maj. Wacław Jędrzejewicz and Roman Knoll. ...
1922, the first group of Georgian officers, recommended by the Georgian government, were accepted into the Polish Army. ... Polish contacts with the Promethean emigres were continued, ... by Col. Schaetzel, Maj. Czarnecki and Captain Henryk Suchanek-Suchecki, chief of the Nationalities Department in the Ministry of Internal Affairs; and at the Foreign Ministry, by the chief of the Eastern Department, Juliusz Łukasiewicz.
An exception to the Polish government's official attitude pertained to Georgian Prometheism, which enjoyed support with both the foreign minister, Aleksander Skrzyński, and the chief of the General Staff, Gen. Stanisław Haller.
... Since 1927, Wasilewski, Sławek, Schaetzel and Hołówko had been laying foundations for Promethean movements in Paris, Warsaw and Istanbul. They had been studying questions involving national self-determination and federative polities with help from academic experts at institutions such as the Eastern Institute in Warsaw and an analogous one in Vilnius...(under copyright by Wikipedia)".
Office "B" (responsible for the East), headed in 1937-39 by Major Dąbrowski, prepared clandestine actions against the Soviet Union, conducting "Promethean operations" among non-Russian peoples (e.g. Caucasus, Tatar, Ukrainian and Cossack emigres) and creating covert organizations at Poland's borders with Soviet Belarus and Ukraine.
Charaszkiewicz suggested to an old Polish Legions comrade, Wiktor Tomir Drymmer - from 15 September 1933 to the outbreak of World War II, director of the Polish Foreign Ministry's Consular Department - the creation of an organization covering all countries that harbored substantial Polish communities. They agreed that this would be necessary due to the inevitability of war with Nazi Germany.
It was decided that the organization should be run by a "Committee of Seven" (K-7) comprising half Foreign Ministry personnel - Drymmer, his political deputy Dr. Władysław Józef Zaleski, Tadeusz Kowalski, and the latter's deputy Tadeusz Kawalec - and half Office 2 personnel: Charaszkiewicz, Ankerstein and the latter's deputy, Captain Wojciech Lipiński. Later, Lieutenant Colonel Ludwik Zych, chief of staff of Poland's Border Guard.
All data at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Charaszkiewicz.
During his career as an intelligence and covert-operations officer, Charaszkiewicz helped pioneer modern techniques of asymmetric warfare. Just before World War II, during a week's visit to London, he shared information on these with Britain's Colonel Holland, Lt. Colonel Gubbins (future leader of the Special Operations Executive), and technical specialists. In his reports about these meetings, Charaszkiewicz noted how far Poland's techniques outstripped Britain's.
"...In Bucharest, in October 1939, Charaszkiewicz received from his British colleague, Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins - soon to become the prime mover of the Special Operations Executive (S.O.E.) - a very warm letter informing him that Gubbins had been personally searching for him, and offering every possible assistance, including financial ... In Scotland he was accommodated at the Douglas officers' camp (July–August 1940), ... In exile continued operations in Promethean movement, also belonged to the League of Polish Independence exile".

At margin on
the Balfour Declaration of 1917:
Acc. to www.history.com:

"On November 2, 1917, Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour writes a letter to Britain's most illustrious Jewish citizen, Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild, expressing the British government's support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. ... The government of Prime Minister David Lloyd George - elected in December 1916 - made the decision to publicly support Zionism, a movement led in Britain by Chaim Weizmann, a Russian Jewish chemist who had settled in Manchester.
(on 02 Nov. 1917 Lenin secretly returned from Finland - the house of Bruievich - to Petrograd. 02 Nov. - to evening of 06th Nov. Lenin was in Petrograd in unknown place)
... On November 2, Balfour sent a letter to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a prominent Zionist and a friend of Chaim Weizmann, stating that:
'His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home (The phrase "national home" was intentionally used instead of "state" because of opposition to the Zionist program within the British Cabinet) for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country'
... (Nov. 5 the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks assumed Resolution of armed uprising and created the first 'Politburo'. On 5 November, the Parliament of Finland declared itself to be the possessor of supreme State power in Finland, based on Finland's Constitution; On 5 November 1917, Bolshevik Jaan Anvelt taken Tallinn; 6 Nov. were made attempts to close the writings of the Bolsheviks, but 06th Nov. evening the Bolsheviks hastily assembled meeting where it was decided the revolution - Lenin was in the Smolny - set the date 6th / 7th November for uprising; in the night November 6th/7th, the Petrograd Soviet was meeting in the Smolny Institute; in this night: the Winter Palace was guarded by Cossacks; telephone and telegraph buildings were taken over, the power stations, and bridges; also railway stations; throughout the 7th Nov. the Red Guards kept on occupying important buildings; Nov. 07th Petrograd Council has established the Military Revolutionary Committee, officially to defend the capital against the Germans - in fact, as the staff preparing the coup; by mid-afternoon of the 07th Nov., the only building not held by the Bolsheviks was the Winter Palace; at 9:40/9:45 p.m. 07 Nov. shot from the cruiser Aurora; the Palace was taken at about 2 a.m. 08 Nov.; night 07/08 Nov. in the Smolny Institute, those politicians who did not agree with what had happened and did not want the Bolsheviks in power walked out of the building; at 1 a.m. on November 8th, Lenin told in the Smolny Institute that he was forming a government of Bolsheviks; by the end of the day 8th Nov. the members of the Provisional Government were under arrest, the tsar and his family were also under house arrest.)
By the time the statement - James Balfour letter - was published in British (on 9 November 1917) and international newspapers one week later (command of publication of this letter had fallen on 08th Nov.), one of its major objectives had been rendered obsolete: Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks had gained power (night 07th/08th Nov.) in Russia, and one of their first actions was to call for an immediate armistice.
Russia was out of the war, and no amount of persuasion from Zionist Jews ... could reverse the outcome
(Both the Zionist Organization and the British government devoted efforts over the following decades, including Winston Churchill's 1922 White Paper, to denying that a state was the intention, by Wikipedia)...".

In book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' (ed. 1981), Carroll Quigley explained that the Balfour Declaration was actually drafted by Lord Alfred Milner;
William D. Rubinstein wrote that Leo Amery was the main author of the Balfour Declaration.

Parvus arrived in Switzerland in May 1915;
Parvus met Lenin in Bern in May 1915 and agreed to collaboration;
1915 - the Austrian intelligence through Parvus gave money to Russian emigre newspapers in Paris;
the British Secret Intelligence Service traced Hanecki / Ganetsky to Parvus; 1916 - Parvus went for support to the German Navy, working as their advisor; March 1917, in a plan strategized together with Parvus, the German intelligence sent Vladimir Lenin from Switzerland through Germany, under supervision of Fritz Platten, to Petersburg / Petrograd; on April 13, 1917 met Lenin in Stockholm;
November 1917 he retreated to a German island near Berlin.



We must back to Russia, to the Romanovs:

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, born 1832, served 1862 - 1882 as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi. Despot Zenovich Stanislav Ivanovich, son of Jan Despot Zenowicz / Jan Despot-Zenowicz (b. ca 1800) was born in 1833 or 1835, education in France, he settled in the Caucasus, 1856 with the rank of titular counselor, served as an officer of the Caucasus Governor, the Baku District Court, was appointed by the Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France. Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies. Mason, and called himself Philalethes. Receiving education at home in Georgia, often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909; the funeral was in Russia; Field Marshal.
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene.

Children of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich:
1. Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia;
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia, b. 1859, d. 1919, the eldest son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich, and a first cousin of Alexander III; he urged the Tsar to implement reforms, and he even participated in discussions of a palace coup. Nicholas spent his childhood and youth in Georgia, a socialist, he often visited Paris, the south of France; Francophile, he offended Germany during a visit to Paris when he expressed his anti-German political views; critic of most of his male cousins, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikholaievich in particular; a pacifist and was against the war in a time of uppermost patriotism.
Above Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856 - 1929) was the eldest son to Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia (1831 - 1891) and Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg (1838 - 1900). His father was the sixth child to Nicholas I of Russia and his Empress consort Alexandra Fedorovna of Prussia (1798 - 1860).
Alexandra Fedorovna was a daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
His maternal grandfather was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Württemberg.
Grand Duke Nicholas played a main role during the Revolution of 1905, from 1905 was commander-in-chief of the St. Petersburg Military District.
1907, Nicholas married Princess Anastasia of Montenegro, who reinforced the Pan-Slavic tendencies of Nicholas.
The Grand Duke had no part in the planning and preparations for World War I. The February Revolution found Nicholas in the Caucasus, next two years in the Crimean Peninsula, 1922, Nicholas was proclaimed as the emperor of all Russia.
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich or Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov (1856 - 1929) served in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 1878 and was inspector general of the cavalry for ten years from 1895; was Commander in Chief of the Russian army during the first year of the First World War and, for the briefest moment, at the end of Tsar Nicholas II's reign. I said that the maternal grandfather of Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov of Russia was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Württemberg. Duke George of Oldenburg (1784 - 1812) was a younger son of Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg and his wife Duchess Frederica of Württemberg. He had two sons: Peter Georg Paul Alexander Georgievich of Oldenburg, and Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg (1812 - 1881). Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich von Holstein-Gottorp of Oldenburg was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. Konstantin Friedrich Peter Oldenburg or Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg began a flirtation with Agrippina; Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel 'Daniel' Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command; Dadiani were a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty; Agrippina was Tariel Dadiani's second wife but Agrippina in 1882 divorced Dadiani.
1882, Constantine entered into a morganatic marriage with Agrippina Japaridze; by the early 1890s, they were doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe). See the Armands and Konstantynowiczs in Moscow and Alexandrovsk. "...Georgian nationalist, Prince Viktor Nakachidze, was convicted in late 1885 for participating in a nihilist bomb plot to kill the Tsar. Through his Mingrelian relatives, Prince Nakachidze had connections to Agrippina Japaridze, the wife of Constantine Petrovich, and to the Dadiani family - Salome, Niko and Andria Dadiani - the Georgian royal family then living in exile at Nice ... For his role in the bomb plot, Prince Victor Nakachidze was sentenced to death and sent to Siberia. However, with the aid of his wife, Roedel, he managed to escape, travelling across the Pacific to the United States. The couple eventually resurfaced in London... Shortly after the marriage of Prince George Yurievsky to Countess Alexandra von Zarnekau at Nice in 1901, a connection between Prince Viktor Nakachidze and the Yurievsky circle in Nice became clear...".

The Saparov family:
Saparov Gerasim had children:
a. Saparov Mariam was married to Arutyunov,
b. Saparov Bagdasar / Baghdasar was married to Taliko daughter of Sarkisov with children: Saparov Ivan (d. 1912), Saparova Eugene was married to NN Karganova, Saparova Tamara;
c. Saparov Gaspar married to Catherine Yenikolopov with children:
Saparova married to George G. Ambardanov,
Saparova Maria was married to Markar'yan,
Nina married to Nikolai Shadinov,
and last Sofia married to Prince Cherkezov / Czerkasow;
d. Saparov Peter married to Yarovoy with children :
Nicholas married Melikova, Michael Mary Mirimanova, and Darius married to Vakhtang Jalalov;
e. Saparova Tatela was married to Kalabekov,
f. Saparov Pavel Gerasimov (1820 - 1878), was married to Sophia Grigorevne Paat (d. 1866) with children:
1. Anna b. before 1845,
2. Saparov Gerasim (1845 - 1869),
3. Elizabeth (ca 1854 - 1919), was married to Sergei Teimurazovich Melik-Beglarov (d. 1905),
and 4. Saparov Arkady (1854 - before 1921), was married to Varvara Maypariani with children:
Elena,
Tamara Arkadevna was married 1st to Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and
2nd marriage to Lev / Lion Emilievich Armand (Inessa Armand relatives);
Saparova Nina Arkadevna d. before 1920;
Saparov Paul;
Catherine Arkadevna d. 1916;
Saparova Maria;
5. Saparova Olga Salome / Olga Saparian / Ольга Сапарова Сапарьян (born March 25 / April 6, 1859 in Signach 100 km of Tbilisi - died in 1951; mentioned Signach that is maybe Гыццыл Сихиат / პატარა ციხიათა - close to Didi Tsikhiata / Styr Sichiat; ca 18 km north-west of Cchinwal / Chinval on way to Oni), was married to Alexander Ivanovich Florensky (30 September / October 12, 1850 - 1908), with children:
A. Pavel Florensky (9 / 21 January 1882 - December 8, 1937), was married to Anna Mikhailovna daughter of Hiacynt (1889 or 1883 - 1973) with 5 children, 12 grandchildren, 24 great-grandchildren:
Florensky Vasily Pavlovich (1911 - 1956), Cyril P. Florensky (December 27, 1915 - 1982), Michael P. Florensky (1921/22 - 1961), was married to Helena daughter of Ivan;
B. Florenskaya Julia A. (1 / 13 July 1884 - 1947), was married to Mikhail Mikhailovich Asatiani (1881 - 1938) founder of scientific school of psychiatrists in Georgia;
C. Florenskaya Elizabeth A. (7 / 19 May 1886 - 1959),
D. Florenskaya Raisa Alexandrovna (16 / 28 April, 1894 - 1932).
6. Saparova Barbara (1861-1891),
7. Saparova Ripsime / Repsimiya P. (1865 to 1930), married the 1st to Tavrizov and 2nd to Leonid G. Konovalov;
8. Saparova Sofia P. (1866-1939), was married to Nicholas Romanovich Karamyan (d. 1930).

2. Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna,
3. Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich b. 1861 and in 1891 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie of Merenberg (relatives of the Pushkin family / Puskin/ Alexander S. Puszkin - family was near by military counterintelligence headquarters),
4. Grand Duke George Mikhailovich,
5. Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) b. 1866 - freemason, and near by military intelligence headquarters,
6. Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich
7. and last Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich.
Above named Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia; in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus; Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years; served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel. In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg, acc. to Wikipedia. In 1888, he had an affair with Princess Walewski; later, with Countess Catherine Nikolaevna Ignatieva daughter of Minister of Interior, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev. In 1900, moved to Keele Hall, in Staffordshire, close to Newcastle-under-Lyme; visitor of North Berwick in Scotland, and in the south of France, Cannes where he met his sister Anastasia and in 1903 his father, also brother Alexander and his family; he moved with his family to Hampstead in 1909 and every year Grand Duke Michael would visit Edward VII at Windsor Castle, Sandringham and Buckingham Palace. 1912, Grand Duke Michael was with a visit in Russia. 1914 as an agent for Russian loans in France.
On 31 October 1916 he "...wrote to Tsar Nicholas II warning him that British secret agents in Russia were expecting a revolution".
And (by Wikipedia) "General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort, stated that Russian communist elements working against the Tsar had betrayed Kitchener's travel plans to Germany. He stated that Kitchener was killed 'because of his ability', as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover...".
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia after November 1917 moved to Regent's Park. In 1916 his youngest daughter, Nadejda (Nada) married Prince George of Battenberg, eldest son of Prince Louis by Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Anastasia (Zia), the eldest daughter, in 1917 married Sir Harold Wernher. Michael Mikhailovich and his wife returned to Cannes in 1923, and died in 1929.


Explanations to the 1905 revolution in Petersburg:

Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Swiatopelk Mirski took part in the Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878; he studied at the General Staff Academy to 1881, in 1887 he was the commander of staff of 3rd Grenadier division; 1895 the Governor of Penza, and in 1897 the Governor of Yekaterinoslav. 1900 Sipiagin appointed him Assistant Minister of the Interior and Commander of the Imperial Corps of Gendarmes. 1902 Governor-General of the North-Western province: Vilna, Kovno and Grodno; was credited with successful liberal reforms, stopping pogroms against the Jews. 1904 Minister of the Interior after Plehve's assassination. His appointment was seen as a victory of liberals, as a victory of the party of widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna who supported the liberal reforms; the Sviatopelk-Mirski's plan included transferring more power to the State Council of Imperial Russia.
On January 22 / January 9, 1905 occurred the massacre known as Bloody Sunday; he never had authorised the shooting of the demonstrators, but his opponents said that he not only did authorise the shooting but also in order to push his own political agenda actively encouraged the demonstration.
He was replaced (on 18 January) as Minister of the Interior by Bulygin in February 1905.
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski 1857 - 1914, married to Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska; she was from a branch of Wassili Bobrinsky, b. 1804, d. Moscow in 1874, son of Alexei Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1752, who
married 1796 to Anna Dorotea / Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg (1769 Tallinn - St. Petersburg in 1846) daughter of the Tallinn commendant Woldemar Conrad von Ungern-Sternberg b. 1739;
Wassili Bobrinsky 1 m. 1824 to Pss Lydia Gortschakova b. 1807, 2 m. 1830 to Sofia Sokownina b. 1812, 3 m. 1869 to Alexandra Utschakova

(his brothers:
A.
Alexei Bobrinsky, 1800 - 1868, m. 1821 to Css Sophia Samojlowa b. 1799,

B. Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in
Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski),
m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899 ?).

Her daughter was
Julia Pawlowna Bobryńska / Julia Broel - Plater, Gołąbek - Jezierska, nee Bobrinski / Bobryńska, 1823 - 1899, married Waldemar Gołąbek-Jezierski Count, b. 1822, died 1855 in Warsaw. He was son of Jan Nepomucen Paweł Gołąbek-Jezierski Count and Karolina.
Julia 2nd time married Cezary August Plater / Cezar August Broel - Plater in 1859; Cezar was born on September 8, 1810, in Wilno. They had 2 sons including Cezary Broel-Plater.
Julia 1st married Waldemar Gołąbek - Jezierski in 1851; Waldemar was born in 1822. They had one son Aleksander Gołąbek - Jezierski.
The father of mentioned above Julia was above named Paweł Aleksiejewicz Bobryński and Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska Junosza, Countess, nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska. Paweł Bobrynski / Bobrinski was born on October 27, 1801, in Saint Petersburg; Julia Sonocka Bielińska was born in 1790 or 1804.
Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska, ca 1790 / 1804 - 1892; m. 1822, after death of husband she moved to Paris; her father
Stanisław Kostka Bieliński died 1812 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, served on the court of the King Stanisław August Poniatowski; Marshal of the Parliament in 1793,
m. Katarzyna nee Golicyn, b. 1775, d. 1825 in Saratów.
The family of above Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
a. Elżbieta Bielińska m. 1779 in Mogilany to Franciszek Wielopolski,
b. Franciszek Bieliński 1740 - 1809, 1776 Nat. Educ. Com., 1794 the Kosciuszko Uprising, owner of Kozłówka to 1799, and the Otwock palace, m. Krystyna Sanguszko.
The father of above named Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski: Michał Bieliński died 1747, the Chelmno province governor, Sztum office, 1725 the King court, 1736-42 Kozłówka palace near by Lubartow, m. 1st to Aurora Maria Rutowska daughter of
Fryderyk August II and Fatima, grand-daughter of Jan Jerzy II Saxon / Sas and Anna Zofia of Danmark, 2-v. Claude Marie de Bellegarde;
m. 2nd time to Tekla Pepłowski grand-daughter of Jadwiga Niemyski, of the Kozłówka estate.

The Chełmno province:

1. Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten of the Chelmno province in Poland, married to Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł, daughter of Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko. Francis Stanislaus Kostka Hutten-Czapski, coat Leliwa, b. 1725, d. 1802 in Warsaw, Senator, the last provincial governor of Chełmno / Chelmno (June 25, 1766 - to April 9, 1802).
2. The father of Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski: Michał Bieliński / Michael Belinsky, coat Junosza, d. 1746, the provincial governor of Chelmno. Son of Casimir Louis Bielinski, a Polish diplomat and Louisa Maria Morsztyn (d. 1730), daughter of the poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn / John Andrew Morsztyn. Brother of Franciszek / Francis Bielinski, also the governor of Chelmno and the Grand Marshal of the Crown.
Michal's 1st wife Aurora Maria Rutowska (d. 1750), illegitimate daughter of the Polish king Augustus II the Strong Saxon, divorced.
The second wife was Tekla Popłowska (d. 1774) with son Franciszek Bielinski / Francis (d. 1809), the writer of the Crown and Stanislaus Kostka (d. 1812), Marshal of the Grodno Parliament. Michal was in 1738-1746, the voivode / governor of Chelmno.
3. Above mentioned Franciszek Bielinski / Francis Belinsky, coat Junosza, b. 1683, d. 1766 in Warsaw, the Grand Marshal of the Crown 1742 to 1766, the court marshal of the Crown 1732 to 1742, the provincial governor of Chelmno 1725-1732, treasurer of Prussia 1714 -1738.

Wassili Bobrinsky / Wasyl Bobrzynski had 2 children:
I.
Alexei Bobrinsky 1831 - 1888, 1st m. 1855 to Pss Catherine Lvova b. 1834,
2nd m. 1859 Sofia Cheremeteva b. 1842.
He had 4 children:
1. Wassili Bobrinsky 1860 - 1861,
2. Ct Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937, he m. twice,
3. Ct Wladimir Bobrinsky 1862 - 1938, married to a French woman,
4. Css Catherine Bobrinsky / Ekaterina Alexeiievna 1864 - 1926 m. 1886 to Pr Peter Swiatopolk-Mirski / Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski d. 1914;
II. Css Sofia Bobrinsky 1837 - 1891 m. Viktor von Keller d. 1906.

Since early January 1905, Sviatopolk-Mirsky had no power, even though he was minister. On January 7 to the Ministry of Interior was delivered the text of Gapon petition; political demands made ​​on the officials shocking; it was a complete surprise to the Justice Minister, who wanted to meet with Gapon. He urged the Minister to go to the king and beg him to accept the petition, then Gapon asked to call the Minister of the Interior, P. D. Svyatopolk-Mirsky.
Svyatopolk-Mirsky explained his refusal to talk with Gapon that did not know him personally.
The evening of 8 January:
the Minister of Internal Affairs held a meeting to discuss the situation. The meeting was attended by Interior Minister P. D. Svyatopolk-Mirsky, the Minister of Justice, Muraviov / Н. В. Муравьёв, Finance Minister V. N. Kokovtsov, Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs K. N. Rydzewski, assistant minister of the Interior P. Durnovo, Deputy Minister of Finance V. I. Timiriazev, director of the Police Department A. A. Lopuhin, the mayor of St. Petersburg I. A. Foulon and military commander of the Guard and St. Petersburg Military District N. F. Meshetich;
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Svyatopolk-Mirsky, according to some reports, suggested that workers could be at the Palace Square, on the condition that they agree to elect a deputation, however, against this vigorously made Muraviov and Kokovtsov. Muraviov spoke about his meeting with Gapon, and proposed to arrest him, supported him Kokovtsov; Fullon opposed the arrest Gapon, and it was decided to place on the outskirts of the gates the military units and avoid working in the city center; it was also decided to deploy troops on the Palace Square, in case of the workers still penetrate to the center; officials believed that armed soldiers will stop working and they go home;
late in the evening on January 8:
Sviatopolk-Mirsky and director of the Police Department A. A. Lopuhin went to Tsarskoye Selo to Nicholas II, and informed the king about the letter of Gapon and the petition; the king wrote about it in his diary; the same evening Svyatopolk-Mirsky instructed the chief of gendarmes K. N. Rydzewski to arrest Gapon and send him to the fortress.
According to the testimony of General A. A. Mosolov, Rydzewski explained that Gapon sat down in one of the houses of the working quarters;
January 8 in the evening newspaper "Our days" and also Maxim Gorky offered to send a deputation to the Minister of the Interior, to inform him about the peaceful intentions of workers; it was immediately elected a deputation of ten people, which includes:
Maxim Gorky, B. A. Myakotin, A. Peshekhonov, K. Arsenyev, V. I. Semevskii, N. Kareev, I. B. Hesse, E. I. Cedrenus and D. Vladimir Kuzin;
late in the evening a deputation arrived at the Ministry of Interior, but Svyatopolk-Mirsky had just left to Tsarskoye Selo, but they were received by the commander of the gendarmerie K. N. Rydzewski, who told do not need their advice; then the delegation went to the chairman of the Committee of Ministers S. Witte; Witte said that he can not intervene, and suggested that the deputies should once again appeal to the Minister of the Interior, which immediately contacted by telephone.
However Svyatopolk-Mirsky said that - in the reception of the deputation - it is not necessary; frustrated deputies returned to the editors.
This deputation from St. Petersburg writers ask him to overturn some military action, but he refused to accept the deputation; 9 of 10 members were arrested.

Some details:
1.
Mikolaj / Nicholas Światopełk-Mirsky acquired in 1895 the Mir castle from the descendants of Prince Dominik Radziwill and her daughter Stefania Radziwill - Wittgenstein (see Miezonka and Hutten-Czapski and Konstantynowicz).
Stefania Radziwill b. 1809 in Paris, d. 1832, in Bad Ems, heir to a huge fortune of the Radziwills; the so-called "Wittgenstein inheritance"; was the daughter Dominik Radziwill (1786-1813) of Nieśwież and on Olyka and his second wife Teofilia Moravski.

2. In Lubotina / Lyubotyn in (1899 ?) December 1905, was dead and buried here, known public figures of the Russian Empire: Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, his son Prince Peter Dmitriyevich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, as well as his grandchildren: naval officers, Alexander and Nicholas Den (Denam).

3. General of Infantry Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1824 or 1825 - 1899 or 1905 ?) began his military service in 1841 as the Caucasus cadet of Adjutant General Prince Chernyshev; fought against Hadji Murad and Shamil. At the end of the Crimean War, Svyatopolk Mirski / Mirsky returned to the Caucasus to the Kabarda regiment, which has made a campaign in 1858 in the mountainous part of Chechnya. On April 12, 1859 promoted to major general and appointed Chief of Staff of troops of the Caspian region. After the capture of Shamil and the conquest of the eastern Caucasus was the assistant commander of the Kuban region and in the campaigns on the Kuban River and Ubin.
Promoted to lieutenant general and appointed head of the Terek region, served as Governor-General of Kutaisi. On August 30, 1873 Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky received the rank of General of Infantry. In addition, Prince Svyatopolk-Mirsky was elected a member and honorary chairman of the Caucasian branch of the Russian Geographical Society. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 was the commander in chief of the Caucasian Army and took an active part in planning of the assault of Kars. In 1880 Svyatopolk-Mirsky was appointed a member of the State Council. In 1881-1882, the acting commander of the Kharkov Military District and temporary Kharkiv Governor-General.

4. Adjutant-General Prince Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857-1914) began service of the Guards Hussar His Majesty's Regiment. Participated in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-78, and then graduated from the course of the Nikolayev Academy of the General Staff. Commanded a division, was governor of Penza and Yekaterynoslav. He also served as Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire from 26 August 1904 to 18 January 1905, which was dismissed shortly after the start of the riots in January 1905.

5. Two brothers - Alexander and Nicholas were the sons of Den Vladimir Alexandrovich, Minister, Secretary of State of the Grand Duchy of Finland and Nina Dmitrievna nee Princess Svyatopolk-Mirsky. The elder brother Alexander Den - Lieutenant of the Russian Imperial Navy, of the Russian-Japanese War, died at Port Arthur in 1904. Younger brother Nikolay Vladimirovich Den, a lieutenant of the battleship Emperor Alexander III, was killed in 1905 in the naval battle of Tsushima.

Nina Dmitrievna nee Princess Svyatopolk-Mirsky: wife of Ден Владимир Александрович / Вольдемар Карл / Dan Vladimir or Woldemar Carl von Daehn / Den Vladimir Alexandrovich, Minister, Secretary of State of the Grand Duchy of Finland; he born 1838.02.20 in Sippola in the Grand Duchy of Finland, died in Rome, Testaccio on 1900.12.28;
Woldemar Carl von Daehn / von Deen, was a Finnish-Russian General and the Grand Duchy of Finland Minister of State in 1891-1898, a defender of the rights of Finland; born to a German, Russia and Finland
(his father Alexander Gustav von Daehn 1788 - 1855, son of Johan Samuel von Daehn and Katarina)
military family, who owned the estate Sippola; the Military Academy in Hamina and the Nicholas General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg, and then
served as an officer in the Caucasus; 1873, in the Caucasus under command of the Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich Romanov (the Emperor Alexander II's brother); then governor of Stavropol and since 1882 in Vyborg;
Von Daehn's Sippola was sold and he moved abroad. He died in 1900 in Rome.

Karl Woldemar Vladimir Alexandrovich von Daehn's children: Maria Daehn von; Dmitri Daehn von; Alexander Daehn von; Nikolai Daehn von and Peter de Daehn. Above his sons:
1. Peter (1882.02.06-1971.01.19) colonel, commander of the 17th Regiment of Dragoons; 2. Den Dmitry b. 1874.09.06 died 1937.09.04 in Rome; wife Sofia Vladimirovna Sheremetev, in Lagodeki in the Caucasus.
Karl Woldemar Vladimir Alexandrovich von Daehn's wife was Nina D. Svyatopolk Mirski b. 1852.01.18 in Tbilisi - d. 1926.05.14. Nina D. Svyatopolk Mirski's father was General (1864) Дмитрий / Дмитрий Харитон Рюрик Мирон / Иванович Святополк-Мирский (1825-1899), Adjutant General (since 1864), General of Infantry (1873);
Dmitry Kharitonov Rurik Miron Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky come from the Lithuanian noble family; in 1821, Tomas Bogumil / Theophil-Jan / Ivan Semenovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1788) recognized by the Senate of the Kingdom of Poland in the princely dignity, and Russia confirmed the title of prince in 1861 for him and his sons, Dmitry and Nikolai, without presenting documents this title lost during the Polish revolt in 1831.

Nina D. Svyatopolk Mirski's mother was Princess Sophia Orbeliani Yakovlevna;
sisters of above Nina: Maria (1853-1889), married Prince Orbeliani I.; Olga (1855-1898), for the colonel, Prince Baryatinsky; brother of Nina: famous
Piotr / Peter (1857-1914).
Husband of Nina: mentioned above the Vyborg Governor, Waldemar (Vladimir) Von Daehn / Dan.

6. Franciszek Ksawery ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI b. ca 1760, married to Katarzyna Badowska;
his son Tomasz Bogumił 1788, d. 1868, m. Marianna Nostitz-Jackowska;
next generation, two sons:

1. DMITRIY KHARITON RYURIK MIRON / Dymitr SVYATOPOLK MIRSKI / DMITRIY IVANOVICH / Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky b. 1824 or 1825, d. 1899 (1905 ?), Duke in 1861, m. Zofia Orbeliani / SOFIA YAKOVLEVNA ORBELIANI b. 1831, d. 1879

(son of Dymitr:

Piotr 1857 - 1914 m. Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska),

2. Mikołaj 1833 - 1898 m. 1st to Wiera Bagratyd / Pss Vera b. Tbilisi 1842 - Vladikavkaz on 4 May 1860, m. in Tbilisi on 4 May 1860 to Pr Mikolaj / Nikolay Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky / Mikolaj Swiatopelk Mirski b. Miastkow 5 Jul 1833 - d. 15 Jul 1898,
Ataman of the Don Cossacks; mentioned Princess Vera Ilyinichna, b. at Tiflis, 1842, educ. and married in Tiflis, 4th May 1860 as first wife of General Prince Nikolai Ivanovitch Sviatopolk - Mirskii (Polish, b. at Miastkow, 5th July 1833; m. second, Cleoptra Mikhailovna Khanikova / Chanikow, and d. at Mir, 15th July 1898),
Ataman of the Don Cossacks, third son of Prince Tomasz Boguslaw Jan Sviatopolk-Mirskii, and by his second wife, Princess Marcianna, nee von Nostitz-Jackowska. She d. at Vladicaucase, 1863, having only son, who d. young;
a branch of Vera / Wiera was from Erekle II, king of Kacheti 1744-62, king of united Georgia 1762-98 (born Telavi on 7 Nov 1720 and died in Telavi 11 Jan 1798);
above Mikołaj b. 1833 married 2nd to Kleopatra Chynkow

(children of Mikolaj Swiatopelk - Mirski:

1. Michał 1870 - 1938;
2. Jan 1872 - 1922 m. Nadia Engelhardt;
3. Dymitr 1874 - 1950 m. 1st Maria de Bellegarde;
4. Włodzimierz 1875 - 1906 m. Maria Gudim-Lewkowicz;
5. Symeon 1885 - 1917 m. to Ludmiła Leliawska).


7.
Michał Światopełk-Mirski 1926-1944, was son of Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski b. 1891 and Izabela Potulicka of Więcborg b. 1899; her mother: Krystyna Hutten-Czapska b. 1860;
her grandfather: Adolf Hutten-Czapski - Marshal of the Kowno government, b. 1820-1883,
he was son of Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1779-1844

(grandson of Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Hutten-Czapski 1725-1802 and Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł born 1754; great-grandson of Ignacy Hutten-Czapski 1699 or 1700-1746)

and Zofia Obuchowicz 1797-1866 -
she was grand-daughter of Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Radziwiłł 1740-1778.
A grandfather of Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski was:
Kazimierz Ignacy Florian Światopełk-Mirski 1818-1886
(son of Tomasz Światopełk-Mirski 1788-1852 and Konstancja Światopełk-Mirska; grandson of Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski b. ca 1760;
great-grandson of Jan Stanisław ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI born ca 1720, died in 1761).

Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski b. on July 3, 1891 in Woroniec near Biala Podlaska, d. July 8, 1941 in Auschwitz-Birkenau; Polish landowner, social activist, politician, Member of Parliament of the Second Republic. Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski was son of Czesław Światopełk-Mirski and Maria Antonina; was husband of Izabela Jabłońska
(Izabela Jabłońska Potulicka also known as Światopełk-Mirska, b. 1899 in Riga, Latvia, d. 1980 in Warszawa; daughter of Mieczysław Potulicki and Krystyna; wife of Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski and Jerzy Włodzimierz Jabłoński; mother of Krzysztof Światopełk-Mirski and Michał Światopełk-Mirski; inf. by Leszek Mila; above Mieczysław Potulicki Count, 1858 in Jeziory Wielkie, d. 1910 in Obory, Poland, son of Józef Kazimierz Maciej Potulicki and Ofelia Potulicka).
Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski was brother of Julia Rużyczka de Rosenwerth; Józef Światopełk-Mirski and Maria Ludwika Bronisława Górska.
Above Maria Antonina Światopełk-Mirska nee Fraget, 1869 - 1938, daughter of Julian Mikołaj Fraget and Antonina.
Above Czesław Światopełk-Mirski 1862 - 1920, son of Kazimierz Ignacy Florian Światopełk-Mirski and Franciszka; copyright by Leszek Mila at geni.com. Above Franciszka Światopełk-Mirska nee Jagmin, died 1867, daughter of Paweł Antoni Feliks Jagmin and Konstancja. Above mentioned Kazimierz Ignacy Florian Światopełk-Mirski 1818 - 1886; son of Tomasz Światopełk-Mirski and Konstancja; husband of Franciszka; father of Czesław Światopełk-Mirski. Named above Tomasz Światopełk-Mirski 1788 - 1852, son of Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski and Anna. Above named Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski son of Jan Stanisław Światopełk-Mirski and Joanna.

Princess Marcianna, nee von Nostitz-Jackowska. She d. at Vladicaucase, 1863 or 1853, having only son, who d. young; she had 2 children, acc. to 'nobility.pro':
1. Dmitrij / Dmitry born 1824 or 1825 - 1899,
2. Nikolai / Nikolay 1833 - 1898.

Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski (1788-1868) fought in the November Uprising in 1830 near Suwalki and exiled to Paris, where he represented the Poles; participant in the French colonization of Algiers; served the French Foreign Legion of Polish exiles from France; he received a large grant of land in Africa; converted to Orthodoxy, and return to Russia, where he remained under house arrest until his death.

Mentioned above sons: Dmitry (1824 / 1825 - 1899) and Nikolai (1833 - 1898) were educated as members of the Russian nobility;
Nikolay / Nikolai bought the historic castle of Mir in 1895; see below on Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg.
Jan Nepomucen Ksawery Nostitz-Jackowski born 1770, was son of Aleksander Nostitz-Jackowski and Marianna nee Kczewska / Marcianna Antonie Barbara Nostitz-Jackowska; Aleksander was born in 1729.
Marianna Kczewski / Marcianna Antonie Barbara Nostitz-Jackowska Kczewska, born in Straszewo, near by Aleksandrów Kujawski; she was daughter of Andrzej Kczewski and Marianna; wife of Aleksander Nostitz-Jackowski; mother of Jan Nepomucen Ksawery Nostitz-Jackowski.
Marianna was born in 1745 or 1750. Jan had one brother Hipolit Nostitz-Jackowski; Jan married Anna nee Tucholka, and they had 4 children: among others Marianna nee Nostitz-Jackowska.
Then Jan married 2nd to Petronela nee Drywa-Zakrzewska in 1804, she was born 1776 / 1780.
They had one daughter Marianna Marcjanna nee Nostitz-Jackowska married Swiatopelk-Mirski Tomasz Bogumil Jan b. 26.12.1788 - d. 1861 / 1878.
Above named Иван Семёнович Святополк-Мирский and Marianna Marcjanna had
1. Владимир Иванович Святополк-Мирский;
2. Dmitri Ivanovich Svätjopolk-Mirski;
3. Bolesława Rodys;
4. Николай Иванович Святополк-Мирский.
Acc. to www.myheritage.com, Marianna Nostitz-Jackowska had 3 other sibilings. Daniela Joanna Marciana / Marcjanna Nostitz-Jackowska born 1807 - died 27.10.1853; her brother was Aleksander Nostitz-Jackowski 1821 - 1910, with his daughter Leonarda Kielczewska; but we remember about Ludwik Ostaszewski b. 1824 + Maria Nostitz Jackowska.
Dmitrij / Dmitry 1824 or 1825 - 1899, was son of Tomasz Teofil Jan Swiatopelk Mirski (Tomasz Teofil Jan Światopełk-Mirski 1788-1868 was son of Franciszek b. ca 1760, and Katarzyna Badowska) or Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski 1788-1868 (the same parents), Duke in 1861, and above mentioned Daniela Joanna Marciana. Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron back to Russia in 1840, 1841 served at Caucasus.
Brothers
(and sisters:
1. Bolesława Rodys 1831 - 1915, wife of Wilhelm Rodys, mother of Pelagia Joanna Findeisen
[Pelagia Joanna Findeisen 1849 Lublin - 1875 in Śmiłowice, wife of Gustaw Adolf Findeisen, and mother of Jadwiga Pawińska and Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948:
his children: Gustaw Findeisen; Andrzej Findeisen; Tomasz Findeisen and Krystyn Tadeusz Findeisen]
and Zofia Joanna Saturnina Śliwicka;
2. Ekaterina d. 1879):
1. Vladymir 1823 - 1861, and
2. Dmitri / Dmitry Ivanovich / Dmitrij 1824 or 1825 - 1899 (Infantry General and politician, Caucasus and Russo-Turkish wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia;
his son Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857 - 1914), the governor of Penza and Vilna governments, Minister of Interior of Russia),
3. Mikolaj / Nicholas Ivanovitch Sviatopolk-Mirski 1833 - 1898; a godson of Tsar Nicolas II, and was "aide de camp" of the Tsar, General-Adjutant 1874 (1877-1878 war), the Caucasus wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia, 1881-1898 The Don Cossack chief; 1891 he bought at Princess Mary Lvovna Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst the estate of Zamir, located in the Minsk government, the Novogrudek county, after death of Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg; 1898 Member of the State Council; he died at his estate Mir;
1st m. Princess Vera Ilyitchnina Gruzinsky / Grouzinzky in Tiflis, Georgia on 4 May 1860; 1842-1861 or 1863, daughter of Ilija Georgijevich, with son Ilija;
2nd m. in St. Petersburg in 14 April 1868 to Cleopatre Mikhailovna Khanykov, 1845-1910.
They had seven children:
1. Prince Michel Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born in Tsarkoie Selo in St. Petersburg 1870 - died in Warsaw, 1938, minister of state;
2. Prince Ivan Sviatopolk Mirsky born in St Petersburg 1872 - died Mir 1922;
3. Prince Dimitri Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born 1874 - died Sibiu, Romania 1950, member of the Parliament in Russia;
4. Prince Wladimir Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born 1875 - died Alexandria, Egypt 1906, titulary minister, marshal of the Balta nobility;
5. Prince Vassili Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky 1877 - 1879;
6. Prince Pierre Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky 1881 - 1882;
7. Prince Simon Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born in Novotcherkassk, Russia 1885 - died in Kharkov, Russia on 26 July 1917.

Jan Swiatopelk Mirski / Ivan Ignatiev Svyatopolk, Ignacy Alexander and Thomas Faddeev Svyatopolk-Mirski in 1815, and Thaddeus Antoni Mirski should be called Svyatopolk-Mirsky in the Congress Poland. The decree on April 18, 1861: request of Major General Dmitry Svyatopolk-Mirsky, and his brother, Colonel Nicholas and them father Thomas Boguslav Jan Svyatopolk-Mirsky on title of the Russian princes, without presenting documents for this title.
Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky was born in 1825, a General of Infantry, a member of the State Council, His Imperial Majesty's adjutant general, married Princess Sophia Yakovlevna Orbeliyani. They have children:
Prince Peter D. (b. August 18, 1857), Princess Marie (b. August 10, 1853), Princess Olga (b. May 30, 1855) and Princess Nina D. (b. January 28, 1859).
Prince Nikolai Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General, the military ataman of the Don Cossacks (b. July 5, 1833), twice married.

Father of two adjutants general - Иван Семёнович / Tomasz Teofil Jan Światopełk-Mirski / Thomas Bohuslav Ivan / Tomasz Bogumił Jan Światopełk-Mirski (1788-1868), a member - Counsellor of the Delegation of the former administration of the State Council of the Kingdom of Poland and in 1821 received the right to be called Prince.
Thomas Bohuslav Ivan / Tomasz Bogumił was born on December 26, 1788 and was the son of Franciszek Ksawery ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI b. ca 1760 (Franciszek Ksawery Mirski and Katarzyna).

Different opinion!
We know about Jan Felicjan / Ivan Felitsiyan born October 29, 1754, son of Franciszek Ksawery ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI / Franz Xavier, and grandson of Ivan / Jan, who moved to the end of the 1730s at the Polish border from the province of Smolensk and taken the Polish service: the royal customs officer at the border office in Milov, near Krakow, Ivan / Jan's first marriage to Teresa NN with two sons - Joseph and Paul.
Felitsiyan in 1749 married to Catherine Cleopatra daughter of Michal Gniazdowski / Mikhail Gnyazdovsky - and Felitsiyan had a son Franz Xavier;
Felitsiyan b. 1674, died in 1759.
It is the next branch from Ivan Felitsiyan, whose father is not specified, so it is difficult to connect all others members with the names of Svyatopolk-Mirski of the Russian Empire. For example:
Jan Stanisław Światopełk-Mirski, 1690-1761, married Anna Sołtan born in 1700.
Jan married 2nd Joanna Rymsza born in 1690. They had one son Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski. Jan married 3rd Teresa Sieklucki born in 1690. They had son Antoni Światopełk-Mirski. Jan died 1761.


The conspiracy in Russia created curtains and protected from the beginning by the modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia created by Benkendorff and Dubbelt from Estonia and Latvia - thanks to this major role in this system can be played a German families from Estonia.

They anchored (Fabian Pilar von Pilchau of Parnu) in Lithuania / Belarus and joined with families from Belarus: Piłsudski, Dzierzynski, Konstantynowicz and so on. Thanks to this connections the German Empire took over from the top of all this political system according to some theorists, and by others - the British intelligence.
This statement is not true, or not true fully. The main ally of Britain during the First World War was Russia, and the Romanov dynasty with its last tsar. This is confirmed by the organization of the Allied mission to Russia in January 1917 and earlier such a mission to Romania. Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. Ireland fought then about freedom, just like the Poles. Scotland also fight, like Estonia.

Important note on the Cork Co.:
Terence MacSwiney was born 1879. He was the son of John MacSwiney and Mary Ann Wilkinson. He married Muriel Frances Murphy, daughter of Nicholas Murphy and Mary Gertrude Purcell, in 1917. He died in 1920 at Brixton Prison; he held the office of Mayor of Cork, Member of Parliament for Cork. He was a prominent figure in the Irish Independence movement. Brothers of above Terence: Peter MacSwiney and John MacSwiney.
Kathleen Cashel born 1872, and her sister Aunt Al were great friends with the Cork republican family, the MacSwiney's, siblings Terence MacSwiney, Mary MacSwiney, Sean MacSwiney and Annie MacSwiney. Address at 66 Knockrea, Blackrock, Cork. Kathleen and Al's step-mother was Marion Mc Swiney. Mary and Annie MacSwiney founded St. Ita's School for girls, Cork, in 1917; Kathleen and Al's brother-in-law was James O'Mara; The Riordan house at 13 Myrtle Hill Terrace was one of Terence MacSwiney's safe houses when he was on the run in 1919-20 during the War of Independence.
An unofficial government policy of reprisals began in September 1919 in Fermoy, County Cork; "...on Bloody Sunday, 21 November 1920, fourteen British intelligence operatives were assassinated in Dublin, a week later, seventeen Auxiliaries were killed by the IRA in an ambush at Kilmichael in County Cork. ... The British government declared martial law in much of southern Ireland. ... The fighting was heavily concentrated in Munster (particularly County Cork)".
In late 1920, the Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney, died on hunger strike. Terence Joseph MacSwiney (1879 - 1920) was an Irish politician. He was elected as Sinn Fein Lord Mayor of Cork during the Irish War of Independence in 1920.
His father, John MacSwiney, of Cork, "had volunteered in 1868 to fight as a papal guard in Rome against Garibaldi, had been a schoolteacher in London and later opened a tobacco factory in Cork". His mother Mary MacSwiney nee Wilkinson; Mary Ann MacSwiney was English and met John MacSwiney in London in 1870. He was working as a teacher after spending some time in Rome. However, on arriving in Rome he found the fighting was already over. His sister: Mary MacSwiney and her family relocated to Cork when Mary was six years old. Once settled in she joined Inghinidhe na hEireann (Daughters of Ireland) an Irish Nationalist organization for women founded in 1900 by Maud Goone. She also joined Conradh na Gaeilge (the Gaelic League) founded in 1893. Her mother Mary Wilkinson, was an English Catholic with strong Irish nationalist opinions.
In the mid 19th century the representatives of John McSweeny held land in the county Cork parishes of Kilnaglory and St Finbarrs, barony of Cork, and John McSweeney held land in the parish of Drishane, barony of West Muskerry.
"...In the 1870s various members of the McSweeney family owned lands around Cork city and John McSweeney of Macroom owned 599 acres. The MacSwiney family originally held land at Mashanaglass near Macroom. Valentine Emanuel Patrick MacSwiney (1871-1945), son of Valentine P. MacSwiney, a banker, was born in Paris and created a Marquess by Pope Leo XIII. Copy of confirmation of arms to the descendants of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom by Margaret Cremen, and to his grandson, Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII and only son of Valentine MacSwiney by Emma Issabella Countess Konarska daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, with mention of descent from MacSwiney of Mashanaglass, Sept. 17, 1895. Genealogical Office: Ms. 110, pp. 186-7".
See at this page 1 a genealogy of MacSwiney and the Konarskis.
Muriel Frances Murphy born 1892. She was the daughter of Nicholas Murphy and Mary Gertrude Purcell. She married, firstly, Terence MacSwiney, son of John MacSwiney and Mary Wilkinson, in 1917. Child of Muriel Frances Murphy and Terence MacSwiney was Marie MacSwiney b. 1918; Rory Brugha is the son of Cathal Brugha. He married above Marie MacSwiney, daughter of Terence MacSwiney.
"...At present Sinn Fein in Cork, birthplace of iconic figures like Terence McSwiney and Tomas MacCurtain, has a proud republican tradition...". We know on Mick Nugent is the Sinn Fein councillor for the North-West Ward in Cork.
See at my websites:
Nugent in Napoli / Naples in Italy, with family Beckendorff of Estonia;
MacSwiney and Konarski;
MacSwiney and Wittgenstein, with the Radziwilles.

When Irish immigration to the New England and then to the United States of America began, the Irish Charitable Society was founded in Boston, in 1737, then as the Ancient and Most Benevolent Order of the Friendly Brothers of Saint Patrick, founded in New York, and the Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick for the Relief of Emigrants in Philadelphia in 1771.
The Irish Free State was established in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, following uprising - The Easter Rising, also known as the Easter Rebellion, in Ireland, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland. It was the most significant uprising in Ireland since the rebellion of 1798.
Remember!
In 1915 Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Thomson, a fluent French speaker, was sent to Bucharest as British military attache on Kitchener's initiative to bring Romania into the war.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. He was making his way to Russia in order to attend negotiations but the ship struck a German mine.

After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison. Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans. Frederick Joubert Duquesne, a Boer soldier and spy, claimed that he had assassinated Kitchener after an earlier attempt to kill him in Cape Town failed. Duquesne's story was that he posed as the Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky in 1916 and joined Kitchener in Scotland.
In 1883 Kitchener became a Freemason. He was initiated in Cairo.

In the spring of 1916 Herbert Asquith decided to send Lord Kitchener, his Secretary of State of War, to Russia in an attempt to rally the country in its fight against Germany. On 5th June 1916, Horatio Kitchener was drowned.
Horatio Bottomley, the editor of the John Bull magazine, promoted the idea that Kitchener had been murdered.
In July 1920, Alfred Douglas, the former boyfriend of Oscar Wilde, according to Michael Kettle, continued his campaign against Winston Churchill.
Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas b. 1870 in Powick, Worcestershire; the third son of John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, and his first wife, Sibyl nee Montgomery. Above John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig and Caroline Margaret Clayton. His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt. Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas. Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green,
Scotland - on border of England, Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.

Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas.


A plot against Rasputin in 1916:

1. Фе́ликс Фе́ликсович Юсу́пов / Felix Yusupov (1910 - 1st Russian Car Club) in 1914 married
Ирина Александровна / Irina Alexandrovna, daughter of Александр Михайлович / Alexandr Michailovich (Sandro / Сандрo, 1866 Tbilisi - 1933 France), son of Michail Nikolaievich / Михаил Николаевич.
The Oxford University Russian Society was founded in the Oxford University in 1909 by Prince Felix Yusupov, b. 1887, d. 1967, a student at the University College, Oxford. From 1909 to 1912 or 1913 he studied Fine Arts at Oxford, a member of the Bullingdon club; then his friend was Oswald Rayner, and also in St. Petersburg.

2. Дми́трий Па́влович / Dmitrij Pavlovich (1891 - 1942 Davos), son of General Pavel Alexandrovich (1860 - 1919), grandson of Александр II.

3. Влади́мир Митрофа́нович Пуришке́вич / Vladimir Purishkievich (1870 - 1920 Novorossijsk), 1917, 18 November jailed to 17 April 1918.

4. Oswald Theodore Rayner (1888 - 1961) a British MI6 agent in Russia during World War I. 1907 - 1910 Rayner studied Modern Languages at Oriel College, Oxford. 'Rasputin: The Role of Britain's Secret Service in his Torture and Murder' by Richard Cullen - claiming that Yusupov, Grand Duke Dmitri and Purishkevich, were joined in the murder of Rasputin by a British spy named Oswald Rayner. Cullen has established that the accounts published by Yusupov and Purishkevich, are a tissue of lies.
See www.blackcountrybugle.co.uk/
"...Firstly, he found no evidence of poison, and there was no evidence of his drowning either, no fluid in his lungs. ... Rasputin had been shot three times, was most definitely dead when he was dumped in the freezing river ... The shot to the head was probably fired from a British service revolver. ... Rayner in 1915 became a barrister at the Inner Temple".
Rayner was sent to the St Petersburg Secret Intelligence Service station in 1916; Rasputin had links with the Germans and was trying to arrange an end to the war on the Eastern Front.
Tsar told George Buchanan, British ambassador, that he suspected a young Englishman, one of Yusupov's Oxford university friends, played a part in the murder. Buchanan denied any British involvement.
Rayner in 1918 was sent to the British spy base in Stockholm. He returned to Russia in 1919, staying in Vladivostok, returning to Moscow in 1921.
Grand Duke Dmitri was exiled by Nicholas II to the Persian Front.
Felix Yusupov was put under house arrest; Vladimir Purishkevich in 1917 jailed, fleeing to Southern Russia with help of Felix Dzierzynsky.
See: Richard Cullen, published by Dialogue.

"...In January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson as chief military representative, and including a banker and two munitions experts - on the mission to Russia. There were 50 delegates in total including French, led by de Castelnau, and Italians. The object of the mission, stressed at the second Chantilly Conference in December 1916, was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed with a view to coordinating attacks...".
Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy.
Above Field Marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet, b. 1864, and "...Loyd George wanted Russia persuaded to make the maximum possible effort... on a British mission to Russia in January 1917 (delayed from November 1916), the object of which was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale ... The War Office briefing advised that Russia was close to revolution. Wilson met the Tsar but thought him 'as devoid of character and purpose as our own poor miserable King'. Even senior Russian officials were talking openly of assassinating the Tsar or perhaps just the Tsarina. Wilson was impressed by Generals Ruzski (Rucki) and Danilov ... Knox, who had been British military attaché since 1911. He toured Petrograd, Moscow ... and Riga ... His official report (3 March 1917) said that Russia would remain in the war and that they would solve their 'administrative chaos'. However, many other observers at the time, e.g. the young Archibald Wavell in the Caucasus, felt that the advent of democracy in Russia would reinvigorate her war effort, so Wilson's views were not entirely unusual. ... Wilson was appointed Chief of British Mission to the French Army on 17 March 1917, with a promotion to permanent lieutenant-general which Robertson had blocked in November 1916...".
Noël Edouard Marie Joseph, Vicomte de Curieres de Castelnau b. 1851, was a French general in World War I. "...After the dismissal of Joffre ... in 1916 Castelnau was retired from active service. He was sent on the Allied Mission to Russia in the early months of 1917, just prior to the Fall of the Tsar. ... Castelnau was recalled to the command of the Eastern Army Group ... in 1918...".

Today it is difficult to say who, what country, either a government, or an institution, maybe a NGO managed this complicated structure.

Sovereign Military Order of Malta / The Knights of Malta / the Order of Malta in Russia, Poland and Paul I the Russian Emperor:

1.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Francis Servatius Hutten-Czapski b. 1851, d. 1937, in 1890 negotiated with Pope Leo XIII end of the Kulturkampf in Germany; he was friend with the Cardinals of the Vatican; persuaded the German general staff to support the Bolsheviks (1916 - 1917) and in the independent Poland (since 1918) was the
president of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta.

His father Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to (January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833; 1833 - 1837 Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834, including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland. Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to H. Koziel, in 1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt. The republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini.

2.

Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapska, b. 1894 in Prague, died in 1981, Maisons-Laffitte; the granddaughter of Emeryk Czapski / Emeric Hutten-Czapski of the family who had a huge estates from Radziwill, around Minsk, in Curland, Lithuania and Volhynia, acc. to Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski, vol. 1-2, Berlin 1936.

Ferdinand Radziwill of the Polish Knights of Malta, has come after Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, an old friend of the Prussian court and military.

The estate of Pryluki to the Hutten - Czapskis was situated on Ptych river; a house of 1882 and terraced park. Pryluki / Priluki ca 14 km south-west of the Minsk core, and 15 km west of Koroliszczewiczi / Korolishchevici of the Konstantynowiczs; 13 km west of Gatovo / Hatowo, and 23 km north-east of Kojdanow / Koidanov; south-west of Minsk in Belarus, on way to Dzierzynsk / Dzierhinsk / Kojdanow / Koidanov.

3.

Stanisław Sołtan b. 27.8.1756 - died in 1836 in Mitawa, General, secret acted in 1793, then in 1812, member of Parliament of 1782, 1788,
m. Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł d. 1802,
daughter of Stanisław and Karolina Pociej,
owned Zdzięcioł;
m. 2nd in 1820 to Konstancja Toplicka-Tupalska 1-v Kasper Korsak, daughter of Antoni and Róża Górska.
Children of above Stanislaw Soltan:
Karolina Sołtan, b. ca 1780 / 1790 + Józef Piottuch-Kublicki;
Anna Sołtan, b. ca 1790 + Antoni Wańkowicz,
with children:
Waleria Wańkowicz, m. Konstanty Tyzenhauz,
Wanda Wańkowicz, + Benedykt Tyszkiewicz-Łohojski,
Klementyna Wańkowicz, + Mostowski.

Next children of above Stanislaw Soltan:
Helena Sołtan + Franciszek Sołtan, member of the Order of Malta,
Adam Leon Ludwik Sołtan, b. 2.7.1792 in Warszawa, freemason,
m. Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839.

Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan was born 1824 in Uzukrewno (his mother's estate) and died on March 15, 1900 in Prezma, now Latvia;
son of Stanislaus Soltan (collaborator of the Constitution of 3 May, imprisoned in Smolensk in the 1794-1796, the President of the Provisional Government of Lithuania in 1812, d. Mitawa 1836)
and Constance Toplicki / Konstancja Toplicka,
a high school in Mitawa in 1835-1842 Courland, his parents after confiscating the 'Zdzieciol' estate (in the Slonim area and mentioned by Mr. Tadeusz Mickiewicz) moved house on the Livonia area, he was the insurgent in 1863, exiled to Ufa, interned in Riga. Study at the University of St. Petersburg in 1843-1844,
married in 1849, with a relative of his, Oktawia nee Soltan,
daughter of Joseph and Valentina,
and settled in the estate of his wife, Pryzma in Polish Livonia. In 1858 - 1859 he traveled abroad, where he conferred with Adam Czartoryski and Witold Czartoryski and Count Zamoyski on the current state of Lithuania and Belarus. He was against armed Insurrection. When the uprising broken out, Soltan, unable to stop it, joined to the Insurrection in the Livonia province and after
Soltan was arrested in Vitebsk on June 5th, 1863.
He was exiled to Ufa on August 18, 1863, and remained there until 1866.
Then he was interned in Riga 1872 - 1875,
was allowed to return in 1875 to assets of his wife in Polish Livonia, where
he died in September 1900 in Prezma / Presman near to Malta in Inflanty / Lettgallen / Livonia, the Rēzeknes Rajons - 18 km south west from Rezekne
acc. to http://exonyme.bplaced.net/Board/Thread-Lettgallen.

Remember about

Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852, writer, born 1796 - Kraslaw, died in 1852 - Wilno, married in 1819 to Antonina Soltan 1800-1871, daughter of Benedykt Soltan b. 1770 and Józefa Benislawska b. 1770,
with children:
Ludwika 1821-1897, Eugeni Joachim Herkulan born 1826, August Joachim 1830, Wilhelm Joachim Kazimierz Plater 1830-1856, Kazimierz Konrad 1830-1863,
Michal Hieronim Joachim 1834-1924 m. 1st to Aniela Felkerzamb 1825-1884 and 2nd to Gabriela Jaraczewska 1860-1935 with children:
Maria Anna Apolonia Broel-Plater 1894-1948 + Stanislaw Maria Jan Römer 1892-1965, Ludwika b. 1895 + Sigvalt Ankarhall 1894, Leon Broel-Plater 1897-1980 + Maria Drucka-Lubecka 1895-1987;
and last son Leon Joachim Blazej Broel-Plater 1836-1863 - member of the January Uprising in 1863.
The great-grandparents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:
1. Jan Ludwik Plater born in 1686 or 1690-1736
(son of Jan Andrzej Henryk Plater and Ludwika Maria von Grothuss; husband of Rozalia Brzostowska; father of Konstancja; Konstanty Ludwik and Józefa; brother of Fabian Ksawery Broel-Plater; Aleksander Konstanty; Izabela Borch and Anna Sybilla von Syberg / Zyberk),
2. Józef Tadeusz Oginski
(1693 - 1736, son of Kazimierz Dominik Oginski and Eleonora; husband of Anna; father of Augustyna Plater; Katarzyna Przezdziecka; Michal Kazimierz Oginski; Elzbieta Wielhorska and Genowefa Brzostowska; brother of Marcibela Zawisza-Kiezgajlo and Helena Oginska)
3. Waclaw Beydo-Rzewuski b. 1705 / 1706 - d. 1779;
4. Michal Kazimierz Radziwill
(Prince Michal Kazimierz Radziwill born in 1702, Olyka and died in 1762, nick-name Rybenko, owner of Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk, Kopyla and Shumsk. He was Court Marshal of Lithuania since 1734, Field and Grand Commander-in-Chief of Lithuania and in 1725 in Biala Krynica he married Urszula Franciszka Wisniowiecka, 2nd time married Anna Luiza Mycielska in 1754 in Lviv. His lover was Maria Karolina Sobieska, grand daughter of John III Sobieski);
5. Rozalia Brzostowska 1690-1746;
6. Anna Wisniowiecka 1695-1732;
7. Anna Lubomirska
(1717 - died 1763, m. in 1732 to Waclaw Rzewuski of Cracow, the Grand Commander-in-Chief of Poland, 1706 - 1779);
8. Urszula Franciszka Wisniowiecka 1705-1753.
Grandparents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:
1. Konstanty Ludwik Plater 1722-1778,
2. Augusta Oginska 1724-1791,
3. Stanislaw Ferdynand Beydo-Rzewuski 1737-1786,
4. Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Radziwill 1740-1789.
Parents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852: August Jacek Hieronim Broel-Plater / August Hiacynt 1745-1803 and Anna Beydo-Rzewuska 1761-1800.
Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater studied in Kroże (the Rossienie county) in Żmudz / Samogitia, then in 1815 studied at the Wilno Univ.; he was heir of Kombula / Kombul and Kazanów in Livonia / the Polish Inflanty, also Sickeln and Rozaliszki in Courland. He was elected nobility Speaker of the Rzeżyce / Rezekne county in Livonia;
after the November Uprising 1831 was persecuted by the Russian authorities as a relative of participants of the uprising: Emilia Plater and Cezary Plater.
Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater was sentenced to settlement in Smolensk, where he lived with his family to 1846. In Smolensk he has established a contact with Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski. After 1846 he returned to Kombula, in 1847 was elected assessor of the Criminal Chamber of the Novgorod province.
Writer under nick-name Joseph Płaskoziemski in 1846, gave his own theory of light, heat and electricity, but not supported by experiences in the mid-nineteenth century.
He was also the author of the short history and geography of Livonia; died in 1852 in Vilnius, was buried in Krasław.
He was married from 1819 to Antonina Pereświt-Soltan (1800-1871) and had 14 children - I emphasizes once again:
Louise (1821-1897), Helen (b. 1825), twins Stefania (b. 1830) and Józefa (1830-1887) heiress of the Kombula estate,
Cecilia (1839-1864), a nun in Chelmno at Pomerania,
and the sons:
August (1822-1861),
William / Wilhelm (1824-1856) the president of the court in Dyneburg / Daugavpils, the heir of Kazanów;
Kazimierz (1829-1863),
Eugeniusz / Eugene (1826-1916) owner of Żubry;
Michal / Michael (1834- 1924) the heir of Kombula;
Leon
(Leon Plater b. ca 1836, d. on May 28 / June 9, 1863 in Daugavpils, Earl, a participant of the January Uprising in 1863. Shot at the Dyneburg fortress because of a successful attack on the transport of weapons on 25 May 1863, after which, was captured - protecting the actual organizer and commander Zygmunt Bujnicki - buried in the place of execution but the body was dug and transported to another location in a unknown place).

The von der Borch family from Prele / Preili/ Priji near to Dyneburg and from Wyping in the Rzezyce / Rezekne district was owner of the Prezma estate before 1714.

Above named Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan moved in 1891 to Riga, where he many years honorably served as President of the Charitable Society.

4.

Catherine married Francis Kossakowski (b. 1815), that is Katarzyna O'Brien de Lacy, 1820 / 1827-1910, married Franciszek Korwin-Kossakowski in 1840. Franciszek was born in 1815, in Marciniszki.

Katarzyna Korwin - Kossakowska nee O'Brien de Lacy, was born to Patryk O'Brien de Lacy and Julia O'Brien de Lacy nee von Damme; Patryk was born in 1800. Julia was born in 1800. Katarzyna had brothers - Piotr O'Brien de Lacy, and Aleksander O'Brien de Lacy b. 1830 m. Gabriela Radowicka b. 1850, who had daughter Aleksandra 1895 - 1987, by www.sejm-wielki.pl: m. ca 1915 to Andrzej Miączyński 1876-1936 with daughter Zofia 1919-2015 m. Stanisław Komorowski 1915-2004 with Andrzej Komorowski 1950, Stanisław Komorowski 1950, Krzysztof Komorowski 1954, Anna.

Grandparents of above Franciszek: Antoni Korwin-Kossakowski 1735-1798 and Eleonora Straszewicz b. 1750; Ludwik Gorski from Retów 1749-1815 and Konstancja Odachowska.

Parents: Szymon Korwin-Kossakowski, a member of the Malta Order (the Sulkowskis!), 1777-1828 and Józefa Ewa Rachela Gorska b. 1783. Franciszek d. 1887.

Hipolit Gorski (his sister Józefa Górska married to Szymon Kossakowski b. 1777 in Marciniszki, died in 1828, with sons: Ludwik Kossakowski b. 1805, d. 1843, and Franciszek Kossakowski b. 1815, and one child more). Hipolit Gorski b. ca 1790 was son of Ludwik Gorski and stepson of Konstancja Odachowska b. 1750.

Her family: Józefa Ewa Rachela Korwin-Kossakowska daughter, Karolina Cecylia Morykoni, Zofia Pulcheria Giedrojć daughter, Adam Gorski son, Seweryn Gorski stepson, Aleksander Gorski stepson, Bogumiła Billewicz stepdaughter, Prakseda Billewicz stepdaughter, Hipolit Gorski stepson (he was father of Stanisława Hutten-Czapska b. ca 1830, and grandfather of Krystyna Potulicka [mother of Henryk Józef Adolf Potulicki; Józef Zygmunt Potulicki; Teresa Potulicka; Zofia Dowgiałło; Izabela Jabłońska; and Krystyna Potulicka] and Adolfina Maria Hutten-Czapska - her daughter was Zofia Barbara Światopełk-Czetwertyńska), Joanna Billewicz stepdaughter.

Above Józefa Ewa Rachela Gorska (Korwin-Kossakowska), born 1783, to Ludwik Górski and Konstancja Odachowska; Ludwik was born on September 3, 1749. Konstancja was born in 1755. Józefa had 3 brothers: Adam Górski, Hipolit and one more.

Hipolit Gorski b. ca 1790 (his sister Józefa Górska m. to Szymon Kossakowski) son of Ludwik, had daughter Stanislawa Gorska m. Adolf Hutten Czapski.

5.

Jozef Sulkowski in 1779 to 1782 with an uncle or a grandfather was in Naples, Flanders, Netherlands, England, Spain, Portugal, Paris to Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche; in 1783 in Russia to Ekatherina II who given to him title of officer.

I am thinking that a boy Jozef was taken into the care of a wealthy uncle, the Duke Casimir Augustus Sulkowski. August fancied himself that Jozef is an adoptive son; Duke took him on nearly 3-years tour in Europe. Joseph Sulkowski was taken to the highest courts. Particular sympathy to him showed the queen of France, Marie Antoinette. According to the chroniclers, made him a page to her; Prince August died in 1786. In 1783 served the Rydzyna Regiment of the Polish army, 1786 lieutenant.

Duke August Sulkowski died on 7 Jan. 1786 and given to him title of the 'Commandor of the Malta Order' with 12000 'zlotych' per year; 1786 served 10th regiment of the Polish army; Dec. 1791 Captain, 1792 in Lithuania on the Zelva river banks fought against the Russian Army (Virtuti Militari) under General Michal Zabello / Zabiella 1760-1815; escaped from Poland in Autumn 1792 to Paris.
1793 the French citizen, 1793 married daughter of Jean-Michel de Venture de Paradis 1739-1799; 1793 served the secret service of the 'Convention nationale' in Syria, India, Constantinopole, but in Autumn 1794 back to Poland, under Tadeusz Kosciuszko troops; around Nov. 1794 back to Paris, on 1 May 1796 the French Army; in 1796 - 1797 Italy: a friend of Napoleon Bonaparte and on 27th October 1796 his Adjutant.

6.

In 1774, in Poland was established the Grand Priory of the Order of Malta, headed by Prince Adam Poniński.

In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte setting off on the Egyptian campaign took Malta and the Order was exiled. Adam Poniński b. 1732, Speaker of Parliament from 1773 to 1775, and
the Prior of the Priory of the Polish Order of the Knights of Malta; it was adopted in the eighteenth century, Bartholomew Ignatius Stecki. In Poland were two 'komandorie' (Commanderies).

Alexander Sulkowski Sulima 1731 - 1786, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire from 1752, lieutenant general of the royal army in 1785, Austrian field marshal, was the son of Alexander Joseph Sulkowski; the Order of Malta cavalier.

Francis Sulkowski Sulima born in 1733, died on April 28, 1812, prince of the Holy Roman Empire from 1752, inspector general of infantry, Chamberlain of Stanislaw August Poniatowski, superior of the Commandery of St. John the Baptist, of the Knights of Malta since 1776 to ?, the Austrian court chamberlain from 1754.

The Order of the Knights of Saint John, also known as Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, and the Hospitallers, were among the most famous of the Roman Catholic military orders during the Middle Ages. The Roman Catholic order was further damaged by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798 and became dispersed throughout Europe. By the early 19th century, the order had been severely weakened by the loss of its priories throughout Europe. Only 10% of the order's income came from traditional sources in Europe, with the remaining 90% being generated by the Russian Grand Priory until 1810. This was partly reflected in the government of the Order being under Lieutenants, rather than Grand Masters, in the period 1805 to 1879, when Pope Leo XIII restored a Grand Master to the order. Copyright by Wikipedia.

The Russian Emperor, Paul I, gave the largest number of knights shelter in St. Petersburg, an action which gave rise to the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitallers and the Order's recognition among the Russian Imperial Orders. The refugee knights in St Petersburg proceeded to elect Tsar Paul as their Grand Master – a rival to Grand Master von Hompesch until the latter's abdication left Paul as the sole Grand Master. In 1834, the order, by this time known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), acquired new headquarters in Rome where it has remained since.

Michał Radziwiłł Red (1870 - 1955 in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) was a nobleman and diplomat in the embassy of the Russian Empire in Paris. He was also a Knight of Malta. He was born to Ferdynand Radziwiłł and Pelagia Sapieha; his great grandfather was Prince Anton Radziwill and his great grandmother was Princess Louise of Prussia (1770 - 1836).

Above Ferdynand Fryderyk Radziwiłł (1834 in Berlin - 1926 in Rome), was also a Knight of Malta since 1889; father of Janusz Franciszek, Michał Radziwiłł Red, Karol Ferdynand; son of Bogusław Fryderyk Radziwiłł and Leontyna Gabriela von Clary und Aldringen. 1874-1919 member of Reichstag.

Above Janusz Franciszek Ksawery Józef Bronisław Maria Radziwiłł 1880 in Berlin - d. 1967, 1935 - 1939 senator; was also a Knight of Malta since 1926 - President.

Also: Stefan Przezdziecki, Rajnold Przezdziecki; Alfred Chłapowski.

7.

Antoni Wankowicz / Anton Vankovich married Catholic noblewoman Anna Stanislavovna Soltan, who belonged to a wealthy and influential in those days family, was in close relationship with the magnate clans; her mother was Franciszka Teofila Radziwill / Francisco Theophile Stanislavovna Radziwill, daughter of Stanislaw Radziwill (1722-1787) and Karolina Pociej / Carolina (1732-1776); her father Stanislav Stanislavovich Soltan Pereswiat (1756-1836), who was court Marshal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1791-1792 ), and in 1812 he led the Commission to the Provisional Government;
on June 19, 1812 was created on the orders of the French Emperor Napoleon administrative authority in the occupied territory of the French troops in the Lithuanian-Belarusian provinces of the Russian Empire during the Franco-Russian war.
With his wife Anna Soltan, Anton Tadeushevich Vankovich had three daughters who married off very well.
The first daughter Clementine Antonievna Vankovich married a wealthy Count Edward Mostowski / Edward son of Jozef Mostowski (1790-1855), the Sventsiany county leader (1812-1840), the provincial leader of the Vilna (1840-1843), owner of the estate Цэрклішкі / Cerkliszki / Tserklishki in Vilnius province;
the second daughter Valeria Antonievna Vankovich (1805 - ?) married a wealthy Count Konstantin Ignatievich Tizengauzen / Konstanty Tyzenhaus (1786-1853), owner of the Пастаў / Postawy, the Rakiszki / Rakishki county, famous ornithologists and regional specialists.
The third daughter Wanda Antonievna Vankovich (1808-1842) married the wealthy Count Benedykt Tyszkiewicz / Mihalavich Benedict Tyszkiewicz (1807-1866), the provincial leader of the Kovno (1846-1849), owner of the estate Чырвоны Двор / Czerwony Dwor close to Kaunas / Kovno.
Antoni Wankowicz / Anton Vankovich, having a rather large estate in Igumen County, made ​​a career of the noble service in native county, had friendly relations with the most influential families of the county: Wankowicz, Konstantynowicz, Osztarp, Moniuszko, Jelski, Pruszynski, Slotwinski, Janiszewski; he hold positions of cornet in the Igumen county (1802-1804), chairman of the Igumen county court (1804-1805), Marshal of the Igumen county (1805-1808).
He got quite rare in those days, the Maltese Order of St John of Jerusalem. He became a member of the local Masonic lodges, which was very popular and common in those days - "Vladislav Jagiello" and The Peace Room / 'The shrine room'.
In 1812, when the Franco-Russian war in Minsk province began, came the French troops that established here its management system. Anton Vankovich joined the French authorities and set up local administrations under Prince Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout on July 13 / July 25 - the Commission of the Provisional Government of the Minsk province; cooperated with Prince Michael Kryshtafavich Dominikovich Puzyna and the Commissioner-General Michael Antonovich Zenovich / Michal Zenowicz;
Anton Tadeushevich Vankovich and Michael Antonovich Zenovich were members of the economic department, headed by chairman Ignacy Moniuszko / Ignatius Stanislavovich Moniuszko (1787-1869).
According to the decree of the French Emperor Napoleon I on June 19 (July 1) 1812 to control the territories seized by the French, were created departments in Vilna, Grodno, Minsk and Bialystok; Vankovich became part of the new administration and has been a member since July 17 to August 15, 1812, and then was supervisor of the military hospital of the French "Grand Army" in Minsk.
He inherited his father's estate, in Minsk Province, Zazere and Vidagoshch; the palace in Vilnius, called the Vankovitski palace.

Those who have studied the roots of this complex structure, the most common commit certain substantive and methodological mistakes, runs the risk of retaliatory attacks and ridicule, and even fully social ostracism.

"...Lenin was preceded by a Swiss spy named Pierre Gilliard who was hired to tutor the Romanov children in French.
Charles Sydney Gibbes was their English tutor.
The Revolution was planned in London and Geneva... Both men were MI6 operatives (this is an opinion of Scrivener) and they could be relied upon to maintain strict secrecy as to the final fate of the Romanovs...", acc. to Patrick Scrivener.

The four daughters of Tsar Nicholas II spoke English with a slight Belfast accent, wrote Gareth Russell, historian. " The Emperor's four daughters had a Belfast nanny, Margaretta Eager / Margaretta Alexandra Eagar, ... along with their English tutor, a Scotsman called Mr Epps. When the Russian Imperial Family visited relatives in Britain, the girls' great-uncle, King Edward VII, was amused at the regional twangs they had picked up when they spoke English. The Tsarina quickly brought onboard another English tutor, Sydney Gibbes...".
Margaretta Alexandra Eagar, from Limerick, 1898 until 1904 a nanny at the Russian Court. Margaretta / Margaret Alexandra Eagar b. 1863, an Irishwoman, 1906 she wrote a memoir entitled 'Six Years at the Russian Court'; she was born to a Protestant couple, Francis McGillycuddy Eagar and Frances Margaret Holden; a medical nurse in Belfast, nurse to the daughters of Nicholas II in 1898.
By Sharon Slater:
"Francis McGillycuddy Eagar (1823-1902) and Frances Margaret Holden (1831-1913) were married 1855 in King County (Offaly). From 1862 to at least 1880 Francis was the governor of Limerick County Gaol, ... he was the governor of Naas Gaol. The couple retired to the West End, Kilkee, Co. Clare (west of Limerick in western Ireland). After the death of Francis McGillycuddy his wife Frances moved in with their daughter Jane and her husband Alister Macleod in Wicklow (we know on MACLEOD, Grace born ca 1862 in Scotland, married Alister Hy Macleod ca 1884, and she was in the 1911 census for Baltinglass Town, Baltinglass, County Wicklow, Ireland;
Wicklow, 45 km south of Dublin). ... In 1898 Margaretta Eagar was appointed nurse to the daughters of Tsar Nicholas II. She had been recommended to the family by Emily Loch
(Emily Loch, "...knew Alix, Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, the last Tsasrina of Russia, from her early years. Emily was associated with the family of Helena, Princess Christian, Queen Victoria's fifth child and was lady-in-waiting to Princess Christian from 1883 until the Princess death in 1923. During these years Emily kept a diary recording daily events... Emily Loch's friendship with the future Tsarina grew through visits to the Hesse family in Germany and when they visited their grandmother, Queen Victoria in England and Scotland. During the winter months of 1897 / 1898 Emily accompanied Princess Helena (Thora), Princess Christian's eldest daughter on a visit to Tsar Nicholas and the Tsarina in Russia. Her friendship with the Imperial Family is reflected in the many leters ... until early 1917..." - copyright by forum.alexanderpalace.org)
to the Tzarina Alexandra. ... She was responsible for the day to day lives of Olga (b. 1895), Tatiana (b. 1897), Maria (b. 1899) and Anastasia (b. 1901) ... It was noted by the Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna, the younger sister of Tsar Nicholas II that Margaretta had a great love of politics. ... Margaretta discussed the Dreyfus Affair with a friend. ... She exchanged letters with the grand duchesses for years after leaving Russia describing her work as a governess for other families...".
From 1905 to 1908 (1910?) Mr. Epps was the tutor. "...Janet Epps has already published her book including these documents or is in the process...".
Mr Epps was a Scottish 'English' tutor.
"...Charles Sydney Gibbes was employed to right the dreadful wrong of the imperial children speaking English with a Scottish accent observed by Edward VII. Mr Epps was possibly the culprit".
We know on John Epps (the first) who was born into a Calvinist family in Sevenoaks, Kent in 1805. George Napoleon Epps was his half-brother. In 1824 Epps moved to Edinburgh to study medicine to 1827. "...His activism brought him into contact with Joseph Hume, Lady Byron, George Wilson (president of the Anti-Corn Law League), Giuseppe Mazzini, Thomas Slingsby Duncombe, James Stansfeld, Lajos Kossuth, and Robert Owen", by Wikipedia.

Our tutor Epps had a Scottish degree, but no license. After graduating John Epps moved back to London. If John Epps was the illegitimate son of Sarah Eppps, could he have used the surname of Merikin / Merrikan etc for his marriage?
In 1880 John left England for Russia. John Bilby Merikin Epps died 29 July 1935. His wife in Russia was Lana of Russian origin, her first name may have been Svetlana. John Epps was an English tutor in 1910, who had left the Imperial children with a decidedly Scottish twang, by the Grand Duchess Olga, the daughter of Russia's last emperor, Tsar Nicholas Romanov II.
Janet Epps, an Australian descendant of John Epps, from Sydney, has been researching the family history; she had come across an article John Epps had written in an English publication in 1921 which included some pictures of the Romanovs. Mrs Epps' great-grandfather, William, had sent the documents to Maggs Bros for appraisal back in 1935, on advice from the Mitchell Library in Sydney. John Epps was the first cousin of great grandfather, William.

Emily Loch was Lady in Waiting to Princess Helena for 50 years; Princess Helena was Queen Victoria's daughter - Helena Augusta Victoria Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein b. 1846 died 1923.
Emily Loch was a personal friend of most of the European royalty. These are her diaries at court in Britain, Germany and a winter spent in St Petersburg: The Memoirs of Emily Loch, published by Librario Publishing Ltd.
Emily Loch d. 1932 or 1848 - 1931 / Emily Elizabeth Loch was daughter of George and Catharine Loch and she was sister of Anne, Alice Helen, Marion Clementina Mary, and Catherine Grace Loch.
Grandfather James Loch 1780 - 1855 was a Scottish estate commissioner and later a Member of Parliament. James Loch was an employee of George Granville Sutherland Leveson Gower 2nd Duke of Sutherland,
inf. at sueyounghistories.com;
George Loch's daughter Emily was Lady in Waiting to Queen Victoria's third daughter, copyright by Sue Young:
"Alice Loch (1840-1932) lived at The Cottage, Bishopsgate, close to the south eastern boundary of Windsor Great Park. The eldest of the five daughters of George Loch ... she studied painting in Paris in the 1860s and won an Honourable Mention for an unmounted fan leaf at the Fan Makers Exhibition in 1878. ... Between 1883 and 1923 Alice's sister, Emily (1848-1931), was Lady in Waiting to Queen Victoria's third daughter, Princess Christian, whose chief residence was Cumberland Lodge, Windsor Great Park, close to Bishopsgate. According to Princess Marie Louise (Princess Christian's daughter), during the troubled period of her marriage in the 1890s it was suggested that she should travel overseas. ... George Loch 1811 - 1887, was a British politician. He was elected as a Liberal Member of Parliament for Wick in 1868, resigning in 1872 by becoming Steward of the Manor of Northstead. ... George Loch was a participant in the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method in 1866. ... In 1866, the Treasury placed rooms at Adelphi Terrace at the disposal of John Winston Spencer Churchill the 7th Duke of Marlborough, who was the Chairman of the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method, based on the research done in Belgium by Edward Hamilton, with John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough overseeing the work of Edward Hamilton, George Lennox Moore, James Moore and Alfred Crosby Pope. ...
George Loch was a friend of Granville Leveson Gower 1st Earl Granville, and his brother James worked for George Granville Sutherland Leveson Gower 2nd Duke of Sutherland...".
Acc. to David R. Fisher at www.historyofparliamentonline.org:
"...Loch, James b. 7 May 1780, 1st son of George Loch of Drylaw, Edinburgh and Mary, daughter of John Adam of Blair Adam, Kinross; brother of John Loch; ... Edinburgh Univ. 1797; ... m. (1) 4 Jan. 1810, Ann (d. 28 Jan. 1842), da. of Patrick Orr of Bridgeton, Kincardine, ... married (2) 2 Dec. 1847, Elizabeth Mary, da. of John Pearson of Tettenhall Wood, Staffs., wid. of Maj. George Macartney Greville... Loch's ancestors migrated in the late fifteenth century from Gloucestershire to Edinburgh, where they prospered in the Baltic trade, became prominent in municipal affairs and acquired the Drylaw estate in 1641.
His grandfather James Loch (1698-1759) was a Jacobite sympathizer who donated Ł10,000 to the Stuart cause ... His father, ... much given to art and generally accomplished', married the sister of William Adam, a rising Scottish lawyer and Whig Member of Parliament, and followed his brother-in-law's advice by selling Drylaw ... Loch was raised, after his father's death, by his mother in the family's town house in Edinburgh, which he inherited on coming of age in 1801. He also spent much time with his uncle, an improving landlord, at Blair Adam.
At Edinburgh University, where he studied law, he was one of the intellectual circle dominated by Henry Brougham, Francis Horner and Francis Jeffrey, and as a member of the Speculative Society he espoused egalitarian and anti-Trinitarian views.
... contributor to the Edinburgh Review, but an article in July 1804 caused a temporary rift with Brougham, who considered its gratuitous attack on the East India Company's monopoly to be ill-advised, especially as Adam was counsel to the Company. Brougham also chided him for his raffish conduct in canvassing for Sir Francis Burdett at the Middlesex by-election that summer. ...
Early in 1808 Adam and Tierney recommended him to Grenville, now leader of the opposition,
... Loch was taken on in 1823 as estate manager by the 5th earl of Carlisle, and he subsequently became responsible for the Bridgwater, Dudley, Egerton and Keith estates. ... he shared, that ministers had no clear Irish policy and that the fate of Catholic relief would depend on the first division in the Commons. ... 1829. He was named to the select committee on Scottish entails... He divided with government on the Russian-Dutch loan ... At the general election of 1832 Loch was returned for what had now become Wick Burghs, and he sat until his defeat in 1852. He died in June 1855 and left his freehold property and London house in Albemarle Street to his eldest son, William Adam Loch...".
James Loch of Drylaw was father of Granville Gower; Clementina Maria Marion Nicholson, Btnss; Henry Brougham Loch, 1st Baron Loch; John Charles Loch; Thomas Coutts Loch; James Patrick Loch;
William Adam; George
and Anne Marjory Loch.

Explanations:

1. Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux b. 1778 d. 1868, a British statesman who became Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. "Brougham was born and grew up in Edinburgh, the eldest son of Henry Brougham, of Brougham Hall in Westmorland, and Eleanora, daughter of Reverend James Syme. ... As a young lawyer in Scotland Brougham helped to found the Edinburgh Review in 1802 and contributed many articles to it..." at Wikipedia.

2. Francis Jeffrey Lord Jeffrey b. 1773 d. 1850, a Scottish judge, born in Edinburgh, the son of a clerk in the Court of Session; studied at the University of Glasgow to 1789, a member of the Speculative Society - close to Sir Walter Scott, Lord Brougham, Francis Horner, the Marquess of Lansdowne, Lord Kinnaird.

3. Francis Horner: b. 1778 d. 1817 was a Scottish Whig politician. He was born in Edinburgh and studied at its university; a member of the Speculative Society.

4. John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough b. 1822, Earl of Sunderland from 1822 to 1840 and Marquess of Blandford from 1840 to 1857, was a British statesman; born at Garboldisham Hall, son of George Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of Marlborough and Jane Stewart, daughter of Admiral George Stewart, 8th Earl of Galloway. He held office under Disraeli as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1876 to 1880; married to Frances Anne Emily Vane daughter of the 3rd Marquess of Londonderry.

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill b. 1874 d. 1965 was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. Above Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill b. 1849, was father of Sir Winston Churchill and John Strange Spencer-Churchill. Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill was the third son of above mentioned the 7th Duke of Marlborough, and his wife, Lady Frances Vane.

5. Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville b. 1773, as Lord Granville Leveson-Gower from 1786 to 1815, as Viscount Granville from 1815 to 1833, and as Earl Granville from 1833; Granville served as British ambassador to Russia 1804 - 1805 and 1806 - 1807, and France 1824 - 1828, 1830 - 1841; his sons: Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, a politician; Hon. Frederick Leveson-Gower was also a politician.

But Bob Atchison wrote (© Copyright 2011):

"...Pierre Gilliard - Thirteen Years at the Russian Court ...
GILLIARD NOTE:
Ludendorff exaggerates the role of the Entente in the Russian Revolution when he writes:
'In March, 1917, a Revolution, the work of the Entente, overthrew the Tsar'.
The movement was supported by the Entente, but it was not their work.
Ludendorff shows well enough what were its immediate results for Germany. "The Revolution meant a fatal loss of military power to Russia, weakened the Entente and gave us considerable relief in our heavy task. The General Staff could at once effect important economies of troops and ammunition, and could also exchange divisions on a much greater scale."
And further on: "In April and May, 1917, it was the Russian Revolution which saved us in spite of our victory on the Aisne and in Champagne"
(Ludendorff, My War Memories, vol. II).
The Imperial train left Mohilev on the night of the 12th (March 1917), but on arriving at the station of Malaya-Vichera twenty-four hours later it was ascertained that the station of Tosno, thirty miles south of Petrograd, was in the hands of the insurgents, and that it was impossible to get to Tsarskoe - Selo. There was nothing for it but to turn back.
The Tsar decided to go to Pskov to General Russky, the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Front. He arrived there on the evening of the 14th. When the General had told him the latest developments in Petrograd the Tsar instructed him to inform M. Rodzianko by telephone that he was ready to make every concession if the Duma thought that it would tranquillize the nation. The reply came: "It is too late."
To finish her work of destruction, Germany had only to give Lenin and his disciples a plentiful supply of money and let them loose on Russia.
Lenin and his friends never dreamed of talking to the peasants about a democratic republic or a constituent assembly. They knew it would have been waste of breath. As up-to-date prophets, they came to preach the holy war and to try and draw these untutored millions by the attraction of a creed in which the finest teaching of Christ goes hand in hand with the worst sophisms ...
BOB ATCHISON NOTE:
In the previous paragraph Pierre Gilliard suggests that the Jews were responsible for the revolution.
Here he presents (Anti-Semitism) anti-semetic opinions that were widely held at the time.
While many Jews, who as a group had been disenfrancised from the Russian Empire, were active supporters of the Revolution,
those who became Bolsheviks were agnostics or non-believers who most often found themselves oppressors of their own people, religion and culture...".

This structure had a military - intelligence - political nature. This structure created for decades the leading politicians, and drove to the spectacular political internationally events. The mystery of the complicated machines - several octopuses - caused the birth of conspiracy theories, such theories and journalism as Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894.

For a 100 years such theories indicate specified states, as well as some nations or particular politicians, as drivers of the intelligence structure - this situation lasts from 1916 to today, 2014.

The answer to the above question at the moment is gone.

In the history of Tsarist Russia, it is difficult to find a detail, because there is difficult to get to archives of a special services and political institutions.

Below I quote the text of the book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' by Carroll Quigley ed. in 1981 (copyright by The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden. 1981, New York: Books in Focus, 354 pages, ISBN 0-916728-50-1; reprinted by Rancho Palos Verdes: GSG & Associates, date unknown, ISBN 0-945001-01-0). The author of this book reveals details of secret intelligence and political structures of the United Kingdom and the USA in the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the twentieth century.

These data obviously yet not suggest who or what was the driving force of the intelligence network and the military-political structures, which in details is discussed on this web site, and broadening data on the site designated as part two. Both of these parties were formed in the second half of 2014. So Carroll Quigley wrote in 1981:

"... in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole.
For these men were organizing a secret society that was, for more than fifty years, to be one of the most important forces in the formulation and execution of British imperial and foreign policy. ... The leader was Cecil Rhodes, fabulously wealthy empire-builder ... The second was William T. Stead, the most famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day. The third was Reginald Baliol Brett, later known as Lord Esher, friend and confidant of Queen Victoria, and later to be the most influential adviser of King Edward VII and King George V. ... the three drew up a plan of organization for their secret society and a list of original members. The plan of organization provided for an inner circle, to be known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers. Within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be exercised by the leader, and a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was to be Rhodes, and the junta was to be Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner.
In accordance with this decision, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner was added to the society by Stead ...
Rhodes had been planning for this event for more than seventeen years (around 1873).
Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890.
... in modified form, it exists to this day.
From 1891 to 1902, it was known to only a score of persons. During this period, Rhodes was leader, and Stead was the most influential member. From 1902 to 1925, Milner was leader, while Philip Kerr (Lord Lothian) and Lionel Curtis were probably the most important members. From 1925 to 1940, Kerr was leader, and since his death in 1940 this role has probably been played by Robert Henry Brand (now Lord Brand).
During this period of almost sixty years, this society has been called by various names. During the first decade or so it was called 'the secret society of Cecil Rhodes' or 'the dream of Cecil Rhodes'. In the second and third decades of its existence it was known as 'Milner's Kindergarten' (1901 - 1910) and as 'the Round Table Group' (1910 - 1920). Since 1920 it ... has been called 'The Times crowd', 'the Rhodes crowd', the 'Chatham House crowd', 'All Souls group', and the 'Cliveden set'. ...
The Milner Kindergarten and the Round Table Group, for example, were two different names for The Association of Helpers and were thus only part of the society, since the real center of the organization, The Society of the Elect, continued to exist and recruited new members from the outer circle as seemed necessary. Since 1920, this Group has been increasingly dominated by the associates of Viscount Astor. In the 1930s, the misnamed 'Cliveden set' was close to the center of the society, but it would be entirely unfair to believe that the connotations of superficiality and conspiracy popularly associated with the expression 'Cliveden set' are a just description of the Milner Group as a whole.
In fact, Viscount Astor was, relatively speaking, a late addition to the society, and the society should rather be pictured as utilizing the Astor money to further their own ideals rather than as being used for any purpose by the master of Cliveden...".

Above mentioned Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894, d. 1955, was a British Army officer who later went into politics as a Scottish Unionist Member of Parliament. Ramsay was from a Scottish aristocratic family, a descendant of the Earls of Dalhousie
(Dalhousie Castle near by Edinburgh - 16 km south-east, and Glenmark in the County of Forfar - Angus was historically a county, known officially as Forfarshire, borders Aberdeenshire, Dundee, Perth and Kinross);
in 1913 he served in France for two years, then at the War Office in London; married on 30 April 1917 Lady Ninian Crichton-Stuart, nee Ismay Preston, daughter of Viscount Gormanston; served at the British War Mission in Paris to 1920; the 1920s was a company director,
near Arbroath (25 km ENE of Dundee), and Angus (area borders Dundee and Perth);
in 1936 he pointed to links between Spanish Republicans and the Soviet Union. Ramsay and Tyler Kent, a cypher clerk at the Embassy of the United States in London, were members of the Right Club but they were arrested - Ramsay was arrested under Regulation 18B on 23 May 1940. "The New York Times" published an article on "Britain's Fifth Column" in July 1940 which claimed Ramsay had sent to the German Legation in Dublin treasonable information given to him by Tyler Kent; in 1952 Ramsay wrote "The Nameless War" as an autobiography, theory re-interpreting the whole of modern history.

Above named the Earls of Dalhousie:

George Ramsay (d. 1705), younger son of the second Earl, served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Scotland in 1702. William Ramsay was created Baron Panmure in 1831;
John Ramsay (1775 - 1842), a Lieutenant-General of the General Staff of India. John Ramsay b. 1775 in
Cockpen, Midlothian, Scotland that is Cockpen and Carrington Parish, ca 15 km south-east of Edinburgh
- d. 1842. Son of George Ramsay, 8th Earl of Dalhousie
- 16 km south-east of Edinburgh -
and married in
Edinburgh in 1800 to Mary, daughter of Philip Delisle of Calcutta, India.
John Ramsay was maj.-gen. 1830; lt.-gen. 1841. Ramsay in 1793 served in Holland, then was stationed in Ireland in 1798, and proceeded to Egypt, 1801;
John Ramsay of Ochtertyre - 32 km west of Perth, Scotland - met him in 1801.
He was put up for Aberdeen Burghs in 1806 by his brother William Maule. He was Commander-in-Chief of the 79th Highlanders, Military Secretary to the Governor-General of Canada, 1819 and 1828.
He was Military Secretary to the Viceroy of India, the 9th Earl of Dalhousie between 1829 and 1832. He gained the rank of Lieutenant-General in the service (1833 ? to 1842 ?) of the General Staff, India - 1841.
Children of Lt.-Gen. John Ramsay and Mary Delise:
1. William Ramsay (1804–1871), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
2. Admiral George Ramsay, (the twelfth Earl, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1886; his eldest son, the fourteenth Earl, was succeeded by his eldest son, the fifteenth Earl - a Deputy Lieutenant of Angus),
3. James Ramsay (1808–1868), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
4. Lt.-Col. John Ramsay, 5. Anne Finlay Anderson,
6. General Sir Henry Ramsay (1816–1893), a General in the Bengal Army, whose grandson was mentioned above politician Archibald Maule Ramsay;
7. Lt.-Col. Robert Anderson Ramsay.

See in Bengal: Latour and
Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of
Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.


Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. It used French families located in Switzerland, Ceylon, France, Russia. Scottish and Irish families combined to Naples and Marseille, Ceylon, Odessa and Japan; Russians, English and Pilsudski entered by Japan to Ceylon; parallel from Odessa the Zionist movement came out founding a base of the state of Israel. Odessa has paired their to Berezino, Ireland - Japan - Ceylon.

And the whole system took over the movement of Germans from Estonia, and underground combat movement of Pilsudski, combining the objectives of the independence of these two states: Poland / Lithuania / Belarus + Estonia / Latvia, and as I wrote above Israel. Then they created a counterintelligence and intelligence of new Bolshevik Russia and the USSR. It already was a masterpiece, but totally wrecked by Stalin in 1937 - have to say that in this case, Stalin was a genius.

At the end part of that intelligence system of Soviet Union took over the colony by building its so-called People's Polish Republic and the Ministry of Defence, through affinitized of the Konstantynowiczs: the Jaroszewicz, Spychalski, Zarako Zarakowski families and friendly Swierczewski family. Interesting in all of this is the use of Frenchmen to the creation of this system, most moved on the Konstantynowiczs - not so completely. This is the connection: Waclaw Sieroszewski a colleague of Azbelev, who was in Nagasaki - his brother is a director of the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz; so, the Nobel family with Sydney Reilly, an Irishman and a Jew from Odessa - this is the same family of Nobel, where the brother of above-mentioned was the head of the board of the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - this is short way to the Swedish Enigma! Waclaw Sieroszewski of course was mate to a brother of Jozef Pilsudski - Bronislaw, which of course anchored in Nagasaki, and then here sailed Reilly. One very interesting figure - erased from history: Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski from the Mscislaw district.


It's amazing that the October Revolution in 1917, which swept the Russian Empire, allowing the reconstruction of Poland, broke out just on the anniversary of the death of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, exactly the 100th anniversary of his death, and around Lenin appeared figures of the Polish nobility, which adopted a sense of the Kosciuszko Polish patriotism.
"Instead, after the fall of Napoleon's empire in 1815 he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I in Braunau. In return for his prospective services, Kosciuszko demanded social reforms and territorial gains for Poland, which he wished to reach as far as the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east".

On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.
Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.

The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities. This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland.

Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state.

Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed. Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.

Józef Piłsudski, Walery Sławek, Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz were 'collaborators' of military intelligence service of Austria - Hungary, with nickname "Stefan" since 1908; co-operated Aleksander Prystor, Gen. Bolesław Roja, Józef Beck, Gen. Edward Rydz-Śmigły, and Gen. Kordian Zamorski. Pilsudski in 1904 collaborated with Japan intelligence; Captain Joseph Rybak took care on Pilsudski, placing a group of agents in paramilitary organizations in Galicia, described as "The Informer R". Jozef Pilsudski was dismissed from the Austrian army in September 1916. Brigadier General Wlodzimierz Zagorski was born in 1882 in France. He grew up with his brother in Germany. In 1900 joined the Austrian army. Eleven years later, he began to work for "K-Stelle", 1914, as a captain, he was Chief of Staff Headquarters of the Legions. Formally, was the head of Jozef Pilsudski, who gave him the reports. Cooperation was not the best. When the Japanese-Russian war broke in 1904, Pilsudski decided to use the conflict for the Polish cause, get technical and material help for Polish irredentist aspirations. Japanese will give us the money to buy weapons and facilitate its reception in Hamburg, and we will collect them messages about the movements of the Russian troops sent to the East. These relations were surrounded by the biggest mystery. Only Pilsudski, Jodko, Filipowicz and Stanislaw Wojciechowski knew of them over one and a half year (April 1904 - October 1905).

Pilsudski had its plans to create in Galicia conditions for the military training of volunteers in the event of war between the aggressors and would create Polish troops fighting against Russia and would become the reborn Polish Army personnel.

In 1908 in Lviv, Cpt. Gustav Iszkowski teamed up with the Pilsudski movement. Probably by the end of 1908 Pilsudski spoke with the chief of the Intelligence Census Bureau, Maximilian Ronge. Then probably come to an agreement to organize the grid intelligence and sabotage against Russia in exchange for allowing the activities of the independence movement. In March, 1909 representatives of the Census Bureaus conferring with Pilsudski, Jodko and Slawek in Vienna. The project is called intelligence operation Informer R, directed the same Ronge - hidden it even from his own intelligence apparatus. The management of the organization called The Informer R were Jozef Pilsudski, Valery Slawek responsible for ongoing contacts with the representative of the interview, Captain Joseph Rybak; and Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz. By the end of 1912 Pilsudski organization might only auxiliary information.


Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1864 in Słuck, d. 1924 in Warsaw, nickname A. Wroński, Jowisz, diplomat; his parents: Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1834 - d. 1898 (probably son of Onufry) and Maria Sokołow - Skwarcew b. ca 1842. His father was ophthalmologist. Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz member of the Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat since 1889, and Polish Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat / as II Proletariat, or Small Proletariat established in February 1888 and operated for March 1893. From January to July 1885 he studied medicine at the University of Dorpat / Tartu, Estonia; he came to Warsaw, then in September 1885 he went to Lviv, expelled from Austria, 1886, he studied in Würzburg, and then in Paris, graduated in 1889; London next; collaborator of the Centralization Social-Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat. In 1892 co-founder of the Polish Socialist Party.
Jodko-Narkiewicz counted on the war between the aggressors and on ​​an armed uprising against Russia.
Above
Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, born on 23 Dec. 1834 in Puków in the Ihumen district,
died 1898 - Bobownia; Onufry Jodko - Narkiewicz was living in Pukow. Pukau / Pukowo / Pukow, at present: Komsomolskaja, a few km west of Sunaje and Kisiele;
north-west of Truchanowicze and Gresk, Anufrovichi and Anufri, north of Kondratowicze; south-west of Marina Gorka. In 1870, to the Минская губерния, the Игуменский уезд, in the Пуковская волость; Pukowo / Пуков is situated south-east of Tatury / now Charitonowka, and Kutschinka, east of Starica, Sloboda, Dumitshi; north-east of Kopyl. North of Sluck.
Janina Wiktoria Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1869
in Warsaw / Warszawa, was daughter of Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz from Puków.
The Polish well-off proprietors in the Ihumen (Cerven) district in the second half of 19th cent. was the Jodko family in landed properties Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo and Onufrowo / Anufri.
Gardening in estates of the Ihumen district: Kuchcice, Tolkaczewicze, Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo, Cieplen, Smilowicze and Rawanicze.
In Pukow is a church, in the 16th cent. to the Puk / Пук family; 17th cent. to Olelkovich / Олельковичь and Radzivill / Радзивилл family; at the beginning of the 18th century to the Neuburg / Нойбург family from German taken from Boguslaw Radziwill / Богуслав Радзивилл, because his daughter Людвика Каролина / Ludwika Karolina Radziwill married to Karl Filipp Neuburg / Karl III Philipp von der Pfalz / Carl Philipp, b. 1661 in Neuburg; that is he married on August 10, 1688 in Berlin to Princess
Ludwika Karolina Charlotte Radziwill of Birze, daughter of Bogusław Radziwill, from this marriage four children were born: Leopoldine Eleonore Josephine, Maria Anna, Elisabeth Auguste Sophie m. Joseph Karl von Pfalz-Sulzbach.
At Пуково / Pukowo in 1731 wielded the earth Franciszek Drucki-Lubecki / Франтишек Друцкий-Любецкий. In 1744 again to the Radziwill family, but at the beginning of the 19th cent. Dominik Radziwill / Доминик Радзивилл lost Pukowo, now Pukowo and Bobownia to the Narkiewicz - Jodko / Наркевич-Иодко;
in 1846 to Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz / Томаш Наркевич-Иодко, Catholic. 1857 new church; close to Пуково (now Komsomolskaja) is Кондратовичи and here in 1862 was the second church;
Ksawery / Ксаверий was son of above named Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, and he bought from Wojnillowicz / Войниллович the Lopuchi estate / Лопухи, 3 km of Pukowo / Пуково; a father of Edward Wojnillowicz / Эдвард Войниллович - Adam was proprietor of above Lopuchi.
Estate of "Оттоново" to Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Онуфри Наркевич-Иодко;
Jakub Jodko-Narkiewicz / Якуб Наркевич-Иодко has the Nadnieman / Наднеман estate;
Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Наркевич-Иодко has son Otton Jodko-Narkiewicz, in 1840 owner of 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm of Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina 1848.

Jodko-Narkiewicz owner of the 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina in 1848. Наднёман was property of

Jakob Jodko - Narkiewicz son of Otton Jodko - Narkiewicz, biologist, meteorologist, physicist and electrician, lived 1848–1905;

next owner Konrad Jodko - Narkiewicz, son of Jakob, in 1921 moved to Cracow;

next of kin Kristian Narkiewicz - Lein is living now in Chicago.

Наднёман is located north of Kopyl, near by Piasocznaje, south-west-south of Uzda, and north-west of Pukowo. Ханичево / Атонава / Калінаўка or Оттоново / Ханічава is located north-west of Pukowo, south of above Наднёман, near by Piasocznaje.

Above mentioned Jodko-Narkiewicz in Pukowo ca 80 km west of Osipovichi and north of Sluck. See near by:

1. Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666;

2. Michal Zbieranowski born Berezino in 1882 son of Jozef Zbieranowski and his wife Zofia nee Witkowski, after Bobrujsk, Sluck and Riga / Ryga 1899 - 1904;

3. Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Sluck! His mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749; grandfather: Florian Stanislaw Bulhak.

Aldona Kojałłowicz Bułhak nee Dzierżyńska, 1870 - 1966, had son Antoni Bułhak b. 1898.
His wife Wanda Bułhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and
Maria Juchniewicz nee Piłsudska, b. 1873.
She was daughter of Józef Wincenty Piotr Piłsudski, b. 1833; and her brother was Józef Klemens Piłsudski b. 1867.
The second son of above Aldona: Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895.
Sister of above Aldona: Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska / Hedwig / Jadwiga Kuszelewski (1871 - 1949) + Konstanty Kuszelewski - Prawdzic (1857 - 1922). Her son: Jerzy Kuszelewski, 1895-1939.
Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895, his brother Antoni Bułhak born 1898;
Antoni Bulhak died after 1970, was one of the aides of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski and husband of Wanda Kadenacy, niece Marshal (mistake!?).
After the invasion of the Germans in Poland in September 1939, he was taken from Warsaw to its assets in the Suwalki region:
Pilsudski wife - Alexandra / Aleksandra Szczerbinska and her daughters, her sister and their cousin Anna.
Jozef Klemens Pilsudski + Aleksandra Szczerbinska has daughter Jadwiga Jagoda Pilsudska married to Andrzej Jaraczewski
(Andrzej Jaraczewski / Andrzej Antoni Jaraczewski, nickname Andrew, b. 1916, d. 1992, a Polish Navy lieutenant, the Zaremba coat of arms. In 1944 he married Jadwiga Piłsudska, an Air Transport Auxiliary pilot and daughter of Marshal Józef Piłsudski.
They had a son, Christopher Joseph / Krzysztof Józef, and daughter, Jane Mary / Joanna Maria, who married Janusz Onyszkiewicz);
they had daughter Joanna Jaraczewska / Jane Mary / Joanna Maria, married to Janusz Onyszkiewicz / Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz born 1937.
Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów m. 1st to NN 1933-1967, and m. 2nd Joanna Jaraczewska b. 1950.
Zofia Kadenacy nee Piłsudski, b. 1865 was sister of Józef Klemens Piłsudski; her husband Bolesław Kadenacy (1845 - 1918), her daughter
Wanda Kadenacy + Antoni Bulhak, b. 1898 (mistake!?), the aide-de-camp of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski.
We need check this genealogy!
Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas and Aldona, the house Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898;
married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of
Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska.
The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.
So, we are thinking, Antoni Jerzy Bułhak / Antoni Bulhak, the aide-de-camp of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, had wife Wanda nee Juchniewicz.
Above mentioned Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów / Lviv; a Polish mathematician and politician. 2007 until 2009, he served as the Vice-President of the Foreign Affairs Committee in the European Parliament. Minister of Defence under Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka, and again from 1997 until 2000 under Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek. 1984 - 1986 member of the Warsaw University Senat; his parents:
Stanisław Onyszkiewicz and Franciszka Cencora b. ca 1910;
he was older child;
we know on Karol Mościcki + Maria with Franciszka vel Maria Mościcka + Onyszkiewicz with children: Jerzy Onyszkiewicz d. 1939 in Zamość and Maria Onyszkiewicz + Handzel.
Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów m. NN 1933-1967, and m. 2nd Joanna Jaraczewska b. 1950, with Danuta, Wanda, Witosława, Andrzej, and Stanisław Onyszkiewicz.
Above named Stanisław Onyszkiewicz, born 1910 and Franciszka Cencora had one child?
But Stanisław Onyszkiewicz, 1906 - March 1989, was born to Tomasz Onyszkiewicz and Katarzyna Mucha. Stanisław had one brother Kazimierz Onyszkiewicz. Stanisław married Franciszka Cencora in 1936, at age 30. He had 2 children: daughter married to Bogobowicz.
We know on Tadeusz Stanisław Onyszkiewicz b. 28 Apr. 1906 in Lwow, d. 21 Nov. 1989 in Zamośc, doctor, son of Stanisław Onyszkiewicz and Agata Keller. 1946 in Zamośc. He had older brother Edwarda and sister Jadwiga, He had children: Tomasz (Lublin then) and Jerzy (Warsaw then) b. 1940, and Andrzej b. 1941.

4. Zofia Bulhak daughter of Hipolit Bulhak / Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесницы / Колесничи of the Копыльски р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937.

5. The Konstantynowicz family: Вязовница that is Wiazownica / Viazovnica, west of Swislocz (see Szostak family), north - east of Osipovichi; west of Berezyna river; south-east of Grodzianka (see Marian vel Jerzy Konstantynowicz); and Фортуны - here lived (also Чайковский Петр Николаевич, Чайковская Раиса Петровна / Raisa Czajkowska and the Томкович / Tomkowicz family) parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz (grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich): Константинович Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county.

6. The Bulhak family: Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk.

7. 1867-1913 I. Bulhak (?) or Bulgak purchased (1861) from Lipovskii, villages Kamionka or Matseevich; Насыцк near by Talka, south-east of Marina Gorka, north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze, near by Kamienka / Kamionki. And above Камионки or Kamienka close to Talka, north-west of Osipovichi.

8. Hieronim Bulhak son of Stanislaw Bulhak / Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and ca 26 km west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937.

9. Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи - 15 km west of Bobruisk; south-east of Osipovichi (I check my mistake), close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo; killed 1933.

10. Bulhak family in 1870 in the Minsk government, Sluck district, the Lanska area - Kosmowicze; Kosmowicze / Kosmowiczi - close to Pukielevshcina, Bychovshcina, Tshanovici, north of Kleck, south of Niezviz / Nieswiez, near by Osmolowo, Lan, Leonowiczi.

11. Konstantynowicz, Wiesielowo / Veselovo village in the Osipovichi district, Mogilev region;

12. Konstantynowicz in 1894, Spustik village, the Igumen County; Byelorussian, individual farmer, lived in the Osipovichi district, Yasenovka / Jasieniowka;

13. Szymon Bułhak b. ca 1660 / 1680?; 1686 Nowogrodek, owner of Ostrówka close to Mir, Janowszczyzna near by Iwieniec, Nowodwórek, Osipowszczyzna, Nacz, Puszcza Moszukowska, Domatkanowicze close to Kleck, Połoneczka by Dzwieja. Mikołaj Bułhak b. circa 1670 / 1695?, son of Benedykt Bułhak and Eufemia, husband of Katarzyna and Marianna, father of Florian Stanisław Bułhak ca 1695 - 1745?

14. Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski
(of Bulhak in 1867-1913); the estate Bluza (Bluza close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family)
from hands of Sophia Prosor / Zofia Prozor - Swietorzecka / Sventorzhetski, owned in those places.

The Prozor family was near by to Malkiewicz - Horodecka Izabela.


The Swietorzecki family:

1. СВЕНТОРЖЕЦКИЙ Евгений Владимирович, lieutenant - SVENTORZHETSKY Evgeny;
2. Свенторжецкий Вячеслав Вячеславович - Sventorzhetsky Vyacheslav.
3. Theodosia / Fanny Michaylovna nee Schepoteva was born to Michael and Natalia nee. Troskin. Theodosia had one sister Maria M. nee Schepoteva. Theodosia married Nikolai Lukich Zhemchuzhnikov. Nikolai / Nicholas was born March 1826. They had 6 children: Vladimir Zhemchuzhnikov, Alexandra Nikolaevna Zhemchuzhnikova and 4 others.
Theodosia married 2nd to Boleslaw A. Sventorzhetsky. They had 2 children: Boleslavovich Sventorzhetsky and one other child.
4.
Bogusheviche village belonged to the landowners Sventorzhetski, the Polish gentry (perhaps descended from Franciszek). Tisetsky, referring to the publication of V. Gorbachev, states that Boleslav Sventorzhetsky was graduated from St. Petersburg University. B. Sventorzhetsky was graduated only of the Vilensky noble institution - secondary educational institution for the children of noble origin; he served for the Minsk noble assembly, participated in the development of the peasant reforms of 1861. Nominated to the position of Commissioner of the Minsk province, he was in units headed Laskowski (approx. 200 people) since their formation in April 1863, as "Commissioner of the Province", writes V. Baratynsky.
Sventorzhetsky fought until June 1863, this group of insurgents often called as the Lyaskovsky-Sventorzhetsky unit. The battle was maybe close to Yureviche on 8 and 9 May. The Russian commander was Major Grigoriev. The priest Daniil Konopasevich served in Bogusheviche, the Igumen county, the Minsk province. On April 18, 1863 a group of rebels led by a local landowner, Polish, Boleslav Sventorzhetsky read the Polish manifesto and announced to the peasants that they not pay any taxes, not give a recruit. At the same time, the rebels sacked the house of Daniel's father, looking for him, but did not find, as the priest was absent. The same day, the rebels left Bogushevich.
In February 1864 for taking part in the preparation of the revolutionary organization in Minsk, Anna and Czeslaw Sventorzhetsky were sent to the city of Penza under strict police surveillance.
Their son, Boleslav after the defeat of his troops, fled, first to Moscow, and from there on a false passport, outside of Russia, in Paris. Deprived of all at home, he has not founds in exile.
His wife Laura, passed away in France on May 25, 1864. And two months later, on July 22 his father died in exile.
Boleslaw Świętorzecki probably taken responsibility for the execution of Konopacewicz;
so he emigrated to France. He graduated from the officer school in the St. Cyr in 1870-1871. Participated in the Franco-Prussian War; suicide in 1888 in Venice.
His mother Anna Świętorzecka died in Italy, probably in 1891.
His daughter Sofia (in marriage Prozor) has not returned to Belarus, and lived in Venice. Her mother's estate were eventually sold by the court for debts to his father.
On the eve of the uprising Boleslav Sventorzhetsky lent a huge amount of money from neighboring landowners, what was charged by his daughter after the sale of the estates. The family of Sventorzhetsky was famous among the noble families in the Vilna, Minsk, Mogilev, Vitebsk and Smolensk provinces. Among the participants in the uprising 1863-1864, the four representatives given names Swietorzecki, three of whom were from the province of Minsk. After the uprising in 1863, many participants were on trial: some were executed, some were exiled to Siberia or in the Russian provinces. In February 1864 for taking part in the preparation of the revolutionary organization in Minsk they were sent to live in the city of Penza: Anna and Czeslaw Sventorzhetsky; their son, Boleslav fled from Russia in Paris.
The present church in Boguszewicze was built between 1850 - 1855 as a family tomb of Świętorzecki; was part of the manor - residence was destroyed on the orders of Mouravieff.
Architect Jakub Kubicki (called Joseph) had daughters and Kubicki's youngest daughter, and Isabella Czekierska died childless. Only the eldest daughter of the famous architect, Helena, gave him a granddaughter; 1804 KUBICKA Helena was married to Alexei ŚWIĘTORZECKI.
They had a daughter Anna Swietorzecka, who had the estate of Kubicki and of his wife;
Anna Świętorzecka (the only granddaughter of J. Kubicki) married Czeslaw ŚWIĘTORZECKI owner of Trzaskowszczyzna and BOHUSZEWICZE.
Świętorzecki Boleslaw, the son of Anna and Czeslaw, was the last landowner of Bohuszewicze and organizer of the uprising in 1863 in the district of Ihumeń. Bohuszewicze property was confiscated, and the buildings burned. Trzaskowszczyzna also confiscated. It should be added that in May 1863 the Bohuszewicze's insurgents hanged Orthodox priest Daniel Konopacewicz.
The National Museum in Warsaw has the marble bust of the wife of Czeslaw Świętorzecki, Anna - Czesławowa Świętorzecki - Anna, the granddaughter of J. Kubicki.
Descendants of Boleslaw Swiętorzecki on the female line, are living in Gorzow - Mariusz Kaczmarek.
By order of the Governor-General Muravyov, for participating in the uprising, in the village of Sventorzhetsky - Bogusheviche - manor was burned. Deprived of all at home, Boleslaw have not found in a foreign land.
A year after the events, his wife Laura, passed away in France on May 25, 1864. And two months later, on July 22 in exile, his father died.
Unhappy Boleslav, completely lost peace of mind, ended his days by shooting himself;
daughter Sofia Sventorzhetska never returned to their native Belarus and lived in Venice.
At that time they had the largest estates in the province, it was 38,751 acres of land, which were subsequently sold by the court for the debts of his father; but on the eve of the uprising Boleslav Sventorzhetsky lent a huge amount of money from neighboring landowners.
In June 1864 the Boguszewicze church was transfer to the Orthodox parish.

5.

Свенторжецкий Людомир / Ludomir Michal Oktawian Swietorzecki /
Ludomir Swietorzecki b. on March 22, 1865 was son of Waclaw Swietorzecki (born ca 1842 ?).
Roman Catholic religion. In 1882 he graduated from the Orlovsky Cadet Corps. The service since August 26, 1882. He graduated from the Nikolaev engineering school. In 1884 he graduated from the 1st Pavlovsk Military School. He graduated from the Nicholas Academy of Engineering (the 1st category). 1891 - tutor until 1894 as teacher of the Nicholas Academy of Engineering and the College. Lieutenant Colonel 1896.
Electrical engineer; 1905 to 1911 - an extraordinary professor of the Nicholas Academy of Engineering. Major General in 1910; on 04.03.1911 - a member of the conference and Professor of Nicholas Academy of Engineering.
On 11.03.1914 - a permanent member of the Technical Committee of the Main Military-technical management (see Jacyna and the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company); 1915 - Chairman of the Committee on the device of stations.
Chairman of the Special Board of the Electric Lighting Company of 1886, since 07.01.1915; the Management Board member after appointment by the Ministry of War on 11.1.1917. Lieutenant-General on 04.18.1916.
On 24.08.1916 Member of the Board of Trade and Industry (see Koziell Poklewski), leaving a permanent member of the technical committee;
16 October 1917 dismissed for illness and pensioner.
In 1925 he lived in Leningrad at its former address: Marat / Mykolaiv street, 48. A pensioner of national importance. Then the fate of L. V. Sventorzhetsky is unknown. Prominent engineer, electrical engineer, the author of the books: Electrical measurements on electrical ... in 1893, Effect of self-inductance ... in 1894; ... batteries in electric lighting, in 1894.


Ludomir Swietorzecki was Chairman of the Special Board of the Electric Lighting Company of 1886, in Russia since 07.01.1915.
That is the Westinghouse Electric Corporation founded on January 8, 1886, by George Westinghouse.
In 1915 the New England Westinghouse Company given the first product - Mosin-Nagant rifles for the Russian army. The Bolsheviks canceled a previous order of over 1 million rifles. The Mosin-Nagant / Vintovka Mosina was developed by the Imperial Russian Army in 1882-91, and with the start of World War I, the Russian government ordered 1.5 million M1891 infantry rifles from Remington Arms and another 1.8 million from New England Westinghouse Company in the United States in 1915. Russia had not paid for the order at any time throughout the Great War.
The New England Westinghouse Company was a former division of Westinghouse Electric.
In 1886 Westinghouse Electric Company developed electric infrastructure, made turbines, generators, motors;
the company included Stanley, Nikola Tesla, Vladimir Zworykin, Stephen Timoshenko.
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin / Zvorykin b. 1888, was a Russian pioneer of television technology.
He studied at the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, under Boris Rosing. Professor Rosing had been working on it in secret since 1902. After 1914 was testing radio equipment but he left Russia through Siberia, in 1919.
Stepan Prokopovych Timoshenko b. 1878, a Russian engineer, friend of physicist Abram Ioffe.
He worked at the Saint Petersburg Polytechnical Institute under Viktor Kyrpychov in 1903-1906. Professor in the Electrotechnical Institute and the St Petersburg Institute of the Railways (1911 - 1917).
In 1918 he returned to Kiev and assisted Vladimir Vernadsky.
In 1920, moved to Zagreb. In 1922 Timoshenko moved to the United States where he worked for the Westinghouse Electric Corporation from 1923 to 1927.
Viktor Kyrpychov b. 1845, Saint Petersburg, engineer, graduated from the Polotsk military school, then at the Kronstadt military academy, 1893, Kyrpychov was invited to USA.
Schiff met Takahashi Korekiyo, deputy governor of the Bank of Japan, also joined the firm Kuhn, Loeb & Co. on Wall Street, co-operated with Robert Fleming of Dundee, a Scottish financier, and Edouard Noetzlin of the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas,
the Westinghouse Electric Company, and the Western Union Telegraph Company;
associated with E. H. Harriman, with James J. Hill and J. P. Morgan & Company.
On the Reilly:
Nadina Massino was born in Poltava in 1885, her father Lt. Col. Piotr Massino / Peter Massino, mother Barbara Kondratyevna Brodski; 1906/1907 she married Lieutenant Zaleski, adjutant Admiral Grigorovich;
when the First World broke, Nadine and Sidney Reilly lived on the French Riviera. When he goes to Tokyo for contracts of gunpowder, signed an agreement with the American Remington Arms Company for the supply of 100.000 rifles; he sailed from Tokyo to San Francisco but he was soon arrested, as the Orthodox, a bachelor, as the son of George and Pauline Reilly of the Irish town of Clonmel; actually Sidney Reilly, aka Sigmund Rosenblum, Rudolfo Massino, John Gillepsi, Sydney Relinsky or Nicholas Steinberg and so on.
American Remington Arms Company in 1888, as the E. Remington & Sons by Marcellus Hartley and partners, produced a model 1891 Mosin-Nagant rifles for Imperial Russia; the collapse of the Imperial Russian government had a severe impact on Remington finances. Russia had ordered 1.5 million M1891 infantry rifles from Remington Arms and another 1.8 million from New England Westinghouse Company in the United States in 1915.
Reilly arrived in New York on 10 July, 1915.
Remington Union would pay Reilly a large sum of money to ensure that their rifles successfully passed through the quality control process by the Russian government.
Samuel Prior had signed the agreement with Reilly.
In late 1915 the Russian government sent an official committee to New York headed by Gen. A. V. Sapozhnikov, old Reilly acquaintance from Petersburg.
Reilly had writing to Lt-Gen. Eduard Germonius on 21 Dec. 1915, stated that Sapozhnikov talked on ordering 1 to 2.000.000 rifles, ignoring the actual state of affairs;
Nadine had personal contact with the general Germonius.
On 7 Jan. 1916 an agreement was signed between Reilly and Samuel M. Vauclain, John T. Sykes and Andrew Fletcher on behalf of the Eddystone Ammunition Corporation. July 1916 Reilly was reunited with Alexandre Weinstein, who arrived to New York from London; and Moisei Ginsburg arrived from Petrograd shortly after Weinstein.
Thwaites (had lunched with both Reilly and Weinstein) spoke to Reilly on Nekrassov: Maj. Norman Thwaites of SIS with Guy Gaunt of BNI investigated Sergei Nekrassov after George Lurich, Estonian, accused Nekrassov of being a German spy.
Pauline or Bridget Reilly wife of Sidney Reilly was from Clonmel, too.
Pat O'Callaghan (Callahan) 1906 – 1991, adopted Clonmel as his home town.
Joseph Nedava estimates Trotsky's 1917 income at $12.00 per week, Trotsky was in New York in 1917 for three months, from January to March; Trotsky earned a living by working as an electrician for Fox Film Studios.
On March 26, 1917 Trotsky left New York, but the passenger list was long and mysterious. Lincoln Steffens was on board en route to Russia, at the specific invitation of
Charles Richard Crane, a backer and a former chairman of the Democratic Party's finance committee.
Charles Crane, vice president of the Crane Company, had organized the Westinghouse Company in Russia.
Richard Crane, his son, was confidential assistant to then Secretary of State Robert Lansing.
Charles Crane, a friend and backer of Woodrow Wilson;
Woodrow Wilson was the fairy godmother who provided Trotsky with a passport to return to Russia, with a Russian entry permit and a British transit visa.

6.

Свенторжецкий, Николай Станиславович - Russian Consul General in Lübeck; d. on July 11, 1884.
Note:
Waclaw Swietorzecki b. 1876 - Malinowszczyzna, died 1934 - Warsaw, buried in Jachimowszczyzna,
his grandparents: Stanislaw Swietorzecki 1792-1838; Justyna Swietorzecka b. 1793, and
his father Michal Swietorzecki 1837-1891, born and died in Malinowszczyzna.

7. Свенторжецкий Николай Эрмингельдович (1875-1940) b. in Wiatka, nobility. Sventorzhetsky Nikolai Ermingeldovich: his father - a notary, a Pole, a student sent into exile for political reasons, mother - Russian.
Sventorzhetsky Nikolai Ermingeldovich studied at the Cadet Corps, he served in the tsarist army and took part in Russian-Japanese war. In 1906 he was demobilized, he worked as a notary in Vjatka office. In 1914-1918 again served in the Army in the Cossack troops; World War II; 1918, he lived in Vyatka, served by a notary, then Secretary; 1918-1920 Head of the Department of Sport in Vyatka; various administrative and technical positions in the Vjatka (1922-1924), seller in wine shops; at the time of his arrest he lived in the city of Kirov, marital status: wife - a homemaker and two daughters (married) and son. He was arrested on August 26, 1938, charged under Art. 58; 1939 to 3 years of imprisonment; he died in prison ca 1940. Rehabilitated in 1992.

8. Свенторжецки family in Малиновщинa / Malinovschina, 15 km west of Molodeczno / Molodiechno;

Malinovschina at the end of the XVIII century belonged to the Radziwill.
In 1827 the estate acquired Jakob Swietorzecki / Jakob Sventorzhetsky.

His grandson Michal Swietorzecki / Michael in 1862 founded a wine garden; and in 1880 - mills.

Two sons of above Michal Swietorzecki / Mikhail got into the possession of plants:

Waclaw Swietorzecki / Vaclav - in Yahimovschina / Jachimowszczyna, and
Boleslaw / Boleslav Swietorzecki - in Malinovschina / Malinowszczyna.
At that time there was a great park with a water system; tomb chapel, was built in 1840 in the form of pyramid.
Jachimowszczyzna / Jachimowszczyna, the Traby district, the Wolozyn county; WACLAW Sulistrowski (c. 1840 - 1863) possessed Jachimowszczyzna, Borek, Bohdaniszki - in Jachimowszczyzna / Jachimowszczyna after the Sulistrowskis was
Waclaw Swietorzecki b. 1876 - Malinowszczyzna, died 1934 - Warsaw, buried in Jachimowszczyzna;
his grandparents: Stanislaw Swietorzecki 1792-1838; Justyna Swietorzecka b. 1793.
His father Michal Swietorzecki 1837-1891, born and died in Malinowszczyzna.

We know about Свенторжецкий Валентин Николаевич / Walentyn Swietorzecki son of Mikolaj Swietorzecki; Walentyn was born on 24.02.1872; Walentyn was Orthodox, served since 1890, Captain in 1904, Colonel in 1910, the First World War of the 6 Army.

Above mentioned
Boleslaw Swietorzecki 1874-1938 m. Janina Jakowska 1883-1961 with son Zygmunt Swietorzecki 1911-1964.

Stanislaw Swietorzecki m. Justyna, and his branch:
Mieczyslaw Swietorzecki 1814-1862 m. Olimpia Oskierka 1830-1912 with
Olimpia Teodozja Swietorzecka b. 1851, and Ewa b. 1853;
above Michal Swietorzecki 1837-1891 m. Antonina Stengelmajer with Tekla Swietorzecka b. 1880; Boleslaw Swietorzecki 1874-1938, Waclaw Swietorzecki 1876-1934; Józef Jasiewicz, Pelagia Steckiewicz.

In summer of 1914 Tadeusz Ipohorski-Irtenski, studied in St Petersburg; stayed in the Bohdan Wankowicz estate in Zajezierze close to Bohuszewsk, the Sienno county in the Mohylow government. Then in Minsk;
mother of Tadeusz Ipohorski-Irtenski was from the Swietorzecki family; relatives of Minczuk, Zenaida Brzostowska with daughter Eugenia; Swiecicka wife of Jozef Swiecicki, with 3 daughters and Jadwiga nee Kaszyc, Januszkiewicz; Adam Zaba of Minsk d. 1919, Maksymilian Malinski, Wlodzimierz Dworzaczek; Prof. Marian Massonius.
1929-30 Waclaw Swietorzecki of Jachimowszczyzna met with above Tadeusz Ipohorski-Irtenski, and Biszewski of Lyntupy.
Bieriozowka / Berezowka / Berezówka of Ipohorski family, close to Bacewicze / Bacevichi, south-west of Kliczew, near by Smolarnia - 'Nadberezyncy'.


In 2013, I need specifies the base of the Krasny Brzeg village and the village of Smolarnia. Krasny Brzeg is situated in an area of Zlobin that is now the Gomel Province.
Here is a palace of Koziell-Poklewski.
Smolarnia / Смолярня / Smalarnia is a village in Belarus, a former Polish nobility locality, located in Mogilev Province at present, in the area of Kliczew / Kliczow / Klitshev, 3.5 km to the south-west of Kliczow / Kliczew, close to Berezowka of Ipohorski, next to Niaseta / Niesety, Budniewo, about 30 km south - west of Miezonka. The village is sheltered from the north by forest. Smolarnia and its people during 1905-1920 is describes by Florian Czarnyszewicz.
I was writing in 2003 / 2005:
Smolarnia was situated next to Krasny Brzeg in the Babrujsk district,  property of the Korzeniewski  family and also of

Wincenty Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski
- he was born 1853 and died 1929, son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski 1809 or 1810 - 1890, who was a member of the State Administration of Trade 1907 - 1912 according to Tatiana Pietrovna Mosunov and he was related to Hotowski i.e. Gatovskij, Slotwinski from Ravanicy and Malkiewicz / Малькевич, too.

Next estate - Putkowo of the Ipohorski-Irtenski family.
The Borsuki village (Badgers) is situated 15 km north - east from Miezonka, according to M. K. Pavlikovski who described history of Ipohorski - Irtenski family from the Berazino parish
(the Ipohorskis in Backov, 3 km from the Berezina river).
Jan Lenkiewicz-Ipohorski b. 1881 in above Berezówka / Bieriozowka.
Wiesław Ipohorski-Lenkiewicz / Wacław Jan Domański, b. 1910 in Berezówka.
Edmund Lenkiewicz-Ipohorski b. ca 1830 (relatives to Antoni Reutt b. 1830); his parents: Ignacy Lenkiewicz-Ipohorski 1808-1894 in Wilno, and Downarowicz b. 1800. His grandparents: Tomasz Lenkiewicz-Ipohorski of Mozyrz, b. 1780 and Petronela Jeleńska.

Maria Swietorzecka, wrote that Pawlikowski was uncle of her husband; Pawlikowski emigree to UK and USA; Michal K. Pawlikowski wrote letters to father of her husband on the Swietorzecki estates, among others Jachimowszczyzna.
Mother of Michal Pawlikowski was Tekla Swietorzecka, born in Malinowszczyzna; grandfather of Maria Swietorzecka's husband was Waclaw Swietorzecki and he was brother of Tekla.
Józef Zachariasz Swietorzecki b. 1876 in Wilno, d. 1936 in Warsaw, Colonel of the Russian Army, General of the Polish Army.
Was son of Waclaw Swietorzecki (b. ca 1842 ?).
1893 studied in Orel; 1893 served the Russian Army; 1893–1895 studied at the Konstantynowska Art. School in Petersburg, 1900 - 1901 in China, 1904 - 1905 the Japan war, 1914 school in Carskie Siolo, 1914 to October 1917 served the Russian Army, Dec. 1917 served I-st Polish Corps.
Boleslaw Swietorzecki in 1919 lived in Bohuszewicze by Usa, the Minsk prov., the Ihumen county, in Malinowszczyzna, the Molodeczno county in 1926.
Józef Swietorzecki in Kasztanowo, the Sienno county in 1865, on 10.12.1865 exiled to Russia.
Waclaw Swietorzecki in Wysokowszczyzna, the Oszmiana county, 1905.
The Islocz estate close to Zabrzezie, and Uzblocie of Komar, Jachimowszczyzna of Lubanski, Cholchle, Dory and Pierszaje of Benedykt Tyszkiewicz, Kamien of Plewako, Naliboki of Hohenlohe, and Bakszte, Wiszniew of Butenjew-Chreptowicza.


Granddaughter of Marcjan Michal Oginski of Witebsk, married in Oginski's Hanuta in 1738 to Karol Sulistrowski, owner of Szemetowszczyzna, Zanarocz and Mokrzyce, from the Sadowskis; here inf. about Jachimowszczyzna.

Tadeusz Oginski owner of Luczaj, let this estate to Tadeusz Wankowicz and Anna Wankowicz nee Swietorzecka; Andrzej and Franciszek Ksawery Oginscy, sold Luczaj to the Wankowiczs.

Tomasz Zan was in love to Brygida Swietorzecka of Malinowszczyzna, then married to her; moved house to Wilno.

Kazimierz Dederko / Dederka of the Oszmiany county in 1783 and 1788, died in 1800 in Oborek; married Wiktorja Kamienska with 5 children,
the daughter Waleria Chodzko / Walerja nee Dederko m. Ludwik Chodzko;
sons Barnaba and Józef without children,
son Roch Dederko lieutenant of Napoleon period, owner of Obórka / Oborek, m. to Wanda Swietorzecka, he d. 1856;
they had 2 sons: Kazimierz owner of Obórka, Soter Dederko owner of Puzele.

Puzele and Bludów belonged to Michal Oginski 1793 and 1794.

In Oborek in 1800 was born Leonard Chodzko, son of daughter of Kazimierz Dederko - Walerja, and Ludwik Chodzko; author, 'Historja domu Rawitów Ostrowskich';
in Oborek in 1847-1850 lived Tomasz Zan with wife Brygida Swietorzecka,
sister of Wanda Swietorzecka who married to Roch Dederko.

Oborki / Aborak / Oborek - manor of Dederko ca 2 km east of Połoczany - south-west of Molodeczno, 6 km south-east of Jachimowszczyna of Swietorzecki.


At margin on Oginski - Chodzko - Swietorzecki - Dederko / Dederka:
1.
CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO b. 30 August 1804, in Krzywicze, Poland, d. Noisy-le-Sec or Juvisy-sur-Orge, Essonne in 1891, Polish poet and diplomat, work on Persian folklore; son of Jan Chodźko and Klara;
above Jan Chodźko / Jan of Świsłocz or Wajżgantos, 1776 - 1851,
son of Józef Chodźko and Konstancja;
above Józef Chodźko 1729 - 1783, son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Michał and
Franciszek (the branch of Leonard Chodzko who was friend of Oginski).
Mentioned above Leonard Chodźko 1800 - 1871, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria;
above Ludwik Chodźko 1769 - 1843 son of Franciszek Chodźko;
Franciszek Chodźko was son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Józef and Michał.
Mentioned CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO between 1820 and 1823 studied at the university of Wilno / Vilna, arrested in 1823 as the Society of Philarets member, went to St. Petersburg, where he studied Arabic, Persian, Turkish (see Venture!) from 1824 to 1830; the Russian diplomatic service (to 1844) in Persia, as translator in Tabriz, Tehran and Rast until 1841, then traveled in Greece and Italy, 1842 he joined the Polish emigre community in Paris, with Adam Mickiewicz and Andrzej Towiański;
1847 married Helena Jundzill in Switzerland;
1852 - 1855 served the French foreign ministry as an expert on Oriental affairs; Chodźko wanted to send his two sons to Tehran to serve the Persian government.
Borowsky's (Barowski) testamentary executors were above Chodźko / Alexandre Chodikoff / A. Khodzko, and Edouard Goutte, also Polish by birth from the Russian mission in Tehran.

2.
Leonard Chodzko died in Poitiers in 1871; he was born 1800, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria;
husband of famous Olimpia (see Venture, Sulkowski and Breguet, Konstantynowicz and Armand in Moscow; Duflon from Switzerland);
brother of Aleksander Chodźko (died 1877) - acc. to Leszek Mila.

Branch from Jean VENTURE d. 1660, Consul de Marseille in 1637; his son Charles de VENTURE sieur de PARADIS; grandson Jean Michel de VENTURE b. 1701 in Marseille;

great-grandsons Jean Joseph de VENTURE and Jean Michel de VENTURE de PARADIS born 1739 Marseille - his children:

1. Unknown by name de VENTURE de PARADIS married to Jozef Sulkowski / Joseph SULKOWSKI born in 1770 in the Poznan province in Poland - died in 1798 in Cairo / Kair / Caire, Egypt: the friend and aide de camp to Bonaparte, friend with Muiron, Vivant Denon, Carnot, Augereau, and Bourienne.

and 2. Jeanne VENTURE de PARADIS 1774 - 1813 married to

a. Ludwik (?) / Louis MALESZEWSKI with children
aa.
Klementyna nee Maleszewska / Clementine MALESZEWSKI married to de LAQUEILLE, and
ab.
Olimpia Maleszewska / Olympe MALESZEWSKI married to Leonard CHODZKO b. 1800 - died in 1871.

A short note on Maleszewski!

Olimpia nee Maleszewska b. 1797, d. 1889, was daughter of
Piotr Pawel Jan Maleszewski b. 1767
(his daughters: Victoire Clementine de Laqueuille m. Alfred de Laqueuille b. ca 1780, Olimpia Chodźko, and half-daughter (she married unknown Mortier) Adela Mortier; copyright by Leszek Mila),
who was son of Maria Wiśniewska b. ca 1740 and
Michał Jerzy Ludwik Poniatowski duke b. 1736 in Gdańsk, and grandson of Stanisław Poniatowski;
acc. to Carlos Federico Cantarito Bunge Molina y Vedia:
above mentioned Stanisław Poniatowski b. 1676 in Chojnik / Gromnik, son of Franciszek Poniatowski, father to Kazimierz Jakub Poniatowski, Franciszek, Aleksander, Ludwika Maria Zamojska, Izabela Antonina Mokronowska - Branicka,
Stanisław II August Poniatowski King of Poland,
Andrzej Poniatowski, Michał Jerzy Ludwik.

b. Jeanne VENTURE de PARADIS b. 1774 m. 2nd in 1810, in Paris to Antoine Louis BREGUET 1776 - 1858 with children:

A.
Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889 with children (see Konstantynowicz and Duflon):
Louise BREGUET 1847-1930,
Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882,
Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877;

B. Louise Charlotte Clémentine BREGUET 1810 - 1887 married to Dr LIONNET.

3.
Leonard Borejko Chodźko, historian and writer, born in Oborek, the Palatinate of Vilna, in 1800;
son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria;
cousin of the Orientalist Aleksander Chodźko;
studied at Molodeczno, with Zan, and at Wilna, under the historian J. Lelewel.
In 1819 was the personal secretary of Michael Cleophas Oginski, and together in 1822 left Lithuania, through nearly all Europe; Chodzko after a four-year stay in Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and England, settled in Paris in 1826;
he published Histoire des legions polonaises en Italic in 1829; 1830, "...Lafayette appointed him his aide-de-camp; and after the outbreak of Nov. 29 of the same year in Warsaw, he acted as agent of the revolutionary government in France. He was an active member of the French-Polish and American-Polish committees...".
Member of the Polish National Committee and 'Zemsta Ludu', 1832 / 1833, with
Joachim Lelewel and
Józef Zaliwski, and also with
Józef Kazimierz Sulpicjusz Napoleon Hutten-Czapski / Józef Napoleon, b. 1797 d. 1852,
the father of famous Bogdan Hutten - Czapski.
See Pilsudski, Lubomirski, 1892 Minsk in Belarus, Miezonka before 1842. Members of the 'Zemsta Ludu':
Stanisław Gabriel Worcell, Bolesław Gurowski, Mjr Antoni Krąkowski, Józef Zaliwski; Ostrowski moved to Paris, Krąkowski to Posen, Worcell to Lviv,
Joachim Lelewel who was republican conspirator, a close collaborator of the Carbonari, and of
the Société des Amis du Peuple.
See Inessa Armand.

Malinowszczyzna was a part of Lebedevo / Lebiedziew, bought from Dominik Radziwill by Jakób Swietorzecki;
his son Stanislaw Swietorzecki, m. cousin Swietorzecka, daughter of landlord of Konstantow, Boratycze, in the Mohylew government, 1827; Stanislaw was owner of Malinowszczyzna;
Michal Swietorzecki, son of above Stanislaw; married to Stengelmajer, 2nd to Marja Jasiewicz of Uzblocie and Józefpola in the Oszmiany county;
Malinowszczyzna had two plants;

Michal Swietorzecki d. 1891, with two sons Boleslaw and Waclaw.

Justyna Stanislawowa Swietorzecka build home in Malinowszczyzna at the Tomasz Zan time.

The next locality - the village Lebedevo. Interestingly, in the XVIII century the area belonged to Tadeusz Oginski.
On the way to Yahimovschina. Yahimovschina known since the XVI century. The estate owned Sulistrovski, Sventorzhetsky, Luban. Luban in 1906-1907 had brewery.

9. Sventorzhetsky Lyudomir Vatslavovich in 1909, Colonel, staff headquarters in 1909. He was mentioned above.
Alexander Erming in 1909 captain of grenadiers. Sventorzhetsky Valen. Nikolaevich Captain of the Life Guards in St. Petersburg. Sventorzhetsky Valery S. Captain.
Sventorzhetsky Vaclav a graduate of a cadet in 1887.
Sventorzhetsky Vyacheslav Adamovvich (1895 - 1941/45, in Poland), Red Army.
Sventorzhetsky Vyacheslav (1913, St. Petersburg - 1937.12.20), Pole, arrest: 1937.10.08.
Wiaczeslaw Swietorzecki son of Waclaw Swietorzecki / Свенторжецкий Вячеслав Вацлавович (1881 - after 1934), engineer. Waclaw b. ca 1842 ?
Sventorzhetsky Zbigniew bourgeois, Vilno gymnasium (1850). Bolesław Świętorzecki (1831 - 1878), the 1863 Uprising in the Minsk province; escaped to West Europe.
Bolesław Świętorzecki (1876 - 1938), author;
Józef Kazimierz Świętorzecki (1749 - 1796), poet, translator;
Mieczysław Świętorzecki (1815 - 1862), Marshal of nobility in Sejny.

Aleksander Swietorzecki born 1849, Pole, author.
Anna Świętorzecka, nee Gałecka (1907 - 1992), soldier of the Second World War.

Sventorzhetsky Vatslavovich Joseph in 1909 Captain. That is Jozef Swietorzecki son of Waclaw Swietorzecki.

10.

SWIENTORZECKI RODRYG (1824-1909) son of Wladyslaw (legionary in Italy), a nobleman, the Minsk province; employed of the architectural Commission. In 1863 arrested, 12 years exile, in Usol; was working in Telmiсski cloth factory, then in Irkutsk. Back home approx. 1880. He died at the age of 90 in the sisters estate - Graniczk (Hranicze?), maybe Granice (in the area of the Vilna province?; Granice maybe close to Berezyna ?).
His brother Apolinary Świętorzecki / Apollinary Swietorzecki was exiled in Siberia, too; left memories 'Ze wspomnień wygnańca' with Zofia Kowalewska. Publisher: Wilno - J. Zawadzki, 1911.
Apolinary Świętorzecki (1834 - 1913 ?), landowner, the 1863 Uprising, friend of Міхал Дабравольскі (29.11.1831 - 17.8.1898), of the Minsk gov., son of Michal Dobrowolski; and Ян Навакоўскі (b. 1835), of the Minsk government, studied in St Petersburg, son of Otan / Otton Nowakowski. And closest to Караль Станкевіч (1833 / 1834 - 1898) / Karol Stankiewicz of the Kovno gov., son of Ilia Stankiewicz, studied in Hory-Gory college, was working ca 1861 in Minsk.

11. Freemasons in Belarus:
Stanislaw Swietorzecki, landowner;
Jozef Swietorzecki of the Borysow county. Probably he is Свенторжецкий Иосиф member of the Uprising 1863 / 1864, 1867 - 1871 in Vjatka / Wiatka. Exiled.


And now we look at the text below written in January 2014.
Bogdan Konstantynowicz, the author of this website believes that we can already, after a quarter-century of research on my genealogy, give to my readers to analyse and rethink, a few comments on the role of our family Konstantynowicz and the Polish-French family Armand from Moscow, in the deep structures of political intelligence of Tsarist Russia and in the strategic network of Russia's technology military intelligence and then even of the Soviet Union.

This is the text for further discussion.

Approximately one hundred years infiltrating of the military intelligence of Tsarist Russia by Polish agents in the years around 1814 - about 1922, brought unprecedented positive effect - Polish independence in 1918. But the Polish country was destroyed completely after the events of 1939, and above all after the creation of the Soviet protectorate in 1944/1945.

Jozef Pilsudski served for the military Austro - Hungarian intelligence, rose to the rank of brigadier general there / Brigadier. So he took advantage from the Germans and Austrians structure worked out into Tsarist Russia, which created artificial figures in the revolutionary socialist movement: Trubeckoj Nestor, Peter Kropotkin, Lenin Ulyanov, as well as in Russian networks of the military and industrial structures of the second half of the 19th century: electricity, telegraph, ciphers, decryption, generators, radio lamps, lighting lamps, aircraft, aircraft engines and vehicles, magneto for engines, new types of steel, electrical cables, airships, cars, radio, then television and soviet nuclear industry.

At the same time, the French military intelligence expanded in Russia, by the old French families, and others: English, Polish and Georgian in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
The network intelligence gone back to the Napoleonic times and the Italian Legions. Through these Cracow networks have developed for a family Trubeckoj, Kalinowski, Oginski, Konstantynowicz, Paszkowski, Armand, Demontet, Duflon, Rey, Diserens.

Russian military intelligence and counterintelligence created by Baltic German families from Latvia and Estonia, went back as far to families: Schilling, Benkendorf, Dubbelt, Rosenberg, Gernet, Rehbinder, Rosen, and next a military intelligence network reached Georgia and Svaneti - Racha: Japaridze, Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Maipariani - full this system took over the Pilsudski movement from the top, among others by family Konstantynowicz from Miezonka, Moscow, Tallinn and Viljandi.

The great importance in this system of underground operation had Armand family from Moscow, next of kin with the Wild, Demontet, a Georgian families, Konstantynowicz and Paszkowski.
Therefore they were relatives of Trubecki, Siedych, Rosenberg, Armand, Manfred, and had a Georgians family: Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Japaridze and Maipariani.
The Russian counterintelligence climb on this system. Now appeared Spychalski family, Jaroszewicz, Zarako Zarakowski, Swierczewski, Żymierski.
On the margin remained Malkiewicz and Horodecki, Szostak and Zbieranowski and Andrzejak of Lodz and many others from Estonia, Latvia, Georgia, Belarus and Russia, and Finland, and of course in Sweden: Nobel, Damm, Hagelin, Hakker.
With the intelligence system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and of the Tsarist Russia fully used by the Jozef Pilsudski,
in order to rebuild Polish state.
Took over the structure in Lodz, Krakow, St. Petersburg, in Belarus and Moscow.
Inesse Armand and Anna Konstantynowicz were planted to Lenin, not counting other Armands.

Pilsudski always spoke he has got a few or a dozen years to build and re-build the independent Polish state, because then Russia raise with knees.
It was surely Stalin who idolized the Russian imperial state. However, it succeeded smash Russia in the 1917 - 1922 and rebuild Poland in 1918.


The eldest Pole among above military figures was general Jan Jacyna.

Jan (John) Jacyna born 15 December 1864, died on 10, December 1930 in Warsaw. He was the son of Alexander and Natalia nee Hejnarowicz. "In 1878, he graduated from high school in St. Petersburg, and the College of Engineering at Kronstadt and the St. Petersburg Military Academy of Artillery". Major-General in 1911. 1917 was an vice-president of the Association of Military Poles and president and treasurer of the Supreme Polish Military Committee in St. Petersburg. 1921 - 1922 adjutant general of the Head of State. Jacyna was married to Wiktoria Ossowiecki, with whom he had a son, Alexander b. 1894.

He served in a
"
Main technical committee"
of the Navy Ministry in St Petersburg since 1891;
at a later date he acted, 
1901 - 1917

as member on "
the board of directors of government armouries" of the Navy Ministry (next War and Navy  Ministry) in Petersburg.
Since then he was near to problems of war industry in Russia, especially during  -
1914 / 1917 - the First world war; then (since 1915)

he co-operated with "
Military - industrial committee" composite of war industry's representatives and he ran up against suggestions of aeroplanes deliveries and aerial inventions
(
confer Jan Jacyna memoirs, vol. 1, p. 71);

he was the most known general in all Polish environments of St Petersburg at the beginning of the 20th  cent., amidst military and industrial activists
, social workers after the Bolshevik revolution, and also among the Polish active politicians in Russian parliament  since 1905/06; he was near to the imperial Russian court; general Jan Jacyna evaluated figure of Wladymir Boncz Brujewicz wholy negative when paid a  call on Lenin at the end of January 1918;  

(general Jan Jacyna kept in touch with  e.g.

Michal Szydlowski and Karol Jaroszynski = Karol Yaroshinsky, who managed with a big loans especially  during  the First world war. On Jaroszynski see
Shay McNeal, "The Plots to Rescue the Tsar", ed. London 2001  

[Karol Yaroshinsky / Karol Jaroszynski "(...) died in near poverty in 1928. His last years were spent in pain as a result of a poison needle having been jabbed into him at the opera in Paris at almost the same time as Sidney Reilly disappeared in the Soviet Union
(
in the 1920s). (...) Before the Revolution, he had fallen in love with one of the Tsar's daughters (...). Near to Krivoshein - the man who brought Yaroshinsky into the Allied banking scheme. (...) Yaroshinsky was the financial benefactor to the Romanov family during the last days of their captivity in Tobolsk and Ekaterinburg in 1918. The man was involved with Henry Armitstead and Jonas Lied, who had been paid through the British Secret Service for activities in Northern Russia
(
1918)."]
).

The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company co-operated with the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank.

According to V. S. Solomko at http://www.encspb.ru/ this St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank was a joint-stock commercial bank, opened in 1869, cooperating especially closely with the

St. Petersburg International Bank

by taking part "in the military industrial group to build submarines for the Baltic Navy. The group included Lessner's Plant and Nobel's Plant in St. Petersburg, which played a leading role in the group, as well as Fenix, Atlas, and Gatchinsky Ironworks".

Guchkov Alexander Ivanovich b. 1862, political and public figure, banker and businessman, was Director of Moscow Discount Bank. In 1907 and 1915, he was elected Member of State Assembly representing Industry and Trade, heading a Defence Commission 1907-10.
In St Petersburg, he was a member of St Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank's board.
From 1915, he was Chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee and a member of the Special Meeting for defence.
At the end of 1916, he designed plans for dynastic coup, acc. to A. G. Kalmykov and http://www.encspb.ru.

The 'Duflon...' Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8: Evgeny / Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, Nikolai Danilovich Liesienko who 1906 - 1914 represented the interests of the company in St. Petersburg, L. F. Duflon who lived since 1908 in Switzerland, Alexander E. Armand, Sergei Gernet son of Pavel and Emil I. Ramseyer - Swiss citizen, the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, chairman of the Board of the 'Atlas' Society in St. Petersburg; his brother Ramseyer Y. I., Swiss citizen was also the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank and Director of the Company 'Sormovo'.
On the Рамзай surname:
we are looking for who is Riemsnyder / Reimsnyder / Reemsnyder / Reamsnyder or Ramseyer / Рамзай К. А. / Ramsay K. A. - a family from Estonia and St. Petersburg
.

Lenin's funds in Russia and the German military intelligence service - part 2: Alexander = Helphand vel Parvus (from Berezyna / Berezino) and also Hanecki and Mecheslav Yulevich Kozlovsky (Mieczyslaw Kozlowski son of Julian, a Bolshevik attorney, died in 1927, was described as the chief recipient of the German money that was transferred from Berlin through the Diskonto-Gesellschaft to the Stockholm Nya Banken and thence to the Siberian Bank in Petrograd) had been working for Parvus, Sklarz in Berlin, Karinsky, Bonch-Bruyevich, Lenin, Radek, and Vorovsky; Eugenia Mavrikievna Sumenson (Eugenia daughter of Maurycy, a woman relative of Hanecki), Svenson vel Hans Steinwachs, Alexinsky.


Curiously enough:

New Russian military intelligence under different names operated from October 21, 1918. At this time the Red Army was already a huge and powerful body but after October, 1917, Bolsheviks faced with many difficulties, including the collapse of the army. Therefore, reorganizing the old army, they left in the War Department that is the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs - General Directorate of the General Staff (GUGSH) and this body consisted the 2nd Division of the General Quartermaster in December 1917, which was the central organ of intelligence and counterintelligence services of the armed forces of Russia. So by the end of 1918, Soviet military intelligence in full was as the legal successor of the pre-revolutionary military intelligence. GUGSH headed General V. V. Marushevsky (Polish?) who refused to cooperate with the new government. 

Then Quartermaster-General Nikolai Mikhailovich Potapov was new chief of the military intelligence (in 1915-1917, Potapov was the Main Director of the General Staff at the office of General Quartermaster. However, according to some reports, he - from July 1917 - collaborated with the military organization of the Petersburg bolshevik Committee. In November, 1917 to May 1918, Potapov served as Chief of Staff, and acting as assistant manager of the Military Department; in June 1918, he became a member of the Supreme Military Council, and from July 1919 Chairman of the Military Legislative Council). 

Colonel Yudin was the bolshevik Commissar and Peter F. Ryabikov, after the coup, was had remained in the office because the Bolsheviks did not touch the military intelligence, as opposed to counter-military intelligence, which they immediately dispersed, as it was involved in the campaign of charges the Bolsheviks was spying for Germany in the summer of 1917. Crisis of foreign intelligence commenced with the end of December 1917: colonel Andrey Stanislavsky (Polish?) entered the service for the French intelligence, and intelligence reports from the allies - the French military mission in Moscow - came to the end in July 1918. In February 1918, the country faced with bloody civil war, and in March 1918 the Soviet government established the Supreme Military Council for the organization of the armed forces of Red Army with a military leader, former tsarist general M. D. Bonch-Bruevich and two political commissars Shutko and P. Proshyan. On March 17, 1918, the Supreme Military Council included: a military leader, his assistant, Quartermaster-General with several assistants, and intelligence chiefs, a field inspector of artillery, and others; on March 19, 1918: Chairman - People's Commissar for Military Affairs Leon Trotsky, the Council members and above named General N. Potapov. In June, 1918 the Supreme Military Council was reorganized and included: a military leader Bonch - Bruevich, chief of staff and staff occupied by former officers, the deputy of the military leader appointed a former Major General of General Staff Alexander Alexandrovich Samoylo, an assistant Chief of Operations of the Supreme Military Council was Colonel Alexander Kovalevsky (Polish? April - May 1918). Kovalevsky, soon will move to the South, where he headed the mobilization management of the North Caucasus Military District; here he with General Nosovich (Polish?) were arrested by Stalin, but after Nosovich was fleeing to the 'white', Kovalevsky was again arrested and shoted.

Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich / В. Д. Бонч-Бруевич was publisher and one of Lenin's closet associates. Curiosity! Lenin signed certificate for V. Bonch-Bruevich on July 7, 1920 because of a month's holiday and travels to Kulgaevka / Kulgajewka village in the Klimovichi county, Moghilev / Mogilev province, when the Red Army went on the general offensive - begun on July 4, 1920 - against Poland. Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich had got a cabin in autonomous Finland and Lenin had hiding place there in period July - October 10th, 1917 [Old Style] i.e. to 23rd October; Vladimir Bruevich was administration manager at the Council of People's Commissars from November 1917; cf. F. Antoni Ossendowski, "Shadow of the bleak East", edition of 1919 and 1921, p. 57 - 58: he was known to sphere of Petersburg high society, Polish "old nobleman", secret chieftain of  socialists; he concealed of Trocki - Bronstein in Petersburg A.D. 1905 and also directed Chrustalow - Nosar or Chrustalov - Nosari in 1905.

The second brother, older - general Michail (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich either Bonch - Bruyevich Mikhail Dmitriyevich or Michal Bonc - Bruevic, see - if you read Russian - here:  http://history.tuad.nsk.ru/index.html (b. 1870 - died 1956; son of Dmitry who stayed in Moscow) who was tsarist general. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich from 1892 to 1895 served as an officer with the Lithuanian Guards Regiment at Warsaw. He was in command of the 176th Perevolochensky Regiment, based at Chernigov in 1914 and had known Russian aviator Pyotr Nesterov. The chief of staff and deputy commander of the Russian Northern Front and commander of the Northern Front from 29 August 1917 to 9 September 1917. September 1917 (?) a chief of the Russian military counterintelligence.
Above inf. acc. to http://www.x-libri.ru/elib/ by Arsen Martirosyan Benikovich, 'Conspiracy marshals. British intelligence against the Soviet Union'.
'Germane-norden' and 'Balticum' were extremely influential in Germany, and in Russia - representatives of the ancient aristocratic families of the number pro-German Ostsee (Baltic) Barons played a crucial role in large-scale after February and October 1917 Revolutions in Russia, close to the head of the Russian military counterintelligence Gen. M. Bonch-Bruevich (brother of Lenin's closest aide). Different source: On September 9, 1917, Бонч-Бруевич / Bonch-Bruevich was replaced as commander by Gen. V. A. Cheremisov / В. А. Черемисов and appointed to the Supreme Commander. Arriving at the General Headquarters in Mogilev, Bonch-Bruevich established contact with the Mogilev Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies and 27 September 1917 was co-opted into its executive committee in Mogilev by Dnieper river. In early October 1917, Bonch-Bruevich rejected the appointment of Governor-General of the Southwestern Region in Kiev and Omsk and took over as head of the Mogilev garrison.
But acc. to Soviet Security and Intelligence Organizations, 1917-1990: A Biographical..., by Michael Parrish, we read that M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was a General in Tsarist Counterintelligence.
Next M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was chief of staff of the Supreme Commander after November 1917
. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the military director of the Supreme Military Council and chief of general field staff of the Red Army (field staff of the Revolutionary Military Council) in 1918 - 1919.

Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the specialist in take a pictures from airplanes and organized the first technical office of aerial photograph in 1925; he wrote "The aerial photograph" in 1931 and similar book in 1934 (and  Grigorij - his son Mikolaj (2nd) b. 1896 was general of the Soviet air force).


The family von Pilar Pilchau from Pärnu and south-western foreland of Tallinn, played a major role in the political activities of Estonia in the nineteenth century, combining both stories Polish struggle for independence with history of Estonia.


Among relatives and next of kins of our Konstantynowicz 'Mscislau' branch appeared the Zarako Zarakowski family in the second half of 19th cent. and in the 20th cent.; 

the Spychalski family from Lodz was related to kinsmen of our lineage at the turn of the 20th century and in the middle of the 20th cent.; 

the Jaroszewicz family had connection to our line in the middle of the 20th cent. (the Jaroszewicz house derived from the Vicebsk province and had Prus the 1st arms, they possessed here the Ostupiszcze estate from Gruzewski family since 1710 to the end of the 18th cent.; Jerzy Piotr Jaroszewicz with Kwaczynski nickname was an officer here in 1713 - 1714 and somebody here in 1716; related to Kownacki, Rymaczewski and Kopakowski according to Jan Ciechanowicz, vol. 3; among others several of the Jaroszewiczs died in Old Bychow in 1655; priest Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666, Roman Jaroszewicz in Mahileu in 1682, and Jan Jaroszewicz in Vilna 1720 - 1722, another Jan Jaroszewicz and also his son Jan lived in Szaule near by Mejszagola in 1753, Ludwik Jaroszewicz lived in the Mscislau province in 1764; the Jaroszewiczs were related to Jankowski, Olszewski and Chodasiewicz families in the Dzisna district and also they served Radzivill family in the Minsk government at the turn of the 20th cent.; Dmitrij Jaroszewicz son of Konstantin, Russian admiral)

Constantinovich / Konstantinovitz / Constantinowitz family in Russia, 18th and 19th cent. to the November Revolution 1917

the Swierczewski family was near socially associated with us, for instance in the sixtieth of the 20th century. 

Some Generals, Prime Minister, the Head of State and one marshal of the communistic Poland - creators of the Soviet   transitory administration 1943 / 1990 - derived from these families. Relatives of our Konstantynowicz branch kept in touch  with  Jozef  Pilsudski, Michal Zymierski and Wladyslaw Sikorski at the moment in the first half of the 20th century - marshals  and  General with different political views. 

It wonder that three Marshals and General - military prosecutor died with natural death but three remaining Generals died with tragic death.

The Jaroszewicz marriage was murdered by former Secret Service and the Soviet KGB officers, acc. to http://nowahistoria.interia.pl/historia-na-fotografii/. Jaroszewicz was supposed to suggest that Charles / Karol Swierczewski 'Walter' betrayed him in 1947, the secret disclosed by the Soviet General, concerning the replacement of the Polish communist leaders by Soviet agents-look-alikes.

About a backstage of murder of the Jaroszewicz couple writes in book 'Famous couples PRL', Sławomir Koper, ed. by 'Red and Black', at website http://wiadomosci.wp.pl/ on 11 February 2014. "...Jaroszewicz apparently had financial problems, but saved a sell-numismatists, which Peter has accumulated during his long career. ... journalist Bohdan Roliński published two interviews with former Prime Minister. ... indicated that Jaroszewicz spoke with Karol Świerczewski, who told him that the Russians used the 'method of matrioszka', of substituting Polish communist by Soviet agents - look-alikes. Jaroszewicz and Świerczewski have identified several 'matrioszka', including Jozef Swiatlo and Boleslaw Bierut. Jaroszewicz suggested that the death of Świerczewski could be related to this knowledge. ... Even more sensational hypothesis has a journalist of the weekly Angora, Leszek Szymowski, who stated that the reason for the murder was the Jaroszewicz archive, which contained a copy of the documents incriminating Wojciech Jaruzelski, Czeslaw Kiszczak and other politicians 80s. This crime was part of a broader plan to eliminate all that could stopped the conduct of political transformation, directed by generals Kiszczak and Jaruzelski. Weekly Wprost published information suggesting that the death of Jaroszewicz has connected with the secret wartime archives of the Reich Security Office, which at the end of World War II went to the baroque palace in Radomierzyce near Zgorzelec. ... among others Gestapo informers lists, documents relating to French collaboration with the Third Reich ... In 1945, Colonel Piotr Jaroszewicz and several other officers had some explosive packages of securities before the archives were transferred to the USSR. ... Tadeusz Steć was killed in his own home at the hands of unknown assailants just a few months after Peter. Before his death, he was tortured... Jerzy Fonkowicz was assassinated in 1997. In 2007, the theory that the murder was related to the Jaroszewicz Nazi archive has placed the Criminal Intelligence Bureau of the Police Headquarters (in Poland). ... ignored the testimony of the witness (who said he saw one woman and two men the morning on September 1 came out of the house). At the end of 2005, analysts Archive X (section dealing with the explanation of complex criminal cases) found that from the register of the murder of Jaroszewicz lost key evidence, that is, the three bags with traces of unidentified fingerprints. The prints were found at the glasses of Jaroszewicz and cabinet doors located in his office... Biography of Jaroszewicz overgrown in many myths. The future prime minister was born in 1909 in Nieśwież ... ... In August 1943 he was still Private, but after several months already a colonel, and after a further eight (after the war) general! Even Napoleon Bonaparte promoted from lieutenant to general took a little more time...".

Generals of communistic People Polish Army: Karol Swierczewski, Piotr Jaroszewicz and Marian Spychalski (later on the Marshal) in the fourties of the 20th century were deputies of Michal Zymierski - Marshal and communistic Minister of Defense. The genealogy of my Mscislau "inlet" of the Konstantynowicz ancestry point out long and strong connections with the Imperial Russian Army and Russian military intelligence since the seventies of the nineteenth century  and after  when they served in tsarist Georgia / Sakartvelo 
but especial at the turn of the 20th century. It was the tsarist military technology intelligence at the beginning of the 20th century.  

This connections fade away probably at the end of the 20th century?


The historical and genealogical details.


The family von Pilar Pilchau from Pärnu and south-western foreland of Tallinn, played a major role in the political activities of Estonia in the nineteenth century, combining both stories Polish struggle for independence with history of Estonia.

Below I present abbreviation of the von Pilchau Pilar genealogy.

Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870, and Sauga. Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough. Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia. Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland. Baron Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau b. 1851, nickname Alf, b. in Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa. His wife Julie Olga Eugenie von der Pahlen born in Pleskau or Pskow / Pihkva in 1865, her mother Helene Charlotte Louise von der Pahlen nee von Toll 1833 - 1910, and her grandmother Olga Karoline Olga von Toll nee von Strandman 1796 - 1861, her brother Karl Gustav von Strandmann 1787 - 1855, and her sister Wilhelmine Charlotte von Ungern-Sternberg nee von Strandmann 1785 - 1813.

The father of Adolf Pilar von Pilchau was Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, Baron, born and died in Audru / Audern, 1814 - 1870. Grandfather Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814, who has brothers:
1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830; his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.
2. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jőgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and
3. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - 1819 in Reval / Tallinn. They has stepfather Gotthard Johann II Zoege Reichsgraf von Manteuffel 1717 - 1753, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. 1767 in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jőgisuu).
He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia. Jőgisoo (Jőgisuu) ca 3 km south-west of Kullamaa, south-east-east of Haapsalu, Läänemaa county.

On the Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt family:
Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina. She was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano.
She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Charlotte Julie Pila von Pilchau; Ada Pilar von Pilchau (Helene Bertha Johanna Adele von Gruenewaldt 1853-1889); Theodor Gustav Otto Peter Pilar von Pilchau; and Hilda Pilar von Pilchau.
We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano from Neapol. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau or Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor Mariano.
Relatives: Adolph (ALF), Jacob Constantin von Pilar Pilchau (1851 - 1925 in Pärnu, Baron of Livonia, and the marshal of the district magistrate in Parnu); and Helene Bertha Johanna Adele Gruenewaldt or Adele Gruenewaldt (1853-1889, nee Pilchau von Pilar, married Walther Gruenewaldt; she died in 1889 in Cannes; her husband Walter Johann Georg Konstantin von Grünewaldt was born 1843 in Hapsal /Haapsalu; his family owned Koik (Koigi) in Järvamaa: father Alexander Georg von Grünewaldt b. 1805 in Koik; his grandfather Johann Georg von Grünewaldt b. 1763 in Koik (Koigi), Järvamaa; great-grandfather Johann Adam von Grünewaldt died 1792 in Koik / Koigi). Karl Jakob Rudolf von Gernet 1826 died April 20, 1912 in Hapsal / Haapsalu, Estonia. His brother: Magnus Friedrich von Gernet 1824 died October 22, 1909 in Reval / Tallinn, Estonia - and his son:
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet was born 1864 and died in 1944. Rudolf Jakob von Gernet 1864 - 1944, and his mother Katharina Kitty Helene Amelie von Gernet (nee von Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt; her father Johann / Iwan Christoph Engelbrecht von Grünewaldt, from Hukas and Koik = Koigi; her grandfather - above named - Johann Georg von Grünewaldt b. 1763 in Koik (Koigi), Järvamaa; her great-grandfather Johann Adam von Grünewaldt b. 1719, landlord of Koigi) 1833 - 1909, near by the Pilchau Pilar family.
Richard Adolf von Gernet of 1863, known as Adolf, or Adolph. He was born on 14 April 1863 in Sellenkull / Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km, and south-west of Lehola. He was a graduate of the cathedral school / 'Domschule zu Reval' (a German-language institution, but it was closed in 1893) 1876 - 1881, and Dorpat in 1881-1886. He was a noted metallurgist after 'M. Inst. M.M.' that is the 'Institute of Mining and Metallurgy'. Adolf von Gernet worked in 'Privatlaboratoriums von Dr. Werner Siemans' in Berlin by Erik Thomson, where he was made ​​head of this laboratory of Werner von Siemens. In 1889 he built a gold wash in Yekaterinburg in the Urals. In 1892 he was representative of the company in America. Around 1895 he followed his brother Rudolf to South Africa where he was a Director of the 'Central Rand Gold Mine Ore Reduction Works'. He patented a process for extracting copper, which became known as Siemens-Halske electric precipitation process later. He presented a paper before the 'Society of Chemists and Metallurgists' in Johannesburg on electrical precipitation; von Gernet, representing the firm of Siemens & Halske, of Berlin, introduced the process in the Transvaal, and for several years it was extensively used. In the 1890s he studied with John Hays Hammond off the coast of Cape Town, the gold content in the sea water ('investigations off the coast of South Africa, not far from Capte Town, to determine the gold content of sea water in that place'). There was a 'Von Gernet Copper Company', but it was liquidated in October 1905. In 1898 he became the first Russian Vice Consul in Johannesburg. In 1901, he traveled through Peru and Bolivia. Later he was in Brussels. Acc. to me he back to Estonia / Russia 1906 ? - to 1917 ? He died on January 4, 1942 in Dingolfing, Bavaria. Adolph von Gernet married in 1898 Leonilla princess of Mestscherski with whom he had a daughter, Alexandra von Reitzenstein (1900-1965).
Above Rudolf Jakob von Gernet 1864, as Rudolf. He was born on 30 December 1864 in Sellenkull, Poenal, Laanemaa, (Sellenkull = Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km and south-west of Lehola) Estonia. A doctor, who was latterly appointed by the Boer authorities to superintend the hospital, by James Francis Harry St. Clair-Erskine Rosslyn.
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet, migrated to South Africa in the late nineteen nineties together with his wife Olga Antoinette Vera von Dehn.

We back now to the first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com) Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar.
Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830 / von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig - his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.

Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830 in 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811.

Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar:
1. Major Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 (1769?),
2. Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774,
3. Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, that was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia; his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, after Major of the Russian army. His son Stanisław Count Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska / Zofia Januszewski.

She came from Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806, she died on 28 Jan 1898, Wilno; her son Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, born 1860, married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec, he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierżyński; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937.

Acc. to Józef Mackiewicz:
'Old' Pilar send Roman Pilar to Wilno, then chief of the GPU in Mińsk in Belarus; he was oldest of 4 sons of above Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau, owner of Mickuny, very near to uncle Feliks Dzierżyński.
Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau had only 160 cm tall!
In Mickuny were living the Szabłowskis, among other Ignacy;
a main administrator of the Pilar estate was unknown Szostak, from a family of 5 sons and one daughter; then the Lachowicz family.
At the Bernardin cementery in Vilna we have tombs of the Pilar von Pilchau family:
1. Aleksandra Pilar von Pilchau, d. 25 Oct. 1901;
2. her sister Wilunia, b. 1866, d. 1 Jan. 1872;
3. Pilar Joanna nee Kulwiński, d. 1876;
4. Izabella Pilar von Pilchau Kulwińska, b. 1808, d. 1891;
5. Zofija Pilar von Pilchau d. 28 Jan. 1898;
6. her sister - Helena nee Januszewski, Dzierżyńska, d. 1896, mother of Feliks Dzierżyński;
7. Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, grandfather of Roman Pilar.
Acc. to Czeslaw Malewski:
1. Pilar von Pilchau, Wilno 1818 - 1881; 2. Becu, Wilno 1801 - 1862, inf. 1823.
The von Pilar estate, Mickuny: here was living father of above Roman Pilar, Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau jr. who died 12 Oct. 1939. On 12 Oct. 1826 in Mickuny was consecrated a chapel built by Alexander Pilar senior in 1825 (Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, judge of the border in the county of Vilnius); he was friend of young Juliusz Słowacki, and his sisters Hersylia and Aleksandra Becu. The Mickuny estate owned first August Becu (1771-1824) - August Becu was Professor of Medicine at the Imperial Wilno Univ. In 1923 in Mickuny was the catholic parish, and Aleksander Pilar, father of Roman, given a home for priest; a father of Roman, above Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau died aged 79, and was buried at the Mickuny cementery; his wife, mother of named Roman, was Helena Pilar, d. on 8 August 1955, aged 91. Acc. to http://dokumente.ios-regensburg.de/ Becu, August Ljudvigovič was son of Ludwik Becu; August Becu was Professor, b. 3.5.1771 in Grodno, died in 1824 in Wilno.

Jacek Gilewicz from Marseille - grandson of Justin Dzerzhinsky / Justyn Dzierżyński, a cousin of Felix Dzierzynski, the adoptee by his parents. He has an archive of the sister of Felix - Aldona Dzierzynska, suddenly three pages of the manuscript; he was convinced that Stalin was poisoned Felix. He has cousin in Radom, Mrs. Wanda from Dzierżyński, died in 2011, owned a memorabilia of sister of Felix, Aldona, including a manuscript of 1909, photocopies of letters; Felix began to write to his sister when he went to high school of Vilnius, the last letter he sent to Aldona in 1919. In Moscow is living grandson of Felix - Felix Dzerzhinsky Janowicz / Feliks Janowicz Dzierżyński; old man, a professor at Moscow University. We remember that in 1923, Soviet intelligence resident living in Warsaw, Mieczyslaw Łoganowski had a group of young communists and came up with the idea that they had to go to Sulejowek, to pay homage to Pilsudski and then throw a bomb or shoot him. Łoganowski sent a plan of attack to Moscow. Felix categorically forbade him to implementation because of Anthony Bulhak Dzerzhinsky married a niece of Pilsudski. They have for some time lived with Pilsudski in Sulejówek. It was a very tragic situation. His brother Stanislaus Dzierzynski in 1917, was stabbed to death in their family mansion. Probably they were some deserters. Escaped from the front, returned to Russia, spent the night in the mansion. Felix had command track down the group. They have to be tracked and shot. From a letter to his sister Aldona Bulhak - Kojałłowicz (April 15, 1919): 'I am sending you things from Dzierżynow. Very solid gold jewelry was confiscated because of our rights... I know that this confiscation touches you, but I could not otherwise - that is the law of gold'. We have data of Jan Bułhak b. 1871 in Nowa Wilejka / New Wilejka, son of Mikolaj Bułhak and Antonina Zamkowicz.

Александр Карл Пилар фон Пильхау born 1802, in Wilno / Вильнюс, was married to Ионна Станиславовна Кульвинска / Joanna nee Kulwinska daughter of Stanislaw Kulwinski. His mother
Maria Cecylia von Bécu / Мария Цецилия фон Бекю and father Магнус or Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born 1768. His grandfather Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау born 1734, married 1756 in Tallinn / Ревель, to Катарина Хелена фон Таузас. Place of living: Халлик and Йоггис;

Hagar / Hallik in Tamsalu, Estonia, county of Laane-Viru, south-west of Rakvere - eastern Eesti.

Augustas Ludvikas Becu / August Ludwik Becu / August Ludwik Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno, his father - Jan Ludwik Bécu.
Bécu Louis or Jan Ludwik Becu, was brother of Jakób Becu; freemason in Grodno, 1786.

Abraham Becu was born 1736 in Prenzlau, Uckermark. West of Szczecin.
Different Abraham Becu was born 1708 in Fahrenwalde, Bergholz, Uckermark. He died 1747 in Prenzlau, Uckermark. This Abraham married Susanne Salingre daughter of Michel Salingre and Marie Herlan. They had the following children:
Marie Becu was born 1731 in Bergholz, Uckermark. Marie Becu 2nd was born 1734 in Prenzlau, Uckermark m. to Abraham Becu. We know about next Marie Becu born 1739 in Prenzlau, Uckermark; married Philippe Sauvage son of Jaques Sauvage and Margarete Becar in 1762 in Prenzlau, Uckermark. Next children: Pierre Becu was born 1740 in Prenzlau; he married Elisabeth Tancre daughter of Abraham Tancre and Chretienne Gombert; Susanne Becu was born 1742 in Prenzlau.
Pierre Becu - brother of above Abraham Becu born 1708 - was born 1710 in Fahrenwalde, Bergholz; died 1770 in Fahrenwalde; Pierre married Marie Ropitail daughter of Pierre Ropitail and Elisabeth Vangermain; they had the following children:
Marie Becu was born 1742 in Fahrenwalde; Pierre Becu was born 1743 in Fahrenwalde; Susanne Becu was born 1747; Jacob Becu was born 1748 in Fahrenwalde; Elisabeth Becu; Jeanne Becu; Jacob Becu was born 1753 in Fahrenwalde; Abraham Becu; Isaac Becu; Daniel; Philippe Becu.
Abraham married Marie Becu daughter of Jean Becu and Jeanne Labove in 1762 in Bergholz, Uckermark. They had the following children:
Marie Becu; Elisabeth; Judith Becu; Isaac; Susanne; Abraham Becu was born 1773 in Prenzlau, Uckermark.
Pierre Becu was born ca 1745 in Fahrenwalde, Bergholz; Pierre married Marie Elisabeth Tourbier daughter of Jean Tourbier and Elisabeth Lagi; Marie was born 1750 in Stettin. They had the following children:
Pierre; Abraham Becu was born Fahrenwalde; Marie Becu; Marie married Jean Desjardins son of Jacob Desjardins and Esther Laurent in 1803 in Bagemuehl, Battin, Uckermark. Susanne Becu was born 1784 in Fahrenwalde, Bergholz, Uckermark. Jeanne Becu was born 1788 in Fahrenwalde.
Prenzlau, Germany west of Szczecin, ca 45 km; Bergholz - half way from Prenzlau to Szczecin; Fahrenwalde, 6 km west of above Bergholz.
Please remember on Bécu August Ludwik (1771-1824); Bécu Jakób (brother of Jan Ludwik), chamberlain, 1771 – 1780 (to 1787) inspector of Antoni Tyzenhauz; Bécu August, chamberlain and freemason 1781 in Hrodna; Bécu Louis or Jan Ludwik Becu, was brother of Jakób, freemason in Grodno, 1786.
We know about:
Becu, Jacob b. 1665; Becu, Jacob b. 19 Nov 1715; Becu, Jacob b. 14 Nov 1748; Becu, Jacob b. 06 Apr 1753.
Above Antoni Tyzenhauz 1733-1785, born Nowojelnia close to Zdzieciol; 1761 - member of Parliament, as a young man, he served for the Czartoryski family in their court at Wołczyn. At that time, Tyzenhaus befriended Stanisław August Poniatowski, who was born and educated at Wołczyn, as Czartoryskis were his uncles. Tyzenhaus became Court Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania;
the case against Tyzenhaus was arranged by Otto Magnus von Stackelberg, Russian ambassador in Warsaw.
Reichsgraf Otto Magnus von Stackelberg (1736 - 1800) was a diplomat of the Russian Empire. He served as an envoy in Madrid from 1767 to 1771, ambassador in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1772 to 1790 and in Sweden from 1791 to 1793. Otto Magnus Graf von Stackelberg died in Dresden; son of Otto Magnus von Stackelberg, and Anna Magdalena von Bellingshausen;
Otto Magnus von Stackelberg, senior, was born 1704 in Reval (Tallinn), Harjumaa, Estland; died 1765 in Paddas (Pada), Kunda vald - ca 27 km north of Rakvere;
son of Karl Wilhelm von Stackelberg and Magdalena Elisabeth von Essen.

August Ludwik Bécu owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816
and has two daughters:

Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872, m. Teofil Januszewski, brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki.

August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki, when Juliusz Slowacki aged 8.

August Ludwik Becu was sent in 1803 - 1804 from (Russia) the Vilna University to Scotland (UK) to investigate smallpox vaccination.

We are looking for!

Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау born 1757 and died 1783, her father Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1734 d. 1801; her brothers and sisters: 1756 in Халлик, born Иоганна София Пилар фон Пильхау, Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау, Вильгельм Фридрих Пилар фон Пильхау 1761, София Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, Анна Доротея Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, in Халлик, Oтто Густав Пилар фон Пильхау born 1763, Юлиана Шарлотта Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1764, in Халлик, Мария Луиза Пилар фон Пильхау Крутов b. 1766, Георг Людвиг or Егор Максимович Пилар фон Пильхау born on 19 март 1767, Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау 1768, Катарина Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1769, Анна София Пилар фон Пильхау 1771, Иоганна Кристина Пилар фон Пильхау 1772, Якоб Иоганн Пилар фон Пильхау 1774, Рейнгольд Адольф Пилар фон Пильхау 1775, Рейнгольд Вольдемар Пилар фон Пильхау 1777, Ульрика Генриетта Пилар фон Пильхау 1780, Каролина Амалия Пилар фон Пильхау 1780.

August Ludwik Becu has two daughters:

Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and

Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872.

Teofil Januszewski, was brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki.

August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki,
when Juliusz Slowacki aged 8. August Ludwik Becu was sent in 1803 - 1804 from (Russia) the Vilna University to Scotland (UK).

Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830:
his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801.

Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar:

Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769
(his wife was Maria Becu
with her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl /
Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802),
Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774, and
Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born on 8 June 1768 and his cousins and closest next of kin:
1.
Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein;

фон Людер / Luder died 1857;
2.
Екатерина Николаевна Кудашева / Kudashev, b. 1811; Дунина / Dunin, b. 1799; 1798 m. to Иоганн Густав Юст / Iust; 1766 born in Халлик, Иван Крутов / Krutov / Krutow; Иоганна Агнета Гессе / Hesse b. 1779;
3.
Мария Цецилия фон Бекю / Becu (Maria Becu was married Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Magnus Maksymilian Fabian Pilar Pilchau b. 1768; her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and in Wilno / Вильнюс, was born Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802);
4.
Katarina Elizabiet Pilar von Pilchau / Катарина Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау born 1769, d. 1835, in 1798 married to Johann Ditrich B. von Althann / Althan or Altham / Иоганн Дитрих Бенджамин Альтхан;
Сукни (Suckni) / Sukni d. 1838;
5.
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau / Katarina Elizabiet Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1769 in Hallik, Estonia, d. 1835; daughter of
Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas;
she was wife of Johan Diedrich Benjamin Althan / Althann; and she was mother of Johan Heinrich Althan; Georg Benjamin von Althann and Emilie Helene Althan; her family:
Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau; Jakob Johann Baron, and Reinhold Woldemar; Margarethe Elisabeth Gfin. Manteuffel; and Gotthard Johann III Reichsgraf Zoege von Manteuffel.
Inf. by Elle Kiiker. Above mentioned
Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis / Jőgisuu; he was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia; Garde-Lt., Major of the Polish Army.
Inf. by Peter Trefilov. Above named Johan Diedrich Benjamin Althan: b. ca 1760 ? Above Georg Benjamin von Althann, b. 1803 d. 1856, husband of Sophie Cecilie von Hirsch and Olga Helena Kornrumpf; father of Elisabeth Sophie von Althann; Georg Alexander, Anna Adelheid, Ernst Moritz, and Adolph Richard. He was attorney, by: Elle Kiiker. Above Dr. Georg Alexander von Althann b. 1839 in
Pernau (Pärnu), Estland;
died 1898 in Aachen; son of Georg Benjamin von Althann and Sophie Cecilie von Hirsch; a medical practitioner, 'Korporatsiooni Livonia'. Above Elisabeth Sophie von Althann b. 1837 in Pernau (Pärnu).
6.
фон Рамм / von Ramm, b. 1779;
7.
фон Мореншильдт b. 1811; Наталья Николаевна Карпова / Karlow; Михайловна Езерская / Jezierski, died 1919;
8.
фон Штааль b. 1843; Васильевна Чулкова b. 1855; Домудовская / Домудовски; фон Эссен / Essen b. 1847; Раиса Митрофановна Филиппова / Filippow d. after 1932; Беренд фон Мореншильдт d. 1861; Симсен; 1801 Франц Герман Экбаум; 1801 Фридрих фон Руктешель.
9.
Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia came from Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau b. 1734.
Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922; daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau.
Evdokya Dmitrievna Horvath was born in St Petersburg in 1902, and married first in 1921 to Cecil Lewis, second time to Cedric Williams; she was the daughter of the military engineer General Dmitri Horvath, the second of six children of General Horvath and his wife Camilla Benois. Dmitri Horvath was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov, and was connected to the Baltic aristocracy through his mother, Baroness
Maria Pilar von Pilchau. Camilla Benois,
a member of a distinguished family of artists, sculptors, architects and musicians, was herself a talented artist and sang and played the piano. Acc. to (Copyright in 2005) The Independent.

Above Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of Ottilie Gustava von Lüder, Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau, acc. to: Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina.
Above Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.
Above
Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734, was father of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau,
Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau,
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau; was brother of Dorothea Charlotta Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau. Acc. to Peter Trefilov and Bernard von Schulmann.
Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 in Padis. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.


Above
Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814,
has brothers:

1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830
(Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830 / von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, his father was retired major of the Polish army -
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801).
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.

2. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jőgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and

3. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - 1819 in Reval / Tallinn, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

Zofia Januszewski / Zofija Pilar von Pilchau
died January 28, 1898 - she was sister of Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena, mother of Felix Dzerzhinsky, who died in 1896. Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, Judge of the district of Vilnius, died in 1871 - he was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar! Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, that was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia; his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida.

Mickiewicze Wielkie: in 1870 situated in the Minsk Governorate, the Slutsk district, volost Kleck, but in 1923 in the Poland, Province Nowogródek, the district of Nieswiez. Mickiewicze situated on way from Niasviz / Nieswiez to Klieck / Kleck, close to Asmolawa. It was the Витгенштейн family estate as Быховщизна in 1870 (Wittgenstein - Byhovschizna / Bykowszczyzna).
P. L. Wittgenstein to E. K. Pilyavskaya / E. Pilawska in 1886-1887.
In 1887, Peter / P. L. Wittgenstein died; he was the son of Lev Petrovich Wittgenstein;
Peter L. Wittgenstein b. 1831, Vilna Province, Lieutenant-General, a military agent in France, the Russian-Turkish war, one of the richest landowners of the Russian Empire. Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county, lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk. This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh. Above Lew / Prince Lev Wittgenstein / Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn b. June 7, 1799, the eldest son of Field Marshal Count Peter Xristianovich Wittgenstein / Piotr Christianovich Wittgenstein and Antoinette Stanislavovna Snarskii / Antuanetta Snarski / Antuaneta Snarska. He was married twice:
1. 1828 to Princess Stefania nee Radziwill, daughter of above Dominik Radziwill and Theophile Morawska; with two children:
Maria or Antoinette Carolina - Stefania, and above Peter / Peter Dominic Ludwig 1832-1887, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General.
2. Princess Leonilla Baryatinskaya Ivanovna.
Stefania Wittgenstein b. Paris 1809, d. 1832, nee Radziwill - father Dominik Radziwill b. 1786, d. 1813; mother Teofila Morawska. Stefania was owner about 12000 km˛ that is 1 mln ha in Belarus (Miezonka...) and Lithuania. Her children: Piotr Wittgenstein b. 1831 and Maria b. 1829 with husband Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. Her husband from 1828 Ludwik Adolf  F. Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn (Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn) born 8 June 1799 in Kowno, He was first son of Ludwik Adolf Piotr / Pjotr Christianovich zu Sayn und Wittgenstein / Пётр Христианович Витгенштейн, who was born 1769 in Pierejaslawl Zalesskij either Нежин / Negine or Переяславл, and died 11 June 1843 in Lwiw / Lwow.

Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze
(Witold Bulhak / Bułhak owner of Mickiewicze Wielkie in the Kleck district. After death of dad and uncles he taken more Bułhak properties, with library in Dobośnia palace. Witold Bułhak that is Józef Witold Bułhak, owner of Czehrynka / Czyhirinka [1834], close to Niemki, Kolbowo, south of Czeczewiczy, near by Drut' river, west-south-west of Stary Byhow).

His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina,

estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor;

parents of Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789: mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749.

Florian Stanislaw Bulhak (a branch of photographer Jan Brunon Bułhak) + Krystyna Ciekawianka were parents of

Florian Bułhak b. 1750 d. 1806,

Józef Bułhak (see below),

Jan Bułhak,

Wincenty Bułhak,

Ignacy Józefat Bułhak / Ignacy Jozafat Bułhak / Josafat Ignatius Bulhak,

Jerzy Onufry Bułhak b. 28 April 1749: branch of Aldona Dzierzynska (see below) and Władysław Bułhak.

Above Josafat Ignatius Bulhak b. April 20, 1758, d. February 25, 1838, Greek Orthodox priest, Uniate bishop of Pinsk (1787-1795), bishop of Brest (1798-1828), Bishop of Lithuania (1828-1833) and Archbishop of Polotsk (1833-1838), in 1817-1838 the Metropolitan of Kiev. Above Jozef Bulhak, the Uniate bishop of Pinsk and Turow, abbot of the monastery of the Basilian in Suprasl.

Great-grandfather Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670

(father of FLORIAN STANISLAW, KAZIMIERZ, KATARZYNA, JAKUB m. BARBARA Wolk - Traby, FRANCISZKA, DOROTA, MARCIN m. MARIANNA WERESZCZAK, JAN b. 1700 m. NN MOGIELNICKA, Nowogrodek clark:

probably from Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670 come a branch of Gabriel Bulhak and Ignacy Bulhak of Bobruisk / Bobrujsk marshal and next generation here:

Witold Bulhak / Bułhak owner of Mickiewicze Wielkie in the Kleck district.

After death of dad and uncles he taken more Bułhak properties, with library in Dobośnia palace.

Witold Bułhak that is Józef Witold Bułhak, owner of Czehrynka / Czyhirinka [1834], close to Niemki, Kolbowo, south of Czeczewiczy, near by Drut' river, west-south-west of Stary Byhow, and south-east of Zbyszyn of the Brujewicz family and Borki of 'Nadberezyncy'.

Bułhak Gabriel, office clark in 1793 and 1810. Gabriel Bułhak with Syrokomla coat of arms, born ca 1750 / 1754, married in 1790),

m. to Marianna Imielinski - Prawdzic; he taken estate Kosmowicze from Radziwill.

His parents: Benedykt Bulhak (b. ca 1640?) and Eufemia Protasewicz.

Benedykt was from Konstanty Bulhak and Anna Zablocki, acc. to aordycz.republika.pl.

Above Eufemia Bułhak (Protasewicz - Jastrzębiec) b. ca 1650 was mother of Mikołaj Bułhak, Jerzy Piotr Bułhak and Szymon Bułhak - by: Urszula Ewa Skarżyńska in 2007.

Aldona Kojallowicz Bulhak nee Dzierzynska, 1870 - 1966. Her husband Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856 -

his father Rudolf Jerzy Bulhak 1824-1894; grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789. Great-grandfather Jerzy Onufry Bułhak b. 28 April 1749. Children of Jerzy Onufry Bulhak:

Chryzostom Stanisław Bułhak,

Beata Bułhak - Lopott - Trzeciak,

Krystyna Bułhak - Niezabitowski,

Ostroberta Bułhak - Woyna b. 1793,

Duklana Pilecki b. 1795 and

Julian Bułhak.

Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski (of Bulhak in 1867-1913) close to Marina Gorka.

We know that BULHAK, J., was in Nieswiez, Slutsk, Minsk.

Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor.

Осташин Мурованый / Ostaszyn Murowany. Here was living Jan Bulhak / Ян Булгак, son of Валериан Булгак, Walerian Bulhak or Walery;

Jan Brunon Bułhak's parents were Walery Antoni Stanisław Bułhak - Syrokomla b. 1842 in Ostaszyn d. 1905

(he was brother of Karolina Karpowicz, Antoni Bułhak b. 1850 d. 1898, NN Bułhak, Barbara Bułhak from Sadek d. 1907 and Helena Kiersnowska; Walery Antoni Stanisław Bułhak was son of Jan Antoni Franciszek Bułhak b. 1795 in Woroncza and JULJA HROMYK, and grandson of Florian Bulhak b. ca 1740, great-grandson of Florian Stanisław Bułhak from Mikolaj Bulhak and Katarzyna or Marianna)

and Józefa née Haciska - Roch (b. 1848 in Miratycze, daughter of Władysław Dachnowicz Haciski - son of Tadeusz Dachnowicz Haciski - and Anna Haciska), landowners in Ostaszyn.

Jan Bulhak from 1897 to 1899, studied literature, history and philosophy at Jagiellonian University, Kraków. Back home, he lived in the village of Peresieka (Пярэсека) near Minsk, where he inherited a manor after his great-uncle's death (brother of one's grandparent or uncle of one's parent). Пярэсека, Минская область / Pereseka, close to Czurylawiczi, Kaikawa, ca 16 km south of Minsk core; 7 km south-west of Karaliszczawiczi / Koroliszczewiczi / Koroliszczewicze - here Konstantynowicz family.

Children of FLORIAN BULHAK b. ca 1740 and HELENA JABLONSKI:

JÓZEF, WINCENTY, WLADYSLAW, IGNACY, MACIEJ b. 1794 d. 1863, JAN ANTONI FRANCISZEK b. 1795 in Woroncza d. 1850, and FLORIANA.

Bagration-Gruzinski and Mukhrani from Sakartvelo / Georgia. Troubetzkoy / Trubeckoj, Katenin, Orlov-Denissov and Martynov from Russia.


In search of genealogy. It is of greatest importance to me.

I am looking for all information about my grandfather Marian or Jerzy Konstantynowicz and about his family from the parish of Berazino (Berezina, Berezino or Berezyna).  He belonged to one of the old noble families from the farthest eastern reaches of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Those lands were also the first to be taken by tsarist Russia as the result of the partitions of Poland. 

Those near and dear (families at the beginning of the 20th cent.) in the Berazino parish (Mother of God of Mercy catholic church),  Riga / Ryga, the Dryssa ujezd and elsewhere:
Viljandi, Tallinn, Parnu / Parnawa, Moscow, Petersburg, Ufa, Miezonka, Hapsal / Haapsalu, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti.

With families: Melik - Beglyarov or Melik-Beglarov, Demonets / Demonet or Demontet, Breguet, Brown, Wilde, Nikitin, Katenin, Gruzinski, Bagrationi, Drzewiecki, Orlov-Denisov, Martynov, Paszkowski, Kalinowski, Zarako Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Horodecki, Zbieranowski, Szostak, Nobel, Masson, Hacker / Hakker, Kammer, Briling, Vologdin, Azbelev, Benckendorf or Benkendorf, Pushkin, Kropotkin, Chikin, Bakst, Trubecki / Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy / Troubetskoi, Beklemishev, Rosenberg, Wittgenstein, Dadian-Mingrelsky / Dadiani Mingrelskij, Radziwill, Piottuch-Kublicki, Soltan, Oginski, Japaridze (Mestia in Upper Svaneti and Zuruldi 7 km east, ca 30 km north of Lentechi, and north-west of Oni; the Japaridzes is Svans), Rosen, Gernet, Rehbinder, Schilling, Nakachidze, von Zarnekau, Yurievsky, Duke of Oldenburg, Nikoladze, Maipariani or Maypariani, Saparov, Armand, Diseren, Duflon, Rey, Paat / Paats, Karamyan, Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux.

1.

Malkiewicz

Old Svolna, Miezonka, Moscow and the Jauji farm (i.e. Jowce or Javci in LATVIA; 49 km north - east of Vilani in the Ludsen = Ludza district formerly. We know now about Jeci small village close to Dzirkalava / Dzierkalova, Lapava / Lapova, Locukolni, Purini, Zalmuiza in the area of Malnava. Jeci village is located 4 km from Karsava. Malnava Roman Catholic Church was laid in 1932 under the auspices of priest Boleslavs Grisans. This is the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rezekne-Aglona.

Count Szadurski (a friend of the Malkiewicz family) in ca. 1830 - who was himself a nature lover, interested in gardening - lay out a park behind the manor house in Malnow / Malnawa.

Documentary evidence of Malnava estate dates back in 1774 but before 1724 the estate belonged to the Hilzen family of German roots.

In 18th century, the Malnava / Malnov / Malnow manor came into the ownership of Count Szadurski. In 1878, this land belongs to Julius von der Ropp, after S. F. Agarkov in 1906.

On the Ropp family details:

1. Above
Julius von der Ropp / Eugen Julius Nikolai von der Ropp b. 1867 in Roth-Pomusch, d. 1917, son of Eduard Theodor Reinhold Alexander / Eduard Ropp, husband of Anna.

2. Henryk Waclaw Ksawery Plater-Zyberk b. 1811 in Liksna, Daugavpils novads - died 1903 in Kraslava, son of Michal Plater-Zyberk and Izabella Helena;
father of Leon; Wojciech Jan; Henryk Kazimierz; Zofia Buyno; Edward Edmund Plater-Zyberk; Jan Kazimierz; Emilia Niemirowicz-Szczytt; Ludwik Wiktor; Wiktor Kazimierz Konstanty; Anna; Eleonora Przewlocka; Teofil Stanislaw; Wilhelm; and Maria Plater-Zyberk;
brother of Izabella von der Ropp, and Maria Szadurska.
Maria Szadurska nee Plater-Zyberk, b. 1813; wife of Mikolaj Szadurski m. 1837, her son Wladyslaw m. Stefania Borch with children:
Michalina Szadurska m. Konstanty Maria Michal Ropp.
Izabela Plater-Zyberk that is Izabella von der Ropp was sister of Maria Szadurska b. 1813 wife of Mikolaj Szadurski, and also sister of Henryk Waclaw Ksawery Plater-Zyberk b. 1811 in Liksna, close to Daugavpils, who died in 1903 in Kraslava, Latvia.
Izabela Plater-Zyberk 1809-1888 m. to Julian Emeryk Ropp 1800-1858, with children:
Juliusz Kazimierz Ludwik Ropp 1843-1898,
Edward Ropp 1851-1939, and
Konstanty Maria Michał Ropp 1855-1925.

Some details on the Szadurskis:

Mikolaj Szadurski b. ca 1810, d. 1876, m. Maria Plater-Zyberk of Broel, b. 1813 - d. 1893 - Kraslaw / Kraslava.
His son Wladyslaw Szadurski b. 1840, m. 1866 to Stefania Borch 1847-1888 daughter of Michal Borch and Maria Korsak 1807-1869, with children:
a. Michalina Szadurska b. 1867 m. Konstanty Maria Michal Ropp 1855-1925 with children:
Edward Teodor Ropp 1888-1919, Stefan Gottfryd Józef Ropp 1892-1983 m. Wanda Maria Danillo-Gasiewicz 1903-1982;
b. Marian Eugeniusz Wladyslaw b. 1877.

3. Christine Charlotte Wilhelmina Elizabeth Browne-Camus / Camas / von Browne-Camus, b. 1770, died in 1821, was daughter of George, 1st Count Browne of Camas and Eleonora Christina von Mengden; she was wife of Karl von Medem, and
mother of Anna von der Ropp;
Karoline von der Ropp;
Sophia Karlowna von Medem; Dorothea Schoepping;
Johann Friedrich Otto Karl / Karl Karlovich Medem b. 1801, d. 1860,
and Elisabeth Kleist vom Loss;
was sister of Eleonore Christine Browne and
Brigadier Johan George, 3rd Count Browne of Camus;
half sister of Martha Browne of Camus;
Field Marshall John George, 2nd Count Browne of Camus;
General-major de Browne de Camus;
Colonel de Browne de Camus of the Russian Army;
NN de Browne de Camus; and
von Vietinghoff-Scheel;
inf. under copyright by Peter Trefilov in 2011, Gennady N. Kon / de Conne, von Arnold; and Andrea Angelika Dickerson Haupt.

4. Ludwike Maria Isabella Laura / Lilli von der Ropp, b. 1847, d. 1879, daughter of Emmerich Julius / Julius von der Ropp and Isabella von Plater-Syberg / Izabela Plater Zyberk,
wife of Eduard von der Osten Sacken,
sister of Leon Johann Michael Ropp; Julius Kasimir Ludwig / Julius von der Ropp; Eduard von der Ropp, and Konstantin Maria Michael / Konstantin von der Ropp / Konstantyn Ropp.
Inf. under copyright by Peter Trefilov at www.geni.com in 2012.

5. Above Isabella von Plater-Syberg / Izabela Plater Zyberk b. 1809 in Schlossberg, d. 1888 in Bewern, daughter of
Michal Plater-Zyberk / Michael Plater-Sieberg and Isabella Helene,
wife of above Julius Ropp.
Copyright by Elle Kiiker at geni.com in 2012.

6. Mentioned above Henryk Waclaw Ksawery Plater-Zyberk b. 1811, - 1903 to Michal Plater-Zyberk born on December 28, 1777, and Izabella Helena born on May 23, 1785. Henryk married Adelajda b. 1817 in St Petersburg, in 1839.

7. Above Michal Plater-Zyberk d. 1862 in Schloßberg, Limbach-Oberfrohna, Saksonia; son of Kazimierz Konstanty Plater.
Father of
Ludwika Borch (1805 - 1878 Kraków);
Jan Plater-Zyberk (1807 - 1809);
Kazimierz Bartlomiej Plater-Zyberk (1808 - 1876 in Schlossberg; father of Tadeusz Michal Plater-Zyberk; Cecylia; Elzbieta Przezdziecka; Maria Ludwika; Feliks Konstanty, and Stanislaw Konstanty Michal Plater-Zyberk);
Izabella von der Ropp (b. 1809; mother of Juliusz Kazimierz Ludwik Ropp; Edward von Ropp and Konstanty Ropp who died in 1925 - Konstanty was father of Helena Maria Leonia Ropp; Stefan Gottfryd Józef Ropp and Edward Teodor Ropp);
Józefa Broel-Plater (1811 - 1842 in Liksna, LT; mother of Maria Izabela Wielhorska 1842 - 1903 in Zakopane, wife of Mieczysław Wielhorski Count and mother of Władysław Wielhorski);
Konstanty Plater-Zyberk (husband of Aniela Plater-Zyberk / Broel-Plater). Konstanty b. 1814 and died in 1850;
Józef Plater-Zyberk;
Eleonora;
Jadwiga, and
Stanislaw Kostka Kazimierz Jan Józef Michal (1823 - 1895 Vienna; husband of Maria Teresa Eleonora Elzbieta Borch).
Above data under copyright by Jacek Wozniakowski and geni.com in 2010, with Aleksander Kopinski, and Timo Antero Westerlund.

Oświej / Oswej / Osveya (Izabela Horodecki - Malkiewicz spent her childhood there; she was born in Moscow, but her father from the Malnow district; she has family in Miezonka, Lodz, Warsaw; in Karsawa - Malnow - Ludsen area were living the Brzezinskis) was a property of the Ciołek-Szadurski family in mid 1820s.

Szadurski Mikolaj, son of Franciszek-Ksawery in 1817 studied in Polotsk / Polock, next in Vilnius 1822 / 1823 (see Oginski's last years in Lithuania),
landlord of Malnow and Oswiej, in Lucyn / Ludsen, the nearby town, Szadurski held offices, in 1837 married to Marya Zyberk-Plater daughter of Michal.
Mikolaj died in 1876.

Melnava / Malnaya / Małnów / Malnow - a village near to Karsawa:
Karolina, next of kin with Jozef Hylzen, was wife of Jan Franciszek Szadurski, owner of Pusza, Zielonpol or Zielonpole and Matnow / Malnow;

her son Jan Szadurski, m. Dorota Szczyt, and her children:

1. Jozef Szadurski, offices in Witebsk 1814 - 1817,

2. Ksawery, who taken estates from the Hylzen family; Jozef Szadurski has son Ignacy, who held offices in Witebsk 1835 / 1838, no children and from Ksawery Szadurski is new branch.

A place of offices held by a member of the Szadurski family: Szadurski Stanislaw, a brother of Mikolaj, son of Franciszek-Ksawery, a Russian colonel, died in 1870; Szadurski Mikolaj died 1876. Properties of Szadurski: Zwirdzin to Stanislaw Szadurski, Newlany, Dorotpol, Dunakla to the Stanislaw Szadurski family. Oswiej and Malnow - the Mikolaj Szadurski family.

Michal Plater-Zyberk 1777 - 1862/63, his daughter Maria married to Mikolaj Szadurski. Maria b. on 23 Sept. 1813, m. on 15 Oct. 1837, she died in Kraslaw on 20 Dec. 1893.

Izabella Malkiewicz born 01st May 1908 in Moskwa / Moscow / Moscou; Mother-in-God was Maryla Koziell Poklewska / Maryla Koziell Poklevski married to Slotwinski / Slotvinski. Her sister Irena Malkiewicz, actress.

In Moscow her father had a car; she known very well French language.
She was in 1911 first time in Swolna Stara, with visit to Zarakowski, Konstantynowicz and Malkiewicz families.
1912 and 1913 in Stare Zaborze / Zaborze, close to Swolna. 1913 in Oswiej / Osvieja, in empty palace. 1914 in Rawanicze to Slotwinski family, the Berazino parish. She known Miezonka and history about Anna Malkiewicz married Konstantynowicz; Anna died when was born first baby.
Lived in Moscow to September 1918; October 1918 in Wilno / Vilnius. January 1919 Vilna / Wilno was captured by Bolshevik troops, and Jozef Malkiewicz left under Soviets.
The Malkiewicz family escaped to Warsaw. 1937 served the Red Cross in Warsaw. September 1939 served Field Hospital No 104 of Colonel Szarecki; 08 September 1939 left Warsaw. On 16 September in Kopyczynce and back to Trembowla, and again 18 - 19 September 1939 in Trembowla (to November the 01st, 1939); here was general Wladyslaw Sikorski - and Chruszczow - in Hospital No 104. April 1942 to 1943 - The J. Przybylski office in Warsaw; here general Zymierski - Rola of the Soviet military intelligence service; from Spring 1942 Izabella Malkiewicz / Izabela Horodecka - Malkiewicz as 'Teresa' served Polish counter-intelligence service;

17 March 1943 served to 993/W Special Unit. She was famous for activity during the Second world war in Warsaw.

The 993 / W department codenamed 'Wapiennik' - in the Department of Security and Counterintelligence of Division II, within the Information and Intelligence Headquarters of the Polish Army in Warsaw during the Second World War, and also special combat unit remaining at the disposal of counterintelligence of the Polish Army. It was a kind of 'rapid response branch', and one of its main tasks was to liquidate the persons convicted by underground court verdicts in occupied Poland. It was established at the end of 1941, and operated in Warsaw. In late July 1944, he was transformed into a military unit, which then fought in the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.

The 993 Dep. - Central information network based on a Secret Polish Army, had three parts: 993 I, 993 E, 993 W - the letter "W" meant "executive" and the codenamed "Wapiennik" was the name of the combat unit. The 993 / W was under command of Major Stefan Rys / Joseph / Fischer, deputy chief of counterintelligence the Polish underground Army.

Her mother Genowefa daughter of Jan Werakso from Minsk in Belarus; painter (Izabella Horodecki - Malkiewicz was great grand-daughter of Wiktor Waraksa / Weraksa b. circa 1820 son of Jan). Her father Wladyslaw Alojzy Malkiewicz b. 23 February 1875 in Swolna Stara / Svolna;

lived in the Dryssa county; 1879 in Pluszcze with the Pluszczewski family; 1885 Wilno, after Moscow near by the Konstantynowiczs; married 1907, stayed in Moscow to September 1918. Her husband Zygmunt Horodecki. Deputy Prosecutor of Warsaw Court to 05 September 1939; Kowno 1940; 14 June 1941 jailed in Soviet Union; Palestine and Monte Cassino, Ankona / Ancona. His brother was colonel of Polish Army in 1939.

Note about Swolna:

1. 1552 owned by Ivan Czerkas.
2. Battle at river Svolna, 11.08.1812.
3. Czerski / Cherskii Dementevich Ivan / Jan Dominikovich Czerski, b. 1845, in Svolna, the Drissa County, the Vilnius province (?), died 7.7.1892.
Jan Chersky / Jan Czerski was outstanding scientist, geologist, geographer, researcher of Lake Baikal and the Baikal region. Ian Dominikovich / Ivan Dementevich Cherskii was born at the estate Svolna in the Drissa district, Vitebsk province (now Verhnedvinsk district, Vitebsk region, Belarus) on May 3, 1845 in a noble family. Father of Jan - was Dominik Ivanovic Czerski (Jan was grandson of Jan Czerski senior) was a member of the Vitebsk Assembly of Nobility. Mother - Ksenia Y. came from an old Belarusian noble family - Konan.
Belarusian historian V. Pashkevich wrote on the first Czerski, mentioned Christopher Cherskii (Krzysztof Czerski was great-grandfather of Jan Chersky).
Son of Christopher - was Franciszek, in 1792 was entered into the possession of the estate Svolna (Shipilovschina) with the peasants.
The grandfather of famous explorer, Ivan from 1788 to 1797 served as assessor in Drissa court. In 1794, with the decision of Polotsk noble assembly, he was submitted to the first part of the genealogy book. Son of Ivan was Dominik Czerski / Dominique, a member of "Vitebsk Nobility Assembly." The Cherskii family resided in the territory of the province of Vitebsk, Belarus, more than one generation. The ancestors of Jan Dominikovich Czerski occupied prominent positions in the Polotsk and Vitebsk Noble Assembly. In 1855, his father died.
Jan Czerski and his older sister Michalina nee Czerska / Mikhalina raised by his mother.
Then the boy was sent to Vilna high school, where he was transferred in 1860 to the local gentry Institute - a school for children of the nobility. He took part in the uprising in 1863 and fell into the hands of the authorities. For participation in the rebellion against the sovereign, 18-year-old Jan Czerski - he know 5 languages - was sent from Vitebsk to Omsk, Siberia to exile - penalty recruits.

Maryla Koziell Poklewska / Maryla Koziell Poklevski married to Slotwinski / Slotvinski. Born ca 1880?

Note:

Iwan Poklewski-Koziell (1865 - 1925)
/ Иван Альфонсович Поклевский-Козелл: his mother

Angelika Rymoza (1830 - 1901).

His father Alfons Poklewski-Koziell (1809 - 1890), grandfather Tomasz Poklewski-Koziell b. ca 1780
/ Foma / Томаш Поклевский-Козелл; grandmother Anna Spink b. ca 1790. His sister Антонина Альфонсовна Ризенкампф / Anna Antonina Alfonsovna von Riesenkampff (1860 - 1908).

Next Jan:

Jan Koziełł-Poklewski / Jakub Skała / b. 1837 in Serwecz Wielki, d. 1896 in Bobrujsk / Bobruisk; Colonel in 1863; 1852 studied in Petersburg, next in Paris / Paryż; friend of Ludwik Mierosławski; 1861 Wilno, Moscow; Petersburg, 1863 in Warszawa / Warsaw; Augustow; Grodno and Belgium; 1864 Dresden and Paris; back to the Congress Poland in 1872 and jailed in Alma Ata / Ałma-Ata.

Вялікая Сэрвач, Великая Сервачь, Wielki Serwecz, Vialikaja Servač, Siervacz Servach: close to Liudvinovo, Kostienievichi, Stieszicy; ca 18 km south-west of Dolginovo; north-east of Vilejka, north of Minsk in Belarus.

Romuald Mikolaj Augustyn / Romuald Malkiewicz family:

born 07-02-1840 in Jowce, Malnow parish, Ludsen district; family close to Mikolaj Szadurski, Maryanna Szadurska, Dominik Porako, Justyna nee Filipowicz, Jan Brzezinski, Julia nee Cray / Krey, Hermann Cray / Herman Krey, Franciszka nee Ostrowska.

Children:

1. Wladyslaw Alojzy b. 23 February 1875 in Stara Swolna, the Dryssa county, died 29 November 1941 in Warsaw, after 1879 with family Pluszczewski; living in Pluszcze, the Swieciany ujezd. 1885 Wilno college, next Moscow; married in 1907 to Genowefa daughter of Jan Werakso; Summers in Stare Zaborze, Oswiej, Swolna i Rawanicze; in 1914 at Rawanicze close to Berezyna, Oswiej 1912 - 1913; to September 1918 in Moscow, next in Wilno October 1918; January 1919 escaped to Warsaw from Wilno; living in Warsaw. 1919 in Minsk in Belarus, near to dr Jan Malkiewicz with Jastrzebiec coat of arms. Jan Werakso killed in Moscow.

2. Jozef Malkiewicz born Swolna Stara at the Dryssa ujezd in 1879, from 1879 to 1914 in Pluszcze, 12 km from Zacisze of Konstantynowicz; January 1919 married; after 1919 ?

3. Michal Malkiewicz b. ca 1870; lived in Stara Swolna next door Zarako-Zarakowski family. the Oswieja parish, the Dryssa ujezd; friend to Bernatowicz of Zaborze and relatives to the Bortkiewicz family from Swolna - gen. Aleksander Bernatowicz b. 1855; in an office of Piotr Jaroszewicz was woman from this family! Genowefa Malkiewicz nee Werakso to 1975 known the Bortkiewicz family. Michal Malkiewicz married Konstancja Bernatowicz b. 1878 in Zaborze close to Holubowo of Zarakowski, she died 1962. He died 1916 in Swolna Stara. His sons: Marian Malkiewicz b. Stara Swolna, the Witebsk province, 01-01-1916, ca January 1918 with mother escaped Stara Swolna to Wilno; 1919 in Wilno, died 1972. Zygmunt Malkiewicz b. 1907 in Stara Swolna; 1918 escaped from Swolna to Wilno, lived after in Warsaw, married 1937 to Krystyna Zekowska d. 1987; he was after in Kurow, Opatow, Ruszcza; 1950 - 1970 repressed by the Polish communists; d. 1974. Children: Izabela, Zbigniew, Anna Tarnowska.

4. Marian Malkiewicz b. ca 1867 lived in Oswiej, 30 km north of Swolna station; single; from 1873 in Stara Swolna, 4 km from Zaborze; Zaborze 24 km north of Dzisna; Swolna of Zarakowski located 4 km north of Zaborze of Bernatowicz. Killed.

5. Anna nee Malkiewicz with the Korab coat of arms; b. 1865 in Oswiej, after in Malnow, from January 1873 in Stara Swolna, close to Zarakowski; 1879 in Pluszcze, married to Stanislaw Konstantynowicz of Miezonka; died after born of first baby in Miezonka.

At present we have got few figures with our last name in Latvia:

Athena Konstantinovics, Rafael Konstantinovics, Vladimirs Konstantinovics, Ewald Konstantinovics, Siegfried Konstantinovics, Viktors Konstantinovics and in Jelgavas - Edgars Konstantinovics
) www.surnameweb.org/registry/m/a/l/malkiewicz.shtml

2.

Nieciejewski

in farms Hrynica / Griniza and Usochy in the Ihumen district, and also village Luszewska Slobodka in  the Rahacou district

(
345 ha., here a family of Gorski lived, too)

since 1881; the Russian and Soviet general,
count  Bronislaw Nieciejewski who was  born c. 1870 in the Berazino parish came from Hrynica, and his  daughter worked as translator and interpreter as early as November 1917 (after completion of the  University of  Paris) at the first Council of People's Commissars under direction of Wladymir

(
Vladimir)

Boncz Brujewicz who was the chief of the Lenin's office 1917 - 1918; either Nieciejovski or  Niecijevskij, Nicijewski and  Nieciovski, too.

Eugeniusz Nieciejewski, born 1826 in Hrynica / Grenica, close to Berezyna Ihumenska; killed by the Red Army in 1922; the Poraj coat of arms, nobleman in 1836. His children: Maria Nieciejewska married to Wladyslaw Szostak b. 1864 Miezonka - she was born 1871 Hrynica; Bronislaw Nieciejewski born 1870, Hrynica, the Russia general; killed in Moscow in accident; Stanislaw Nieciejewski b. 1872, Hrynica; he studied geology around 1892, ca 1895 engineer geologist, settled in Baku and here he worked at the oil fields before 1914; had Georgian wife before 1900, ca 1920 settled in Tbilisi, Georgia. His descendants live in Georgia today.

3.

Uminski 

or Uminskas with Cholewa arms in the Vilna and Vicebsk provinces (Manulki farm A.D. 1672), Bruslevo (or Bryjelov, Brialewo in the Berezina parish) and Smolarnia - Florian Czarnyszewicz has written the book "Nadberezyncy"  about this village; Smolarnia was situated next to Krasny Brzeg in the Babrujsk district,  property of the Korzeniewski  family and also of

Wincenty Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski
- he was born 1853 and died 1929, son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski 1809 or 1810 - 1890, who was a member of the State Administration of Trade 1907 - 1912 according to Tatiana Pietrovna Mosunov and he was related to Hotowski i.e. Gatovskij, Slotwinski from Ravanicy and Malkiewicz / Малькевич, too.

The second son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski:
Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski was born 1868 and died after 1930, in 1897-1901 Tokio, 1901-1909 London, 1909-1912/13 Persia, 1913 to November 1917 in Romania!

Witte saw alliances with Russia as potentially deadly entrapments, opposed the Anglo - Russian Convention. On his return from Portsmouth in 1905, in Paris, such an entente was proposed by the Russian diplomat Stanislaw Poklewski - Koziell.

The Russian emperor Nicholas II believed the British are enemies. Then Poklewski / Poklevski Koziell long urged Graf Witte, that Russia should enter - after the Peace of Portsmouth - in agreement with England, in order to put an end to the misunderstanding in Persia, Afghanistan, Tibet and other issues. King Edward was near by this diplomat. Witte honestly said that it is desirable to establish good relations between Britain and Russia, but without spoiling the existing relationships to the continental European powers. Witte presented Poklevski-Koziell in Paris: "That should be in my opinion, our policy in the west and in the east it is necessary to set up good relations with Japan. Russia desired peace, at least for a few decades...". An agreement between Russia and England proposed Poklewski Koziell and under his influence Izvolsky.

In 1911, Poklewski-Koziell would be in Tehran as one of Morgan Shuster's primary adversaries. In Paris, Witte also met the Russian Ambassador to Paris, Alexander Izvolsky, who made a proposition for an Anglo-Russian entente. Stanislaw Poklewski-Koziell, personal friend with Edward VII, supported Izvolsky financially. On the British side, in 1905, Sir Edward Grey, who was at the center of the Milner group, became Foreign Secretary.

Note A:

At 'iamthewitness.com/books/Arnold.Leese/Gentile.Folly_The.Rothschilds' by Arnold Leese, we read:
"...The Queen was horrified at the intimacy of the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) with the Rothschilds; he had become a close associate of Nathaniel Rothschild when both were students at Trinity College, Cambridge... In 1878, he was guest at Lord Rosebery's wedding with Hannah Rothschild ... he attended Ferdinand Rothschild's funeral service in a synagogue in 1898. He attended Leopold Rothschild's wedding... When Edward VII came to the throne, the very first ball he attended with his consort was at ... home of Baron Nathaniel Rothschild. Even Queen Alexandra became a great friend of Nathaniel's wife... In 1902, King Edward promoted the Baron to the Privy Council, together with the Jew Sir Ernest Cassel...".

Note B:
1. a colored gold mounted and enameled table clock by Carl Fabergé, of the London branch at 49 Dover Street in 1908 bought by Stanislaw Poklewski-Koziell, the first secretary (councillor to the Russian Embassy) of the Russian Embassy in London, a friend of King Edward VII, a rich bachelor who lived on Clarges Street;
2. and a study of a Chrysanthemum, presented to Queen Alexandra in December 1908 by Stanislas Poklewski-Koziell;
3. the Onassis Fabergé Buddha made in 1900 in St Petersburg, was given to Lady de Grey (1859-1917) by Mr. Poklewski-Koziell, in London; she "...was a great patron of the arts and she was involved in bringing Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes to London in 1911 for the coronation of George V..." and patron of London opera seasons from 1887 to 1914.
Gladys Lady de Grey, Marchioness of Ripon (1859 - 1917), a daughter of Sidney Herbert, Lord Herbert of Lea, Secretary of War during the Crimean War, and a close friend of the Prince and Princess of Wales; b. 1810 and died in 1861,
son of George Herbert, 11th Earl of Pembroke; his mother was the Russian Countess Catherine Woronzow / Vorontsov, daughter of the Russian ambassador
Semyon Romanovich Vorontsov, b. 1744 a Russian diplomat, resided in Britain from 1785 to 1832, as the Russian ambassador.
Vorontsov married Ekaterina Alekseevna Seniavina, son Michael continued his father's Anglophile ways.
But we read on "M. Poklewski-Koziell, Councillor of the Russian Embassy in London, has been appointed Russian Minister at Teheran in July 1909".

Note C:
Anjou, Peter, 1796 - 1869, received the name Pyotr Fyodorov Anjou. In 1844 Anjou assigned the rank of Rear Admiral, he was appointed captain of the port of Kronstadt. Peter Anjou married a young widow Xenia Ivanovna 1807-1870, whom he met in the family of Peter Ricord, countryman of Toropets. His son Peter Anjou / Анжу sailed on the frigate Pallada, his grandson was the captain of the first rank and the commander of the squadron, who brought the France to sign a treaty between France and Russia in 1909 (I need to check this statement).
But the first of Anjou in the 1750s was a watchmaker. The Anjou family built in Moscow a house, between 1740 and 1750. Admiral Peter Fedorovich Anjou, was the great friend of Wrangell.

Webster G. Tarpley, Ph.D. at TARPLEY.net on September 23, 2013 wrote:
"...This account, written by the American banker Wharton Barker and published in The Independent (LVI) of March 24, 1904, recounts Barker's conversation with Russian Tsar Alexander II, the celebrated Liberator of the serfs, on August 17, 1879, a few years before his assassination at the hands of anarchists. Here the Tsar confirms that, at the height of the American Civil War in 1862-1863, the Imperial Russian government had issued an ultimatum to Britain and France specifying that, if these powers should intervene on the side of the Confederate States of America, they would immediately find themselves at war with the formidable Russian Empire...".
By Wharton Barker (Copyright © 2015 TARPLEY.net - All Rights Reserved):
"...Mr. Barker was the Presidential nominee in 1900 of the Anti-Fusion Populists, and for many years baa been one of Pennsylvania's most famous sons. ... Accepted because it is the conspicuous fact, its solution has been abandoned, while its endurance has been most amazingly presumed upon. How long the rough awakening would have been delayed, were it the policy of any Government other than immutable Russia, Manchuria and the 'open door' of China would long since have disclosed. ... On Sunday morning, August 17th, 1879, I was breakfast guest of the Grand Duke Constantine at his Pavlovski Palace. ... I was in Russia that year upon invitation of the Grand Duke Constantine and Prince Sergius Dolgorouki, for conference with them and with the Ministers of Finance, Ways of Communication and Public Domain, as to large and important railroads, coal, iron and steel enterprises about to be undertaken in the South of Russia. ... talk with the Emperor, Alexander II, took place... The following day, August i8th, 1879, I was guest of honor on a steam yacht, one of three in line near the Nicholas Bridge. ... at a signal gun from the Imperial yacht the American flag was run to the masthead of all the Russian war ships at Kronstadt, and a gun salute was fired from all the ships together, in honor of our country and our flag. As the smoke rolled away the clouds broke, and the bright sun shone upon the American flag with a new and splendid glory. Russia had not forgotten properly to honor the flag Russian fleets had upheld at New York and San Francisco in 1863; and those American citizens who were at Kronstadt on that day appreciated what Russian friendship for America had been, and then was. Americans cannot forget either the Russell-Palmerston-Louis Napoleon proposal, or the Alexander answer of 1862-1863. They remember that they owe almost as much to Russian action in 1863 as they do to French action in 1778. But if they will give due thought to the words of the Emperor Alexander II, they will do what is more vital in the shaping of the destinies of a nation. They will understand".

'The 1908 Prelude to the World War' by William L. Langer:
"In the winter of 1908-1909 Europe quivered in fear of a general war. It was barely a year after the Triple Entente had been completed by the agreement between England and Russia, and hardly two months since the Young Turk Revolution had upset the traditional alignment of the Powers in the Near East. ... Bismarck had established the ascendancy of Germany in Europe by building up the Triple Alliance and drawing into its orbit almost every nation of international consequence, including England and excepting only France. The alliance between France and Russia, concluded within a few years of the Iron Chancellor's dismissal, represented a serious breach in this system and once again set up something resembling a balance of power on the continent, as Bismarck's successor frankly recognized. ... Both sides were, even at this time, playing a fast game. Isvolsky said nothing of his plans to his ally France, or to his friend England. He did not even consult Stolypin, the vigorous President of the Russian Council, whose opposition he had reason to fear. All intent upon the realization of his scheme to open the Straits to Russian warships, he was prepared to resort to any method. In February and again in the first days of August 1908 he had suggested in the council that some pretext be found for an attack upon Turkey, but on both occasions Stolypin had vetoed his proposals on the ground that mobilization in Russia would only add strength to the revolutionary movement ... The situation in 1908-1909 was fundamentally different from that of 1914. King Edward is reputed to have said that England in 1908 had fine friends: the one, Russia, could not fight, while the other, France, would not. From the start Isvolsky had announced that Russia would not fight, and it seems more than doubtful whether she could have done so even if Austria had attacked Serbia...".

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, b. 1862, acted as Foreign Secretary from 1905 to 1916.
1905, Grey and the Russian Ambassador Count Alexander Benckendorff talked on the idea of an agreement with Russia; negotiations began Sir Arthur Nicolson as the new British Ambassador in 1906 to Russia;
"...Grey's intention was to re-establish Russia as a factor in European politics on the side of France and Great Britain to maintain a balance of power in Europe...".