Prometheism, Illuminati, Templars - Berezyna and Lubuszany / Luboszany - the estate of Sapieha and Potocki. Miezonka and Swolna of the Konstantynowiczs. Berezyna and Lubuszany / Luboszany - the estate of Sapieha and Potocki / Krystyna Tyszkiewicz Potocka - the line to the Templars of Krzeszowice, General Franciszek Paszkowski and Poniatowski.

History and genealogy of the noble Konstantynowicz family. Education and information - author Konstantynowicz Bogdan.

History Of Secret Societies: Knights Templar and Illuminati. HISTORY OF SECRET SOCIETIES: Templars, Illuminati, and Freemasons. The Order of the Illuminati: Its Origins, Its Methods and Its Influence.



Jozef Sulkowski, b. 1770 or 1773, died 1798.

Eve Grzeda is the author of the monograph 'You will show of your sons graves with the pride...' and writes that consolidate and disseminate the myth Sulkowski contributed Polish and foreign literature; he was the hero of Stefan Zeromski and Roman Brandstaetter works. 'General Sulkowski life and historical memoirs...', issued in Poznan 1864, according to French edition; H. Saint Albin, Memoires historiques; A. Skałkowski, Les Polonais en Egypte. 1798- 1801, 1910 edition.

Joseph Sulkowski was one of those people on whom Napoleon could completely rely on. He was killed during the expedition of Bonaparte to Egypt on October 22, 1798; was the hero of the unfinished opera of Michal Oginski. A parentage of Joseph Sulkowski is a tangle of secrets. Alexander Joseph Sulkowski, as a natural son of Polish King Augustus II the Strong, held many important positions during the reign of his successor Augustus III. He became the founder of the princely line of Sulkowski.

Jozef Sulkowski's father was Franciszek SULKOWSKI, prince 1733 - 1812.

JOZEF SULKOWSKI / Joseph, was regarded as the son of the Austrian Colonel Theodore Sulkowski. Mother Julia Quelisk was of Hungarian origin. In 1779/1782 he met General of Legions, Michael Sokolnicki. The boy was taken into the care of a wealthy uncle, the Duke Casimir Augustus Sulkowski. August fancied himself that Jozef is an adoptive son; Duke took him on nearly 3-years tour in Europe. Joseph Sulkowski was taken to the highest courts. Particular sympathy to him showed the queen of France, Marie Antoinette. According to the chroniclers, made him a page to her; Prince August died in 1786;
Joseph Sulkowski took part in the Polish-Russian War in 1792. And as one of the first was awarded the newly established Order of Military Virtue for bravery shown during the defense of the bridge at Zelwa. He emigrated to France 1793.
He returned during the Kosciuszko Uprising 1794. In 1794 he was supporter of the Jacobins. After the uprising, he went to France 1795, where he joined the republican army. Participant in the Italian campaign (1796- 1797), distinguished himself in the battles of Castiglione and San Giorgio. Appointed adjutant general of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Already the first wave of Polish refugees who came to Istanbul in the years 1795 - 1796, had hopes of organizing Polish Legion. Poles considered Turkey as a natural Polish ally.

The first Polish draft on the Polish Legion with the Turkish army, was launched in Venice and handed over to the French on 1.I.1795; the first comprehensive draft was proposed by Joseph Sulkowski; Sulkowski in 1797 wrote a study entitled 'An outline of the ... Ottoman Empire and some comments on the measures to prevent it from falling', if (Polish + French) we manage to reform of Turkey, Sulkowski entrusts its task of support insurrection in Poland and uprisings Tartars, the Caucasian tribes and the Don Cossacks.

In 1797 the Highlanders of Caucasus first appeared in the Polish projects and were there over almost the whole of the next century.

Unknown by name de VENTURE de PARADIS married to Jozef Sulkowski / Joseph SULKOWSKI born in 1770 in the Poznan province in Poland - died in 1798 in Cairo / Kair / Caire, Egypt:
the friend and aide de camp to Bonaparte, friend with Muiron, Vivant Denon, Carnot, Augereau, and Bourienne;
Captain, was wounded at the Battle of Arcole in November 1796 between French and Austrian forces, southeast of Verona during the War of the First Coalition, a part of the French Revolutionary Wars; shortly before his death, he married one of the daughters of Venture de Paradis, an old military interpreter on the Egyptian expedition; in 1798 in Cairo were murdered General Dupuy, and the Bonaparte's Aide-de-camp Joseph Sulkowski.

Józef Sulkowski gave an accurate description of the attack on the bridge at Arcole in one of his letters, written in French from Italy to a friend in Paris.
The letters were addressed to a Pole, probably Peter / PIOTR Maleszewski, although it seems strange that they did not mention on General Dabrowski in 1797; the last letter is dated from Sulkowski on August 7, 1797, and informed of the need for a truce with Austria in Leoben; Sulkowski with Maleszewski, known for hostility to Dabrowski and Bonaparte;
his letters are just such a "chronicle of war", his last known letter was sent one month before his murder. Sulkowski arrived in Italy in mid-1796. At first, he was assigned captain; then was one of the five aides of Bonaparte. With him were appointed aides of Bonaparte: Muiron - battalion chief, who was killed at Arcole, and Cpt. Duroc, later General, duc de Friuli and the grand marshal of the palace. From previous nominations were aides: Bonaparte's brother Louis, who later became the King of the Netherlands and the father of Napoleon III, and Marmont, who later became marshal, Duc de Ragusa. The famous company. Reinhard writes in the epilogue of his book about the future of Sulkowski, on his reluctance to gen. Dabrowski and friendship with Maleszewski, based largely on the work of Simon Askenazy. Does not explain the circumstances of the death of Sulkowski in Egypt, maybe not intentionally Bonaparte sent Sulkowski to death.

Pierr Maleszewski / Piotr MALESZEWSKI / Peter Maleszewski had a special trust of gen. Bernadotte and when Bernadotte on July 3, 1799 was appointed Minister of War, Maleszewski was his secretary. Bernadotte was close to the Jacobins. When Bernadotte on September 14, 1799 was removed from the Ministry of War, Bonaparte was then in Egypt and returned to France, on October 9, 1799;
Zeromski wrote that when riots broke out in Cairo, Bonaparte had only two aides, Croisier and Sulkowski.

Sulkowski come out first. His friend, Venture, tries to stop it; Venture said he looked at Bonaparte's face, at his eyes. Sulkowski: Bad eyes? ... Do not care about me ... Venture: It's not enough. ... Bonaparte ... made by hand ... a secret character. ... This gesture is an absolute command. It is a sign. Acc. to S. Kirkor.



I managed to investigate and decipher a system in 2013 after 26 years of my researches: this is a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military intelligence of the Tsarist Russia:
deep political espionage (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic technological-scientific intelligence (Breguet + Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company, also Nobel and Armand families:
telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.).

Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence.

An influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign UK policy ca 1895 to ca 1921 played Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, a British statesman.

Acc to Aydelotte:
"...in 1888 Rhodes made his third will ... to LORD ROTHSCHILD (his financier in mining enterprises), but ... for strategic reasons Lord Rothschild was subsequently removed from the forefront of the scheme. Professor Quigley reveals that Lord Rosebury, replaced his father-in-law Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes' next and last will. ... Quigley informs us that the central part of the 'secret society' was established by March, 1891, using Rhodes' money.

The organization was run for Rothschild by Lord Alfred Milner - the ROUND TABLE worked behind the scenes at the highest levels of British government, influencing foreign policy and England's involvement and conduct of WW I.
... Between 1894 and 1907 a number of international treaties were signed to have Russia, France, England and further nations unit against Germany in the case of war. It was the task of the
COMMITTEE OF 300 to set the stage for the First World War. From the ROUND TABLE group emerged as a front the 'Royal institute for International Affairs' ... known as 'Chatham House' and had among its founding members Lord Albert Grey, Lord Arnold Toynbee ... of the MI6, H. G. Wells, Lord Alfred Milner - head of the Round Table, and H. J. Mackinder - inventor of the so-called geopolitics.
... sums of money from the international bankers, among others from ALFRED MILNER - by Jan Van Helsing - who later took over the secret Round Table, were poured into the Ochrana that already had infiltrated the Bolshevik movement. Agents steered many of its activities. The infiltration was so strong that in 1908 four of the five members of the Petersburg committee of the Bolshevik party were Ochrana agents".

Some details:

Hubert Bland, a bank-journalist, worked for the London Sunday Chronicle, a paper owned by newspaper magnate Edward Hulton, formerly of the Liberal Manchester Guardian. Bland was a co-founder of the Fabian Society in 1884 and became a treasurer. He also recruited Bernard Shaw. Bernard Shaw was working for the London Pall Mall Gazette, where William T. Stead served as editor and Alfred Milner as his assistant, both Stead and Milner were close to diamond magnate and Rothschild associate Cecil Rhodes and were involved in the formation of the influential secret organisation known as the Milner Group. Having been recruited to the Fabian Society by his friend Bland in 1884, Shaw recruited Annie Besant and his friends Sidney Webb, Sydney Olivier and Graham Wallas in 1885 and 1886.

Shaw married Charlotte, daughter of Horace Payne-Townshend, a wealthy Stock Exchange investor. He was employed by millionaire William Waldorf - Lord Astor, owner of the Pall Mall Gazette, and became a close friend of the Milner Group leader - Waldorf and his wife Nancy. Shaw's friend, Sidney Webb married Beatrice - a close friend of Rothschild associate and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, the daughter of Richard Potter, a wealthy financier with international connections, the chairman of the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railways of England and Canada.
Shaw, Webb, Olivier and Wallas became the Fabian Society's dominant Big Four with John Passmore Edwards, an leader of the Liberal Manchester School, and with Richard Cobden. The Fabian Society was in close touch with the Rothschilds both directly and through Lord Arthur Balfour, and has also been close to David Rockefeller. Cecil Rhodes the South African diamond millionaire, used his fortune to promote the scheme of federating the English speaking peoples around the globe.
Rhodes and other acolytes of Ruskin, formed a secret society known as the Round Table Group, were able to gain access to Rhodes' fortune after his death in 1902. The Milner Group, the secret society formed by Cecil Rhodes, dominated the British delegation to the Peace Conference of 1919, founded the UK Royal Institute for International Affairs in 1919 / 1920 (the British Institute of International Affairs was founded in London in July 1920), the US Council on Foreign Relations, and parallel groups in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India.
In 1919 British and American delegates to the Paris Peace Conference, under the leadership of Lionel Curtis, conceived the idea of an Anglo-American Institute of foreign affairs to study international problems with a view to preventing future wars - at Chatham House, Number 10 St. James's Square in 1923 (Professor Arnold Toynbee became the leading figure until his retirement in 1955).

Retinger was very close to Lionel Curtis, the founder of Chatham House and Retinger was politically active in London exactly at the same time when Chatham House was established in 1921-1923; the Chatham House / the Royal Institute of International Affairs represented by both ideologies of the Rhodes - Milner ideology with the ideology of the Fabian society and Retinger had links to both these groups; his the Bilderberg Group had their first meeting in May 1954 at the Bilderberg Hotel, near Arnhem in Holland.

I wrote above that the Round Table was started by Freemason and Rothschild agent, Lord Alfred Milner; but Rhodes, who was connected to the Freemasons, first formalised his idea with William T. Stead;
in 1910, The Round Table Journal: A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire was founded by Lord Milner and members of Milner's Kindergarten: Lionel Curtis, Philip Kerr and Geoffrey Dawson; by 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries: in the United States acted George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Erwin D. Canham.

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, b. 1862, known as Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary from 1905 to 1916, was closely politically, intellectually, and socially affiliated with the Milner Group according to Prof. Quigley; he got Russia and France to sign secret agreements that committed them to join England if there was a major war in Europe. Several years later, when World War I was imminent, Sir Edward Grey denied the existence of the secret agreements.
Sir Edward Grey met few times with Edward Mandell House, the son of a successful banker and land owner; House in 1911 became acquainted with Woodrow Wilson; he confered with British foreign secretary Sir Edward Grey in 1913, and in the spring of 1914 again; Colonel Edward House was a superb behind-the-scenes operator whose talents made him an invaluable diplomat and presidential advisor. "...Wilson proclaimed neutrality and in January 1915 dispatched House back to Europe on board the Lusitania for a second official mission. House hoped to change British blockade policies and end German attacks on merchant ships. House found that both sides were so heavily invested in the conflict that they feared a public backlash if peace were sought without victory...".
A third mission took place in 1916, when House met with Lord Grey; in January 1919, House accompanied Wilson to Paris for the peace conference.
Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner; others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included: Bertrand Russell, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.
The Illuminati, who also called themselves the Society of the Elect: Cecil John Rhodes, Baron Nathan Rothschild, Sir Harry Johnston, William T. Stead, Reginald Brett - Viscount Esher, Alfred Milner - Viscount Milner, B. F. Hawksley, Thomas Brassey - Lord Brassey; Edmund Garrett; Alfred Beit; Sir Abe Bailey; Albert Grey - Earl Grey; Archibald Primrose - Earl of Rosebery; Arthur James Balfour; Sir George R. Parkin; Philip Lyttelton Gell; Sir Henry Birchenough; Herbert A. L. Fisher; William Waldegrave Palmer - Earl of Selborne; Sir Patrick Duncan; Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian, and others.
The Association of Helpers:
1. The Inner Circle:
Sir Patrick Duncan, Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian; Lionel Curtis, William L. Hichens, Geoffrey Dawson, Edward Grigg - Baron Altrincham; Herbert A. L. Fisher, Leopold Amery, Richard Feetham, Hugh A. Wyndham; Sir Dougal Malcolm, Basil Williams, Flora Shaw, Nancy Astor, Arnold J. Toynbee; and others;
2. The Outer Circle: John Buchan - Baron Tweedsmuir, Sir Fabian Ware, Sir Alfred Zimmern; Gilbert Murray, Robert Cecil - Viscount Cecil of Chelwood; Sir James W. Headlam-Morley, and others.
Members in other countries: a. Canada; b. United States: George Louis Beer, Frank Aydelotte, Jerome Greene; c. South Africa: Jan C. Smuts, Sir Patrick Duncan, Sir Abe Bailey, and others; d. Australia; e. New Zealand; f. Germany: Helmuth James von Moltke and Adam von Trott zu Solz.

Victor Rothschild (Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild b. 1910 d. 1990; son of Charles Rothschild; a member of the Apostles Club at Cambridge, a secret society, there he became friends with the future Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt, and Kim Philby - not a member; he was recruited to work for MI5 during World War II, and was the head of B1C, continued to work in security as an adviser to Margaret Thatcher; 1971 to 1974 The Think Tank), who worked for J. P. Morgan & Co., was one of the members of the Round Table.

The Rothschilds had financed Cecil Rhodes, co-operated with the Morgans and the Rockefellers, and they financed the activities of Edward Harriman (railroads) and Andrew Carnegie Steel.

Roundtable inner Circle of Initiates included Lord Milner, Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Balfour, Albert Grey and Lord Nathan Rothschild (Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild b. 1840, d. 1915, a British banker in issuing loans to the governments of the USA, Russia and Austria; a close relationship with Benjamin Disraeli, he also funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and the De Beers diamond conglomerate, and administered Rhodes's estate from 1902 and set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford).

According to Gary Allen's expose, Milner financed the Russian Bolsheviks on Rothschild's behalf, with help from Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg.

The Round Table movement, founded in 1909 - acc. to historian Carroll Quigley - was connected to a secret society named the 'Society of the Elect' with
Cecil Rhodes, Stead and Lord Rothschild as his designated successors, and also Milner, Reginald Baliol Brett Lord Esher, Cardinal Manning, Lord Arthur Balfour, Lord Albert Grey and Sir Harry Johnston;
Carroll Quigley claims in 'Tragedy and Hope' that Rhodes's 'Society of the Elect' was established in 1889 - 1891; an outer circle known as the Association of Helpers was later organised by Milner as the Round Table;
its sister organisations: Lionel Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920, and Walter Lippmann in 1921 - the Council on Foreign Relations, in America.
See also: Alexander May, The Round Table, 1910-66, ed. by University of Oxford.


At this same year, 1909 descendant of Samuel Konarski founded the groundwork of modern English MI5 counterintelligence. KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel b. 1802 in Cracow or in 1803 in Praszka, west of Czestochowa; he was son of Joachim Konarski. That is maybe Rajmund Konarski (1783 - 1863) / Rajmund Joachim Konarski (Rajmund Konarski was son of Józef Konarski and Tekla Laskowska / Tekla Kunegunda Laskowska; and was brother of Tomasz Konarski (General) 1792 - 1878; Jan Konarski and Feliks Konarski; probably father of Samuel Aleksander Konarski).

Alexander Samuel or KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel was wine merchant in England, like Paul Armand who opened in Moscow own wine shop. Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski married to Harriet Fraser Lucas; he was transcribed as 'Alexander Kowaraki'.
She come from the Irish family, Philip Monoux was the West India and Colombia merchant, plantation owner and slave-factor.
Philip Monoux Lucas was a partner in a number of companies and resided in the West Indies between about 1802 and 1810, acted in the Lang, Chauncy & Lucas (address: at 39 Wilson Street Finsbury Square in 1834). Monoux Lucas died in 1830. Emma, the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872. "James Mad Lucas" or "The Hermit of Hertfordshire", was son of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah nee Beesly.
Above Nathaniel Snell Chauncy, 1789 - 1856, son of Charles Snell Chauncy ne Snell, who died in 1809, and brother of Charles Snell Chauncy. West India merchant, partner with Philip Monoux Lucas and Charles Porcher Lang in Chauncy, Lucas & Lang until Lucas's death in 1830.
Harriet Fraser Lucas / Harriet Fraser Konarska was daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah and she was one of the "heirs of Philip Monoux Lucas" identified as a beneficiary of his estate. She married above mentioned Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski at St Pancras in London, 1839. Died in 9 Bedford Place, Brighton in 1871.
Children of Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski / Samuel Konarski / Konasski / Alexander Kowaraki:
a. Samuel Philip Lucas Konarski b. 1843,
b. Marie Konarska b. 1853 / Maria Alexandrina Stuart Konarski or Marian Alexandrina Stuart died 1926, in 1845 living in Kensington, 1846 court against George Lucas;
c. Georgina Augusta Konarska b. 1855 / Georgina Augustus Kell nee Konarski;
d. Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (1847-1933) daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, (inf. of 1895) m. in 1870 to Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney / Valentine MacSwiney / Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY
(son of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom / Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 who married 1st Margaret Cremen, m. 2nd to Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903)
b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897;
her son Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII
(Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938, he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1828 or 1829 and Amelia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852; and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children:
Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at 'gw.geneanet.org/ygobilliard').
Acc. to: A representation of North Paraiba in the House of Representatives of Brasil, 1821 to 1900; LEGISLATURE 1857 - 1860, district - Areias, copyright by Carlos Eduardo Barata.
Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born in 1828 in Mill Keys Farm, in Paraiba; baptized 1829, in Gurinhem, died 1899, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. He was son of Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, of Nazareth, Pernambuco, and Angela Sofia Teotonia; degree of Pernambuco Univ. in 1851. He was the District Attorney of the District of Areias in Paraiba. In 1871, in Rio de Janeiro, m. to Amelia Machado de Castro Coelho, born 1852, Rio de Janeiro, died 1946, Viscountess Cavalcanti, daughter of Dr. Constantine Machado Coelho de Castro and Mariana Barbosa de Assis Ferreira; her children:
1. Velho Fernando Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born 1873, in Rio de Janeiro. Civil engineer, graduated from the Polytechnic School of Rio de Janeiro, 1899;
2. mentioned above Maria Estela Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Marchioness of Marchesini, for your 2nd wedding.

Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski was died on 14 January 1893 in Nice, France; was a doctor, emigrated to England.
We know also on Thomas / Tomasz Paschalis Seweryn Konarski / KONARSKI Tomasz Paschalis (1792-1878) General 1830-1831, from Zarczyce close to Malogoszcz; in Zarczyce Duze in 1700 was born Stanislaw Konarski actual name Hieronim Konarski; died 1878 - Auxerre. His father lieutenant of the Austrian Army born 1742. Grandfather 1699-1756. Tomasz Konarski married two times: in 1822, Warszawa, and in France.
Marie Melanie Edwige KONARSKA 1855-1940 m. 1880, Auxerre to Isidore ROZE 1848-1934 with Marie Therese Eleonore ROZE 1881-1971 m. 1899 to Henri LIONS with Hedwige LIONS b. 1900.

Auxerre - half way from Paris to Dijon.
We know also that Samuel Alexander Konarski played at roulette in the casino in Monte Carlo with high luck; a surgeon by profession, a participant of November Uprising 1830 - 1831, during which he was wounded, awarded the Golden Cross of the Virtue Military;
after the uprising, he emigrated to England, where he was occupied at large scale in wine trade, thanks to help of Treasury (see below a note).
He spend the winter in warmer corners of Europe, including Monte Carlo, Nice, Monaco.
He left a considerable wealth, for which his daughter Emma bought a large collection of art. Unfortunately, after her death, none of this collection was provided to Polish museums, but only to the collections of the Vatican Museum, the Museum of Cluny in Paris and the City Museum in Pau (France).
Explanation!
1. Emma was the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872.
2. Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney m. in 1870 to Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (Emma KONARSKA 1847-1933).
Her son Valentine Emanuel Patrick MacSwiney (1871-1945) was born in Paris and created a Marquess by Pope Leo XIII.
We know on the copy of confirmation of arms to the descendants of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom married Margaret Cremen
(or Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 m. Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903, her parents John MAC LEOD ca 1774-1839 and Honora RIORDAN; under copyright by Yves GOBILLIARD):
his grandson, Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII (Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938,
he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1829 and Amélia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852;
and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children: Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at 'gw.geneanet.org/ygobilliard')
and who was only son of Valentine MacSwiney (Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897) by Emma Issabella Countess Konarska daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, inf. in 1895.
This MacSwiney family come also from Mashanaglass.
3. Major, 25th Regiment, King's Own Scottish Borderers (b. 1843, died at Torquay in 1887; the only son of Count Alexander Konarski) Konarski Samuel Phillip Lucas / Samuel P. L. Kouasaki / Samuel Konarski m. Emma Cecilia Konarski / Emily L. Kouasaki / Emma Cecilia nee Walker b. ca 1844 in Paddington, living in 1881 at Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire.

National Treasure, the immigration funds collected in order to promote the fight against invaders on the country, used to promote Polish foreign affairs. The idea of the creation of the National Treasury in exile after the fall of the January Uprising already gone back to Agaton Giller.
The base of this treasure was a gift of Louis Michalski residing in Switzerland; in 1887 Sigmund Milkowski edited the famous book 'The thing about the active defense and on the National Treasury', where he outlined the idea of creating a fund.
Agaton Giller b. 1831 in Opatówek, was a Polish journalist and writer, conspirator and independence activist, a member of the National Government; brother of Stefan Giller.
Ludwik Michalski born Louis Matyasek / Ludwik Maciaszek, b. 1836 in Krakow, d. 1888 in Hilfikon in Switzerland, was Polish-Swiss engineer and entrepreneur, a participant of the January Uprising.
Milkowski in 1859 thought on the idea of national permanent Insurgency, and as Z. F. M. wrote 'Rzecz o obronie czynnej i o skarbie Narodowym', ed. in Paris, 1887; expanded ed. Krakow, 1912: Polish question, so-called 'Polish Intrigue' should be most important for Europe.
He also reminded all the time, on the pattern of Ireland, on the establishment of the National Treasury, with the national voluntary Taxation;
in August 1887 (? 1886) Milkowski / Jez moved to the castle Hilfikon in Switzerland, where he studied with Ludwik Michalski, the Polish emigrant, Maximilian Hertl from Paris, and the curator of the Ossolinski library in Lviv - Dr. Alexander Hirszberg who met Polish Democrats in Lviv, especially the Director of the Lemberger Savings Bank, insurgent of 1863, Fr. Zima, and the Warsaw patriots, to organize a democratic society with a centralization at the top, and the result of those deliberations was the Polish League.
In Switzerland in 1887, by a group of former participants of the January Uprising living in the Prussian and Austrian partitions, as well as abroad, Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez, Maximilian Hertel and Alexander Hirschberg at Hilfikon castle near Zurich, was established the Polish League.
Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824 in the village Saracei in Podolia, d. 1915 in Lausanne, Polish writer, was the son of an noblemen, Joseph, was a Napoleonic officer; the gymnasium in Niemirow; he was graduated from Richelieu high school in Odessa 1843 - 1846, then the University of Kiev 1847; 1848 he went to Hungary via Galicia and served in the Polish Legion during the Hungarian campaign of 1848-1849, where he advanced to the rank of lieutenant.
Since the time of the Hungarian uprising was in the sphere of influence of Stanisław Worcell b. 1799, Heltman Victor b. 1796, Darasz Wojciech b. 1808, and Limanowski Boleslaw b. 1835.
He emigrated to Turkey where he was interned for a year,
1850 he left for England, where, while he was working in a factory producing printing blocks for wallpaper patterns, he joined the Polish Democratic Society.
In 1851 he went to Moldavia as an agent of the Central Committee of European Democracy. During the Crimean War he was on the Balkan Peninsula, and was also an observer attached to the Turkish army. He stayed in Walachia then left for Serbia, Bulgaria, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople,
then in 1858 he returned to London.
After the outbreak of the January Uprising in Poland in 1863, he became commander of the army in Ruthenia and was appointed colonel by the National Central Committee. He organised an insurgent troop in Tulcza, which was to enter Russia through the territory of Romania. 1864-1866 he stayed in Belgrade, then he moved to Brussels, Lausanne and Geneva. Towards the end of his life he settled in Lausanne.
In 1866 he initiated the establishment of the National Treasury to fund future insurgent actions and develop Polish propaganda abroad.
Darasz was the editor of Polish Democrat, a member of the Centralization - Polish Democratic Society and a member of the Revolutionary Committee of the Centralization of Europe.
Heltman was one of the ideologues of Polish Democratic Society and European activist, with
Jastrzębowski Wojciech Bogumil b. 1799, who can safely be called the first theorist of a United Europe; the National Guard soldier, battles at Wawer and Olszynka Grochowska in 1831; his ideas about Europe were echoed in the views of Massini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Ledru - Rollin and Ruge Anolda b. 1802.
Massini fought with MONARCHS EUROPE, already in 1832 he founded YOUNG ITALY, helped organize the YOUNG GERMANY and Young POLAND. These were the steps involved in creating YOUNG EUROPE because he believed that only the young generation could rebuild Europe's monarchs in Europe of Nations.
We back to Milkowski, who was sent back to England 1850 (again 1858); active involvement in the Polish Democratic Society, closer to the international revolutionary circles. Since then, he was theorist of the European revolution.
The Central Committee of European Democracy commissioned colonel Zygmunt Miłkowski task of forming a resistance movement in Russia; detailed instructions on this matter received from the German revolutionary Arnold Ruge; besides Miłkowski, to Galicia was sent Louis Jastrzebski.
Milkowski with a passport in the name of Williams Smith went (1851) to the east, had letters of recommendation from Massini and Bratianu Dmitri; this mission was a tragedy for his family, his brothers Joseph and Felix in Romania were arrested and handed in 1853; Joseph, as the tsarist officer was shot in Izmaiłow; Felix sent to Orenburg. The third brother John was killed in a battle with the Turks at Oltenica. The mission of the European Democracy agents was thwarted by the church and the aristocracy, because some European Democracy activists were Freemasons;
the European Democracy top members:
Giuseppe Mazzini, Ledru-Rollin, Arnold Ruge, Darasz Wojciech and Dimitrie (1818-1892); they shared a need to organize a European revolution. Massini though Mason was the believer man; Arnold Ruge was a atheist. Darasz and Rollin were radicals.
Colonel Sigmund Milkowski did not agree with the policy of Czartoryski, who financed the trip to America, for former insurgents 1863; Society of the Third of May led by Adam Czartoryski also called the Hotel Lambert and the Society for Military of gen. Rybinski Maciej deprived to participate in the fight against the aggressors.
But the League of Liberty and Peace was established in 1867 in Geneva. At the Congress in Lausanne, speech in defense of Polish affairs gave Colonel Zygmunt Milkowski in 1872; the congress was attended by representatives of the Poles, French, Germans and other nationalities. "Almost all the congresses of the League felt the spirit of the EUROPE of NATIONS ... by the inspiration of Charles Lemonnier, at the Congress in Lausanne, Polish independence was considered as a prerequisite for peace in Europe".
Milkowski was one of the founders of the Polish National League, which was transformed into the National Democracy Party.
Also with Louis Matyasek Michalski, an engineer, who opened his castle Hiltikon for this meeting; he was born in a family of teachers. 1863 he joined the January Uprising under Kopernicki Francis (1824-1892). After the uprising got to Switzerland, Sumatra, and back to Switzerland; provided financial support for Polish initiatives.
Hertel was also an engineer, poet, worked for the Ministry of Roads and Transport in Paris. He had a big impact on the French Polonia.
Dr. Hirschberg, historian, the history of diplomacy and Polish-Russian relations. The source of the new organization were manifestos of the POLISH DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY (1832-1862), with the reconstruction of Poland from 1772, but with the right of minorities to autonomy.
Milkowski was also the President of the Supervisory Council of the National Treasury, a member of the Board of the Polish Emigrant Union and of the Executive Board of the Polish National Museum in Rapperswill. In 1900 he made a journey to the USA; he died in Lausanne on 11 January 1915.
Above data under copyright by Dr Marek Adamiec.
On his initiative Zygmunt Balicki came to Warsaw, and founded a secret Polish Youth Union modeled on Freemasonry, at the turn of 1886-1887, among university students; fought on the independence of Poland.

Interesting notes on wine commerce:

1. Trading House "Heirs of A. F. Poklewski-Koziell" / Pakleuski Kozell - the Company founder was Alfons Fomich Poklevskii-Kozell / Alfons Koziell Poklewski who in 1869 bought a large estate in Kurgan, built here a stone wine warehouse.
2. The ARMAND family from Moscow:
Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia ca 1790 - 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow) daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution; Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably). The 29 year-old general Paul Armand came from Paris in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay. He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine.
After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then after 1815 the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.
Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demonet / Demontet family ran in Moscow a sales of these French wines.
When Paul Armand married, he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.
Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage to Elizabeth Osipovna (1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker.
In 1811 in Moscow lived:
Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1787, and his son Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808, French nation; his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787 and daughter Elizabeth b. 1807. Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived (again?) to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica daughter of Charles, was born 1767.
Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808 that is Yevgeny born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow.
Paul was killed and Paul's son, Jean - Ivan, started a wine-import business. It was Ivan's son, the first Eugene, who founded the Armand fortunes.
3. Alexandra Constantinovna Countess von Zarnekau b. 1883 married in 1900 Prince George Alexandrovich Yurievsky, a son of Alexander II of Russia. In 1884, they bought a local wine cellar established by the Frenchman Shote in 1876 for bottling champagne, doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).
4. On July 30th Bronislaw Pilsudski left Nagasaki by ship, on August 3rd left Japan for Galicia (Austrian Poland) via America.
On the main street of Ginza in Tokyo, Pilsudski rented a room from the end of January to July 1906 - had a connection with Russian merchants in Vladivostok and sold natural ice transported from Hakodate in Hokkaido and milk, as well as ice cream and foreign-made wines later. In 1908 Futabatei visited St. Petersburg as a special correspondent for the newspaper Asahi and met Zarnowska - wife of Bronislaw Pilsudski - who was staying at a relative's home there. He did not, however, manage to see Pilsudski.
5. GAILLARD, J. Jeune / Jeune GAILLARD, 1896, a General Store was opened at Nagasaki at 12 Oura under the name of J. Gaillard, the Nagasaki branch of Gaillard & Co., which was led by Jean Sirot. Sirot came from Shanghai. The Nagasaki branch provisioned the French Navy with coal, food and other provisions and in 1897 the branch specialized in wine and spirits. From 1889 to 1903 only C. Joana is listed as head of this branch and J. Gaillard is only mentioned in 1901, with Rene Chevalier Lavaure, to 1904.
6. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829 in Paris, France, d. 1904 / 1908 in London, England; he was son of John O'Meara and Elizabeth Sophie. John O'Meara, b. 1797 in Borrisokane, Co Tipperary, central part of Ireland, south-west of Dublin; died 1867 in Paris.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was husband of Marie Camille and father of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara b. 1861; Henrie Marie Bulkeley b. 1857, Charles Louis Thomas b. 1862, John Herbert Lewis b. 1860, and Camille Alfred O'Meara. Camille Alfred O'Meara b. 1858 in Piltown - south-east of Ireland, d. ?; son of Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara and Marie Camille; husband of Rosalee Julia nee Guilloux; from this family was Louis Fançois Marie GUILLOUX, b. 1899 in Saint-Brieuc, France, his father was a socialist activist of 'Proudhonism'; Guilloux befriended the philosophy tutor Georges Palante, an anarchist. Camille Alfred O'Meara was father of Rose Julie Taylor, Harry O'Meara, Charlie O'Meara, Tom O'Meara, Alf O'Meara, Pat and Camille Cammie; half brother of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - was half brother of Josephine Camille O'Meara and Mathihilde O'Meara. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was born on the 9th December 1829 in Paris and died at Addison Gardens, London, in 1904; he was secretary of the Cercle Imperial Club in Paris, was a cashier in Salt Manufacturing of his brother-in-law's company at Stoke Prior in England, and finally was a wine merchant; married to Marie Camille nee Blot.
Parents of above named Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829: John O'MEARA 1797-1867 and Elisabeth Sophie FITZPATRICK 1809-1889. Acc. to http://gw.geneanet.org: parents of mentioned John O'Meara: Jack O'MEARA and Ann MORAN.
Why James Augustin FITZPATRICK found himself in France between 1805 and 1809, we do not know; France and England at that time were fighting at many fronts; maybe he traded wine from southern France as Paul Armand?! Maybe he traded tea from India? The economic blockade of the UK economy by France, created by closing the trade of this country with the countries of continental Europe and imposed allies of France to introduce trade embargo against Great Britain, resulted edition in Berlin by Napoleon Bonaparte's decree of November 21, 1806. The closure of European ports for the British fleet cut off the United Kingdom from markets and supply. It was notoriously broken because its effects were also negative for the European economies. For example, the cost of wine production in Scotland and France. France also losses because it was the recipient of the English wool.


The creation of a secret society (the Round Table of Milner) had been planning for more than seventeen years. "Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890".
According to Carroll Quigley, "...Rhodes embraced the ideas of Stead much earlier than they actually have met (on 4 April 1889), and then they jointly set up their secret society for the establishment of the Anglo-American Union ... in 1891, February 5. Stead continues: The conception in those day (1880) was confined to few, but nowadays the parties led by Lord Rosebery and Lord Salisbury would vie with each other in asserting their readiness to recognize the European Concert as the germ of the United States of Europe, and to develop the concerted action of six Powers in relation to the question of the East into a Federated Union of all the European States...".
This is not a joke on the readers of this website, that 100 years and 1 day later, the general Kiszczak also closed the debate of his Round Table.
This Round Table that are negotiations conducted to April 5, 1989 by the representatives of the People's Republic of Poland in Magdalenka near Warsaw.

When Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland, then Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, from December 1916 to November 1918, was one of the most important members of David Lloyd George's War Cabinet. His mother was a daughter of Major General John Ready, former Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island and later the Isle of Man.
Upon his return from South Africa, Viscount Milner occupied himself mainly with business interests in London, becoming chairman of the Rio Tinto Zinc mining company, a director of the Joint Stock Bank, in January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson, in Russia, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed; he was an advocate of inter-allied cooperation, in St. Petersburg in February 1917.
But Trotsky in his book 'My Life' tells of a British financier, who in 1907 gave him a large loan to be repaid after the overthrow of the Tsar. Arsene de Goulevitch, who witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution, has identified both the name of the financier and the amount of the loan: over 21 million rubles were spent by Lord Alfred Milner in financing the (October 1917 Revolution) Russian Revolution.
It was a big dream of Pilsudski and Poles to Tsarist Russia collapsed, and then in the revolutionary chaos appeared Lenin had passed into Russia by the Germans.
A documents made it clear, that this above mentioned funding was provided by Milner and channeled through Sir George Buchanan, who was the British Ambassador to Russia at the time, acc. to Goulevitch, p. 230.

In March 1832, Adam Mickiewicz stayed in Dresden, Saxony, where he wrote the third part of his poem 'Dziady'. July 1832 he arrived in Paris, accompanied by Ignacy Domeyko; in Paris, Mickiewicz published articles in 'Pielgrzym Polski', and wrote 'The Books of the Polish People and of the Polish Pilgrimage' - in the part: 'Pilgrim LITANY' we read:
"...The universal war for the freedom of peoples,
We ask you, Lord.
The weapons and national eagles,
We ask you, Lord...".

Tadeusz A. Kisielewski in "The Great War and Polish independence" ed. Rebis Publishing House, 2014, shows the First World War (the Great War 1914-1918) as a game of powers, which fight each other for dominance over Europe and domination in the colonies.

In 1832 the author of 'Pilgrim LITANY', Adam Mickiewicz, although romantic poet, but cool, wrote that
an essential condition of Poland's independence is the conflict between the invaders, and it must be converted into a European-wide war.

In 1895, Pilsudski published an article titled "Russia", in which he formulated for the first time
a basic condition for independence by Poland: to "slit the seams of ethnic Russia" and other non-Russian parts of the empire (to split the seams of ethnic Russia and other non-Russian parts).

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins, Serbs and Bosniak, coordinated by Danilo Ilic, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society.
"...In May of 1914 Colonel Dmitrijevic, a secret way from his own government, introduced the idea of the assassination of Archduke. The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow, was not able to decide, and reached an agreement with friends from the General Staff in St. Petersburg, and after a few days passed acceptance: 'Works ... we will not leave you alone'. Today we know that these words were not empty. We do not know who made the decision. Whoever he was, he had to be close to the heads of the party pro war; it was leading by the uncle of the Tsar, Grand Duke Nicholas (Nikolai); and operate at the interface between the military and diplomacy, he soon began a covert operation to observe long-term Russian ambassador in Belgrade, Nikolai Hartwig. One thing is certain: the decision of St. Petersburg, and then ... shots of Princip started the chain of events that led to the global carnage...",
according to http://foxmulder2.blogspot.com/2014/06/najwieksze-sekrety-kryptonim.html by Hubert Kozieł.

The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow / Viktor Alekseevich Artamonov / Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov / Виктор Алексеевич Артамонов, had a close relationship with Apis;
"...accessible records do not explain what role, if any, Artamonov had in the plot. To make matters murkier still, just before his execution by his own government at Salonika in June 1917, after being accused of involvement in yet another plot, this time against his own leaders, Dimitrijevic boasted in writing of his role behind the Sarajevo plot and admitted that Artamonov funded the terrorist operation, something that Yugoslavia's Communists revealed in 1953 to discredit the royal regime that preceded them in power in Belgrade. As Artamonov died in exile in 1942 without fully explaining his role in the assassination... something undertaken by direction from St. Petersburg. ... Given that Russian radio intelligence was able to read Austro-Hungarian diplomatic ciphers before the war, it seems likely that St. Petersburg was aware of what Vienna's probable reaction to the assassination would be and, as Sean Meekin has recently observed, the Russians subsequently acted as if they have something to hide: 'gaps in the record strongly suggest a good deal of purging took place after 1914', to cover whatever tracks Artamonov left behind. The attaché conveniently managed to be out of Belgrade on the day of the assassination, yet it was well known in Serbian military circles that, in the weeks before the assassination, he and Apis saw each other almost daily. A Serbian colonel who was close to Apis conceded that Artamonov had encouraged the plot... it seems very likely that St. Petersburg knew more about the plot that it later proved politic to admit...".
And "...Serbian military intelligence, whose chief, Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević, colloquially known as Apis (The Bull), was a violent conspirator with impressive credentials even by high regional standards", copyright by http://20committee.com/

Apis ordered the murder of Franz Ferdinand, and he said that the Russian military attache Artamonov promised protection of Russia from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when Serbia's intelligence operations will be disclosed, and that Russia has financed the killing. In an interview, Artamonov categorically denied any involvement of Russia in this case. Artamonov said that at this time he was on vacation in Italy, leaving only military assistant of Attache Alexander Verkhovsky; and although he had the daily contact with Apis, he learned about the role of Apis only at the end of the war, acc. to Albertini.
Verkhovskii / Alexander Verkhovsky first admitted involvement of the Attache Office, and then completely stopped talking about it.
There is evidence that on June 14, 1914 Russia was at least aware of the plans of terrorists.
Shelking wrote: '...01 (14) June 1914, Emperor Nicholas had a conversation with King Charles in Constanta in Romania. I was there at the time ... as far as I could tell from my conversation with the members of his entourage (Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov) he (Sazonov) was convinced that if the Archduke (Franz Ferdinand) will go in the direction of peace in Europe will not be threatened'.

Mentioned above
Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Верхо́вский / Verkhovsky, Alexander / Aleksander Wierchowski - b. 1886, St. Petersburg, d. August 19, 1938; nobility.
In 1905, for the liberal-constitutional view expelled from the Corps of Pages and sent in Manchuria, was the gunner; awarded the George Cross and promoted to officer. In 1905-1908 he served in Helsingfors, the 3rd Light division in Finland, 1909 lieutenant. Graduated from the Nikolaev Military Academy (1911); 1911 he graduated from the Academy of General Staff. 1911 staff-captain, 1913 - Captain. 1911-1913 he commanded a company of the 2nd Infantry Regiment in Finland. 1913 the senior aide of Staff of the 3rd Finnish Infantry Brigade.
He was sent to Serbia (1914) to study the experiences of participation of the Serbian army in the Balkan wars.
Since the beginning of the First World War he returned to Russia, participated in the battles in East Prussia. Since 1915 head of security section of Staff to the 22nd Corps on the South-Western Front; at the headquarters of 7th Army. Since March 1916, Lieutenant Colonel, Chief of Staff of Army Group, designed to capture Trebizond from the sea. In September - December 1916 in Romania, he was assistant of the security section of the Russia's representative at the headquarters; he arrived in Petrograd and wrote: 'Only a change of political system could save the army from the new misfortunes, and Russia from the ignominious defeat. Army has lost patience...', acc. to '...From the diary of a marching 1914-1918', Moscow.
In early 1917 appointed Chief of Staff of the Chernomorskoy division, designed for landing on the Turkish coast.
After the February Revolution of 1917 he participated in the meeting of officers of the garrison to support the Provisional Government.
On August 30, 1917 Kerensky appointed Verkhovsky the Military Minister;
on Sept. 1st, 1917 introduced him to the Directory, giving the rank of Major-General;
on Sep 7, 1917 Verkhovsky made a presentation on the reorganization of the army;
on Sep 8, 1917 appointed to the Bureau of the Central Executive Committee;
on October 20, 1917 the joint meeting of the Pre-Parliament Committee Defense and Foreign Affairs - Verkhovsky analyzed the state of the army and said we can't fight;
on October 22, 1917 / 04 Nov. "he went on to Balaam" (?), where only on 29 Oct. learned about the October armed uprising.
Nov. 3 / 16, 1917 returned to Petrograd, and together with members of the Central Committee went to headquarters where the All-Army committee and leaders of some socialist parties tried to form a 'general-socialist government';
Nov. 1917 moved to Mogilov.
In 1922 he was a military expert of the Soviet delegation at the Genoa International Conference.
On 18 July 1931 on charges of anti-Soviet activities sentenced to death. December 2, 1931 sentence to 10 years in the camps.

Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov born October 9, 1873 and died August 23, 1942 in Antwerp, Belgium.
"He graduated in 1890 from the Cadet Corps Simbirsk, in 1892 the Military Academy in 1900 and Pavlovsk Academy of Staff of Mykolayiv. ... the Volhynian Guard Regiment, ... and Odessa in 1904. ... military liaison officer 1907 to 1909 in Greece and then from 1909 to 1918 in Serbia. ... 1919 to 1920 he was representative in Belgrade Armed Forces of South Russia, under the direction of Anton Ivanovich Denikin then under those of Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel...".

Very interesting research of Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire, 'Dictionnaire de la Franc-maconnerie', Paris, Armand Colin, 2014, p. 307-314: the conspiracy theory, a whole section of contemporary American literature to have become a topic of academic research among Americanists; revolutions from the eighteenth century.

But the first was John Robison (1739 - 1805), a Scottish physicist and mathematician. He was a professor of philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. A member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, the first General Secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1783 - 1798). See Becu in 1803 in Scotland (Dzierzynski, Becu, Pilar-Pilchau, Bulhak, Pilsudski). Robison also worked with James Watt on an early steam car. Following the French Revolution, Robison became disenchanted with elements of the Enlightenment. He authored Proofs of a Conspiracy in 1797, a polemic accusing Freemasonry of being infiltrated by Weishaupt's Order of the Illuminati. Born in Boghall, Baldernock, Stirlingshire, close to Thornhill, north-west of Stirling; west of Drummond, south-west of the Doune castle.

See: Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD; the Douglas family from Bothwell - 15 km south-east of Glasgow, Kincardineshire, 30 km south of Aberdeen, and from Fordoune, Scotland - 14 km north-west of Srirling; see: Douglas from Italy, Napoli. James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, a Scottish soldier, was born at Inverugie Castle near Peterhead - north of Aberdeen in eastern Scotland, the second son of William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland who b. ca 1664, and was also a Jacobite politician of Scotland. Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta.

Back to John Robison:
"...In 1770 he travelled to Saint Petersburg as the Secretary of Admiral Charles Knowles, where he taught mathematics to the cadets at the Naval Academy at Cronstadt, obtaining a double salary and the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. ... Robison returned to Scotland in 1773 and took up the post of Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He lectured on mechanics, hydrostatics, astronomy, optics, electricity and magnetism (see Gernet, Duflon, Breguet, Konstantynowicz). Towards the end of his life, he became an enthusiastic conspiracy theorist, publishing Proofs of a Conspiracy, ... in 1797, alleging clandestine intrigue by the Illuminati and Freemasons ... carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies. The secret agent monk, Alexander Horn provided much of the material for Robison's allegations. ... In 1798, the Reverend G. W. Snyder sent Robison's book to George Washington for his thoughts on the subject in which he replied to him in a letter. ... Modern conspiracy theorists, such as Nesta Webster and William Guy Carr, believe the methods of the Illuminati as described in Proofs of a Conspiracy were copied by radical groups throughout the 19th and 20th centuries in their subversion of benign organizations...".

Weishaupt (Johann Adam Weishaupt b. 1748 in Ingolstadt, d. 1830) was trained by friend of Moses Mendelssohn - Hartwig Wessely / Hartog Naftali Herz in 1771. Over the next five years
Weishaupt formulated a plan, all secret systems be reduced to a single powerful organization. On May 1, 1776, he formed it to live as a secret Order of the Illuminati or "Enlightened"
and stood at the forefront; see at http://www.eioba.pl/a/3it4/teorie-spiskowe-zakon-iluminatow; this organization essentially acting as a "over-Freemasonry", to take control on all of Freemasonry. Weishaupt himself to be even accept to lodge "Zur Behuntsamkeit" in Munich, and began to arrange his Order within Freemasonry. Please compare the text: http://www.klubinteligencjipolskiej.pl/2015/03/wall-street-i-rewolucja-bolszewicka-w-rosji-2/; and notes by Douglas Reed, translated by Krzysztof Edmund Wojciechowicz, at http://spiritolibero.neon24.pl/post/107504,rewolucja-swiatowa.


And now back to England:
Edward VII, b. 1841 in London, in 1874 the Prince of Wales attended the marriage at St. Petersburg of his brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, with the grand-duchess Marie of Russia. He was first elected grand master of the Freemasons of England in 1874; a bencher of the Middle Temple, he was son of Queen Victoria; initiated by the King of Sweden, at Stockholm in 1868, the rank of Past Grand Master of England was conferred upon him in 1870. Patron of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland and was an honorary member of Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1. Grand Master Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (then the King of Great Britain and Ireland as Edward VII from 1901), 1874 to 1901.

The network:
Montenegro - Potapov - Parvus - Berezyna - Konstantynowicz - Artuzow - Volpi - Venetia - electricity:
Prince Arseny Karageorgievich / Karadjordjevic b. 1859, d. 1938, was educated in Paris lycee and graduated from the 2nd Konstantinovskoye Military College in 1888; served until 1916 to the Russian military, Major General of the Russian Imperial Army, participated in the Russian-Japanese War and in the First World War; the pretender to the Serbian throne, who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion; the friend of Drzewiecki, Duflon, Breguet in St Petersburg (see: Potapov in Montenegro; the Azbelev / Azbelew family, and the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Petersburg; Nagasaki and Bronislaw Pilsudski, Volpi; Neuchatel in Switzerland).
Arseny was the son of Serbian Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic and Princess Persia.

The first genealogy of Arseny:

Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov / Demidoff, 2nd Prince San Donato, 1839-1885, owned approximately 100 factories in Russian and 1 million squares kilometers of land in Russia, France and in Italy. He move to Villa Pratolino, named as Villa Demidoff, and m. 2nd time to Helena or Elena Petrovna, Princess Troubetzekaya, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, b. St. Peterburg in 1853, d. Odessa in 1917; Aurora Pavlovna Demidova, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, Princess of Serbia, and later Countess Noghera, born in San Donato in 1873 or 1874, d. Marseille, in 1943 (? - Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), eldest daughter of the second marriage of the above Prince Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; Aurora m. first to Arsene Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1859-1938, son of Alexandar Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1806-1885 and Persida Nenadovic, 1813-1873. General of the Russian army; Comander-General of the Yugoslavian army. He was brother of Peter I, King of Serbians, Croats and Slovens, later King of Yugoslavia, 1844-1921. Prince Arsene divorced in 1896. Paul Karadordevic, Prince of Yugoslavia, b. 1893, was educated at the University of Oxford.

The second genealogy of Arseny:

A wife 1891/2 - 1896 of above Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich:

Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev; her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; her grandfather Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826, her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804; her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817; her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731 died 1812.

Above mentioned Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic / Alexander I of Yugoslavia (1806 - 1885), Prince of Serbia in 1842 - 1858. After his father's death in 1817, he was living in Russia and served to the Russian army to 1840. He left two sons: Peter I of Yugoslavia (1844-1921), 1903 the king of Serbia, 1918 the King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; and above named Arseny (1859 - 1938); his son, Prince Paul was a regent of Yugoslavia in 1934 - 1941.

Mentioned Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato (b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), her father Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d.
1885, Pratolino near Florence),
Russian industrialist, 1871-1872 and 1873-1874 Kiev; the Red Cross during the Turkish war of 1877-1878. He was son of Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov and Aurora Karamzina.

Baroness Eva Aurora Charlotte Stjernvall / Eva Aurora Charlotta Stjernvall; 1836 the name Demidov, 1846 as Karamzin; she was born in 1808, Bёrneborg, died 1902, Helsingfors; the Swedish-Finnish roots, a maid of honor of the imperial court, a large philanthropist.
Her husband was Count Pavel Demidov (1798 - 1840, Mainz), Russian businessman, the owner of the richest Ural iron foundry (see Koziell-Poklewski family), the actual state councilor, honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, philanthropist; the son of Count Nikolai Nikitich Demidov and Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov.

On the other hand we look at
Emmanuel Karaso, Karassu / Carasso / Emanuel Karasu (Salonica, 1862 - died in Trieste in 1934), a lawyer of the Sephardic Jewish Carasso family of Salonica / Thessaloniki, Greece; a member of the Young Turks; a member or a founder, president of the Macedonian Risorta Masonic lodge in Thessaloniki; he worked for Jewish organizations in Turkey, and negotiated the treaty ending the Italo-Turkish War.

And next network in the Balkan kingdom of Montenegro, owned by Volpi, and the Russian military attache from 1903 to 1915 - N. M. Potapov.

Potapov in 1915 taken the position of Quartermaster General and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Russian Army, in charge of all army intelligence.
In the summer of 1917, Potapov began Bolshevik, but he was known since the 1890s.
He help to the transformation of the Tsarist War Ministry into the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs (see the Bonch-Bruevich brothers, Lenin, and village Zbyszyn close to Miezonka).
He was the first Red Army Chief of Staff; close to A. A. Artuzov (see Saanen in Switzerland, Lenin, Dzierzynski in Switzerland, Duflon) - who was a cousin of Potapov.

And at present back again to Montenegro and Serbia, Venetia and Turkey:

"...Parvus's status in Switzerland was secured by his longtime colleague, Adolph Muller, the German Ambassador in Berne, and a Munich publisher. According to authors James and Suzanne Pool ... he had done business with the Nazis since before the putsch. ... The money that Hitler used to purchase the newspaper came from a White Russian and former Okhrana associate, Vasili Biskupsky. ... At the close of World War I, Parvus wrote the following profile of the European situation:
'There exist two possibilities only: either the unification of western Europe, or Russia's domination. The whole game with the buffer states will end in their annexation by Russia, unless they are united with central Europe in an economic community, which would provide a counter-balance to Russia'.
Under any circumstances, Parvus argued that the era of the nation-state system had ended in Europe...".

Acc. to the article on September 23, 2005, Executive Intelligence Review, ... Parvus Permanent War Madness, by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas. This article was based on an exhaustive study by Allen and Rachel Douglas, 'The Roots of the Trust: From Volpe to Volpi, and Beyond - The Venetian Dragomans of the Russian Empire', and on published and unpublished research by Scott Thompson, Marjorie Mazel Hecht, and Joseph Brewda:
"...a doctrine which the Russian-born British intelligence asset Alexander Helphand, also known as Parvus, dictated to Leon Trotsky's effort to overthrow Russia's Tsar in the revolution of 1905. What Helphand dictated to his dupe Trotsky, in writing, personally, there at that time, is a doctrine of 'permanent revolution / permanent war', which Trotsky himself defended up to the moment of his murder by a Soviet assassin, in Mexico in 1940. Alexander Israel Helphand (a.k.a. Parvus). Both (Shabotynsky / Zabotynski) Jabotinsky and Parvus edited publications of the British / Venetian-spawned Young Turk movement, which helped ... the overthrow of the Ottoman Empire.
Like Jabotinsky, Parvus (1867 - 1924) came from (born in Berezyna in 1867) an Odessa family steeped in the grain trade. By 1886, Helphand / Parvus had already become involved in the Okhrana-spawned Russian socialist scene, travelling to Switzerland to participate in the Emancipation of Labor group, led by a number of documented Okhrana agents, including Lev Deutsch, and suspected Okhrana man Georgi Plekhanov / Plechanow.

... By 1900, Parvus had joined the inner circle of the Bolsheviks, using his Munich, Germany apartment to house the printing press for the group, and hosting V. I. Lenin and other leaders (see Brilling, Duflon and Konstantynowicz family, Inessa Armand, Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand).
According to several biographical accounts, by 1902, Parvus was receiving direct Okhrana funding through Gorky, who gave Parvus the rights to publish his works abroad (see Neapol and Capua in my research).
When the entire leadership of the Petersburg Soviet, including Trotsky, was rounded up and jailed in December 1905, Parvus escaped the police clutches. When he was later captured, he escaped police custody, courtesy of the Okhrana agent Lev Deutsch. Parvus next turned up, via Germany, in Constantinople, as a 'journalist' covering the Young Turk rebellion against the Ottomans ... It would be at this moment that Parvus's ties to the leading European 'Venetian Party' factions would be publicly shown.
In 1908, the Committee for Union and Progress, otherwise known as the Young Turks, carried out a military coup, overthrowing the Sultan and seizing power over the Ottoman Empire. ... The actual founder of the Young Turk movement was an Italian Freemason and grain trader named Emmanuel Carasso. Jewish by birth, Carasso had been a founder of the Italian Masonic lodge in Salonika, called the Macedonia Risorta Lodge.
Virtually all of the members of the Young Turk leadership were lodge members. The forerunner of the Macedonia Risorta Lodge was founded by a follower of another Palmerston agent and revolutionary provocateur, Giuseppi Mazzini. ... Carasso was a leading financier (see electricity, Duflon, Konstantynowicz, Venetia) of the entire Young Turk insurrection, and during the Balkan Wars, he was not only the head of Balkan intelligence operations for the Young Turks; he was in charge of all food supplies for the Ottoman Empire during World War I, a lucrative business which he shared with Parvus (see Berezyna and Odessa). ... Another of Carasso's 'business' associates was Parvus, who became economics editor of another Young Turk journal, The Turkish Homeland. Parvus also became a partner of Carasso in the grain trade, and in the arms business, and became independently wealthy. ... Carasso was a protege and business partner of Volpi di Misurata, the leading Venetian banker of the early 20th century, who not only sponsored the Young Turk insurrection, but also promoted the Black Shirt takeover of Rome and went on to run the Mussolini Fascist regime ... The Venetian banker Volpi was closely allied with City of London financiers throughout. And the Young Turks, once they took power, made no secret of their London ties. In 1909 the Ottoman Navy was put under the command of a British admiral; ... banker, Ernst Cassel, established and managed the National Bank of Turkey; and British officials advised the Ministry of Finance, the Interior Ministry, and the Ministry of Justice.
... Parvus also got into the tightly controlled arms business, probably under the patronage of Sir Basil Zaharoff of the Vickers Arms cartel, a prominent Anglo - Venetian enterprise. Once the Balkan Wars had started, leading directly into World War I, Parvus turned his attention back to Russia, laying plans to finance a revolution, to be led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Parvus set his scheme for revolution down in a March 9, 1915 memorandum to the German Foreign Ministry, vowing that the Bolsheviks would take power in Russia in 1916, and seeking financial support. ...
One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski, the head of the Political Section and a longtime business associate of none other than Young Turks financier, the Venetian Synarchist Party operative Giuseppi Volpi, the future controller of Mussolini.
According to his own memoirs,
von Hutten-Czapski had seen the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War as an opportunity 'to smash the Tsarist Empire',
a view shared by Parvus.
... Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark ... Stinnes, too, was tied to Volpi and the Banca Commerciale Italiana. In May 1915, Parvus met with Lenin and Karl Radek in Switzerland (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), and then created a string of front groups in Stockholm and Copenhagen. ... By April 1917, Parvus had pushed the German government to grant secret safe-passage to the Bolshevik leaders back into Russia, and arrangements were soon made, through Parvus and Radek, to smuggle Lenin and 40 other leading Bolsheviks from Switzerland, through Stockholm, back to Petrograd. Parvus remained in Stockholm, in constant communication with the International Mission of the Petrograd Bolshevik Central Committee Abroad...".

On the above Synarchist movement, by LYNN PICKNETT & CLIVE PRINCE:
"...This shadowy politico-occult movement is synarchy, which was developed by the Frenchman Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves, the Marquis d'Alveydre, in opposition to the rise of anarchy in the second half of the nineteenth century. ... The most high-profile late nineteenth-century devotee of Saint-Yves was the physician Gérard Encausse (Papus), a leading light among French esoteric societies. ... Encausse's death in 1916 resulted in a schism in the Martinist Order over its involvement in politics. The activists, under Victor Blanchard - head of the secretariat of the Chamber of Deputies of the French Parliament - formed the breakaway Martinist and Synarchic Order, which established the Synarchic Central Committee in 1922, designed to pull in promising young civil servants and younger members of great business families...".

Acc. to 'Cheney Revives Parvus "Permanent War" Madness', by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas:

"...The German government was deeply split over the issue of backing a Russian Bolshevik revolution. Close advisors to the German Kaiser argued that Germany should push a separate peace with the Tsar, while a faction, centered in the General Staff and around Foreign Minister Zimmerman, pushed for a war-to-the-death with Russia, arguing that war with Russia was inevitable, and it made sense to get on with it before Russia became more powerful. One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski ...
In addition to the German Foreign Ministry and the German General Staff, Parvus was also given access to an exhaustive amount of funds for his Russian regime change scheme from a leading German Synarchist industrialist and close associate of Hjalmar Schacht (later Hitler's Economics Minister), Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark, from which Parvus made millions of gold marks per month...".


Some on Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki:
A.
Von Fürstenberg was a powerful family lived in Germany in the 19th and the 20th centuries.
Maria Felicitas Ferdinanda von Fürstenberg married ca 1920 to Friedrich Carl von Westphalen zu Fürstenberg b. 1900. Sophie Therese de Longueval Gräfin von Buquoy b. 1879, the daughter of Karl de Longueval Graf von Buquoy and Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz, married Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg in 1897.
Her children: 1. Friedrich Carl Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1898, and 2. Carl Philipp Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1907.
Above Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1864. Above mentioned Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1858, the daughter of Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Countess Aloisia Morzin.
Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1819, the son of Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Therese Gräfin von Orsini und Rosenberg.
Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born on 4 November 1796 at Vienna, Austria, the son of Rudolf Graf Czernin and Maria Theresia Gräfin von Schonborn-Heussenstamm.
B. We know that:
1. after the First World War Stanisław Furstenberg lived in Poland, he was prosecutor, inf. 1931.
2. Fürstenberg Stanisław died in Warsaw, on 06.08.1911. Maybe father of Hanecki.
3. History of the Fürstenberg (Furstenberg) beer originated to the 13th cent. in Donaueschingen, Germany; commercial production of the drink starts from the XVIII century; beer brewed at Hallertau, now Fürstenberg Lager brewed in Munich.
At the beginning of the 19th cent. in Warsaw brewed beer: Krembitz, Schaefer and Glimpf, Wojciech Sommer, in the second half of the 19th cent. in Warsaw: Herman Jung, Karol Machlejda, Władysław Kijok, Edward Reych;
Haberbusch and Schiele since 1846 (Błażej Haberbusch, Konstanty Schiele and Henryk Klawe) in Warsaw and Odessa;
Herman Jung since 1840 from Silesia to Warsaw, 1846 the Grzybowska street, then with Knopf taken K. Bochenek brewary and from Antoni Boenisch plant, also the Karol Osterloff brewary at Grochow.
Jakub Fürstenberg / Kuba / Mikola, b. 1879, came from an assimilated German family, his father was a wealthy merchant and industrialist of Polonized German family.
His father Stanislaw von Fürstenberg / Stanislaus von Furstenberg was the producer of beer, and a factory owner.
The first owner Samuel Krauze, next Waldemar Beorner leased a brewery from Anna Krauze (see Krauze / Krause in Estonia), and then became it owner, a subsequent owners: S. Fürstenberg / Stanislaw von Furstenberg, next was Z. Katz;
main gate of this brewary at Grzybowska / Wronia street (Grzybowska 61 then 65, and Wronia No 12); at Grzybowska No 34 a brewary of A. LENTZKI of 1874, then 1891 to Samuel Krauze; but 1889 Waldemar Boerner was owner.
C.
Our Polish-Jewish-German revolutionary, Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki b. 1879, killed in 1937 in Soviet Union; Lenin had received money and instructions from Jakub Fuerstenberg / Yakov Ganetsky, and from Alexander Parvus of Berezyna. Jakub Hanecki since 1896 in the underground movement, since 1901 in Berlin as a salesman, 1902 top member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania; a friend of Feliks Dzierżyński in Warsaw.
According to the book by Berberova "Iron Lady", the Fuerstenberg or Fürstenberg / Furstenberg family was in a relationship with A. Parvus from Berezyna - Odessa (maybe Stanislaw Furstenberg or his wife was next of kin with the Helphand family of Berezyna?).
We read on an announcement of executions for espionage against the German army, in Warsaw during the German occupation, by the martial court due spy sentenced to death:
1. Leo Sommerfeld,
2. Alexander Petrajtys,
3. Jacob Fürstenberg,
on 23 October 1915, acc. to the German form of 1916.
But immediately after Gelfand had visited Lenin in May 1915 in Switzerland, first appeared one of the most efficient agents of Lenin in Copenhagen, in the place which the Gelfand had chosen as the base for his anti-Russian campaign - the agent was mentioned above Jacob Fürstenberg - Ganetzky.
Lenin asserted in the summer of 1917, Ganetzky had never been a Bolshevik.
The journey of the April 1917 went via Frankfurt to Berlin, where the train was stopped for some time; on the evening of April 12, 1917, the train reached Saßnitz,
24 hours later, Lenin went ashore in Malmö. There, his agent Fürstenberg - Ganetzky received him with a message from Parvus: It is now high time to direct German-Russian peace negotiations in the way.

Ganetzky / Ganetsky / Hanecki was a treasurer of Lenin.
Yakov Stanislavovich Ganetsky / Hanecki / Jakub Fürstenberg / Fuerstenberg / Jakub Ganezki / Jakow Stanislawowitsch Fürstenberg was the connection to Parvus, and was the immediate link to Lenin.
Hanecki - Fürstenberg killed on 26 November 1937, was "...one of the financial wizards who arranged, through his close working relationship with Alexander Parvus, the secret German funding that saved the Bolsheviks ... (with) Karl Radek, was involved in secret negotiations with the German General Staff regarding funding of the Bolsheviks and was one of the organizers of the (Copenhagen operation) as well as a mediator between Lenin and the Germans. He was one of the organizers of Lenin's return in a sealed train from exile in Switzerland to Russia in 1917 ... After the October Revolution of 1917, Ganetsky served as Chief Soviet banker, trade representative and Ambassador to Latvia...(copyright Wikipedia)", by Wikipedia in 2015: he signed the Peace of Riga and Treaty of Kars.
D.
At margin:
Franz Jacob Furstenberg b. 1856 to Franz Johannes Furstenberg and Elizabeth Gerlach. Franz Johannes Furstenberg 1823-1879 married in 1849 to Elizabeth Gerlach b. 1823, her children:
Heinrich b. 1851, August 1853, Furstenberg, Franz Jacob b. 1856, and 4. Franz Joseph b. 1861. The Gerlach family was from Helmsdorf bei Leinefelde.
Franz Johannes Furstenberg born in Helmsdorf, Germany in 1823 to Adam Furstenberg and Dorothea Wachtel. His brother (?) Franz Joseph Furstenberg 1831-1930.

By Wikipedia:
"Karol Sobelsohn / Karl Berngardovich Radek, b. 1885 in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary, d. 1939, acted in the Polish and German social democratic movements; during the Great Purge of the 1930s, he was accused of treason and confessed, after two and a half months of interrogation, sentenced to 10 years of penal labor; killed in a labor camp in a fight with another inmate, or was killed by an NKVD operative under direct orders from Lavrentiy Beria".
1901 Karl set out for Cracow (classmates: Marian Kukiel); met with Boleslaw Drobner, 1902 wrote to 'Promien'; met with Emil Haecker of 'Naprzod'; 1903 in Cracow with Feliks Dzierzynski at the Jagellonian University, but late in 1903 Radek emigrated to Zurich!
took a job as librarian, met with Max Nomad (see Machajski and Trubecki Nestor); then met with Adolf Warski Warszawski, who was his sponsorship to SDKPiL; through Warszawski Warski, he began a correspondence with Rosa Luxemburg; and she arranged for him to publish some articles in the newspapers of the German socialist;
in December 1905 he crossed the Austro-Russian border to Warsaw, was arrested in March 1906 (see Nestor Trubecki); emerged from prison in early 1907;
in May 1907 he became the editor of 'Czerwony Sztandar'; 1908 had transffered some trade union funds to Stanislawski, and Radek must left Warsaw for Berlin;
met with Warszawski and his immediate acceptance into the top socialist circles in Germany in 1908 could been through the intervention of Warszawski, Marchlewski, Luxemburg and Leo Jogiches, Paul Frolich in Berlin.
Then Radek moved to Leipzig (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), under command of Luxemburg; by 1910 Radek was well known in German socialist circles; 'married' 1909/1911 to a German girl Rosa;
summer 1910 in Copenhagen (see Anna Konstantynowicz and Inessa Armand); met Lenin the first. Radek returned to Leipzig; 1910 moved back to Berlin, 1911 with Hanecki Furstenburg and Unszlicht; 1911 disagreement with Marchlewski, but close friendships with August Thalheimer, Konrad Haenisch from Bremen.
Karl Radek in spring 1912 published for Karl Kautsky; but in July 1912 aimed his attack directly at Kautsky.
'Through Germany in the Sealed Coach', ed in 1924, originally published in German in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66. This is the first time this text has been published in English. Translated and transcribed by Ian Birchall. Translation © Copyright 2005 Ian Birchall. Used by kind permission of the translator. Marked up by Einde O'Callaghan for the Marxists' Internet Archive; at https://www.marxists.org/archive/:
"...On behalf of Vladimir Ilyich I turned, in association with Paul Levi, who at the time was a member of the Spartacus group, and who was temporarily staying in Switzerland, to the representative of the Frankfurter Zeitung, who was known to us. If I am not mistaken, it was a Dr Deinhard. Through him we asked the German Ambassador Romberg whether Germany would allow emigres returning to Russia to pass through its territory. In turn, Romberg enquired of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin and received a reply that was in principle favourable. Thereupon we elaborated the conditions on which we were willing to undertake the journey through Germany. The main conditions were as follows: the German government should allow all applicants to pass through, without asking for their names; those travelling through should enjoy the protection of extraterritoriality and nobody would be entitled to enter into negotiations of any sort with them during their journey. With these conditions we sent the Swiss Socialist deputy Robert Grimm, the secretary of the Zimmerwald Union, and our political ally and comrade Platten to see Romberg. After the meeting with the German Ambassador we met in the trade-union premises. Grimm related how surprised the Ambassador had been, when they had read out to him our conditions for the journey. ...
Grimm, who continued the negotiations in the name of Martov group, had undoubtedly already in Switzerland engaged in negotiations about conditions for peace, and later from Petrograd he sent communications about the prospects for peace from his government, which the Swiss government then probably passed on to the Germans. The attempts to represent him as a German spy or agent are absurd. He wanted to play an important role; Ilyich had already considered that such ambition was the principal motive of his activity. The Germans hoped that in Russia the Bolsheviks would act as opponents of the war and declared themselves in agreement with our conditions. I recommend those gentlemen who are still raising an outcry against the Bolsheviks on this account to read Ludendorff's memoirs, for he is still tearing his hair out over the fact that he let the Bolsheviks through; he has finally grasped that in so doing he was not performing a service for German imperialism, but for the world revolution.
So we set off and travelled in a Swiss train as far as Schaffhausen, where we had to change into the German train. ...
In Trelleborg we made a very striking impression. Ganetsky invited us all to supper which in the Swedish fashion involved Smörgas. We poor fellows, who in Switzerland had been accustomed to have no more than a herring for our dinner, looked at this enormous table with innumerable hors d'oeuvre: we rushed at it like a swarm of grasshoppers and completely emptied the table, to the astonishment of the waiters, who were used to seeing only civilised people at the Smörgas table. Vladimir Ilyich ate nothing. He tried to find out from Ganetsky everything he could about the Russian revolution - but Ganetsky knew nothing. The next morning we arrived in Stockholm. Swedish comrades, journalists and photographers were waiting for us. At the head of the Swedish comrades was Dr Karleson in a top-hat, an inflated chatterer who now, fortunately, has returned from the Communist Party to Branting's camp. ...
In Stockholm Parvus tried to meet Lenin as a representative of the central committee of the German Social Democracy, but Ilyich not only refused to meet him, but charged me, Vorovsky and Ganetsky, together with the Swedish comrades to make a formal record of this attempt. The whole day passed in discussions; we went here and there; but before Lenin left another real deliberation took place. The moment of departure was approaching. Together with the Swedish comrades and a part of the Russian colony in Stockholm we went from the Regina hotel to the station. When our comrades had already boarded the train, one of the Russians took his hat off and made a speech to Lenin. ...
This account by Radek was published in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66.
According to Robert Service, Lenin: A Political Life Volume 2: Worlds in Collision, Basingstoke 1991, p. 153, an account of the journey by Radek appeared in Pravda, no. 91, 20 April 1917, p. 4. However, the 1924 version had clearly been revised, since there is a reference to Ludendorff's Memoirs, first published in 1920.
... Last updated on 18.10.2011".

And more information
(on 26th January 2015 by Hubert Koziel) at http://foxmulder2.blogspot.co.uk/2015/01/najwieksze-sekrety-archanio-cz-4-miecz.html.
'Antidotes to Empire: From the Congress System to the European Union' by Stella Ghervas of Harvard University, Center for European Studies, Department Member;
'Blockade 9: Sustaining The Enemy – Tea, Coffee And Plenty Denials' by Jim Macgregor (First World War Hidden History) and Gerry Docherty.


Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski: his father - Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 in Smogulec + Eleonora Mielżyński; his grandfather Józef Grzegorz Longin Hutten-Czapski 1760-1810
(he was brother of Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski Count 1753 - 1833, who was father of Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1862, and Antonina Skórzewski; and grandfather of Matylda Fabianna Jadwiga Osiecimska; Kazimierz Antoni Fabian Hutten-Czapski, and Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1837 - 1884 in Paris);
and his great-grandfather General Antoni Michal Hutten-Czapski (ca 1725) 1725-1792,
great-great-grandfather Ignacy 1699 - 1745.

Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten born 1725 (ca 1725)
(son of above mentioned Ignacy Hutten-Czapski b. ca 1699 / 1700, who was brother of Franciszek Hutten-Czapski [m. Katarzyna Skorzewska], Józef Piotr Hutten-Czapski, and Teresa Pawłowska),
d. 1802 in Warsaw; his children:
a. Maria Hutten-Czapska b. 1760 m. Gen.-Major Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski of Bukowiec, 1804 Count, with children: 1. Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski b. 1797; 2. Antonina Skórzewski;
b. Anna m. to Józef Oskierka;
c. Ignacy born 1770,
d. Franciszek b. ca 1770;
e. Karol b. in Mińsk 1777-1836 m. Fabianna Obuchowicz (next generation - Emeryk b. 1828);
f. Stanisław 1779-1844 m. Zofia Obuchowicz, Colonel under Napoleon.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Francis Servatius Hutten-Czapski b. 1851, d. 1937, in 1890 negotiated with Pope Leo XIII end of the Kulturkampf in Germany; he was friend with the Cardinals of the Vatican; persuaded the German general staff to support the Bolsheviks (1916 - 1917) and in the independent Poland (since 1918) was the president of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta.
His father Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to
(January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833;
1833 - 1837 Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834, including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland. Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to H. Koziel, in
1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
The republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini.

Explanations:

1. At http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1832/feb/29/count-czapski we read:
"...It appeared that Count Czapski had made his escape from Warsaw, with great difficulty, and was so fortunate as to get to Belfast; on his landing there, he was told, it was necessary to give information of his arrival to the office of the Secretary, under the Act regarding Aliens. On his arrival at Dublin, he had made several inquiries at the Custom House and the Castle, and 966 was told at the latter place, as he only intended to stay a few days, he need not apply again. ... After he had landed in Ireland, he came to Dublin, and when he had been there a short time, he was informed, that, in conformity with the Alien Law, he must state to the Government whether he intended to fix his residence there...".
2. "...THE ALIEN LAW - COUNT CZAPSKI. It will be seen from our Police report in this day's FREEMAN, that the distinguished, but unfortunate Pole, who has been sojourning in Dublin for a few weeks. A was yesterday fined 50Ł by the Magistrates at the Head office of Police, under...", on 3 February 1832 in Dublin.
3. "...I DINNER TO COUNT JOSEPH NAPOLEON CZAPSKI. On yesterday, upwards of seventy gentlemnen sat ... I o 'plendid dinner' at Challoner and Hunt's hotel, Davsonstie, WILLIAM FRANCIS FINN, Etq. in the Chair. The, CHAIMIMANI (??), in proposing the first... Saul, be a about to propose the...", on March 02, 1832, by 'Freeman's Journal', in Dublin.
4. Aliens Act; Petition from Dublin respecting Case of Count Czapski.
"Upon reading the Petition of the Inhabitants of the Parishes of the City of Dublin, in that Part of the United Kingdom called Ireland, whose Names are thereunto subscribed; taking notice of the Arrest and Punishment by Fine of Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski, a Native of Poland, for an unintentional infraction of the Aliens Act; and praying their Lordships 'to take such steps as may be best calculated to vindicate the Character and Nature of the British Laws; and to cause a strict Investigation to be instituted into all the Facts of this Case, with a view to a Redress and Reparation of the Injury sustained, and the Punishment of the guilty...".
5. 1832. The House resumed, and the report was ordered to be received next day. The other orders of the day were then disposed ... COUNTRY MISCELLANEA. AFFAIRS OF GERMANY. A meeting, rather thinly but respectably attended, was held on Wednesday at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand, to express, as the requisition stated, their indignation and abhorrence at the invasion lately made by the Diet of Frankfort on the ancient liberties of the Germanic States. Colonel Evans, M. P., Mr. Wyse, M. P., Sir W. Brabazon, Mr. Murray, Count Czapski, M. Bach, with several other foreigners were present. Mr. T. Campbell as chairman, opened the proceedings in a feeling and energetic speech, towards the conclusion of which he said, 'If England allowed Germany to be enslaved by Princes who were themselves the slaves of Russia, she might, when too late, repent in sackcloth and ashes over her departed liberties. The measures of Napoleon against English commerce would be but a jest, a mere feather, compared with the hostility of the present continental despots...".
6. Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski / Czapski left Dublin for London in April 1832.
7. "William Francis Finn was an Irish politician in the United Kingdom House of Commons", by Wikipedia. "He was elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in (on 20 Dec.) 1832 (with Pierce Butler, b. 1774, held post to 1846), and held the seat until 1837".
Pierce Butler (1774 d. 1864) was an Irish politician, elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in 1832, and held the seat until 1846.
Acc. to http://genealogy.links.org/links-cgi/readged?/ we read:
Pierce Butler 1774 - 1846 son of Edmund Butler 1745 - 1793 and Lady Henrietta 1750 - 1785; grandson of Edmund Butler, Charlotte Bradstreet, Somerset Hamilton Butler 1718 - 1774, and Juliana Boyle d. 1774.
William Francis Finn died in December 1862 in Tullaroan, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland; wife Alicia; a member of Carlow town family; William Francis Finn's father, also named William, was a prosperous Carlow merchant and tanner, who resided in Carlow.
His brother, Edmund Finn (d. 1777) produced 'Finn's Leinster Journal' / 'Leinster Journal' of Kilkenny. William Snr. helped finance the paper, then to Patrick Kearney.
Carlow is situated on way from Kilkenny to Dublin, south-east of Mountrath!
William Snr. was one of the Carlow delegates to attend the Back Lane Parliament in 1792.
William Francis senior held lands in Graiguecullen, and farms in Kilkenny. William senior had four sons: Thomas, William - Francis, Patrick and Michael. Thomas 1772 - 1842 resided in Carlow. He was an able journalist and accurate historian, in 1798, in "The Irish Magazine and Monthly Asylum for Neglected Biography 1811, Vol.4"; died 1842, at Bellfield, Clontarf.
William Francis, the second son, educated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1805;
a friend of Daniel O'Connell, O'Connell was a frequent visitor to Carlow town, where he stayed with Alicia and William at their residence at Evergreen Lodge in Cox's Lane. Patrick Finn - William's brother, was actively involved in the County Carlow committee, and was also for many years secretary of the "Friends of Civil Religious Liberty... County", with William as chairman; A Liberal club was established in the town, with the Finn family prominent among its leaders. Peter Gale from the Queen's County, William Francis Finn - Carlow, Nicholas Aylward Vigors - Old Leighlin, and Francis Bruen - Enniscorthy, who represented the Tories. Finn to represent the Liberal party.
William Francis was well known and respected in the Leinster and Munster areas, through his involvement in the Catholic Association.
August 1832 - a Baronial meeting at Ballyhale met with William Finn. William Francis finally declared his intention to stand as a candidate for the constituency of County Kilkenny;
he had settled in Tullaroan, County Kilkenny.
In 1837 William Finn withdrew from parliamentary representation; While residing in Tullaroan, he donated land to the clergy, for the erection of a church and school;
The KILKENNY COUNTY: north of Waterford, north-east of Clonmel and east of Tipperary.
County Kilkenny / Contae Chill Chainnigh is a county in Ireland, in the province of Leinster, of the South-East Region.

Very interesting that the family of Countess Maria Dorota Leopoldyna Czapska (nick-name Dorota Obuchowicz, Maria Strzalkowska, and Dorota Thun), b. 1894 in Praga, died 1981, Maisons-Laffitte, Polish historian, sister of Józef Czapski,
grand-daughter of Emeryk Hutten-Czapski, met and was talking in Belarus with (in 1892) Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, the next of kin of the Belarussian branch of the Czapskis, who described an estate of the Czapski family close to Minsk;
she was in Paris 1925 - 1930.
Maria Leopoldyna Hutten-Czapska / Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapski, b. 1894 / 1895 in Prague, died in 1981, daughter of George and Josephine;
above George / Jerzy Hutten-Czapski 1861-1930, was son of Emeryk Zachariasz 1828-1896 and Elzbieta Karolina Meyendorff b. 1833 in Sankt Petersburg, d. 1916;
and mentioned Jerzy was grandson of Fabianna Obuchowicz b. ca 1800 and Karol Hutten-Czapski 1777-1836;
also Jerzy was grandson of Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795 (Georges de Meyendorff d. 1863, diplomate) and Zofia Stackelberg b. 1806.
Above named Josephine / Jozefa Thun-Hohenstein 1867-1903, was daughter of Fryderyk Franciszek Józef Thun-Hohenstein 1810-1881 and Leopoldyna Lamberg 1825-1902.
Above named baron Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795, died in Würzburg, Bawaria, acc. to Maria (Maja) Anna Górska-Zabielska.
Copyright by Claude Trudel:
Jerzy / George Baron Meyendorff (1795-1863) recounts his journey from Orenburg to Bukhara made in 1820 in his travelogue published in 1826. He was then a colonel in the General Staff of the Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825).
This expedition is part of Russian expansionism initiated in the 18th century by Catherine the Great (1729-1796).
An extract of this travelogue is contained in the anthology 'The trip to Central Asia and Tibet' published by Michel Jan in the Editions of Robert Laffont. This extract contains two parts: Preparation and dangers of the journey, Manners and customs of Kyrgyz. Acc. to http://cltr.blogspot.co.uk/2014/10/expedition-en-asie-centrale-1820.html.

Above mentioned Emeryk Zachariasz Mikolaj Seweryn Hutten-Czapski, Count, b. 1828, was son of Karol Józef Czapski, friend {?}

(Karol Czapski was owner of Stankow / Stan'kava in Belarus!; b. 1777, died in 1836 in Danilovichi / Daniłowicze
[Daniłowicze / Danilavichy (Данілавічы, Даниловичи, Daniłavičy), ca 11 km east-south-east of Stan'kava / Stankowo of the Hutten-Czapskis, and 18 km south-east of Dzyarzhynsk / Dzierzynsk / Kojdanow of the Hutten-Czapski family; west of Dukora of the Oginski family; ca 40 km south-west of Minsk in Belarus now. In 19th cent. it was the Minsk government, the Ihumen county (Cerven now), the Uzda region];
he was son of Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten of the Chelmno province in Poland, and Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł, daughter of Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick- name Rybenko; Karol Czapski married to Fabianna Obuchowicz, daughter of Michał Obuchowicz of Minsk in Belarus; Karol was brother of Stanisław 1779-1844 / 1845, Colonel of the Polish Army; Marshal of the Minsk county, married Zofia Obuchowicz, owner of Kiejdany - son of mentioned Stanislaw was Marian Czapski Count: born in Łachwa in 1816 Belarus now, d. 1875, Więckowice in the Posen province / Poznan province, studied in Wilno / Vilnius, 1845 owner of Kiejdany close to Minsk, exiled to Siberie in 1864, Tomsk to 1867, 1867-1871 Czapski was living in Dorpat, Estonia)

of last Polish king Stanislaw August Poniatowski
(see: Sulkowski, Poniatowski genealogy, Venture, Breguet, Konstantynowicz and villge Miezonka),
and Fabianna nee Obuchowicz; this branch come from Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Czapski, of the Chelmno province, and from Belarus (Radziwill family and Wittgenstein - Radziwill).

Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski studied in St Petersburg, 1863-1864 governor of Great Nowogrod, in 1865 was deputy of the Petersburg governor.

Karol Józef Czapski leased Miezonka from Radziwill 1832 - 1842; then Miezonka was the Konstantynowiczs estate (see: Breguet in Kazan and Armand in Moscow).

Above named Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko / Prince Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila / Міхал Казімер Радзівіл, b. 1702, Olyka, owner of Niasviž, Olyka, Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk and Kopyła. Court Marshal of Lithuania since 1734, Grand Hetman of Lithuania since 1744, 1725 he married Urszula Franciszka Wiśniowiecki, 2nd married Anna Luiza Mycielski in 1754 in Lviv; his children: Michal Krzysztof Radziwiłł, Janusz Tadeusz, Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł - Panie Kochanku, Anna, Ludwika, Teofilia Konstancja Radziwiłł / Teofila Morawska, Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Rzewuska / Katarzyna Karolina, Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł / Weronika Joanna Hutten-Czapska, Hieronim Wincenty, Maria Wiktoria / Maria Wiktoria Maja Moricone / Morykoni, Józefina Grabowska, and last Konstancja.
Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila Žuvelė / Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł / Rybenko d. 1762 in Nieswiez, son of Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1669 - 1719, Karol was brother of Mikołaj Franciszek Radziwiłł; Bogusław Krzysztof; Jerzy Józef Radziwiłł; Ludwik Radziwiłł; Tekla Adelajda; and Jan) and Anna Katarzyna;
he was brother of Katarzyna Barbara Branicka; Tekla Róża Korybut-Wiśniowiecka; Karolina Teresa Pia Sapieha; Hieronim Florian Radziwiłł, and Konstancja Franciszka Sapieha.

In May 1900, Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (acc. to Bogdan Hutten Czapski) gave the political leadership - Chancellors Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst and Bernard von Bulow - "an early opportunity to object to the politically risky portion of his military thinking ... Accepted by Gerhard Ritter, Fritz Fischer, and Norman Rich, he sought to determine what the Reich political leadership thought about violation of Belgian and Dutch neutrality.
In May 1900 Schlieffen asked Graf (Bogdan) Hutten-Czapski, confidential and private secretary to Chancellor Hohenlohe, to visit him. He asked (Bogdan) Hutten (Czapski) if he would sound out Holstein and the Chancellor confidentially.
... Schlieffen apparently did not name the country to which he referred, but Graf Hutten (-Czapski) immediately thought of Belgium. Hutten-Czapski broached the matter with his friend Holstein, the influential advisor to the Foreign Office. ... A few days later Holstein arranged a social gathering at his house to which the Chancellor and the Chief of the GGS were invited. ... Schlieffen apparently carried out the same procedure with Chancellor Bulow. Schlieffen got a different reaction from Herman Freiherr von Eckhardstein, German Counselor in London...", acc. to Moltke, "Schlieffen, and Prussian War Planning", p. 176.
The Schlieffen Plan of the German General Staff in 1905, with the Deployment Plan Aufmarsch I in 1905, "...would not involve Russia but was expected to include Italy and Austria-Hungary as German allies ... In Aufmarsch I, it was stated that Germany would have to go on the offensive to win this kind of war, which entailed all of the German army being deployed on the German–Belgian border, so it could launch an offensive into France, through the southern Dutch province...".
Alfred von Schlieffen, b. 1833, d. 1913, a German field marshal, the Chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906.
Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was at the time the confidential adviser and secretary to Prince Hohenlohe. Acc. to J. Bradford DeLong on July 16, 2014.
In July 1914, Germany had prepared nothing diplomatically, not even the ultimatum to Belgium. Count Hutten-Czapski, records that in May 1900 immediately thought about Belgium. The whole conversation lasted only a few minutes. The name of the country to which Schlieffen referred was never mentioned.
Count Hutten Czapski claims to have been of a different opinion - that it was a momentous decision which would need careful thought. "...Fundamentally he was against any violation of neutrality without the permission of the states involved, because the consequences could not be predicted".
Schlieffen still had close contact with Holstein, also no less significant and influential Count von Hutten-Czapski.
Big play began in the eighties of the 19th century, when Hutten-Czapski, who was the Polish largest landowner in the Prussian officer corps, also enjoyed the full confidence of Holstein, was as a personal secretary at the Imperial Chancellor Hohenlohe; and under his successor Bulow.
Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow b. 1849, in 1905 Prince, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs for three years and then as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909.
Senior military officials, foreign diplomats and military attaches met in the Bogdan Hutten Czapski house. His connections with the ruling circles and members of the imperial government and the Prussian officer corps were very needed to Schlieffen,
"who conducted non-public life. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote about it: 'When he was chief of the General Staff, he let me go to him often and I honored his confidence, using my connections'. ... 'Hutten-Czapski had ample contacts in Poland and Russia and use them to gather political information and military espionage for the Chief of the General Staff...'. The high trust placed him close to Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, evidenced by the fact that Hutten-Czapski to find out about how to Hohenlohe and Holstein relate to the violation of Belgium's neutrality, which was the highest level of state secrets, acc. to Theodor Schiemann. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote, among other things about him: 'Even when he resigned from his position, he allowed me to visit him and said to me, laughing, that I am now the one who delivers to him the most interesting information about court life and politics'. ... On the other hand, Ritter, Wallach and Craig, wrote that between Holstein and Alfred Graf von Schlieffen 'often marked confidential talks on the political situation', and in appreciation of contacts with Hutten-Czapski. ... Contact with Hutten-Czapski proved that among other things it was about foreign policy issues; Helmut Otto said that since August 1891, established contacts between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Caprivi. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen on all important matters consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski (Hague Peace Conference in 1899 Hutten-Czapski). ...
Soon after Hutten-Czapski had a long conversation between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Hohenlohe, also Otto said: 'At the turn of the century to strengthen cooperation with the Government and the General Staff...'.
... In general, we should agree with Otto ...
Helmut Otto also confirms the existence of contacts and cooperation with the Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Hohenlohe ... consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski ... Schlieffen was fully aware of this need and ... foreign events and issues and their impact on military and strategic planning.
These included the Franco-Russian alliance, the peace conference in The Hague, the first Moroccan crisis, relations with partners in the Triple Alliance of Austria-Hungary and Italy and the problems of coalition military preparations, the military objectives and expansionist colonial policy of German imperialism, primarily intervention in China from 1900 to 1902. ... colonial wars in South-West Africa, the struggle against the revolutionary workers' movement...".

It was 1914, the start of the Great War.
But when this war finished, Beseler, as German Governor-General in 1916, proclaimed the German Empire by the occupying powers and Austria - Hungary agreed establishment of an independent Kingdom of Poland. With active help of his close employee Bogdan Hutten - Czapski, he created the new Polish-language Warsaw University and the Technical University of Warsaw. On 10 November 1918, back to Warsaw, Józef Piłsudski; Zdzisław Lubomirski and Adam Koc in the night 09/10 November, 1918 received message about Pilsudski; by Lubomirski's car, Piłsudski arrived to Lubomirski house. Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was looking at this situation from distance, but at Warsaw Castle talked with Hans Hartwig Beseler on Pilsudski; at this moment Sosnkowski moved at Moniuszki avenue. Beseler fled on November 12, with his two aides and Polish officers on a ship on the Vistula river, from Warsaw to Thorn and from there to Berlin.
His contemporaries Hutten - Czapski, Prince Hermann von Hatzfeld and Maria Princess Lubomirska - wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski - expressed their praise of him; Hutten - Czapski: 'The Inspector General of the engineer and pioneer corps and the fortresses had also acquired management experience. ... with a refined and perfect - looking character...'.
Above Prince Zdzisław Lubomirski, a Polish aristocrat, landowner, chairman of the "Central Civil Committee" in 1915. 1917 to 1918 member of the Regency Council. Zdzislaw Lubomirski born 1865 in Nizhny Novgorod, the son of Prince Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski, and Maria Zamoyska; he attended Krakow's St. Anna High School; Jagiellonian University and University of Graz.
Maria Lubomirska b. 1841, d. 1922, daughter of Zdzisław Zamoyski Count; she was wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski Prince, and she was mother of Zdzisław Lubomirski (b. on April 4, 1865, in Niżny Nowogrod, d. 1943); above Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna in the Mohylow region, d. 1908, m. Maria nee Zamoyska; Zdzisław Lubomirski m. Maria nee Branicka; mentioned above Nizhny Novgorod / Nizhniy Novgorod / Nizhny Novgorod in Russia.
Above Zdzislaw Zamoyski:
Zdzisław Zamoyski Count, 1810 Warsaw - d. 1855 in Vienna, Austria, son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia; husband of Józefa Jadwiga Zamoyska; father of:
Stefan Zamoyski, above Maria Lubomirska;
Wanda Grocholska and Zofia Tarnowska;
brother of Konstanty Zamoyski, Andrzej Artur, Jan Zamoyski, Władysław Zamoyski, Celestyna Gryzelda Działyńska; Jadwiga Sapieha; Artur Zamoyski, Elżbieta Brzozowska; Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski and August Zamoyski.
Above named Władysław Zamoyski Count, 1803 - 1868.

Count Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Władysław Zamoyski b. 1852 was a Polish aristocrat and landowner, the grandson of Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski, and of Count Przemysław Potocki. Andrzej Przemysław married Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, granddaughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies, and had eight children.
Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski b. 1775, d. 1856, politician, landowner of Zamość estates. In 1809 he became the chairman of the "Provisional Government" of Galicia. He was Senator-Voivode of the Duchy of Warsaw and the Congress Kingdom from 1810 until 1831. He married Princess Zofia Czartoryska in 1798 in Puławy.
Róża Maria / Marianna Ewa Zamoyska nee Potocka, b. 1831 in Tomaszpil, Ukraine, d. 1890, daughter of Przemysław Potocki and Teresa; wife of Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski b. 1820 in Vienna, who was son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia;
Roza was mother of Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Zamoyski b. 1852 - d. 1927, landowner, born in Warsaw - the grandson of above named Count Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski 1775 in Warszawa, d. 1856 in Wien / Vienna.

On October 7, 1918, on initiative of Prince Lubomirski, Polish declaration of independence was announced and 14th October 1918, Polish Army soldiers pledged allegiance to the Polish flag.
Lubomirski supported Pilsudski's nomination (on 10th Nov. 1918 - 14th Nov.) for the post of the head of state.
Above mentioned Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna / Dubrovno, the Moghilov government; d. 1908, son of Eugeniusz Lubomirski, studied in St Petersburg. Then in France and England. 1863 the Foreign Affairs of Polish Government.
Above named Дубрoвно / Dubrowno in the Sienno (north-east of Miezonka) catholic area; the Orsha county, Moghilev government; at present in the Vicebsk oblast; 90 km to Vicebsk, 19 km north-east of Orsza / Orsha. Dubrovno to 1774 to Sapieha; then Count R. A. Potiemkin / G. A. Potemkin to 1791 (a watch factory!), close to Ksawery Lubomirski estate (and his daughter Klementyna girlfriend of Piotr Kroer);
since 1791 Lubomirski taken Dubrovno - now this place is "capital" of the government; next to Eugeniusz Lubomirski - 1809 new Orthodox church; Dubrovno was the Lubomirski family estate to 1917!
Eugeniusz Lubomirski b. 1789, d. 1834, landowner of Dubrovno close to Orsha from his father;
son of Ksawery Lubomirski (Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski 1747-1819) and Teofila Rzewuski (Teofila Beydo-Rzewuska 1762-1831), and brother of the Russian General Konstanty Lubomirski.

Bogdan Hutten - Czapski had met with the family of Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Hutten-Czapska in 1892.
She was the daughter of George and Josephine, and was born in Prague. Her mother came from the highest aristocracy of the Roman Empire. Maria was a prominent figure who has registered in history primarily as an editor collaborating with Paris 'Culture'. Also worked on biographies of her family, written in collaboration with her brother Jozef Czapski / Joseph.
Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapska, b. 1894 in Prague, died in 1981, Maisons-Laffitte; the granddaughter of Emeryk Czapski / Emeric Hutten-Czapski of the family who had a huge estates from Radziwill, around Minsk, in Curland, Lithuania and Volhynia, acc. to Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski, vol. 1-2, Berlin 1936.
Ferdinand Radziwill of the Polish Knights of Malta, has come after Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, an old friend of the Prussian court and military.
The estate of Pryluki to the Hutten - Czapskis was situated on Ptych river; a house of 1882 and terraced park. Pryluki / Priluki ca 14 km south-west of the Minsk core, and 15 km west of Koroliszczewiczi / Korolishchevici of the Konstantynowiczs; 13 km west of Gatovo / Hatowo, and 23 km north-east of Kojdanow / Koidanov; south-west of Minsk in Belarus, on way to Dzierzynsk / Dzierhinsk / Kojdanow / Koidanov.
Kuchcicze / Kuhtichi of Zawisza and the Radziwill family at the Minsk district; the palace complex, the facade with stone accents.
The first secret missions Bogdan Hutten - Czapski received in 1890, to the Vatican; over the next two years he worked as observer - the German embassy in Paris, where he was ambassador; the later Chancellor, Prince Hohenlohe, which entered into a close friendship with Czapski, and the later Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow, send him on missions; Duke Hohenlohe send Czapski to maintain contacts and research sentiment of the ruling class, also among the well-known from his youth - Bonapartists; he was residing in Paris, and known Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck, and his wife Teresa primo voto Marquise de Paiva; then he moved to Strasbourg, where he was an aide of the Field Marshal Manteuffel.
Then he received from the German General Staff a very important intelligence mission, a trip to the Russian and Austrian ex-Polish districts, to explore moods and relationships (1892). Bogdan Hutten-Czapski met with Karol Czapski of the Minsk goverment;
in 1891 Karol Czapski Hutten in Minsk opened the first pawnshops; in 1892 Hutten-Czapski launched full-scale operations, 1894 Karol Czapski was one of the most wealthy man not only in Minsk, but also in the whole of Belarus.
He know the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company. In the same year in Minsk there was the first power plant, which was able to provide electricity to much of the city. This power was located on Independence Avenue near the Belarusian State Circus.
Karol Hutten-Czapski died in Germany, in Frankfurt on January 17, 1904.


And next very interesting woman:

Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin, wife of Wilhelm Bacheracht, ex-wife of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt;
sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Above Wilhelm Bacheracht, the Russian diplomate, b. 1851, d. 1916 in Berne, the Bern District, in Switzerland; son of Robert von Bacheracht; husband of above mentioned Alexandrine.

Above Robert von Bacheracht b. 1797, died 1884 in Genova, Liguria, Italy. Ex-husband of Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, and father of above named Wilhelm Bacheracht. Also was the Russian diplomate, Vicekonsul in Hamburg, and the generale consul in Genova.
Above Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, born in 1804 in Stuttgart, to a father who was Russian legation secretary Heinrich von Struve; she lived in Hamburg; she was sent to Weimer in 1820, and in St. Petersburg,
married Robert von Bacheracht in 1825,
in 1841 / 1848 she started writing using the Pseudonym Therese. She sepparated from Robert von Bacheracht in 1849 (her love affair with the writer Karl Gutzkow / Karol Guczkow), back to her cousin, Heinrich Freiherr von Lützow (he was the Dutch officer, and she followed him to his post to Surabaya on Java) in August 1849. Therese died in 1852.

Mentioned above
Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin / Hutten-Czapski Alexandra b. 1854 / 1853 - d. 1941, the 1st husband Kolemin;
then entered into a morganatic marriage with the Grand Duke of Hesse Ludwig IV b. 1837; Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and other Royal Houses of Europe. Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany; his mother was the granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
1862, Louis married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. The couple had seven children, among others Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia b. 1864, and Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of All the Russias b. 1872.
Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage in 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska / Aleksandra Czapski Hutten b. 1854 in Warsaw, d. on 8 May 1941, in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland; she was the former wife of Aleksander Kolemin, the Russian charge d'affaires in Darmstadt;
now the Countess von Romrod.

Alexandrine Bacheracht / Alexandrine Countess von Hutten-Czapska died in Vevey / Switzerland, close to La Tour de Peilz; 8 km noerth-west of Montreux (see: Duflon, Konstantynowicz); 18 km south-east of Lutry; 6 km north-west of Clarens!
Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska, Grafin Romrod, daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski, and Countess Mariane Rzewuska / Marianne von Rzewuska Grocholska / Maria Anna Katarzyna Hutten-Czapska nee Rzewuska b. 1827; Alexandrine was the sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Bacheracht, Alexandrine nee Countess von Hutten Czapska, Kolemine, Countess Romrod (1854-1941) has grave with Georg von Kolemines in the cemetery of St. Martin in Vevey, Switzerland; but her husband was Alexander von Kolemin.
Who was Georg v. Kolemines?

"According to L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome I (1986), Grand Duke Ludwig (b. 1837, d. 1892) married morganatically at Darmstadt on 30 April 1884 Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapski (b. 1853 or 1854, d. 1941). Alexandrine was Ludwig's young Warsaw-born mistress of some years, was a recent widow, her husband Alexander von Kolemine, a Russian diplomat, having died the previous month in March. The von Kolemines had been separated since 1884, according to L'Allemagne Dynastique, but according to other sources, Alexandrine and von Kolemine were divorced. She is known as Alexandrine or Alexandra, and her first husband's name is rendered as Kolemine, Kolemin, Kalomine, or Kolomine. ... The Queen wrote to Victoria in reply that she was angry with Ludwig's plan to marry... Queen Victoria acted quickly and decisively. She more or less forced Ludwig to agree to end his marriage ... See 'From Battenberg to Mountbatten', by E. H. Cookridge, London, 1966, ... E. Corti (Salzburg, 1936). ... Ultimately, Alexandrine had no choice, accepted the situation, and left for Moscow. A few years later, in 1892 or 1893, Alexandrine married for a third time, to Basil von Bacheracht, who died in 1916. Finally, as for a child born of Ludwig and Alexandrine's brief marriage, one source mentions his existence, ... by David Duff (London, 1958). ... the child, a son, 'was adopted as a brother by the Empress of Russia'. ... Duff, using information supplied by Lord Mountbatten (Victoria's younger son), states that Grand Duke Ludwig's marriage to Alexandrine was not consummated",
acc. to Yvonne Demoskoff on 14 Mar 2003.

It was different Alexander von Kolemin who in 1842 m. to Marija Aleksandrovna Tolstoj b. 1822, daughter of Alexandr Stepanovich Tolstoj 1788 - 1850 / 1859, and Marija Ivanovna Golovina.

Jurij Alexandrovich Kolemin, was son of above Alexandrina nee Hutten Czapska.

I wrote above that
Alexandrine von Hutten-Czapska was the daughter of Adam Graf von Hutten-Czapski (1819 - d. 1883 in Nice or 1884) and Marianne Countess of Rzewuska-Grocholska (1827-1897).
Her father was raised along with his brothers and Ignacy Hutten-Czapski (Emmerich) on 12 June 1874 to the Count title in the Russia.

Above Adam Józef Erazm Hutten-Czapski b. 1819 was son of Karol Hutten-Czapski and Fabianna;
above Karol Hutten-Czapski b. 1777 d. 1836,
was son of Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Hutten-Czapski and Weronika Joanna, husband of Fabianna;
he was father of Adam Józef Erazm;
Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski;
and Karol Ignacy Hutten-Czapski;
brother of Stanislaw Hutten-Czapski; half brother of Augustyn Szymon (Michal) Hutten-Czapski; Anna Hutten-Czapska and Maria Hutten-Czapska.

In 1894 Karol Hutten Czapski was top figure in Minsk in Belarus; this Jan Karol Alexander Hutten-Czapski, usually as Karol Czapski (August 15 1860-1904) the Mayor of Minsk from 1890 to 1901, a Catholic, Count; born in Stankow close to Minsk Litewski, d. 1904 in Frankfurt;
he was the eldest son of Count Emeryk Czapski, known numismatist and Elizabeth of Meyendorff barons.
The owner of an estates: in Minsk belonged to him orchard, three stone and five multi-storey wooden houses, 34 thousands acres of land in Minsk and the Ihumen / Igumen districts, namely Stankovo:
Negoreloye (11 km south-west of Kojdanow, and north-east of Stolbcy; 12 km south-west of Stan'kowo / Stankovo),
Prusinovo (15 km east of Stolbcy; north-east of Nesvizh / Nieswiez),
Zubarevichi (Glussk / Hlusk area),
Stankovo (in Stankovo library there were more than 2,500 books), forest cottage on the way of Tslyakovo;
Sallenen estate / Sallienien in Courland / west Kurland, Saliene (Saliena), south-west of Kuldinga.
In 1894, a friend of Bogdan Czapski, Hohenlohe was Chancellor of the Reich and Czapski, along with his good friend, gray eminence of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Baron Holstein, became the main adviser to the Chancellor on matters of foreign policy;
Czapski also brokered between Berlin and the Vatican; Czapski at that time supported the candidacy of Edward Likowski on nomination, which Berlin did not want to agree. In 1895, Bogdan Hutten - Czapski was appointed hereditary member of the Prussian House of Lords.
Colonel Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, one of the closest collaborators of General Hans Hartwig von Beseler resided in the Potocki Palace in the years 1915-1918.

In 1914 Max Isidor Bodenheimer set out his vision to Count Hutten-Czapski of the General Staff, chief of sabotage operations on the eastern front.
With support from the General Staff and the Wilhelmstrasse, Bodenheimer established the German Committee for Freeing of Russian Jews in 1914; Bodenheimer wanted the German army to assault the power of the Tsarist empire in the Baltic states, Poland, White Russia and the Ukraine, where he hoped for an 'East European Federation' in which 'all ethnic groups were to enjoy national autonomy', including the Jews, by Wikipedia.
Max Isidor Bodenheimer b. 1865, Stuttgart, the main figure in German Zionism, 1898 he visited Palestine, in August 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, he submitted an Expose on the Synchronization of German and Jewish Interests in the World War to German military headquarters in Cologne. The League of East European States or Federation of East European States was a political idea conceived during World War I for the establishment of a buffer state, which would be a de facto protectorate of the German Empire.


Florence, a node of this network in Italy:
1.
a.
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d. 1885, Pratolino near Florence).
b.
Nikolai Nikitich Demidov, b. 1773 in Moscow, Russia; died in 1828 in Florence, Tuscany, Italy. Since 1815 - Russian Ambassador to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In Florence, where he founded an orphanage and a school, it was built a monument (1871) on the square called Piazza Demidoff.
In 1793, "Demidov married an heiress Baroness Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov, so was able to improve their financial situation. Upon his retirement, Demidov went with his wife in foreign travel, visiting Germany, England, France and Italy, and never missed a chance to get acquainted with the success of the mining equipment ... Returning to Russia in 1806, Demidov, wanting to have at its plants all the latest improvements on the part of technology, ordered from France Professor Ferri, then famous expert in the mining business. Demidov sent at his own expense abroad in England, Sweden and Austria to study specific industries of metallurgy more than a hundred serfs. The Nizhny Tagil plant of Demidov, ... was considered at that time the most advanced around the ridge of the Ural Mountains. ... Appointed in 1815 to Florence as Russian envoy, Demidov arranged here at their own expense an art museum and art gallery, which contains works by famous artists. In Florence Nicholas Nikitich arranged for their money a home for the elderly and orphans charity and donated to his special affairs. Living in recent years in Florence, Demidov though he lived a very luxurious and spare no means patronized scientists and artists, could, however, skillfully manage their affairs in Siberia, America, France and other countries...".
His son with Baroness Elisabeta Alexandrovna Stroganova:
Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov, b. 1798 in Saint Petersburg, died in 1840 in Mainz; husband of Aurora Karamzin; Count Pavel (called Paul) Nikolaievich Demidov as an officer in his father's regiment fought at the battle of Borodino in 1812. After the war he entered the Chevalier Guards regiment; in 1831 he entered civil service as governor of the province of Kursk. In 1834 he entered service in the Ministry of the Exterior as court Huntsmaster, later State Councillor. In Helsinki he married the maid-of-honour to Her Majesty the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Aurora Stjernvall (1808-1902) - they had one son, above Pavel Pavlovitch Demidov (1839–1885), whose daughter Aurora was mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia.
Above Eva Aurora Charlotta Karamzina (nee Stjernvall) was a Finnish-Swede philanthropist. "...Karamzina was born in Ulvila (Ulvsby), in Saaren Kartano, Finland. She was the daughter of Carl Johan Stjernvall (1764-1815) and Baroness Eva Gustava von Willebrand (1781-1844). Her father was a high official in the Grand Duchy of Finland and became the First Governor of the Viipuri Province in 1812. Von Willebrand was a distant niece of Gustav I of Sweden. Following Stjernvall's death in 1815, the Baroness remarried and became the wife of Finland's Procurator, Carl Johan Walleen ... Karamzina had an older brother, Emil Stjernvall Walleen (1806-1890) who became a Finnish Minister of State and a Baron. Karamzina also had two sisters, Emilia (1811-1846) and Alexandra Aline (1812-1851). Emilia married Vladimir Musin-Pushkin while Alexandra became the second wife of Jose Maurício Correia Henriques, the 1st Count de Seisal. Karamzina also had three half-brothers ... Aurora was appointed as a lady-in-waiting to Empress Alexandra Fedorovna the elder (consort to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia), and a lady of the bedchamber of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna the younger and Empress Maria Feodorovna. She was made a dame of the Order of Saint Catherine, the highest honour for ladies in Imperial Russia. ... In 1836, she married Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov ... In 1846 ... she remarried to Andrei Karamzin. ... She was considered a great benefactor in many cities such as Saint Petersburg and Florence. Karamzina's only child was Pavel Pavlovich Demidov ... In 1870, Pavel succeeded his childless uncle, Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, as the 2nd Prince of San Donato. Her granddaughter ... Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova married Arsen Karadordevic, Prince of Serbia and became the mother of the Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia...".
Above named Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato, died in 1885, Pratolino, Florence, was a Russian industrialist, jurist, philanthropist; first m. in 1867 to Princess Maria Elimovna Meshcherskaya (b. Saint Petersburg, 1844 - d. San Donato (or Vienna, per Ferrand), in 1868).
Her son Elim Pavlovich Demidov, 3rd Prince of San Donato, at Hietzing in the suburbs of Vienna born 1868.
In Saint Petersburg in 1871 he remarried to Princess Elena Petrovna Trubetskaya (Saint Petersburg, 1853 - Odessa, 1917), with whom he had six children:
Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, 1873 - d. Bussolino Torinese, Torino), mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia;
Anatoly Pavlovich Demidov, 4th Prince of San Donato (b. San Donato 1874 d. in Marseille);
Princess Maria Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, d. Pratolino), married in Helsingfors to Prince Semyon Semyonovich Abamelik-Lazarev;
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov (b. San Donato, 1879);
Elena Pavlovna Demidova (b. Saint Petersburg, 1884 - d. Sesto Fiorentino), married firstly in Saint Petersburg to Count Alexander Pavlovich Shuvalov, married secondly in Dresden in 1907 to Nikolai Alexeievich Pavlov.
Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato moved to Villa Pratolino / Villa Demidoff next to Gaston Mestayer.
c.
Evgenia Klimentievna Demidova had daughters Evgenia, Avrora and Helena; in Saint Petersburg in 1894 he married Podmener.
d. Look at
http://www.angelfire.com/realm/gotha/Part54.htm, on Florence, Bobrinski and Oginski:
da. Pr Dimitri Obolensky, b. St. Petersburg in 1882, d. Cannes in 1964; m. 1st Berlin in 1905 (div 1916) Css Helene Bobrinsky (St. Petersburg in 1885 - died in Bordeaux in 1937); m. 2d in Moscow 18 Jul 1917 (div 1921) to Css Maria Schouwalowa (b. Berlin in 1894, d. Oxford in 1973); m. 3d in London in 1923 to Natalia Fedorov (b. Simbirsk 1894).
db. Ct Alexis Bobrinsky, b. St. Petersburg in 1893, d. London in 1971; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1915 to Css Natalia Fersen (b. Paris in 1890); m. 2d Paris in 1940 to Olga Kosolup-Pchenitchny; m. 3d to Css Olga de Bertren;
dc. Css Catherine Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1883, d. Nice in 1954; m. in St.Petersburg 1908 to Ilya Miklachevsky (b. Odessa in 1877).
dd. Pr Jerome Bonaparte (b. Trieste in 1814, d. Florence in 1847).
de. His sister:
Pss Mathilde Bonaparte (b. Trieste 1820, d. Paris in 1904); m. in Florence in 1840 to Anatole Demidov, Pr di San Donato (b. Moscow in 1813, d. Paris in 1870).

df. Ct Alexander Schouwalow / Szuwalow / Shuvalov, b. Vartemiagui in 1881, d. London 1935; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1903 (div) Pss Helene Demidova di San Donato (b. St. Petersburg in 1884, d. Florence in 1959); m. 2d in Paris in 1916 to Css Sophia Fersen (b. St. Petersburg 1888, d. Davos in 1927).

2.

Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florence / Florencja.
See: 'Freemasonry and Fraternalism in Eighteenth-Century Russia' by Andreas Önnerfors and Robert Collis (eds.), Sheffield Lectures on the History of Freemasonry and Fraternalism, Volume Two, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, 2009, ©2009 CRFF and the authors, ISBN: 978-0-9562096-1-0.
Andrzej Ignacy Oginski: b. 1740, Freemason; 1772 in Vienna wanted to establish failed contact with the French Ambassador, de Rohan; was talking with the British Ambassador in Vienna, David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield (David Murray b. 1727 d. 1796, known as The Viscount Stormont from 1748 to 1793; Minister to Saxony and Poland, 1755-1763; Ambassador to Austria, 1763-1772; Ambassador to France, 1772-1778; married 1st to Henrietta Frederica Bunau, daughter of the British ambassador to Saxony - child, Elizabeth Murray b. 1760 in Warsaw, and she was friend of Dido Elizabeth Belle b. 1761; David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield married secondly Louisa Cathcart, they had five children - Caroline, David, George, Charles, and Henry), but Oginski believed Kaunitz;
his wife Paula Szembek / Paulina Szembek, with son Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florencja.
Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Oginski, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski, Franciszek Ksawery Oginski, Amelia Zaluska, Ida Oginska, Emma Oginska.
In 1796 Catherine of Russia died. 1796 - Paul, the new Tsar, and refugees were accepting amnesties already offered by Catherine. Ca 1797 Kajetan Nagurski joined this re-immigration, and he took Maria Neri back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau. Acc. to Iwo Zaluski: ca 1798, Kajetan Nagurski himself returned to Russian Lithuania, to reclaim and sort out his estate. Kajetan, unable then to get a passport allowing him back into Prussia, and thus to Warsaw, asked Morawski's father, Apolinary, to visit Maria Neri. Apolinary Morawski became lover behind Kajetan's back, with Maria Neri ca 1798. Nagurski brought her to his estate in Lithuania, where he married her, ca 1799. Ca 1800 Maria began to be seen in the company of the dashing young Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania. The affair came to an end when Count Kajetan Nagurski decided to go to Vienna with Maria, where he hoped to find a cure for his jaundice. Kajetan died soon afterwards in Vienna 1800 / 1801. His widow, now an independent lady, returned to Vilnius, and in 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska's life changed direction after she caught the attention of General Count Levin August von Bennigsen, Governor of Vilnius.
1801, Michal Kleofas Oginski
(1790, to The Hague as a diplomatic representative of Poland in the Netherlands; in 1795 Konstantynopol, 1796 Venice, Tuscany; Paris; 1810 Petersburg;
moved abroad in 1815?,
1822 Italy, 1823 Firenze / Florence to death 1833)
was living with his wife Izabela and two infant sons, Tadeusz and Xavier, at his wife's family's estate at Brzeziny, to the south west (see Otrebusy) of Warsaw.
Tsar Paul refused him permission to return, and new Tsar Alexander offered him an unconditional amnesty. Michal Kleofas Oginski, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in inevitable divorce, accepted the amnesty, and returned to Vilnius in 1802. Maria Nagurska / Maria Neri accepted marriage 1802, and in 1804 settled at his estate at Zalesie close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk. Michal Kleofas had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg in 1810.
Her children: Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska, Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813. Her son Ireneusz, born in 1807 / 1808 was conceived of the singer Giuseppe Paliani.

Michal Kleofas Oginski with his parents in 1772 - 1773 was living in Viena; 1773 back with mother to Guzow again; 1785 memeber of Parliament in Warsaw; in March 1794 the Uprising began, which was led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Count Mikhail-Cleophas Oginski was in the front ranks of the rebels. Donated 188000 zlotys, was in command of 480 riflemen. He was elected to the National Council.
Twice attempted to enter the Minsk Governorate to raise Belarusians against Russian occupation; actions under him to Dyneburg / Dinaburg on August 12, 1794; also struggled against Prussian intervention.
When the Russians occupied Vilnius 1794, Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Warsaw.
The Russians outlawed him and seized all his lands. In fall of 1794 he, along with Isabella, flees to Vienna and Venice in Italy, but she soon returned to Poland after learns that her husband has spent on the case "revolution" even her family jewels. Thereafter Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Paris.
He swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1802 and settled in Zalesie village 1804, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow.
1807 - Oginski met Napoleon in Italy,
in Venice; he told with Napoleon but next Oginski moved on Tuscany in 1808, where he was 12 years before; here in Florence General Menou was appointed governor, and Oginski was in the Pitti Palace; after the peace of Schoenbrunn, Oginski repaired to Paris, at the invitation of the Russian minister Prince Kurakin; Oginski was in Paris the seventh time; from Paris back to Wilno, and was entrusted with a memorial from the nobility of Lithuania, and he repaired to Petersburg in 1810 to Alexander who appointed of Oginski to be Senator of Russia and the Russian Emperor gave Oginski the rank of Privy Councilor. In 1810, the nobility of Vilna and Grodno provinces decided to send a representative to the Alexander I on economic and administrative affairs of the region, and this representative was elected Michal-Cleophas Oginski and supported by the Governor-General Mikhail Kutuzov. Then he rejoined his family at Paris; he again appeared at the Tuilleries in 1810, where Napoleon and Duroc again received him about the project re-establishment of the kingdom of Poland. In April 1811 Oginski back to Petersburg to Emperor with regard to Poland.
Michal Kleofas Oginski, not once (1810-1811) met the Russian Emperor Alexander I in St. Petersburg, Vilnius, Mogilev and Vitebsk, developed the latest project of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, known as the Oginski Plan;
this Plan for the restoration of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, to unite the eight provinces, in 1810-1812 offered to Alexander I, however, was rejected by the Emperor in May 1811;
in June 1812, Michal Kleofas / Michael Cleophas Oginski with troops stationed in St. Petersburg. After the war with Napoleon returned to Zalessie, where he remained until 1822, slowly moving away from political affairs;
in 1817 Oginski moved from St Petersburg to Vilna.
I wrote down in 1810 Oginski moved to St. Petersburg, Russia. There he met the Russian Emperor.
"...In 1814, the tsar decreed that the Retow / Rietavas manor be sold to M. K. Oginski for the sum of 277,600 silver rubles. In this way, Rietavas became a private manor of the Oginski family, and soon after that, their most important residence in Lithuania. Duke M. K. Oginski was a multifaceted personality: a prominent figure in the life of the state, the last treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a composer, a man of letters ... (by Jeffrey Andrev Clarke, Liucija Balkevičiūtė).
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, M. K. Oginski lost hope that the Lithuanian state would be restored, and he decided to emigrate. In 1822, he transferred ownership of his Rietavas property to his wife Maria nee Neri / Marija and to his children, and in 1823 he left for Italy. M. K. Oginski never returned to Lithuania".
"...After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Ogiński considered the Polish puppet Kingdom of Poland, with the Tsar himself as King, a sell-out, and he lost faith not only in politics, but also in his marriage, which, like his first one, had gone sour. In 1823 he wrote his most famous Polonaise No 13 in A minor, known as Farewell to the Fatherland, and exiled himself to his beloved Florence...",
by Iwo Załuski, at http://www.oginskidynasty.com/Kleofas.aspx.
In 1815, his marriage came to divorce, said love life of his wife probably condemned his reputation and now Oginski as a senator of the Russian Empire, after the creation of the Congress Kingdom in 1815, left for Italy, settling in Florence again.
By Jerzy Jan Lerski, ‎Piotr Wróbel, ‎Richard J. Kozicki:
"Disappointed again, Oginski emigrated to Western Europe in 1815. ...".
In 1817 Oginski resigned as senator,
"...in 1822 he became seriously ill, he had drove to Florence (again) to cure itself. From this time Oginski gave away the music and composition ... In 1831 he gave his note book (collection of his notes) with more than 60 works for piano and some songs out".
But different sources wrote:
In 1823 (1815, 1822?) failing health forced him to move to Italy, where he spent the last 10 years of his life.
But in 1820, when finally disappointed policies of Alexander I, Oginski agreed to move to a second wife's home in Napoli / Naples.

And now the most important notes on:
1. The Scotti Douglas / Scotti family of Naples and Nola (below at this webpage); 2. the Neri family from Florence, Venice, Zalesse; 3. also the Mercier / Mercer family from Estonia, Petersburg, Ceylon and south India; 4. tea plantations at Ceylon island. 5. the Weiss family of Estonia.

We need to check all data on Michal Kleofas Oginski trips:
1815 abroad, 1817 ?, 1822 Italy, 1823 Florence.

Explanations to Naples in 1820:

1.
Leonard Borejko Chodźko, historian and writer, born in Oborek, the Palatinate of Vilna, in 1800; son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria; cousin of the Orientalist Aleksander Chodźko; studied at Molodeczno, with Zan, and at Wilna, under the historian J. Lelewel.
In 1819 was the personal secretary of Michael Cleophas Oginski, and together in 1822 left Lithuania, through nearly all Europe; Chodzko after a four-year stay in Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and England, settled in Paris in 1826;
he published Histoire des legions polonaises en Italic in 1829; 1830, "...Lafayette appointed him his aide-de-camp; and after the outbreak of Nov. 29 of the same year in Warsaw, he acted as agent of the revolutionary government in France. He was an active member of the French-Polish and American-Polish committees...".
Member of the Polish National Committee and 'Zemsta Ludu', 1832 / 1833, with Joachim Lelewel and Józef Zaliwski, and also with Józef Kazimierz Sulpicjusz Napoleon Hutten-Czapski / Józef Napoleon, b. 1797 d. 1852,
the father of famous Bogdan Hutten - Czapski (see Pilsudski, Lubomirski, 1892 Minsk in Belarus, Miezonka before 1842.
Members of the 'Zemsta Ludu':
Stanisław Gabriel Worcell, Bolesław Gurowski, Mjr Antoni Krąkowski, Józef Zaliwski; Ostrowski moved to Paris, Krąkowski to Posen, Worcell to Lviv,
Joachim Lelewel who was republican conspirator, a close collaborator of the Carbonari, and of the
Société des Amis du Peuple

[see Inessa Armand:
Inessa Armand born in Paris on 8th May, 1874. Name variations: Ines Stéphane / Eлизавета Фёдоровна / Ines Elisabeth Stephane / Elise / Elisabeth / Elisaveta / Стеффeн / Steffen / Comrade Inessa and Elena Blonina. Born Elizabeth Stephane, was daughter of Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville and Nathalie Wild; married Alexander Armand, Oct 3, 1893.
Alexandre Dumas points to Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux and Ernest Duchatelet were involved in political trials at the time but the person who shot Alfred Galois (a duel) was by the initials L. D., a member of the Society of Friends of the People (La Societe des Amis du Peuple, in France created in 1830, fighting for a republic and for political enlightenment of progressive workers. After the 1833 trial, the society ceased to exist,
acc. to 2010 The Gale Group, Inc). And after - when she was only five - Elizabeth Stephane or Ines / Inessa was brought up by an aunt - new governess and grandmother living in Moscow - around 1880. Anna Asknazi vel Askenazy was friend of Inessa Armand in Moscow of 1909 and also doctor N. N. Pechkin, Boris Armand, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Константинови ч who helped out financially, Natalia Emil'evna, the twin Brilling brothers-in-law, Alexander Armand. At the age of eighteen she married Alexander Armand, the son of Evgenii Armand, a successful textile manufacturer in Pushkino near by Moscow. At the age of 19 she knew only two languages until as adult she learned German and Polish.
Above mentioned Société des amis du peuple / The Society of Friends of the people was a Republican organization, dissolved October 2, 1830 on the basis of Article 291 of the Criminal Code, but it does not disappear. In April / May, 1831, 19 Republicans are accused of conspiracy, of which ten were members of the Society. New associations take over, such as the League of Human Rights. Member of the Society of Friends:
Evariste Galois was born 1811 in Bourg-la-Reine, died on 31 May 1832 in Paris after a duel; May 9, 1831 in the restaurant Harvest Burgundy, Faubourg du Temple, Evariste Galois was at garden-party, but the next day, arrested with nineteen Republicans, including Ulysses Trélat, Joseph Guinard, Godfrey Cavaignac and Pescheux Herbinville of accused of plotting against the security of the State; on July 4, 1831, Fish and Lacroix make their report on Galois; release on 29 April 1832. Galois's fatal duel took place on 30 May, 1832. There has been much speculation, about a Mademoiselle Stéphanie-Félicie Poterin du Motel; Alexandre Dumas names Pescheux d'Herbinville, one of the nineteen artillery officers whose celebrated at the banquet on the occasion of Galois's first arrest and du Motel's fiance.
Dumas is alone in this assertion, and only a few days after the duel give a description of his opponent that more accurately applies to one of Galois's Republican friends, most probably Ernest Duchatelet, who was imprisoned with Galois on the same charges. There were plans to initiate an uprising during his funeral.
See: John Stillwell of 2010.
Société des droits de l'homme / The Society for Human Rights (SDH) is a republican association from 1830, developed from 1832, after the disappearance of the other great republican association the Society of Friends of the People;
it is organized on the model of the Carbonari.
The note on:
François Etienne Pecheux or Pescheux of Herbinville, former member of the League of Friends of the People / Pescheux d'Herbinville (but also PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE / Théodore Pécheux d'Herbenville):
Evariste Galois confronted Pescheux d'Herbinville in a duel to be fought with pistols, and was shot through the stomach. Évariste Galois, b. 1811.
See: Alexandre Dumas, My Memoirs, p 61 and 247.
Pescheux was named Administrator at Compiegne Palace on May 4, 1848, he took office on June 1 to August 25, 1848 and then at Château de Fontainebleau, on September 2, 1848 until April 15, 1850. He published "Fontainebleau and charming walks to sites and rocks that surround" in 1850.
The genealogy of Inessa Armand:
Henri Lucien PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE born on 14 August 1875 in Asnieres;
parents: Leon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849, marchant, and Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854;
grand-parents:
Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1809 and Marie-Josephine DESCHAMPS / Marie-Joséphine Jenny DESCHAMPS by
http://gw.geneanet.org/pierfit?lang=en&p=henri+lucien&n=pecheux+herbinville.
Her children:
Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE 1839-1904,
Lucien PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1845 married in 1876, in Paris to Caroline GAVIOLI 1842-1924,
Théodore PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1847 - father of Inessa Armand;
Léon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849 married to Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854.
Above Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX des HERBENVILLE / Etienne François PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE, b. on 5 April 1809 in Paris, Artillery Officier, member of the 'Société des Amis du Peuple';
m. 1st to Marie-Joséphine DESCHAMPS;
m. 2nd in 1859 in Paris to Lucie Marie Dorothée PÉPIN; he was awarded the Cross of July]

and
Société des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen,
Filip Buonarotti, Michał Chodźko in Lyon in 1833; Kalikst Borzewski of Plock, Zawisza, Sperczyński, Kisielewski, Aleksander Psalmart, Józef Dąbkowski).
Mentioned Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski was born 1851, d. 1937.
In 1833 Colonel Zaliwski, co-operated with The Carbonari movement (see Oginski in Naples in 1820; the Scotti-Douglas in Nola and Naples / Napoli and also Scotland), secret revolutionary society founded in early 19th century in Italy.
The Italian Carbonari influenced other revolutionary groups in Spain, France, Portugal and possibly Russia: Bazard, Silvio Pellico, Pietro Maroncelli, Giuseppe Mazzini, Marquis de Lafayette (see Chodzko), Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis Auguste Blanqui, Byron and Giuseppe Garibaldi.

We back again to Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to (January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833; 1833 - 1837 Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski / Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834
(Mazzini's Young Europe, founded in Bern by seventeen exiles; the center of a European movement, acc. to Alberto Mario Banti:
"...according to whom, in a peaceful future, Europe would take the form of a harmonious community, in which all free nations would cooperate both politically and culturally, to their mutual benefit".
"...Mazzini obtained the cooperation of the principal representatives of the various nationalities in the organization of a new association to be called Young Europe. ... appointed delegates, who on April 15, 1834, solemnly agreed to abide by the political, social, and religious platform which was laid down by Mazzini. The main object of Young Europe, according to Mazzini, was to lay the foundation for a universal development of thought and action, which would lead to the discovery and practical application of the divine laws of human government. Mazzini defined the league as the young Europe of the people, which was to supplant the old Europe of kings...",
acc. to 'chestofbooks.com/reference'),
including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland.
Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to Hubert Koziel, in 1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski was the republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini of the Carbonari.
Who was above mentioned an Irishman O'Brien?
Notes:
Journal of Political Ideologies 06/2008 "...analyses the political economy of James Bronterre O'Brien, most important intellectual of 1830s' British working-class radicalism. It examines O'Brien's critique of 1830s Britain ... The article argues that O'Brien's work of the period 1832–1841 is best viewed as the first example of a genuinely democratic anti-capitalist political economy. The article goes on to analyse changes that occurred to O'Brien's democratic anti-capitalist political economy ... was partially abandoned in 1841. The article concludes that the reasons for these changes are to be found not in ideational factors internal to O'Brien's political economy, but rather in O'Brien's personal circumstances and relationship with his imagined audience", copyright by Ben Maw.
Acc. to Richard Brown at http://richardjohnbr.blogspot.co.uk/
"...Bronterre O'Brien was born at (near by) Granard (28 km south of Cavan, 36 km north-west-north of Mullingar), County Longford, Ireland, in February 1804 (or 1805), the second son of Daniel O'Brien and his wife, Mary Kearney. His father, who was a wine and spirit merchant and a tobacco manufacturer in co. Longford, failed in business during O'Brien’s childhood, and died soon after. O'Brien was educated at ... Edgeworthstown School, which had been promoted by Richard Lovell Edgeworth. He then went to Trinity College, Dublin ... 1829. He entered the King's Inns, Dublin, and then went to London, where he was admitted as a law student at Gray's Inn in March 1830. In London he met Henry Hunt and William Cobbett. In 1831, ... contributed to Hetherington's Poor Man's Conservative. ... called himself James Bronterre O'Brien. ... visited France on three occasions in 1837-8. In 1836, his translated edition of Buonarotti's History of Babeuf's Conspiracy was published and in 1838 the first volume of his eulogistic Life of Robespierre appeared. ... In 1837, he began Bronterre's National Reformer, but it soon failed and in 1838 The Operative that ended publication in July 1839. ... he had four children. From the beginning of the Chartist movement, O'Brien was one of its most prominent figures. He was a member of the original London Working Man's Association, and was a delegate to the Chartist meeting in Palace Yard ... 1838 ... He represented the Chartists of Manchester at the Chartist convention ... 1840. O'Brien acted in his own defence ... on a charge of conspiracy, but was found guilty at Liverpool in April ... He was sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment. ... Released in September 1841, O'Brien continued the series of bitter personal quarrels with O'Connor ... edited the British Statesman between June and December 1842, and in 1845 became editor of the National Reformer. ... He wrote several pamphlets on Lord Palmerston, Lord Overstone, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Robespierre. He was a member of the Stop-the-War-League during the Crimean War ... died at his home in Pentonville, London, ... 1864. His wife survived him...".
A short on his son Bogdan Hutten-Czapski:
"...On the German side, the emperor had himself as early as July 31, 1914, a day before Germany declared war on Russia, given the German-Polish magnate Count Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Hutten-Czapski (b. 1851), a personal acquaintance of his, a non-binding assurance that the Polish state should be restored when Russia was defeated. The imperial promise may have been vague, but the Imperial Chancellor confirmed it on the same day. ... immediately on the outbreak of war this same Hutten-Czapski, who was a lieutenant-colonel in the Prussian army, was attached to the general staff in charge of Polish and Ukrainian questions. His first commission was to foment insurrection in Congress Poland by means which included the raising of a Polish Legion - the counterpart to Pilsudski's in Galicia - and the dissemination among the Poles of leaflets and cartoons to awaken sympathy for the Central Powers. A month later Hutten-Czapski was relieved of this commission but only, it would appear, because his sympathies were too strongly nationalist ...
See: Fritz Fischer, Germany's Aims in the First World War, New York, 1967 pp. 114-5. Note 4 referring to Hutten-Czapski, 60 Jahre Politik etc., Berlin, 1936, Vol 2, pp. 145 f.;
... Szescdziesiat lat zycia politycznego i towarzyskiego. Warszawa, F. Hoesick, 1936. 2 v. plates ... At head of title: Bogdan Hutten-Czapski...".

Leonard Chodzko died in Poitiers in 1871; he was born 1800, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria;
husband of famous Olimpia (see Venture, Sulkowski and Breguet, Konstantynowicz and Armand in Moscow; Duflon from Switzerland);
brother of Aleksander Chodźko (died 1877)
acc. to Leszek Mila.


Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis, was a French orientalist. The son of a family of diplomats
(his father had been consul in the Crimea and in other countries of the Levant)
and military, he studied at the School of Languages of Louis-le-Grand College in Paris where he learned so well the Arab and Turkish, and at the age of fifteen, was working at the French Embassy in Constantinople. He was a secretary and interpreter of the Embassy of France; he held various positions in Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunis in 1779 and Algier. He also participated in the inspection mission of the Levant, by Baron de Tott. He returned to Paris in 1797 at the School of Oriental Languages, the Turkish​​. The member of the Commission on Science and the Arts, military interpreter of the Army of the East. Member of the Institute of Egypt on August 22, 1798, at the section of literature and arts.
Jean-Joseph Marcel, who was his pupil, said he died of dysenterie, others talk of plague. Another hypothesis says he died on April 19, 1799 in Nazareth, ill after the Siege of Saint John of Acre.
He was married in Cairo to Victoria Digeon (on June 14, 1774), he had two daughters, one of which, Jeanne Venture de Paradis married in 1810 (?) to watchmaker Antoine Louis Breguet, son of the famous Abraham Louis Breguet, which is a branch of Clementine Célarié.
But we know that Breguet, Louis François Clément / Louis Clément Bréguet, b. December 22, 1804 (!) in Paris.
Clémentine Célarié (born 1957) is a French actress and singer, was born as Myriem Célarié in Dakar, living in the United States, back in France to Aix-en-Provence.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis in 1764, as interpreter in Sidon, and in 1770 in Cairo, until 1776, making a number of services to politics and commerce of France.
Above mentioned Digeon Victoria (next of kin ? with Alexander Elisabeth Michel vicomte Digeon / Alexandre Elisabeth Michel Digeon, Major General, b. on June 26, 1771 in Paris, died on August 2, 1826 in the village of Ronqueux, annexed in 1834 to Bullion, near Paris) had two daughters.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis returning to France to report to Cabinet on the art of Egypt, had to leave for Marseilles, to accompany Barone Tott, who inspected the French warehouses in ports of the Levant, 1778 Cairo. This mission taken two years. In 1779 Venture was in Tunis, where he remained for five years as interpreter for the Consulate of France; recalled in Paris, as Secretary of interpreters of the East; then posted in Algiers, in order to renew the treaties between France and Algier, in 1790 returned to France; again in 1793 as Secretary - interpreter, together with the French ambassador to Constantinople; he was arrested in Switzerland at the hands of the Austrians; had expected to Venice 1793 ?, then gone alone to Constantinople where he stayed until 1797; then returned to France, accompanying the Ambassador Ali Effendi. In Paris at the Turkish Special School of Oriental Languages​​. When Napoleon undertook the expedition to Egypt, Venture de Paradis was appointed primary interpreter.
During the stay in Egypt, he was appointed member of the Institut of Egypt since its founding, on August 22, 1798 at the section of literature and the arts. He gone with the emperor in Syria, but during the siege of Acre fell ill of dysentery, in the convent of Nazareth, died during the retreat, or he was transferred to Egypt. Venture de Paradis was one of the most famous Arabists of the time, not only for his languages, but also for his perfect knowledge of the habits and customs of the eastern populations.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis that is Jan Michał Venture de Paradis was father of Janina 'Egipcjanka' Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska / JeanneFrançoise Venture / Jeanne Françoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France, wife of Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet, and mother of Louis Clément Bréguet.
She was also wife of Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski.
Her father Jean-Michel de Venture de Paradis, born 8 May 1739 in Marseille, died 16 May 1799 in Acri / Acra.
Janina Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska, with Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski had children:
Victoire Clementine de Laqueuille,
Olimpia Chodźko
and (different father !) Adela married to Mortier (Adelajda? b. ca 1813 or ca 1815 ?).
So Little Louis had a sister, Adela!
And their mother knew the Polish language:
although she knew a bit the Polish language from first husband. So half-siblings of Little Louis also come to know from their father, the Polish language and Polish history.
Adela had the surname, which suggests that she could be in St. Petersburg already in the 30's of the 19th century? And Breguet, when he was in Kazan in the 40's of the 19th century, could know the Polish language and some Russian language!?
Antoine Louis Breguet ran, with his cousin Lassieur, the team of watchmakers working in a studio on the Quai de l'Horloge.
The 'little Louis' - called as its size does not exceed 1.55 m - was sent in 1824 to Geneva, where he worked as a common laborer.
On his return to Paris in 1827, he devoted himself to the construction of marine chronometers, wrote in 1847 in a notice on its work presented at the Academy of Sciences. In 1832, 'Little Louis' decided to become an electrician.
1833, Louis married his cousin Caroline Lassieur, the daughter of Louis Lassieur and Sophie Courbin.
Lassieur Louis was the son of Marie-Louise a younger sister of Abraham Breguet.
May 20, 1833 Antoine Louis Breguet signed the sale of his 'Breguet house, nephew and Co.', formed by Louis Breguet and Louis Lassieur; the price of 270.000 francs paid by the three members.
Now, he invented a mechanical counter in 1841, published on induction with Masson and Savart, in the Annals of Physics; at that time Louis Breguet realized thermometrograph who recorded at the University of Kazan in Russia temperatures of minus 42 degrees; he was appointed a member of the Kazan university in 1843.
Also in 1843, Louis Breguet devised, upon request by Arago and using a method assigned Wheatstone, apparatus of rotating mirror, 540.000 per minute! This time was full of activity with the electric telegraph in France, after its discovery by the English.
Louis Breguet and Alphonse Foy, invented the first telegraph line from Paris to Rouen (1845). Then he participated in the development of the telegraph dial (1849), created a mobile telegraph, a speed controller, a telegraph printer; Lassieur died in 1851, "Breguet, nephew and Co." became simply the "House Breguet" a name that the company retained for a century.
Louis Breguet had one son born in 1851 named Anthony as his grandfather.
Around 1855, the Breguet built telegraph across Europe, and even in Brazil and Japan; led a studio in Montparnasse; among the new productions appeared exploders knuckle-fist for the army and navy, invention of Louis Breguet.
In 1856, he worked for Lyon; 1857, it was the realization of the time resetting mechanical clock; at Breguet workshops also were born devices of Marey, Yvon Villarceau, Berlin, the seismograph Grye, the chronograph Captain Fleuriais, and many others including accumulators; after the War of 1870, his son Anthony worked out with Graham Bell from the USA, the first phones to Paris; the first theatrical stereo transmissions in 1881.


By Bohdan Urbankowski at http://niniwa22.cba.pl/czy_towianski_byl_szpiegiem.htm:

"...Paris, May 30, 1848, meeting of the Society of Slavs. ... speaks Desprez. When the French writer refers ... on Mickiewicz, at the place leaps Leonard Chodźko: 'Mr. Mickiewicz authority is more than suspect, as we believe it all he is a Russian spy!' Chodźko was not a dull fanatic, he has a reputation ... He was written in French - the work of Polish history and literature (two-volume history of the Legions, biographies Kosciuszko, Pulaski et al.), Editor, and what is important: he was a friend - since college - of Mickiewicz in Vilnius, activist of the Filaret Society and publisher of the two-volume Mickiewicz Poetry in 1828. Shocking opinion, which gave, echoed, unfortunately, to our countrymen. Animosity towards earlier beloved poet began to grow after Mickiewicz started in the Towiański movement; because the "Master" Andrzej Towianski also, and even more, was deemed to be an agent of Russia. ... Rumors about Towiański appeared shortly after his arrival in Paris, behind him ... In fact, the way of the future "Master" Andzej Towianski was similar to the way of the future 'Prophet' Adam Mickiewicz, and even a few times with him crossed. A reconstruction of the biography. Towianski was born ... on 1 January 1799 in Antoszwińce (the name of the farm is also present in the plural), was given to schools in Vilnius, ... made friend with Ferdinand Gutt, ... on this friendship has left a shocking record Zbigniew Krasinski, dated 19 March (April), 1848 letter to Delfina. Gutt's father was a pharmacist. It seems that demanded from him poison to someone, apparently Wittgenstein that had married to Radziwiłł (Stefania Radziwill Wittgenstein of Miezonka among others). Old Gutt did not want to bring out the poison, it seems that it was Towiański who advised to bring out the poison... Old Gutt disappeared. I have not known what happened to him, and finally discovered that his body was carved on pieces, and thrown into the river. ... this terrible murder. ... The beginning of the mission of Towiański dated on May 11, 1828. It seems that was in Vilnius and in the neighborhood, but the result was rather unexpected. Edward Wołodko wrote about it in 1907, in the "Library of Warsaw", in the article 'Memories of Towiański' ... Here are a result of denunciation of Towiański by another neighbor, and Towianski was arrested and subjected to a psychiatric examination. ... admits Wołodko - these studies, however, killed of Towianski movement in the eyes of the residents of Vilnius. ... "Master" Andrzej choose somewhere else.
In 1832 he went to St. Petersburg, he met with the Illuminatis, a heirs of Grabianko, but it does not seem that it is only now formed his doctrine.
He tried to convert, so the St. Petersburg police forced him to leave the Russian capital. Yet in 1834 he went to Carlsbad, he was also in Dresden, where he met Odyniec, which inquired about the exact details of Mickiewicz life. Thanks to Odyniec, he met 'Dziady'... Towiański also met and charmed General Skrzyneckiego ... In 1837, after his father's death, he returned to the family farm ... For the second time, as we know, ... on May 23, 1839 before leaving, he wrote "constitution" - a set of moral rules for the peasants, he visited his mother, who settled in Vilnius ... also visited the appropriate authorities. On June 28, 1840 received a passport valid for one year. After arriving at the West, Towiański tried to entrap Skrzyneckiego again - but this time did not work out. There were a lot more serious charges - the destruction of Mickiewicz. In March 1845 the Brussels-writing "White Eagle" published an anonymous article titled 'The Intrigue of the St. Petersburg crowned'. The content gives '...life and works of Adam Mickiewicz', which should rewrite the relevant passages: 'Anticipating that the cathedral of Slavic literatures at the College de France can be used to the detriment of Russia, St. Petersburg government decided to prevent this with the help of his agent, Towiański. The goal has been achieved...'. The accusation of spying, Zygmunt Krasinski slipped in a letter to Trentowski on 10 III 1849: 'The Towianski movement and demagogy of our Paris...'. ... To conclude this section, let us add that suspicion of Krasinski and other immigrants coincided with the French suspicions. As proof, we quote the letter of
Duchatel, the Minister of the Interior, to the Minister of Enlightenment - Villemain ... '...can assume that Towiański is actually Russian secret agent.
For several months ... they develop an animated action, some crisscross of France, the others set their meeting in Switzerland or Belgium, try to establish contacts with the former Imperial Army soldiers remaining in active service...'.
... it was introduced by Becu Joseph / Jozef Becu, brother of the doctor known for 'Dziady'. Krasinski noted in a letter to Dolphina Potocka on 26 November 1841: Towiański actually knew the doctor Becu
... Zygmunt Krasinski on June 15, 1851 sent a letter to Count Zamoyski, in which he wrote of the ... rumors about "Master" like the Russian spy...".
Napoleon Stanisław Adam Felix Count Zygmunt Krasinski b. 1812 in Paris, d. 1859, the greatest poet of Polish Romanticism; the biggest influence on his views and all life had a father Vincent Krasinski - General of Napoleon, and later a loyal subject of the Russian Tsar. From the autumn of 1832 to the spring of 1833 he was in St. Petersburg with his father, who wanted to get him to the service of the Russian court; moved to Krakow, Vienna, he went to Italy, in Rome in 1834, 1836 in Rome, he met Julius Slowacki, December 1838 an affair with Delfina Potocka. During the revolution in Rome in 1848 with Cyprian Kamil Norwid defended Pope Pius IX. Zygmunt Krasinski died on February 23, 1859 in Paris. His parents Vincent Krasinski and Maria Ursula Radziwill; marriage with Eliza Branicka, children Władysław Krasiński, Jerzy Zygmunt Krasinski, Maria Beatrice and Eliza Krasińska. Above Władysław Krasiński b. 1844 in Warsaw, d. 1873 in Menton, son of Sigmund and Elizabeth Branicka, during the January Uprising worked in Paris together with Prince Władysław Czartoryski. Marriage to Rose Potocki, was the father of three children: Adam Krasinski (1870-1909), Elizabeth Krasińska (1871-1905) and Sophia Krasińska (1873-1891). Count Adam Krasinski (b. 1870 in Krakow, d. 1909 in Ospedaletti, Liguria), editor of the Library of Warsaw (1901-1909),
1897 marriage to Wanda Mary of Badeni (1874-1950), daughter of Casimir Badeni, Prime Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.


BÉCU Jan Ludwik born ca 1741, died after 1797, industrial and commercial activist.
We know on du Barry Jeanne Becu, Comtesse (1743-1793); Jeanne goes by his mother, from the family of Bécu known as the family of roasters; Jean Bécu was a cook recognized under the reign of Louis XIV. His maternal grandparents, Fabien Bécu and Husson Jeanne, they were serving to Isabelle Ludres; they had seven children together Bécu Anne, mother of Jeanne, born April 16, 1713.

In Poland we know on Bécu August, the royal adviser, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" in Grodno, chairman after 1781 and before 1784. Bécu Jacob, the brother of Jan Ludwik Becu / Louis, a royal adviser, 1771-1780 Inspector General of the Tyzenhauz factories in Grodno, 1780-1787 supervising them, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" (Grodno) in 1781;

Bécu Louis / Jan Ludwik, brother of Jacob, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" (Grodno), secr. in 1786.
Dignitaries Officers and Members from Grodno and J. V. Antoine Godin, Chair of the Master of Wilna; freemasons in Grodno in 1817: J. E. Gilibert, J. Becu, Louis Wiazowski, J. Sacco, J. Gimel, Charles Gottlieb / Golt, Jean Godefroi Walter, J. H. Müntz, Zacharius Büttner, Jean Louis Becu, Ephraim Gottlieb, Kaus, François Narwoysz, Chresteon Ernst Fechner, Gembowski, Siegfrierd Schmidt, Jurewicz, V. S. Antoine, Fr. Schreiber.

Александр Карл Пилар фон Пильхау / Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 in Wilno / Вильнюс, d. 1871, his sister - Sophia.

He was married to Ионна Станиславовна Кульвинска / Joanna nee Kulwinska daughter of Stanislaw Kulwinski.

His father was born in 1768 or 1769 - Магнус or Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, then was Major of the Russian army,
married to

Maria Cecylia von Bécu / Мария Цецилия фон Бекю

(she was closest next of kin of Augustas Ludvikas Becu / August Ludwik Becu / August Ludwik Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno - his father was

Jan Ludwik Bécu;

August Ludwik Bécu was owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816 and he has two daughters:

Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki,

and Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872;

Teofil Januszewski, was brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki;

August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki).

His grandfather was Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau / Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау born 1734, married 1756 in Tallinn / Ревель, to Catharina Helena von Tausas / Катарина Хелена фон Таузас;
place of living: Халлик and Йоггис; Hagar / Hallik in Tamsalu, Estonia, county of Laane-Viru, south-west of Rakvere - eastern Eesti;

Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia also came from Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau b. 1734;

Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau was retired major of the Polish army, died in 1801 in Jöggis / Jőgisuu, he was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia;
his sons:

1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830.
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.
Recorded in service 1780, above Yegor Maksimovic exactly one year later was promoted to sergeant. Received his primary education at home, with the rank of lieutenant was transferred to Narva Infantry Regiment; next to the Vyborg Infantry Regiment; Yegor Maksimovic Pilar participated in a battle with the Swedes under Nyslott; 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811.

2. Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769
(his wife was Maria Becu with her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802.
Magnus Fabian's closest next of kin: Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein; фон Людер / Luder who died 1857),

3. Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Baron / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774.

Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870, and Sauga. Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough. Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia. Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland. The father of Adolf Pilar von Pilchau was Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, Baron, born and died in Audru / Audern, 1814 - 1870. Grandfather Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814.

On the Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt family:
Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina. She was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano.
She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Charlotte Julie Pila von Pilchau; Ada Pilar von Pilchau (Helene Bertha Johanna Adele von Gruenewaldt 1853-1889); Theodor Gustav Otto Peter Pilar von Pilchau; and Hilda Pilar von Pilchau.
We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano from Neapol. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau or Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor Mariano.

We back now to the first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com) Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar.
Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

4. and Reinhold Woldemar / Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.
His daughter was Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau / Katarina Elizabiet Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1769 in Hallik, Estonia, d. 1835; she was wife of Johan Diedrich Benjamin Althan / Althann; and she was mother of Johan Heinrich Althan; Georg Benjamin von Althann and Emilie Helene Althan; von Althann were living in 1839 in Pernau (Pärnu); her family:
Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau
(Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 was also a son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena, married to Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein; her son was Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791; Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт- Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922, was daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau;
Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of
Ottilie Gustava von Lüder,
Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau);
Margarethe Elisabeth Gfin. Manteuffel; and Gotthard Johann III Reichsgraf Zoege von Manteuffel.

Sofia Pilchau Pilar / Zofia nee Januszewski / Zofija Pilar von Pilchau d. 28 Jan. 1898 in Wilno (Zofia Januszewska b. 1836, died 1920 - acc. to 'geni.com'), was sister of Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena / Helena nee Januszewski voto Dzierżyński (1849 - on January 15, 1896), mother of Feliks Dzierżyński / Felix Dzerzhinsky;

Helena Dzierzynska died 1896 (married to Edmund Rufin Dzierżyński with children: Witold; Aldona Kojałłowicz (Bułhak); Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska; Stanisław; Kazimierz and 4 others). And 2nd sister was Emilia Zawadzka (Emilia Januszewska 1.voto Krzywiec, 2.voto Zawadzka, b. 1834 - d. 1883 in Wilno?, wife of Feliks Zawadzki with Jadwiga Rapacka; Józef Zawadzki and Feliks Zawadzki; and from 1st marriage son and 5 daughters).

Zofia Januszewska had son: Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau (Адольф Александр Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1860), married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec; he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierzynski; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Romuald Ludwik Adolfovitch / Roman Aleksandrovich / Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937.

Parents of above Zofia Januszewska were Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806 (Kazimiera Januszewska nee Gorecka 1806 - 1897).

Stanislaw Count Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska.

His father - Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 and died d. 1871. This Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, the Judge of the district of Vilnius, was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar! His sister Sophia nee Pilar Pilchau;
his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida.

Above Jadwiga Rapacka nee b. ca 1870, d. 1956, Warsaw, wife of Tadeusz Rapacki with Janina Kowalska 1909 - 2002 in Poland.

Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau / Пилляр Роман Александрович / Роман Людвиг Пилар фон Пильхау / Ромуальдас- Людвикас Адольфович Пилляр фон Пильхау, that is Roman Pilar von Pilchau / Roman Pilljar / Romuald Pilar von Pilchau, 1894 - 1904 in Mickuny close to Wilno / Vilnius. 1905 to September 1910 - Vilnius secondary school, followed by Zurich in real school (1910 - 1911), where he graduated in 1911. The Pilars then were not wealthy, but still Helena Pilar sent Roman Pilchau Pilar to study in Switzerland. Nothing helped. He came back. Then he went in the other direction, to Russia, to Petrograd, where he studied law. From Dzerzhinsky not departed. In September of the same year, 1911, he continued study in Kuressaare Gymnasium. When German troops occupied the Saaremaa, in Estonia, Pilar von Pilchau evacuated (it is inf. on Dorpat in 1917) to the Yaroslavl Province. Roman Pillar (1895-1937) before World War I, began (1914 ?) to study law at the University of St. Petersburg, where he was soon involved with the Bolsheviks activity of Felix Dzierżyński.
From Mickuny / Mickūnai of the Becu family and the Pilar Pilchau property (near by Terlecki, Ozieblowski, Januszewski, Dzierzynski and Pilsudski families), to Zalesie / Zalesse / Залесье of the Oginski family - close to Smorgon / Smargon / Smorgonie - is ca 60 km to south-east.
Roman Pilar was the cousin of the Dzerzhinsky - Roman Adolfovich / Romualdas Liudvikas Adolfovich Pillar Pilhau was one of the prominent of the initial period of the Cheka - the Deputy Chief of counterintelligence Cheka, deputy chairman of Belarus GPU, then People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Belarus, then worked at senior positions in the Central Asia in 1937, as chief of the NKVD in the Saratov region, was arrested and executed (pay attention to his last post - in the Saratov region was larger numbers of Germans, there was even a Republic of the Volga Germans).
Roman Pilar Pilchau / R. Pillar Pilhau was one of closest personal friends and relatives to the known leaders of the security organs Artuzov.
Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service from August 1931 to May 1935.
Artuzow created on May 8, 1922 the counterintelligence department of the GPU. Artusov / Artuzow / Fraucci knew French. This counterintelligence department was structural unit of the GPU - OGPU, because on May 6, 1922 on the management meeting of the State Political Administration DECIDED to ESTABLISH the structure of a special unit to combat with foreign espionage; the first leaders: Felix Dzerzhinsky, Vyacheslav Menzhinsky and Arthur Artuzov. Everyone from the structure of the Swiss-Estonian and of the Polish nobility of Belarus, I have discussed. Artuzow was in years 1927-1931 - Assistant Chief of the Secret operational management. Artuzov / Artuzow - Frautchi on 01/01/1931 Deputy (Deputy Head of the Foreign Department INO OGPU) and 31 July 1931 headed Foreign department of the OGPU; when creating 10 July 1934 NKVD he headed foreign intelligence, but replaced 21/05/1935 by Slutsky and transferred to the Main Intelligence Directorate on the post of Deputy, (11th January 1937) 01/11/1937 lost this post; Corps Commissar on 21/11/1935; Artuzow / Artuzov on 13.05.1937 appointed on the registration Department and Artuzov Frauchi was arrested on the same day May 13, 1937 as part of the 'Plot of the Generals' (he was executed on August 21, 1937).
Wife of Artuzow: Inna Mikhailovna, in 1938, June 20 accused of spying for the French intelligence service on the grounds that she went twice 'under the guise of treatment' in Paris, where she was recruited; Artuzov Hristianovich Arthur was her husband, living with her from 1934. On August 26, 1938 Ulrich announced the verdict: the death penalty; first wife Lydia Artuzov Slugina escaped arrest; mother of Artuzov, Augusta Avgustovna died shortly after the arrest of Arthur Christianovich; father Christian Petrovich Fraucci / Frautchi and uncle Peter Fraucci / Frautchi died in 1923. Son Kamil / Camill was arrested in 1941; on March 23, 1938 was arrested brother Rudolph Hristianovich Frauchi, was shot by the NKVD in Butovo; the second brother, Victor Hristianovich, moved to Kazan, and became well-known professor; Artusov disagreed with Stalin in matters of Poland and Germany, has also tried to observe certain standards of conduct during the purges of the thirties.
After arrest of Artuzow / Artuzov was a secret trial, and Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Iona Yakir, Ieronim Uborevich, Robert Eideman, August Kork, Vitovt Putna, Boris Feldman, Vitaly Primakov and Yakov Gamarnik (suicide) were accused with planning a military coup on May 15, 1937; they were executed on the night of June 11-12, 1937. Marshal Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Corps Commanders Yefimov, Eideman and Appoga were all arrested on the same day - 22 May 1937; on 24 May 1937, the Politburo passed the following resolution: '...Tukhachevsky, as participant in an anti-Soviet Trotsky-Right conspiratorial bloc ... having engaged in espionage activity against the USSR on behalf of Fascist Germany'. Between 01 and 10 June 1937, Tukhachevsky was describing the conspiratorial organization and plans for defeating the Red Army.
Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi was born in the family of Swiss origin, but Italian nationality.
His father Christian Frautschi came to Russia, where he was engaged in reindeer cheese; cheesemaker, a citizen of the Swiss Federation.
Mother Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938, had the Latvian and Estonian roots, and one of her grandfathers was a Scot;
her father Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik, her mother Bertha Sterling / E'sterling / Stirling / EASTERLING born 1835 d. 1891 - her parents:
Edward Sterling from Scotland / Esterling / EASTERLING and Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland.

Acc. to Józef Mackiewicz:
'Old' Pilar send Roman Pilar to Wilno, then chief of the GPU in Mińsk in Belarus; he was oldest of 4 sons of above Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau, owner of Mickuny, very near to uncle Feliks Dzierżyński.
Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau had only 160 cm tall!
In Mickuny were living the Szabłowskis, among other Ignacy;
a main administrator of the Pilar estate was unknown Szostak, from a family of 5 sons and one daughter; then the Lachowicz family.
At the Bernardin cementery in Vilna we have tombs of the Pilar von Pilchau family:
1. Aleksandra Pilar von Pilchau, d. 25 Oct. 1901;
2. her sister Wilunia, b. 1866, d. 1 Jan. 1872;
3. Pilar Joanna nee Kulwiński, d. 1876;
4. Izabella Pilar von Pilchau Kulwińska, b. 1808, d. 1891;
5. Zofija Pilar von Pilchau d. 28 Jan. 1898;
6. her sister - Helena nee Januszewski, Dzierżyńska, d. 1896, mother of Feliks Dzierżyński;
7. Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, grandfather of Roman Pilar.
Acc. to Czeslaw Malewski:
1. Pilar von Pilchau, Wilno 1818 - 1881; 2. Becu, Wilno 1801 - 1862, inf. 1823.
The von Pilar estate, Mickuny: here was living father of above Roman Pilar, Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau jr. who died 12 Oct. 1939. On 12 Oct. 1826 in Mickuny was consecrated a chapel built by Alexander Pilar senior in 1825 (Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, judge of the border in the county of Vilnius); he was friend of young Juliusz Słowacki, and his sisters Hersylia and Aleksandra Becu. The Mickuny estate owned first August Becu (1771-1824) - August Becu was Professor of Medicine at the Imperial Wilno Univ.
In 1923 in Mickuny was the catholic parish, and Aleksander Pilar, father of Roman, given a home for priest; a father of Roman, above Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau died aged 79, and was buried at the Mickuny cementery; his wife, mother of named Roman, was Helena Pilar, d. on 8 August 1955, aged 91. Acc. to http://dokumente.ios-regensburg.de/ Becu, August Ljudvigovič was son of Ludwik Becu; August Becu was Professor, b. 3.5.1771 in Grodno, died in 1824 in Wilno.

On the other hand:
Mianowski Jozef / Joseph b. 1804 in the district of Human at Ukraine, d. on January 6, 1879 in Ancona, Italy, Polish physician, social activist,
Nowosilcow suspect Mianowski.
Next of kin of Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and her sister Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872.

Aleksandra Mianowska (Bécu) was daughter of August Ludwik Bécu; wife of above Józef Mianowski, mother of Jan Mianowski, she was sister of above named Hersylia Łucja Januszewska.
Above Józef Mianowski 1804 - 1879, was son of Ignacy Mianowski, husband of Nadieżda Mianowska and Aleksandra Mianowska; father of Jan Mianowski. He was graduated in Human, soon was admitted to
the University of Vilnius. There he met a number of interesting personalities, one of them was Adam Mickiewicz, who, according to historian A. Krauschar, was a friend for life.
Mianowski become a doctor. In 1828 in Vilnius became assistant of Jędrzej Śniadecki; 1840 Mianowski was hiding Simon Konarski in the clinic in Vilnius, and when he was executed, Mianowski was in trouble. For a year he was in prison, next he was released.
In 1848 was the court physician of the daughter of Nicholas I. He enjoyed great influence at court in St. Petersburg,
but in Poland in 1857 Medical-Surgical Academy was founded, and Mianowski moved to Warsaw under A. Wielopolski.
Above August Ludwik Bécu / August Louis Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno, d. 7 September 1824 in Vilnius, Polish surgeon, professor of medicine, hygiene and pathology at the Imperial University of Vilnius; Julius Slowacki stepfather.
He came from French Protestant family settled in the seventeenth century at Pomerania; his father, Jan Ludwik Bécu / Jean Luis Bécu, settled in Poland under King Stanislaus Augustus. In 1775 was knighted.
Mother was Caroline of Hein. He was struck by lightning. August Ludwik Bécu was husband of NN and Salomea Bécu; father of Aleksandra Mianowska and Hersylia Łucja Januszewska.
Above BÉCU Jan Ludwik born ca 1741, died after 1797, industrial and commercial activist.
Jan Ludwik Bécu was son of Jakub Bécu; husband of Karolina Bécu; father of August Ludwik Bécu; brother of NN Bécu.

Different CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO b. 30 August 1804, in Krzywicze, Poland, d. Noisy-le-Sec or Juvisy-sur-Orge, Essonne in 1891, Polish poet and diplomat, work on Persian folklore; son of Jan Chodźko and Klara;
above Jan Chodźko / Jan of Świsłocz or Wajżgantos, 1776 - 1851, son of Józef Chodźko and Konstancja;
above Józef Chodźko 1729 - 1783, son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Michał and Franciszek (the branch of Leonard Chodzko who was friend of Oginski).
Mentioned above Leonard Chodźko 1800 - 1871, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria; above Ludwik Chodźko 1769 - 1843 son of Franciszek Chodźko;
Franciszek Chodźko was son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Józef and Michał.
Mentioned CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO between 1820 and 1823 studied at the university of Wilno / Vilna, arrested in 1823 as the Society of Philarets member, went to St. Petersburg, where he studied Arabic, Persian, Turkish (see Venture!) from 1824 to 1830;
the Russian diplomatic service (to 1844) in Persia, as translator in Tabriz, Tehran and Rast until 1841, then traveled in Greece and Italy,
1842 he joined the Polish emigre community in Paris, with Adam Mickiewicz and Andrzej Towiański;
1847 married Helena Jundzill in Switzerland;
1852 - 1855 served the French foreign ministry as an expert on Oriental affairs; Chodźko wanted to send his two sons to Tehran to serve the Persian government.
Borowsky's (Barowski) testamentary executors were above Chodźko / Alexandre Chodikoff / A. Khodzko, and Edouard Goutte, also Polish by birth from the Russian mission in Tehran.


Izydor Borovsky / Isidor Borowski in 1776 born in Warsaw, Poland - d. 1837 or 1838, his mother was a Jew and his father was a Polish nobleman (the illegitimate son of Prince Radziwill ?); 1794 under Kosciuszko in Poland; 1797 in Italy - the Polish Legions;
in 1801 - 1802 / 1803 at Haiti served the French Army (Napoleon Bonaparte dispatched a large expeditionary force of French soldiers and warships to the island, led by Bonaparte's brother-in-law Charles Leclerc, to restore French rule; it ended in November of 1803 with the French defeat at the Battle of Vertieres. Haiti became an independent country on January 1, 1804, with Jean-Jacques Dessalines),
then (ca 1802) in 'Les freres de la cote', a pirat;
a general and an adjutant under Simon Bolivar (1783 - 1830) in Venezuela and Colombia (a successful rebellion led by the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was finally defeated in 1822 in the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela, by Wikipedia),
then under Muhammad Ali / Mehemet Ali (1769 - 1849) in Egypt (in 1829 he was teaching mathematics and English),
and under Abbas Mirza (1789 - 1833) to capture Herat in Afghanistan;
by jewishencyclopedia.com/ was reared in the United States (after 1805 ?),
1831 he was in Bushire, Persia (1821 ?);
and "...was afterward recommended by Sir John Campbell, the British minister, to Prince Abbas Mirza, the son of Shah Fatḥ Ali, as a useful and talented man. Borowski developed great military abilities in the service of that warlike prince, and took for him the strong town of Cochan in Khorassan. Later he took the castle of Sarakhs and made prisoner the leader of the Turkomans. After the death of Abbas in 1833, Borowski gave most essential assistance to Abbas' son, Mohamed Mirza (Muhammad / Mahmud 1834), and enabled him to ascend the throne of his grandfather. The English were behind most of the military undertakings of the Persians in those days, and Borowski was looked upon as an English general, and even wore the uniform. But he forsook the interests of the British government and joined the Russian party in Persia, and was shot at the siege of Herat (war 1838 against the Turkmens; but close to Herat in 1836 fought Count Antoni Aleksander Iliński). His wife, a Georgian captive of war, received a pension from Mohamed Shah on account of her husband's distinguished services. Bibliography: Jos. Wolff, Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara, pp. 138-140, New York, 1845; S. Orgelbrand, Encyklopedya Powsiechna, ii., s.v., Warsaw, 1898".
Son of Izydor Borowski was General of Persia, Antoni Radziwiłł-Borowski, 1803–1858, in 1821 in Persia with the father; 1850 was taken Herat.


And more on Poles in Asia:

Jan Prosper Witkiewicz / Yan Vitkevich / Виткeвич, Ян b. 1808, d. 1839, a Polish orientalist, explorer and diplomat in the Russian service. He was the agent of Russia at Kabul just before the First Anglo-Afghan War.
Witkiewicz was the uncle of the renowned Polish painter, and writer Stanisław Witkiewicz, who was father of Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, killed by Soviet troops in September 1939.
He was born close to Wilno. His father, Wiktoryn Witkiewicz, was a vice-marshal of the Rosienie county and his mother was Justyna nee Mikulicka.
Witkiewicz reached Kabul in Dec. 1837 and met with the British representative Sir Alexander Burnes. Dost Mohammed favored the British; but on receiving Lord Auckland's ultimatum he turned to Witkiewicz. Meanwhile, in London, Palmerston called the Russian ambassador and complained about Russian activities in Afghanistan.
Wikiewicz back to Saint Petersburg in 1839. Met with Nesselrode, but a week after reaching Petersburg he was found shot dead in his hotel room.
Burnes was born in Montrose, Scotland, to the son of the provost, who was first cousin to the poet Robert Burns.
When the Lord Auckland ultimatum has sent the Emir postponed Burnes. Sir Alexander Burnes demanded that Dost Mohhamad concluded an agreement with Ranjit Singh and renounced claims to Peshawar; at the same time Witkiewicz returned to St. Petersburg with nothing.
Above George Eden, 1st and last Earl of Auckland, 1784 - 1849, was an English colonial administrator. He served as Governor-General of India between 1836 and 1842.
Captain Sir Alexander Burnes, 1805 - 1841, was a Scottish traveller and explorer who took part in The Great Game. He was nicknamed Bokhara Burnes; born in Montrose, Scotland, his father was James Burnes 1780 in Montrose, Angus, Scotland, d. 1852 in Edinburgh;
son of James Burness and Anne;
grandfather was mentioned here James Burness 1750 - 1837 in Montrose,
son of James Burness senior.
At the age of sixteen, Alexander joined the army of the East India Company and while serving in India, he learned Hindi and Persian, interpreter at Surat in 1822. Transferred to Kutch in 1826; he went to Afghanistan.
Above Montrose is a coastal town and former royal burgh in Angus, Scotland. 61 km north of Dundee, north-east of Perth.
Named above Robert Burns 1759 d. 1796, as Robbie Burns, Rabbie Burns, a Scottish poet and lyricist. Born 1759 in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland; died 1796 in Dumfries, Dumfriesshire, Scotland; he was son of William Burns / Burnes / Burness, b. 1721 in Glenbervie, Kincardineshire, Scotland, died 1784 in Tarbolton, Ayrshire, Scotland;
Rabbie was grandson of Robert Burnes / Burness, 1694 in Glenbervie, d. 1759 in Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, Aberdeenshire, and Annabella / Isabella Keith;
and great-grandson of James Burness and Margaret Falconer;
Robert was brother of Elspeth Brock; Christian Crab; William Burnes; James Burness; Margaret Gavin; George Burness; Thomas Burness; Jane Burness; Isobel Burness and Mary Alexander Burnes 1732 - 1733.
Rabbie Burns was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the eldest of the seven children of William Burnes (1721-1784).
William Burns / Burness b. 1721,
had brother James Burness b. circa 1717 in Glenbervie, Kincardineshire, Scotland, died in 1761 in Montrose, Angus, Scotland.
His grandson was James Burnes 1780 Montrose, Angus, Scotland, died 1852 in Edinburgh.
Mentioned above William Burns b. 1721, d. 1784 in Tarbolton, Ayrshire, Scotland.

2.

A strongest organization in the region of Napoli / Naples was the Carbonari movement in 1820; they proclaimed a constitutional monarchy in Naples.
King Ferdinand I accepted vision of social revolution political changes. Vienna and the Holy Alliance directed intervention against the revolution in 1821. Reintroduced the absolute rule of Ferdinand I.
There are many theories about the creation of the Carbonari movement; creators were to be French Freemasons in opposition to the Masonic Swedish Rite or officers who came to Italy with Joseph Bonaparte and Murat to propagate fighting with the reign of Ferdinand IV; there is also a view that English created in Sicily the Carbonari movement, either Queen Maria Carolina of Austria or the Italian Illuminati at the end of the eighteenth century.
Giuseppe Garibaldi b. 1807 in Nice, politician, and fighter for the unification of Italy, was a Freemason, Grand Master of the lodge Grande Oriente d'Italia, but his grandfather and father were shipowners, owners and captains of small vessels in the northern and western Italy; he joined the revolutionary Carbonari. In February 1834 he took part in a failed uprising led by Mazzini in Piedmont, in Genoa.
Giuseppe Mazzini b. 1805 in Genoa, a journalist, a fighter for freedom together with Garibaldi, also Mazzini was a Freemason; maintained close contacts with Albert Pike, also a Freemason.
We must back now to Napoli / Naples / Neapol:
Silvati, Joseph b. in Naples 1791, lieutenant of the Bourbon cavalry, former officer of Murat, affiliated with the Carbonari, together with M. Morelli stationed in Nola (1-2 July 1820), and started the riots of 1820-21;
after the revolution failed he fled to Ancona; arrested by the papal authorities and handed over to the Bourbon government, was sentenced to death and executed.
In Naples, the conspiracy, which was not intended to overthrow King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies but only to ask a constitution, was growing rapidly and involved senior officers. In March 1820 the message from Spain across quickly in the Kingdom of Naples to strengthen the Carbonari and Masonic movements.
Lt. M. Morelli, head of the section of the Carbonari in Nola, decided to involve his cavalry regiment in the conspiracy. He was joined by Giuseppe Silvati, also lieutenant, and Luigi Minichini, anarchist and priest from Nola.
In the night of 1 to 2 July 1820, head of the Carbonari, Morelli and Silvati gives the kick off of the conspiracy by deserting with about 130 men and 20 officers. Quickly, Minichini joined and he wants to come the countryside to recruit peasants; Morelli, meanwhile, wants to go directly to Avellino where General Pepe was in command; Minichini leaves the expedition; the young officer Michele Morelli, supported by his troops, headed Avellino; on 2 July, in Monteforte, he was welcomed triumphantly. The next day, Morelli, Minichini and Silvati are entering in Avellino. Welcomed by the municipal authorities, and the constitution on the Spanish model is proclamed;
Morelli passes the power in the hands of Colonel De Concilij, Chief of Staff to General Pepe. Minichini goes back to Nola; on July 5, the insurgency extends to Naples, where General Guglielmo Pepe gathered around him many military units.
King Ferdinand I was forced to give Constitution. Elections are held and parliament seat for the first time on 1 October 1820.
But the first spark of uprising was in Nola in the night between 1 and July 2, 1820; Lieutenant Michele Morelli 30 years, was a native of Monteleone Galasso (near Foggia) and Lieutenant Joseph Silvati was from Naples; it's a list of 21 conspirators who journeyed from Nola, on the night between 1 and July 2, 1820: Luigi Minichini from Nola, priest; Dominic Gentile of Nola; Antonio Montano from Naples, coffee makers; Camillo Sepe from Nola, pharmacist; Rossi Giovanni of Nola; others from:
Santa Maria a Vico, Armigeri, San Giovanni in Teduccio, Pozzo Ceravolo, and Piazzolla Nola.
The Revolutions of 1820 was a revolutionary wave in Europe: in Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Italy for constitutional monarchies; and in Greece. The 1820 revolution began in Naples against King Ferdinand I; this success inspired Carbonari in the north of Italy to revolt too. In October 1820 and in February, 1821, Austria send an army to crush the revolution in Naples. The King of Sardinia also called for Austrian intervention. The Neapolitans, commanded by General Pepe, made no attempt to defend, and were defeated at Rieti on 7 March 1821. The Austrians entered Naples.


In 1823 or 1822, Michal Kleofas Oginski traveled with relatives in Italy, lived in Florence, where he died on October 15, 1833 in Florence; his main business was a literary and musical editorial work. He was buried at the monastery cemetery close to the Church of Santa Maria Novella, and later reburied in the Pantheon of Santa Croce.
The father of Michal Kleofas Oginski b. 1765, was Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.
Michal Kleofas Ogiński, owner of the Helenow palace, Otrębusy, Komorów, Helenow and Opacz, was born as Michal Kleofas Ogiski in Guzów close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765; was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer; his father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paulina nee Szembek.
Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 / 1730 or in Warsaw in 1731, d. on May 31, 1800 Slonim or Warszawa, in 1755 was landowner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800, next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow) was Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833, and after Helenow village of the Oginski family, in ca 1800 come to hands of Tadeusz Ostrowski (ca 1800 to 1817 Tomasz Adam Ostrowski, 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki and Jakub Ksawery Potocki).

In 1781 above named Michal Kazimierz Oginski was appointed deputy of the Lithuanian provinces, and a year later went abroad. He was in Brussels, Amsterdam, Berlin, Vienna, traveled to England. Visiting Prussia, asked for help of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm II, to regain their estates in Russia.

Michal Kazimierz Oginski, General lieutenant, provincial governor since 1764, composer, writer, poet, cousin of Andrzej Ignacy Oginski / Andrew Ignatius, who was the father of the composer Michael Cleophas Oginski.

His parents: Joseph Tadeusz Oginski and Anna Korybut-Wiśniowiecka;
marriage with Aleksandra Czartoryska.

Countess Olga Kalinowski born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in (1840 acc. to Russians) 1844 and her son:
Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1848 or 1849.
We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow.

Countess Olga Kalinowski was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818.
This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women:
with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867
and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki.

Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.

Дузи Козрое / Хозрой / Cosroe Dusi b. 1808, was an Italian painter, active for many years in St Petersburg, Russia; Cosroe was born in Venice, his mentor was the painter Teodoro Matteini, in 1838, he painted for the Fenice Theater. He traveled through Monaco, Germany, and Russia. In 1838, Drusi designed prints celebrating the visit of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. Dusi had briefly lived in Munich, Bavaria, but around 1839 / 1840, the Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia, after visiting his Venetian studio, invited Dusi to St Petersburg. In Russia, he painted portraits of the Grand Duke and members of the imperial family and the court; he had over the years periodically revisited his native Venice. He returned to Venice in 1856, and died in 1859 / 1860 near Vicenza.
Dusi become best friends of the Earl and Countess Orlov (Orlov Denisov), and they introduced him to families Laval, Branicki, Potocki, Buturlin, with artists Bryullov, Whigs, Vendramin, architect Cavos, Count Tolstoy, the Secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts, with Olenin, director; on the pages of his diary known Stackenschneider, Montferrand, Rossi, Bruno, Grech, Bulgarin; the Grand Duke Alexander, Countess Kalynovska / Kalinowski, merchant Gromov, Countess Orlova.
He wrote down: 1840, on 27 June, the family Branicki with Countess Kalinovsky leaves Petersburg; they ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. July, 12: I went to Tsarskoye Selo, where the Countess Kalynovska-Plautin / Plautyn first posed for me and paid 3500 rubles for two portraits of her sisters Olga Kalinowska and Josephine / Jozefina Kalinowska.
Olga Kalinouski / Kalinowska first love Crown Prince Alexander. Olga Kalynovska born to a noble Polish family. Her mother was from a noble family Potocki, her father served as a cavalry general. Olga was at the Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna's / Nikolayevna court. Soon Olga met the Crown Prince Alexander - young people are often seen in the palace, dancing on shiny balls and masquerades; Olga became the first lover of Alexander Nikolayevich Romanov.
Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna wrote of her beloved brother;
Countess A. A. Tolstay / Tolstoj also noted Kalinovskaya eyes; ... the beautiful eyes of Olga Kalinouski; this young lady, Polish descent, grew up in one of the schools of St. Petersburg. However, Emperor Nicholas I would never agree with such a choice son. Olga Kalynovska was not a princess, she still was not Orthodox.
L. V. Dubbelt recalls about Olga Kalinouski: it was scary!
However, on the Crown Prince Alexander return to St. Petersburg, romance with Olga Kalinovskaya erupts with renewed vigor.
In St. Petersburg Olga Kalynovska lived in the house of his sister Seweryna Kalinowska / Severina, who was married to General Nikolai Fedorovich Plautin / Plautyn;
this is probably why sometimes mistakenly called her as wife of N. F. Plautin.
In fact Kalynovska in 1840 (?) was married to the former spouse of her sister, rich Polish, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski (1808 - 1863). He was the son of the composer, author of the famous polonaise, M. K. Oginski.
The eldest son Ogiński will argue later that he was the son of Alexander II.
We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow.
Ольга Калиновская / Olga Kalynovska was lover since January 1837 on the so-called Chinese masquerade in which Kalynovska shows a first court lady. Tsarevich was then 19 years old. Then he was the Russian Emperor Alexander II (1818 - 1881 St. Petersburg), imperator all-Russian, and Polish king, Grand Duke of Finland (1855-1881) of the Romanov dynasty. 1837: Alexander was ready to abdicate, to marry her. in late April, Alexander once again went on a long journey. For a year, he visited Scandinavia, Austria, has traveled all the Italian and German states.
June 23, 1839, he returned to St. Petersburg and again met Olga Kalinovskaya, then, on March 4, 1840, Alexander went for his bride in Darmstadt. He returned to Russia with her in early September. December 5th, Grand Duchess of Hesse-Darmstadt Maximilian-Wilhelmina-Augusta Sophia Maria was baptized in the Orthodox rite and became Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna (1824-1880).
1839: Alexander spent the month of May in London, where he was warmly received by English aristocracy, was in Parliament, in Oxford, the Tower, the Bank of England and Westminster Abbey.
June 23, 1839 he returned to St. Petersburg to Olga Kalinovska.
A Diaries of 1840 by Zhukovsky:
November 1840: Glazunov and Zaikin, then Ungern. Visits: Nesselrode, Kalinovsky. I dined with Velgorskih. 1840, May, 9 - my doctor Schildbach ... Talk about the Empress and the Grand Duke. Grancy and Ricour. In the evening ... Bariatinskii. Talk about Strauss and Orlov. Kalynovska, the evening.
From the book by Leonid Lyashenko "Alexander II ... history of three solitudes":
... the heir to the throne has fallen in love for the first time in a serious way. The object of his passion became again a maid of honor ... of the Empress Alexandra Fiedorovna, Olga Kalynovska. Love heir to Kalinovskaya was for the royal family even more unacceptable than flirting with Borozdina. ... she also was a Catholic.
1840 acc. to Cosroe Dusi:
May 30. This morning began the portrait of Countess Josephine Kalinovskaya / Jozefina Kalinowska ... 1840, June, the 27. This morning the family Branicki leaves with Countess Kalinovsky. They ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. Then I went to Tsarskoye Selo, where the Countess Kalynovska-Plautin first posed for me and paid 3500 rubles for two portraits of her sisters Olga and Josephine. ... Vladimir Korf's masquerade ball: Korf invites to dance the beautiful Olga Kalinowski - first lady of the Empress and the beloved of heir Alexander, ... Vladimir Korf causing Alexander to a duel. ... but rumors of duel reach the emperor, ... Vladimir and his friend, an adjutant of the Crown Prince - Mikhail Repnin, miraculously escaped the shooting, deprived of all ranks and come under close observation of the head of the Third Division, Alexander Benkendorf.
And Olga Kalynovska goes away from court, to his native Poland, where she get married; Alexander agrees to marry Mary Hesse-Darmstadt.
Oginski, Michal Bogdan, 10 October 1848 - 25 March 1909 in Retow / Reutov, married to Countess Maria Gabriella Potulitskoy (b. 1855). Michael-Bogdan Oginski, Prince Oginski was the son of Aleksandr II Nikolaievich Romanov, Tsar of Russia and Olga Kalinovskya, Countess Kalinovskya.

3.

Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899.

Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Swiatopelk Mirski took part in the Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878; he studied at the General Staff Academy to 1881, in 1887 he was the commander of staff of 3rd Grenadier division; 1895 the Governor of Penza, and in 1897 the Governor of Yekaterinoslav. 1900 Sipiagin appointed him Assistant Minister of the Interior and Commander of the Imperial Corps of Gendarmes. 1902 Governor-General of the North-Western province: Vilna, Kovno and Grodno; was credited with successful liberal reforms, stopping pogroms against the Jews. 1904 Minister of the Interior after Plehve's assassination. His appointment was seen as a victory of liberals, as a victory of the party of widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna who supported the liberal reforms; the Sviatopelk-Mirski's plan included transferring more power to the State Council of Imperial Russia.
On January 22 / January 9, 1905 occurred the massacre known as Bloody Sunday; he never had authorised the shooting of the demonstrators, but his opponents said that he not only did authorise the shooting but also in order to push his own political agenda actively encouraged the demonstration.
He was replaced (on 18 January) as Minister of the Interior by Bulygin in February 1905.
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski 1857 - 1914, married to Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska;
she was from a branch of Wassili Bobrinsky, b. 1804, d. Moscow in 1874, son of Alexei Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1752, who married 1796 to Anna Dorotea / Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg (1769 Tallinn - St. Petersburg in 1846) daughter of the Tallinn commendant Woldemar Conrad von Ungern-Sternberg b. 1739;
Wassili Bobrinsky 1 m. 1824 to Pss Lydia Gortschakova b. 1807, 2 m. 1830 to Sofia Sokownina b. 1812, 3 m. 1869 to Alexandra Utschakova
(his brothers:
A. Alexei Bobrinsky, 1800 - 1868, m. 1821 to Css Sophia Samojlowa b. 1799,
B. Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899 ?).
Her daughter was
Julia Pawlowna Bobryńska / Julia Broel - Plater, Gołąbek - Jezierska, nee Bobrinski / Bobryńska, 1823 - 1899, married Waldemar Gołąbek-Jezierski Count, b. 1822, died 1855 in Warsaw. He was son of Jan Nepomucen Paweł Gołąbek-Jezierski Count and Karolina.
Julia 2nd time married Cezar August Broel - Plater in 1859; Cezar / Cezary August Plater was born on September 8, 1810, in Wilno. They had 2 sons including Cezary Broel-Plater.
Julia 1st married Waldemar Gołąbek - Jezierski in 1851; Waldemar was born in 1822. They had one son Aleksander Gołąbek - Jezierski.
The father of mentioned above Julia was above named Pavel Alekseevich Bobrinski / Paweł Aleksiejewicz Bobryński and Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska Junosza, Countess, nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska.
Paweł Bobrynski / Bobrinski was born on October 27, 1801, in Saint Petersburg; Julia Sonocka Bielińska was born in 1790 or 1804. Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska, ca 1790 / 1804 - 1892; m. 1822, after death of husband she moved to Paris;
her father Stanisław Kostka Bieliński died 1812 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, served on the court of the King Stanisław August Poniatowski; Marshal of the Parliament in 1793, m. Katarzyna nee Golicyn, b. 1775, d. 1825 in Saratów.
The family of above Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
a. Elżbieta Bielińska m. 1779 in Mogilany to Franciszek Wielopolski,
b. Franciszek Bieliński 1740 - 1809, 1776 Nat. Educ. Com., 1794 the Kosciuszko Uprising, owner of Kozłówka to 1799, and the Otwock palace, m. Krystyna Sanguszko.
The father of above named Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
Michał Bieliński died 1747, the Chelmno province governor, Sztum office, 1725 the King court, 1736-42 Kozłówka palace near by Lubartow,
m. 1st to Aurora Maria Rutowska daughter of Fryderyk August II and Fatima, grand-daughter of Jan Jerzy II Saxon / Sas and Anna Zofia of Danmark, 2-v. Claude Marie de Bellegarde;
m. 2nd time to Tekla Pepłowski grand-daughter of Jadwiga Niemyski, of the Kozłówka estate.

Wassili Bobrinsky / Wasyl Bobrzynski had 2 children:

I. Alexei Bobrinsky 1831 - 1888, 1st m. 1855 to Pss Catherine Lvova b. 1834, 2nd m. 1859 Sofia Cheremeteva b. 1842.

He had 4 children:

1. Wassili Bobrinsky 1860 - 1861,
2. Ct Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937, he m. twice,
3. Ct Wladimir Bobrinsky 1862 - 1938, married to a French woman,

4. Css Catherine Bobrinsky / Ekaterina Alexeiievna 1864 - 1926 m. 1886 to Pr Peter Swiatopolk-Mirski / Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski d. 1914;

II. Css Sofia Bobrinsky 1837 - 1891 m. Viktor von Keller d. 1906.

The father of Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
Michał Bieliński / Michael Belinsky, coat Junosza, d. 1746, the provincial governor of Chelmno. Son of Casimir Louis Bielinski, a Polish diplomat and Louisa Maria Morsztyn (d. 1730),
daughter of the poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn / John Andrew Morsztyn.
Brother of Franciszek / Francis Bielinski, also the governor of Chelmno and the Grand Marshal of the Crown.
Michal's 1st wife Aurora Maria Rutowska (d. 1750), illegitimate daughter of the Polish king Augustus II the Strong Saxon, divorced.
The second wife was Tekla Popłowska (d. 1774) with son Franciszek Bielinski / Francis (d. 1809), the writer of the Crown and Stanislaus Kostka (d. 1812), Marshal of the Grodno Parliament. Michal was in 1738-1746, the voivode / governor of Chelmno.
Above mentioned Franciszek Bielinski / Francis Belinsky, coat Junosza, b. 1683, d. 1766 in Warsaw, the Grand Marshal of the Crown 1742 to 1766, the court marshal of the Crown 1732 to 1742, the provincial governor of Chelmno 1725-1732, treasurer of Prussia 1714 -1738.

Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski 1788-1868, Duke in 1861.
His son: Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron back to Russia in 1840, 1841 served at Caucasus -
his brothers and sisters:
1. Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, wife of Wilhelm Rodys, mother of Pelagia Joanna Findeisen

[Pelagia Joanna b. 1849 in Lublin - 1875 in Smilowice, wife of Gustaw Adolf Findeisen, and she was mother of
a. Jadwiga Pawinska
(1868-1924, married in 1886, social activist, had a son Thaddeus, philologist; her husband Pawiński Joseph (1851-1925), a doctor of the Hospital of the Infant Jesus and St. Spirit in Warsaw, the Polish co-founder of cardiology. Born in Zgierz, was the son of John and Amalia Krohn and was brother of Adolf; schools in Łęczycy and in Warsaw, studied medicine at Imperial Univ. in Warsaw 1869-1874. He worked then at the clinic of diagnostic under Ignacy Baranowski; His brother was Adolf Stanisław Pawiński b. 1840 in Zgierz, d. 1896 in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Polish historian, archivist and assistant professor of the Warsaw School of Economics and professor of general history of the Imperial University of Warsaw. In 1862 Pawiński moved to the University of Dorpat in Estonia, 1864 he received the degree of Candidate of Sciences. Theodore Witte from Dorpat, admitted Pawiński to study abroad. First, he moved to Berlin, where he met Ranke. Later, he attended lectures of Jaffe and Droysen. He then went to Göttingen, 1868, after returning to Polish has been an associate professor at the Warsaw School of Economics and the Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw),
b. Stanislaw Findeisen (1873-1970) + Alicja Paulina Handke 1896 - 1994
(her parents Hugo Handke and Matylda Zalern; Alicja Paulina Handke born in Pultusk and died in Warszawa; her son:
Wladyslaw Findeisen b. January 28, 1926 in Poznań, Polish engineer, a professor of technical sciences, rector of the Technical University of Warsaw (1981-1985), automatic, co-founder of systems theory in the context of the wider science of control / adjustment, the chairman of the Primate Social Council, a senator I and II term in Warsaw. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle);
c. and Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 + Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt - Jastrzebiec 1889-1975: his children:
Gustaw Findeisen b. 1912 Smilowice, d. 1992 in Warszawa;
Andrzej Findeisen 1915 - 1944 with daughters:
c1. Bellert Zieleniewska,
c2. Grocholska;
Tomasz Findeisen 1919 - 2004 + Aniela had 3 children;

and last son of Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 and
Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1889-1975 was
Krystyn Tadeusz Findeisen 1924-1944]

and next daughter of above Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, was
Zofia Joanna Saturnina Sliwicka;
and next brothers and sister of above Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron:
2. Ekaterina d. 1879;
3. Vladymir 1823 - 1861, and
4. Dmitri / Dmitry Ivanovich / Dmitrij 1824 or 1825 - 1899, Infantry General and politician, Caucasus and Russo-Turkish wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia;
his son Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857 - 1914), the governor of Penza and Vilna governments, Minister of Interior of Russia;
5. Mikolaj / Nicholas Ivanovitch Sviatopolk-Mirski 1833 - 1898; a godson of Tsar Nicolas II, and was "aide de camp" of the Tsar, General-Adjutant 1874 (1877-1878 war), the Caucasus wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia, 1881-1898 The Don Cossack chief;
1891 he bought at Princess Mary Lvovna Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst the estate of Zamir, located in the Minsk government, the Novogrudek county, after death of Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg; 1898 Member of the State Council; he died at his estate Mir;
1st m. Princess Vera Ilyitchnina Gruzinsky / Grouzinzky in Tiflis, Georgia on 4 May 1860; 1842-1861 or 1863, daughter of Ilija Georgijevich, with son Ilija;
2nd m. in St. Petersburg in 14 April 1868 to Cleopatre Mikhailovna Khanykov, 1845-1910.

4.

Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937.

5.

John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig, and Caroline Margaret Clayton. His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt.
Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas.
Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green, Scotland - on border of England. Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.
Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas. Gretna is 1 / 2 km south of Gretna Green! After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison.

6.

NERI MICHELE (born 16 OCTOBER 1750, Firenze / FLORENCE, ITALY, died ca. 1822 in Firenze).

7.

Ancestors of Johann Laval Anton Maria Viktor, count Nugent-Pallavicini-Centurioni-Fibbia b. 1877 in Graz - died 1930;
parents:
Laval Jeremias Anton, count Nugent b. 1843 in Triest (d. 1923 in Florence: 1st m. to Baroness Emma von Zahony b. 1847 in Triest, 2nd to Maria Pallavicini Fibbia of Centurioni, 3rd to Karoline von Steininger), and Maria Pallavicini Fibbia, marquise of Centurioni b. 1850.
The parents of above Jeremias:
Johann, count Nugent b. 1796 in Dublin, died in Brescia, and Regina Contessa Abriani b. 1813.
The father of above Johann b. 1796:
Michael Anton Nugent b. ca 1750, who was also father of above: Laval Graf Nugent von Westmeath 1777 - 1862, served the armies of Austria and the Two Sicilies; born at Ballynacor, Ireland.

8.

Józef Hieronim Retinger (17 April 1888 – 12 June 1960) was a Polish political adviser. Since 1906 in Paris, among his new friends was the Marquis de Castellane, and an artists from Left Bank cafes; 1908 docteur of Sorbonne, next Univ. of Munich,
Florence ca 1907?, 1908 met masonry in London, 1911 Cracow under protection of Count Zamoyski and the Godebski family, and again in 1911 or 1912 to London, 1912 return to Cracow,
married Otylia Zubrzycka; sometimes to Paris and again London where Józef Hieronim Retinger opened a bureau of the Supreme National Council; met with Joseph Conrad, 1914 ? and next he fled to Spain and met L. N. Morones and P. E. Calles, moved in 1917 to Mexico; Józef Hieronim Retinger travelled to USA and met Felix Frankfurter and Sir Edward Bedington-Behrens.

9.

Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, b. 1784 in Livorno, west of Firenze / Florence, banker, his grandfather, Moses Vita Haim Montefiore had emigrated from Livorno to London in the 1740s, but had close contact with Livorno; his parents, Joseph Elias Montefiore and Rachel Mocatta, were in Italy on a business journeys;
Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet began his career as tea merchants, was Jew broker in the City; married Judith Cohen and her sister, Henriette / Hannah married Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777 - 1836), for whom Montefiore's firm acted as stockbrokers.
Nathan Rothschild was a London banker, but was born in Frankfurt am Main, as child of Mayer Amschel Rothschild; 1806 in London he married Hannah Barent-Cohen (next of kin with Karl Marx).

10.
The Bobrinsky family and the Demidov di San Donato:
Andrei SCHUVALOV b. 1802, m. Fekla Valentinovich or Tekla daughter of Walenty b. 1801, (Andrei was son of Pjotr SCHUVALOV b. 1771, and grandson of Andrei b. 1743);
his daughter and son:
a. Sophia (b. 1829), m. in 1850 to Ct Aleksander Bobrinsky (d. 1903);
b. Pawel SCHUVALOV (Schouwalov; Schuwalov) b. 1830, m. 1st in 1855 to Pss Olga Belosselsky-Belozersky and m. 2nd to Maria Aleksandrovna Komarov;
his son Aleksander b. in Vartemiagui in 1881, m. 1st in 1903 (div) Pss Jelena Demidov di San Donato / Elena Demidov b. St.Petersburg 1884 - died in Florence in 1959, m. 2nd in 1916 to Sophia Gfn von Fersen;
Jelena / Elena b. Switzerland, Vevey in 1864 - d. Paris 1932, m. in Batignolles 1881 to Ct Andrei Bobrinsky (d. Paris); she was daughter of Pjotr (b. 1819), and grand-daughter of Pawel SCHUVALOV (b. 1776) m. Pss Barbara Szachowska / Warwara Shakhovsky (b. 1796), the great grand-daughter of Andrei (b. 1743 - above mentioned!) m. Css Jekaterina Petrovna Saltykov (d. Rome 1816).

11.
Николай Никитич Демидов / Nikolay N. Demidov (1773 - 1828 in Florence) in 1822 moved to Florence (1815?); he was one of the richest people in the Russian Empire; Demidov, was living in San Nicolo in Oltrarno, a poor part of Florence; immediately after the death of Nicholas Nikitich, his children Anatoly and Peter ordered the sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini to marble monument; with family Demidov closely related two buildings in Florence - Villa San Donato and Villa Pratolino (also called Villa Demidoff). Villa San Donato is located half a kilometer to the north-east of the park Kashin, outside the historic part of Florence, was built in 1822 - 1831;
a grandson of Nicholas Nikitich Demidov - Paul II did not like San Donato, preferring Villas Pratolino - the estate of the Medicis;
1881, the villa San Donato and the collection of art and minerals were auctioned.
Villa Pratolino (now often called the Villa Demidoff) was built on the ruins in 1822 in Pratolino town, 15 km north of the historic part of Florence.

12.
Павел / Паоло Трубецкoй / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866, Intra, north-west of Milano, south-east of Saanen in Switzerland; son of Петр Петрович Трубецки (1822-1892) and Ада Винанс / Ada Winans, 1835-1917, who lived in Florence; his half-brothers:
Пётр Николаевич Трубецкой (1858-1911), and Сергей Николаевич Трубецкой (1862-1905) of the Moscow Univ.; Paolo in 1914 - 1921 lived in USA.
Above Pyotr Trubetskoy / Петр Петрович Трубецкой / Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy was a Russian diplomat, administrator and general. He was born in Tulcin / Tulchyn, Ukraine, died in Menton, France; son of Пётр Иванович Трубецкой and Emilia Petrovna, husband of Varvara Yuryevna 1828 - 1901, governor of Smolensk and Orel in 1844, friend of Tolstoi. He has 3 daughters:
Мария b. 1863, m. to Александр Александрович Прозоровски - Голицын (1853 - 1914).
Prince P. Troubetzkoy, was attached to the Russian royal court; in 1863, he came to Italy as a diplomat of the Russian embassy in Florence, known the pianist Ada Winans 1835 - died 1917 / 1918 in Intra, who came to Florence to study singing. In 1865 he went again to Florence (Italy) on a diplomatic mission which included the supervision of the Russian church there.
Ada / Ада was daughter of Anthony Van Arsdale Winans and Mrs Jay, from New York; Ada in 1853 started work at the Doane Academy in Berlington, the New Jersey; moved to Florence to learn of bel canto (and to Spain). 1864 Ada finished a work in Milano and Florence; moved to Ghiffa / Ghifa in Lombard, in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 120 km northeast of Turin and about 7 km northeast of Verbania on the western shore of the Lake Maggiore. 1870 he was divorced, but were living in Intra; Ada had 3 sons:
Пьер, Паоло and Луиджи / Luigi:
Pierre / Пьер / Петр b. 1864, m. in 1896, to the American writer Louise Amélie Rives (or Amelie Louisa Reeve 1863-1945, an American novelist and poet, her novel, World's End, became a bestseller in New York in 1914), he died in Charlotesville, VA;
Павел / Паоло / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866;
Луиджи 1867-1959, Navy military engineer (electricity), d. in Ghiffa 1957.
Ada's friend Аchille Tominetti, Leonardo Bazzaro, Paolo Sala, Augusto Laforet, Ulisse Grant, Stefano Turr, Cesare Correnti, the Cairolis;
1884 moved to via Borghetto, close to Porta Venezia, Venice. 1887 Ada and Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy separated, Pyotr lived in Milano with Marianna Chan / Han (?), and had son Питер Хан / Piotr Han (?) in 1886.


Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Ogiński, Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński, Franciszek Ksawery Ogiński, Amelia Załuska, Ida Ogińska, Emma Ogińska.


Above mentioned Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata Count (b. Venice, 1877 - d. Rome, 1947), was an entrepreneur and Italian politician. Become rich by exporting tobacco from Montenegro, invested the gains acquired in the emerging electrical industry and in 1905, returned to his homeland, formed the Adriatic Society of Electricity.


Time of life of Parvus:

Parvus was born in 1867 Berazino / Berezyna of POTOCKI; moved to Odessa;
ca 1885 in Odessa with political satirist Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin;
in 1886 Gelfand first traveled from Russia to Basel, Switzerland; 1887 - returned to Russia; the fall of 1888 Gelfand enrolled at the University of Basle;
ca 1892 Gelfand moved to Germany, joined Rosa Luxemburg; 1900 he met Vladimir Lenin in Munich;

1902 to 1908 worked for M. Gorki

(to Autumn 1917 Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff worked in the Russian Embassy in Berlin where she became acquainted with British diplomat R. H. Bruce Lockhart. They owned the mansion Jendel in Jäneda, in Estonia where he was shot dead in 1918; 1918, she was arrested in a suspicion of spying for England and transferred to the Lubyanka prison. Bruce Lockhart, tried to vouch for her; they were lovers; Lockhart was expelled from Russia soon after, Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff was released as well under the condition that she would cooperate with the intelligence service; then she met Maxim Gorky as secretary and wife of Gorky, with a few interruptions from 1920 to 1933; 1920 she met H. G. Wells and became his mistress, renewed in 1933 in London, where she emigrated. Later, she was married to Baron Nikolai von Budberg-Bönningshausen, as a double agent for the Soviet Union and British intelligence.
Her older half-sister, Alexandra Alla Ignatievna Zakrevskaya b. 1884, married Baron Arthur von Engelhardt before 1909, was the great-grandmother of Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 2010);

1905, Parvus arrived in St. Petersburg with false Austro-Hungarian papers and coordinated an agitation; he was arrested on 21 March 1906 and imprisoned with Trocki and Lev Grigorievich Deutsch in St Petersburg - was visited by Rosa Luxemburg; emigrated to Germany 1906, acted again with Maxim Gorky (1902 - 1905) 1906 - 1908, and Rosa Luxemburg;
moved 1908 and 1910 - 1915, to Istanbul in Turkey; he was a business partner of the Krupp concern, of Vickers Limited, and of the Basil Zaharov, German ambassador Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim, also to Enver, Talat and Cemal, and Finance Minister Djavid Bey;

Parvus arrived to Berlin on the 6 March 1915; like Sulkowski, he recommended the division of Russia by encouraging ethnic separatists in various Russian regions, and its loss in the First World War was the best way to bring a revolution.

The plan of the Russian Revolution 1915. Copyright by Chronos. World History on the Internet (Подготовка массовой политической забастовки в России / A preparation of massive political strikes in Russia). ХРОНОС. Retrieved 2006-12-17. This document was produced by Alexander Parvus (Israel Gelfand) in February 1915 and contained a preliminary plan for the destruction of existing political system in Russia, the revolutionary movement for the German money. ... at
http://www.hrono.ru/dokum/191_dok/1915parvus.php. Part of the plan he had already finished writing in Berlin. ... Printed from the book: Heresh Elizabeth, Bought Revolution. Secret deal Parvus. Translated from the German I. G. Binevoy, Moscow 2005, p. 21-27.

The plan was handed over to the Germans on March 9, 1915, and they immediately began to finance its implementation. When reading the document easy to see that Lenin in 1917, acted in accordance with this plan. Import of money, weapons and subversive literature was carried out to the territory of Russia by the German money through neutral countries. Lenin maintained relations with Pravus connected via Karl Radek and Jacob Ganetsky (Furstenberg). The plan of the Russian Revolution covers twenty pages:

"1. Preparation of the mass political strike in Russia.

By the spring in Russia should start preparing mass political strike under the slogan 'Freedom and peace'. Center of the movement will be in Petrograd and Obukhov, Putilov and the Baltic Shipyard. The strike should cover rail networks between Petrograd and Warsaw, as well as the South-Western Railway. Railway strike will be mainly carried out in the major centers with large teams of workers, railway workshops and so on. To expand the scale of strikes wherever possible, will broken railway bridges, as well as during the strike movement of 1904-1905.

2. Conference of leaders of the Russian Social-Democrats:

The plan can only be achieved under the leadership of the Russian Social-Democrats. The radical wing of the party has already begun to take action. But it is important that joined them moderate faction of the Mensheviks. ... But two weeks ago, their leader Lenin himself raised the question of unification with the Mensheviks. Unity can be achieved through a policy of compromise; ... And thus begin active operations against absolutism. It should be noted that a group of moderates always is under a strong influence of German Social Democracy. Due to the personal authority of some leaders of the German and Austrian Social Democracy ... you can still achieve a lot with them. ... it is necessary to convene in Switzerland or in any other neutral country ... It should take part:
1. Social Democratic Party of Bolsheviks. 2. Menshevik party. 3. Jewish Bund. 4. Ukrainian organization Spilka. 5. The Polish Social-Democratic Party. 6. The Social Democratic Party of Poland. 7. Social Democratic Party of Lithuania. 8. The Finnish Social Democrats.
Congress can take place only if it is absolute reached a preliminary agreement to launch immediate action against the tsarist regime. ... Additional possible participants of the congress are: 9. Armenian party Dashnak-tsutyun. 10. Hindshak.
... the Congress by their decisions will have a major impact on public opinion in France and England.

3. Russian Socialist Revolutionaries.
Separate negotiations need to lead a party of Russian Socialist - Revolutionaries. These people are most inclined to nationalism. However, their influence to the working community is minimal. In St. Petersburg, they have only a small number of supporters at the Baltic Shipyard. On the question of the mass strike, they can be eliminated without prejudice. Their scope - it is the peasantry, where they have a significant impact, using teachers of public schools.

4. Individual movements.
Preparing the creation of an institutional framework for the mass strike should immediately start doing direct agitation. Through Bulgaria and Romania can establish links with Odessa, Sevastopol, Rostov-on-Don, Batumi and Baku. Russian workers in these areas ... have not stopped fighting for these requirements: only two years ago, the big strike of sailors and dockworkers, which again put on the agenda of the previous suggestions. Agitation should be ... and at the same time acquire a political nature a general strike at the Black Sea ... under the domination of unemployment, ... probably take place in Nikolayev, Rostov-on-Don and among workers in certain occupations in Odessa. Such a strike would have a local character ... To carry out such a campaign is necessary above all restores the organization of Russian sailors who settled in Constantinople, then to Alexandria. Now this center should be in Constanta or Galati. Since the war at sea cause severe disturbances in the Black Sea city, this will make them particularly susceptible to political agitation. Special forces must be applied ... in Odessa, ... as in 1905, ... And it would help to give a new impetus to the universal revolutionary movement. If in Odessa uprising broke out, it could be supported by the Turkish fleet. Prospects for the uprising in the Black Sea Fleet can be determined after the establishment of contacts with large Sevastopol. In Baku and the oil area can easily bring the strike. Can not be ignored ... workers are Tatars, ie Muslims. ... Strikes are also possible in the mining region of Donetsk. Particularly favorable conditions in the Urals. There Bolshevik Party has its loyal and strong supporters. Political strike among miners ... as the population is very poor.

5. Siberia.
Particular attention should be paid to Siberia. In Europe it is known only as a place of exile. But along the large Siberian routes, the railway and river banks lives strong peasant class, proud and independent, who wish to maintain independence from the central government. In the cities live energetic businessmen and intellectual layers, which consists of political exiles and which is under their influence. Siberian constituencies sent to the Duma socialist representatives. During the revolutionary movement of 1905 all the management was in the hands of the revolutionary committees. The administrative staff is extremely weak. The armed forces have been reduced to a minimum ... These circumstances make it possible to create some centers in Siberia action. At the same time it is necessary to take care of political exiles who want back to European Russia. This is purely a question of money. Thus, we can send thousands of ... agitators ... in the above campaign centers and in St. Petersburg. ... All of these actions will be developed and ... more co-ordinated their activities will be. On the other hand ... customize party centers must be immediately included, and lead them to unite.

6. Campaign in the press.
At the same time you need to give a boost to Russian Socialist Party, mentioning it in the press and brochures, as well as the direction of its actions. Brochures in Russian may be issued in Switzerland. In Paris goes Russian newspaper 'The Voice', which is edited by some leaders of the socialist Menshevik Party ... In spite of the exceptional circumstances in which it goes, this newspaper has maintained an objective attitude towards the war. ... May be mentioned and considered Swiss, and Italian, and Danish, and Dutch, and Swedish socialist newspapers, as well as the socialist press of America ... German socialist leaders ... easily be able to participate in this discussion in the media campaign would have a significant impact on the position neutral countries, especially Italy, ... in the socialist circles of France and England. ... which can reach up to England and France with great difficulty, would be of great value. ... easily make an impact in the sense ... against the tsarist regime in the socialist press of Bulgaria and Romania. Since Romania will be a central point of revolutionary agitation in the south of Russia, ... for this reason the position of the Romanian daily press is important, not counting, of course, its importance to determine its own position in the war. All major Romanian newspapers are in the service of Russia. ... It is not difficult to organize a group of recognized journalists for publishing large independent daily newspaper with a pronounced tendency to early accession of Germany. ...

7. Campaign in North America.
Particular attention should be paid to the United States. Many Russian Jews and Slavs in the United States and Canada are a very sensitive element for agitation against the tsarist regime. Russian Social-Democracy and the Jewish Bund were sent to tour to these places. ... they can inspire to energetic performances by local forces, to strengthen the organization, strengthen widely represented Russian and Jewish press and thus achieve the heyday of planned activities. ... with millions Russian immigrants, most of whom have only recently left their homeland, are also of great importance. Movement among Russian immigrants in America would have an impact on public opinion of America. ... The German element also needs to act more actively in this war ... A strong movement among the Russian, that is Russian Jews in America would contribute to performance of the Germans. It should be send here a few agitators from German and Austrian Social Democracy.

8. The growth of the revolutionary movement.
Campaign in neutral countries will have a strong reaction on the campaign in Russia, and vice versa. Further development is largely dependent on the military action. ... If the Russian army during the winter will also be tied to their former positions, the disorder will go across the country. Planned propaganda machine will use this disorder, expanding and deepening its across the board. Strikes here and there, food riots, the growing political agitation - all mislead the tsarist government. If it will lead to an repression, it will cause a growing resentment ... it will be interpreted as a sign of weakness, leading to an increase of the revolutionary movement. ... If in the meantime, the Russian army will suffer a major defeat, the movement against the regime can take unprecedented dimensions. In any case, you can count on the fact that if all the forces will be directed to act on with the plan, the spring can happen mass political strike. If the mass strike will have a large scale, the tsarist government will be forced to concentrate forces in the country, especially in St. Petersburg and Moscow. In addition, the government will need strength to protect the rail links. ... will be sent to the railways in the west, you can call a strike everywhere. If it succeeds everywhere, the tsarist government will still be forced to use to protect stations, and so on. ... Simultaneously, the administrative apparatus will be given in the confusion that will accelerate its decay.

9. The peasant movement and Ukraine.
Along with the developments of above, the peasant movement is, as in 1905, an important contributing factor. ... In general, the question of protection of land is the basis of Russian peasant question, ... In Ukraine, all these problems are reduced to demand autonomy. As long as the tsarist government prevails, policy in Ukraine is reduced to giving away land to Moscow nobles and large landowners of Moscow, which protects it from ... Ukrainian peasants; farmers have no choice to rebel, unless they feel that the pressure of government weakened that ... One of the main tasks of the Ukrainian government is to establish law and order in places of anarchy ... The education independent of Ukraine can be considered as an exemption from the tsarist regime, and as a solution to the peasant question. ... a Great Russian peasants did not remain calm under any circumstances ...
10. Movement in Finland.
In connection to the global movement, in Finland, you can take important steps. Finnish parties are in an awkward position, since the country has significant Russian military forces. On the other hand, the Finns did not just want to be annexed by Sweden. Swedes do not seek to annex Finland, they want to make it a buffer country that is independent. Swedish party in Finland - a small minority. Therefore it is necessary to reach an agreement between the Swedish government and the stronger Finnish parties, among which the most influential - the Social Democratic. Such an agreement is possible if the Swedes guarantee Finns greatest autonomy and give them the right to decide which group of states they wish to join. ... systematically begin preparations for a general uprising. The Finnish Social Democrats have at their disposal an excellent organization, similar to the German. ... a special role played by differences in language. All preparations for the revolution must be conducted secretly ... Then part of the concentrated forces will be drawn to St. Petersburg. This will be the signal for the start of a general uprising in Finland. ... The plan was developed by a special commission in St. Petersburg, where the participants were members of the General Staff, as well as senior administrative officials. ... the Swedish army will have to intervene and protect the independence of Finland. Although this is good way to crush the rebellion, it makes absolutely defenseless against army intervention of enemy forces. Therefore, probably, the tsarist government will go the other way and will delay the army to administrative centers, that is, to the coast and along the railroad. In this case, may even be destroyed railway lines with Sweden. Then Russian will dominate only on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia. ... the rebels will form the National Guard ... Of course, much depends on the development of events in St. Petersburg. Finns can be of great help even before the Russian general strike. ... They could organize a system of signaling for aircraft ... Then can be created radiotelegraph stations ...

11. Caucasus.
During the revolution, the tsarist government virtually ignored the Caucasus. ... because of the Russian-Turkish war, the situation is quite different. There is a possibility of falling away of the Caucasus ... But in contrast to Finland, where a well-organized general uprising is possible, movement in the Caucasus will always depend on the national division and struggle of parties. Most strongly manifested themselves during the revolutionary years, Georgians. ... they got full control of the government in Kutaisi and established his administration, the courts, and so on. However, this movement is not led by separatists, and the Social Democrats. ... the Social Democrats had a few Armenians, ... But we must bear in mind that after the disappointment to the revolution and the war against the separatist tendencies, of course, have become popular. In strikes participated Tatar workers. In general, the Tatar population played a reactionary role. They were opposed to the Armenian government agents from Petrograd. This led to bloody stikam between them. ... Turkey has signaled to the Caucasian Muslims that to achieve the objectives of holy war... At the same time must be concluded an alliance with the Young Turks and the Armenian parties in Turkey ... The details of this action ... beyond the scope of this memorable letters. It should be mentioned only the fact that the share of the Caucasus Armenians and Georgians would have a big impact on decisive performance of the Russian Social-Democracy. ... Holy War, which aims to raise the huge mass in Persia, Egypt, North Africa, etc., is unlikely to have a significant influence in Russia. Tatars on the Volga and Kama, of course, do not move. It is extremely peaceful and absolutely obedient peasant ... The situation is different in the Caucasus, but there Tatars were pacified ... Old conflict between Caucasian highlanders and Russian was just a struggle against any centralized state. Since then, the tribes were scattered, their leaders became landowners, hardly having contacts with the masses. The people have lost a sense of independence. ... The Turkish army will be favorably received ... In the Caucasus Muslims large-scale guerrilla war is hopeless. Rise of the Kuban Cossacks quite possible, in this case would be useful Ukrainian propaganda.

12. End of motion.
The growth of the revolutionary movement in the tsarist empire, among other things, lead to a general turmoil. In addition to the general course of military operations, it is possible to take special measures to enhance this troubled situation. For certain reasons the Black Sea basin and the Caucasus are more favorable to the area. Particular attention should be paid to the city of Nikolaev ... In Nikolayev need to strike among the workers, not necessarily of a political nature, but simply on the basis of economic demands. ... First of all, the most important - is the mobilization ... young of its citizens. Russian Social-Democracy strongly opposed to the absolute power of the country is sought by the royal diplomacy. ... If the revolutionary movement reaches a certain size - even if the tsarist government hold power in St. Petersburg - created by the Provisional Government may raise the question of the cessation of hostilities and the beginning of diplomatic negotiations for a peace treaty. If the tsarist government have to conclude an agreement on a cease-fire until an interim government, the revolutionary movement will develop more resolutely ... ...

13. Siberia.
It is necessary to pay special attention to Siberia also because huge supply of artillery and other types of weapons from the US to Russia ... through Siberia. Therefore, the Siberian project should be considered separately from the rest. It should send a few energetic, cautious and well-equipped agents to Siberia on a special mission to blow up railway bridges. They will find enough helpers among the exiles. Explosives can be delivered at the Ural mountain plants ... from Finland. Technical guidelines could be developed here.

14. Campaign in the press.
Assumptions about Romania and Bulgaria were confirmed after finalization of the memorandum and in the development of the revolutionary movement. Bulgarian media now ... pro-German ...

Now it is especially important to take the job.
1. Financial support of the Social Democratic faction of the Bolsheviks ... It is necessary to establish contacts with its leaders in Switzerland.
2. Direct contact with the revolutionary organizations in Odessa and Nikolaev through Bucharest and Iasi.
3. Establishing contacts with the Russian organizations of sailors. Such contact is already over one gentleman in Sofia. Other connections are possible via Amsterdam.
4. Support the activities of the Jewish socialist organization Bund - not Zionists.
5. Establishing contacts with authoritative figures of Russian Social Democracy and Russian Social-revolutionaries in Switzerland, Italy, Copenhagen, Stockholm. Support their efforts ... against the tsarist regime.
6. Support of the Russian revolutionary writers who take part in the struggle against tsarism even in war.
7. Communication with the Finnish Social Democracy.
8. Organization of the Congress of Russian revolutionaries.
9. Influence on public opinion in the neutral countries, especially the position of the socialist press and socialist organizations ...
In Bulgaria and Romania, it has already been successfully implemented; continue this work in the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland and Italy.
10. Equipment of the expedition to Siberia with a special purpose: to blow up the most important railway bridges and thereby prevent the transportation of weapons from America to Russia. ... with rich cash transfer for the organization of a certain number of political exiles in the center of the country.

11. Technical preparation for an uprising in Russia:

a) providing an accurate map of the Russian railways with the most important bridges that must be destroyed to paralyze transport connection, as well as identifying the main administrative buildings, arsenals, workshops, which should be given maximum attention;

b) a precise indication of the amount of explosives needed to achieve the goal in each individual case. Thus it is necessary to take into account the lack of materials and the difficult circumstances in which the action will be carried out;

c) a clear and popular instruction on handling explosives to the explosion of bridges and large buildings;

d) simple recipes for explosives;

d) develop a plan of resistance of the insurgent population of Petersburg against the armed power with particular reference to the workers' districts. Protection of houses and streets.
Protection of cavalry and infantry. Jewish socialist Bund in Russia - a revolutionary organization, which is based on the working masses and which played a role back in 1904.

Bund is in opposing relationship with the "Zionists", from which there is nothing to expect for the following reasons:

1) because of their membership in the fragile party;
2) as the Russian patriotic idea became popular in their ranks since the war began;
3) because after the Balkan War, a core of their leadership actively seek sympathy of the British and Russian diplomatic circles, although this did not prevent them also to cooperate with the German government. Because of this, it is not able to make any political action".


Mr. Peter Wodzinski wrote in February 2013:

"...signals in 1939, that the German-Soviet pact is approaching, called then Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact (23rd August 1939/28th September 1939), Polish Intelligence service received much earlier from the British (they knew from listening and decryption of German diplomatic codes) via Colin Gubbins, operating in Poland under the guise of a sales representative in Bielsko-Biala (near the border of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, where the factory, next to the border of Germany, produced a version of Enigma). Colin Gubbins, later head of the SOE, acted within the deep intelligence organization, informally co-operating with our II Department of the General Staff, outside the official structures of MI-6, an organization based on the private relationship between various influential personalities. Stephenson was a Canadian multi-billionaire , having interests in the whole world, including Germany, which served as 'cover'. He was closely associated with the Admiral Reginald Hall, head of the Royal Navy intelligence at the Great War 1914-1918, which has not ceased its activities after the war, and Bill Donovan, later head of the OSS. The organization eludes historians, because there is no written sources. It work outside, and sometimes contrary, the governments of Britain and MI-6 (the latter was too bureaucratic), so do not could leave traces. It also had its anti-Soviet blade. There is one thing ... on the basis of age-old tradition:
'The King was the ultimate authority in secret-intelligence matters. He made the top intelligence appointments. The British had worked out their own system of checks and balances to prevent the monarch abusing such power - and to prevent a governing party exploiting secret agencies to serve its own ends'.
In other words, in addition to what is seen (also in the papers, even undisclosed) the second channel was still completely invisible, acting with 'blessing' of King George V and George VI, like Gubbins, or Major Desmond Morton, head of the structure for 'wet work'. (Republican opponent of Roosevelt in the 1940s? Darlan in 1942? De Gaulle, who was nearly been 'deleted' in May-June 1943? Or maybe Sikorski?).
The ignorance of the 'invisible channel' can lead to completely erroneous applications.
On the other hand, 'arson of Europe' made by Gubbins was not his idea; founder, theoretician and experimentator (on the small scale) was a Major Edmund Charaszkiewicz, the figure in Poland at all unknown ...
There are two important considerations:
1. Colin Gubbins gave it unofficially, because he and the entire organization so just acted on the basis of the King, Admiral Hall, Churchill, Donovan and Roosevelt.
2. The information submitted with a certain manner before the Ribbentrop - Molotow treaty was signed".

More: 'The Polish Underground Army, the Western Allies, and the Failure of...', by Michael Alfred Peszke:
The British were already thinking of helping the Poles develop guerilla forces in 1939, and this all evolved from a visit to London in late June 1939 General L. Rayski, then Stanislaw Wlodzimierz Pawel Gano, head of the Technical Section of the II Bureau, Mieczyslaw Frankowski in London, Charaszkiewicz - his contacts in London were
Col. Holland and Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins, who was seconded by the British War Office MI R, and who always had warm relations with the Poles.
Colin Gubbins, (1896 - 1976), head of the Special Operations Executive 1943 - 1946; October 1939 - Charaszkiewicz received a letter from his British colleague, Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins in which he informed Charasziewicz that he had been personally searching for him; Gubbins was also responsible for setting up the secret Auxiliary Units, a civilian force to operate behind the German lines if the United Kingdom was invaded during Operation Sea Lion, Germany's planned invasion.
Gubbins was born in Scotland (or in Japan) on 2 July 1896, the younger son and third child of John Harington Gubbins (1852 - 1929), Oriental Secretary at the British Legation. He was educated at Cheltenham College and at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.

Colin was half Scottish - his mother was a McVean

(inf. under copyright by Colin Houston:
Colin's full name was Major-General Sir Colin McVean Gubbins - a wiry Scots Highlander;
his mother's father Colin McVean had been Chief Surveyor of Japan;
the third child in the family, Colin McVean Gubbins was born in Japan in 1896 to Noni and Jack Gubbins. His father Jack / John Harington Gubbins had been born in Agra, India in 1852 and worked in the British consular service as Oriental Secretary in the Tokio Legation. His mother Noni / Helen Brodie McVean had been born in Japan in 1868, and was the eldest child of
Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan.
This clan come among others of Glen Lochy, Perthshire, Scotland and in 1753 in Killin, Perthshire.
The McVean clan from Glen Lochy, in Killin, and DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland; that is Glen Lochay / Gleann Lochaidh ca 73 km west of Perth, and 60 km north-west of Stirling. Killin, Perthshire ca 60 km north-west of Sirling, and north of Callander and of Thornhill.
We remember on the governors of British Ceylon:
James Campbell, 1822 to 1824, Major general, was succeeded by Edward Barnes.
Colin Campbell b. 1776 d. 1847, Governor of British Ceylon 1841 to 1847 under Queen Victoria; 1792, ran away from the Perth Academy, returned to Scotland to enter a Navigation Academy in Perth, 1792 sailed for India, he was the fifth son of John Campbell of Melfort
(Colonel John Campbell, laird of Melfort - western Scotland and north-west of Glasgow, Kilninver - close to Melfort, and Kilmelfort - close to Melfort, in Argyllshire, Scotland, born 1730, his children: 1. Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell, b. 1767, Killin - half way from Melfort to Perth and west of Perth, in Perthshire, Scotland, 2. John Campbell, b. 1769, Killin, Perthshire, 3. Allan Campbell, b. 1770, Killin, and others children)
and Colina, daughter of John Campbell of Achallader - west-north-west of Perth, whose mother Katherine was a daughter of Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel - southern Glasgow.
His brother was Vice-Admiral Sir Patrick Campbell.
See in Bengal:
Latour and Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill.
Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of the Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.
Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. was the son of Sir Henry Stirling of Ardoch, 3rd Bt.; he married Christian Erskine, daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling, in 1762; died 1799. Children of Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. and Christian Erskine:
Mary Stirling d. 1847, Margaret Stirling, unknown daughter Stirling.

Above Mary Stirling married Ebenezer Oliphant, son of Laurence Oliphant, 6th of Condie and Margaret Murray, in 1790. Children of Mary Stirling and Ebenezer Oliphant:
Laurence Oliphant, 8th of Condie b. 1791; William Oliphant b. 1792; Anthony Oliphant b. 1793; Christian Oliphant b. 1795; Lt. Col. James Oliphant b. 1796; Thomas Oliphant b. 1799.

Above Christian Erskine was the daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling.

Above John Erskine was born 1695, was the son of Lt. Col. John Edmund Erskine and Anna Dundas.
When the Oliphant family left Ceylon, the estate sold to Sir Harry Dias. Sir Anthony Oliphant's tea estate, the Oliphant Estate, situated in the hill country in Nuwara Eliya - 55 km south-east-south of Kandy, east of Colombo, 26 km east of Hatton, close to Lindula and Meepilimana - was the first estate to grow tea in Ceylon; Anthony and his son Laurence are the first people to grow tea in Ceylon. Sir Anthony's son, Laurence Oliphant, went on become a Member of the House of Commons.

Laurence Oliphant was the only child of Sir Anthony Oliphant (1793 - 1859), a member of the Scottish landed gentry. Laurence spent his early childhood in Colombo, and the Oliphant Estate in Nuwara Eliya.
In 1848 - 1849, he was in Europe,
1851 to Nepal, returned to Ceylon,
travel in Russia at the Black Sea in 1853
(Odessa ?; see below in 1855 on Adam Mickiewicz and Bednarczyk / Hudzik / Chudzik; Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople, then in 1858 he returned to London),
next - to 1861 Oliphant was secretary to Lord Elgin;
visited the Circassian coast during the Crimean War.
1861 Oliphant was appointed First Secretary of the British Legation in Japan, a visit to Korea, where he discovered a Russian force;
met Alice le Strange, married in London, 1872.


The Haraszkiewicz / Charaszkiewicz family:

Lithuania -
Mieszkuciszki (1834-1843);
Kozłowszczyzna (1812) in the Holszany parish;
Bohuszki (1804-1840);
Nowodworcy (1847),
Podbałwaniszki (1837),
Stodolniki (1836-1838) in the Oszmiany parish.

Named Holszany close to Oszmiany.

But Poniec is situated in the Gostyń county; 9 km to Rydzyna; 9 km to Bojanowo; 20 km to Gostyn.
The Lady owner was Css Mielzynska Mycielska. The wife of Stanisław Mycielski (b. 1767 in Nowa Wies close to Wronki, died in 1813, Poznan), the Polish independence activist, colonel of the Napoleonic army.

He was the son of Józef MYCIELSKI, the governor of Inowrocław, and Franciszka Koźmiński Mycielska.

Żytowiecko was the part of the Rokosowo landestate, owned by (1846) Józef Mycielski.
Józef Roman Stanisław Mycielski b. 1801, died in 1885, Count, insurgent in 1831, the member of the MALTA ORDER.
Józef Mycielski was the son of Stanisław Mycielski (General) and Anna Mielżyński Mycielska [see PONIEC].
Józef Mycielski owned Spławie and Kobylepole. Studied in Poznan and in Berlin, in Italy, moved to Warsaw, emigrated, and back in 1831.

Stanislaw MYCIELSKI took his first studies at home under the guidance of priests from Gostyń; then studied natural sciences, geography and medicine in Paris. In 1789 he inherited the estates after his father's death. He established the main residence in Kobylempol, where he rebuilt the mansion. He continued activities after the Third Partition, and
maintained contact with General Stanisław Fiszer.
In November 1806 General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski sent a special letter to Mycielski, calling for him to take up the action.

Above
Józef Mycielski (1733 in Leszno; d. 1789 in Breslau / Wrocław), general lieutenant in 1761, commander of the 1st Lithuanian Division, the Lithuanian general-adjutant in 1755, the governor of Inowrocław in 1784-1789, the Konin official in 1756.
He was the son of Maciej MYCIELSKI and Weronika Konarzewska of Konin (died in 1762).

Jozef was the owner of the palace in Pępów, which he expanded. Pępowo is a village in the district of Pępowo, within the Gostyń County, in the Greater Poland province.

The Konarzewski family owned Pępowo until the 18th century, when Weronika Konarzewska married Maciej Mycielski. Pepowo = Pampowo belonged to the county of Krobsk, and was a part of the Chociszewice estate, which was owned by (1846) Teodor Mycielski.

Mentioned
Stanisław Mycielski b. 1767, Colonel, the son of Józef Mycielski 1733-1789.
The grandson of
Maciej Koźmiński, the Kalisz governor, lived 1690-1748.

The great-grandson of
Adam Mycielski, 1663-1723.
That is grandson of Maciej Mycielski 1690-1747, who was the son of named above Adam Mycielski 1663-1723 and Anne Niegolewska.
Anna Tuczyńska born Niegolewska, ca 1664, was the daughter of Maciej Niegolewski and Urszula Niegolewska born Żegocka. Maciej Niegolewski was born in 1640. Anna had a sister Ludwika Działyńska Niegolewska.
Anna married 1st Adam Jan Mycielski born in 1663. They had 3 children: Maciej Mycielski.
Anna died in 1723. Anna married 2nd to Andrzej Tuczyński. She lived in Szamotuły.

Now on
Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) married Katarzyna MYCIELSKA GORZYCKA MIELZYNSKA. MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki.

MACIEJ's Mielzynski children:
1. Elzbieta Mielzynska, m. Franciszek Wessel, official in Zakroczym;
2.
Urszula MIELZYNSKA + Antoni Walknowski

{[BRYGIDA BARDZKA was the daughter of Wojciech Marek Bardzki d. 1770] - see Jakub KIEDRZYNSKI junior}.

On above junior, Jakub Kiedrzynski:

Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798]. Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.

Brygida's father Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770, mother Helena Teresa Kozminska, 1706-1792.
Brygida's brothers:
Augustyn Bardzki of Wrzesnia, died in 1793, and Rafal Tadeusz Jan Bardzki, 1739-1758.
Her children:
Franciszek Wierusz Walknowski b. 1769 or before, and Teresa Wierusz Walknowska;
and BRYGIDA had with JAKUB Kiedrzynski:
Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska ARNOLD, b. 1770

{in Sobotka, 1798, Jan Arnold 1751-1840, the owner of Pecherzow, married Juljanna Kiedrzynski [2nd], b. ca 1770 / or in 1772-1811; he was 1st married Ruszkowska, widowed, the owner of Wierzchoslaw. Witness Maciej Bogdanski, official in KALISZ},

and Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.

Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski [compare the Pradzynskis and the Kiedrzynskis of WOLA WIAZOWA ! - the family of the author to this domain].

3. Marianna Krystyna;

4. and son Krzysztof Ignacy Mielzynski b. 1670, d. in Pawlowice in 1721, in 1693 official in KCYNIA; 1717 governor of Przemet.

Maciej / Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) married in 1667 to Elzbieta Baranowska - she died in 1682.

Above
Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI married in 1682 to Anna Goszycka / Gorzycka - she died in 1733, the daughter of Andrzej Goszycki / GORZYCKI and KATARZYNA MYCIELSKA, d. 1712.

MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska Gorzycka, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki or Andrzej Gorzycki.

Above
Krzysztof Mielzynski had the son Andrzej Walenty Mielzynski, 1698-1771; born in 1698 in Goscieszyn close to Wolsztyn (Wollstein); 9 km south-east to WOLSZTYN, 8 km north-east to WRONIAWY; north-west to PRZEMET; 18 km north-west to WILKOWO POLSKIE of Kiedrzyski-Zamoyski family. See Pradzynski-Kiedrzynski line. Compare Wola Wiazowa.

Above named
Andrzej Mielzynski d. 1771 in Pawlowice. Married in 1734 to Anna Petronella Bninska, b. before 1720 in GLOGOW - d. 1770, the daughter of Stanislaw Bninski + JOANNA Krzycka.

Andrzej's son -
Maksymilian Antoni Mielzynski, 1738-1799, born in Laszczyn - Cieladz [close to RAWA MAZOWIECKA]; d. in Pawlowice. Married in 1771 in Mierzeszyn (Meisterswalde) close to Trabki Wielkie, the Gdansk Pomeranie, to Konstancja Czapska, 1749-1813.
Her daughter:
Katarzyna Regina Barbara Cecylia Mielzynski, b. in 1775 in Rabin (Rombin), close to Koscian; d. 1817 in the Chobienice - Siedlec estate near Wolsztyn, and the PRUSSIAN border. Married in 1793 in Pawlowice (Pawlowitz) to Prokop Rufin Jozef Mielzynski, 1763-1800, the son of Hipolit Maciej Jozef Mielzynski 1733-1797 + Seweryna Lipska d. 1801,
with daughter
Gabriela Maria Konstancja Józefa Mielzynski POTULICKA OGINSKA, b. 1798 in Kotowo - Granowo, close to Grodzisk Wielkopolski and south-west to Poznan; d. 1822 in Nice, France.

Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849.
She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki
[compare above mentioned MIELZYNSKI of PAWLOWICE and the WOLSZTYN district].

We back to MYCIELSKI:

Stanislaw's MYCIELSKI father - JOZEF MYCIELSKI, 1733-1789, born in Leszno, d. in Breslau / Wroclaw, General lieutenant in 1761, commander of the 1st Lithuanian Division, general-adjutant in 1755, official in Inowroclaw in 1784-1789, in Konin in 1756.

Jozef was the son of Maciej Mycielski and Weronika Konarzewski, d. 1762.
Jozef Mycielski was the deputy of the Starodub county to Parliament in 1754, of Kalisz in 1761. On May 7, 1764, in Poznan, he signed a manifesto recognizing the presence of Russian troops as illegal during king's election.

JOZEF's father - Maciej Mycielski b. 1690, died 1747 in Szubin, official in Poznan in 1737-1747, in KALISZ in 1732 -1737; the son of
Adam Jan Mycielski born in 1663,
and
grandson of MIKOLAJ Mycielski d. 1686.

MIKOLAJ MYCIELSKI was the brother of Katarzyna Radolinska (wife of ANDRZEJ RADOLINSKI) and Krzysztof Mycielski

(Krzysztof was the father of Andrzej Mycielski ca 1650-1707, official in KALISZ

[Andrzej Mycielski was the father of Józef Mycielski; Teresa Skoroszewska; Krzysztof Maksymilian Mycielski; Stanislaw Adam Mycielski; Jan Ignacy Mycielski b. after 1690 / in 1696 - died in 1790

(Jan MYCIELSKI, a lieutenant of the royal army and Domicella Horodynski had the son Aleksander Mycielski 1723 - 1818, the Crown Army lieutenant general, envoy; and grandson, Erazm Mycielski b. 1769 in Kamieniec Podolski, died 1800 Kalisz, Colonel in 1794)];

and Krzysztof was the father of Katarzyna Mielzynska and Zofia Miaskowska).

Mentioned
MACIEJ Mycielski b. ca 1690
was the brother of Zofia Mycielska and Katarzyna Lacka

{compare: Jan MYCIELSKI / John Mycielski, a lieutenant of the royal army, m. Domicella Horodynski. Jan was the grandfather of famous mason and conspirator ERAZM - Erasmus Mycielski}.

MACIEJ Mycielski ca 1715 married Weronika Konarzewska (1699-1762), from Konin. In 1715 he secured her dowry and wrote down a mutual life sentence with her. As the last of her family, she brought great possessions to her husband and brother. Maciej owned Szamotuly and Gostyn in the Poznan province, Szubin south-west to Bydgoszcz, and Tuliszków north-west to TUREK, in the Kalisz province; Hrynki in the Nowogródek prov. and Kulikowicze in Volhynia / Wolyn. He died in Szubin, he was buried in Gostyn.

The conspiracy created in May 1793 reached the roots to the Freemasonry organization and of the club of the "Society of Friends of the Constitution of May 3". A part of the Masons stood in a moderate, liberal position - the preservation of the monarchy with King Stanislaw August and the implementation of the Constitution of May 3. Among the moderate activists of the conspiracy found themselves:
Ignacy Dzialynski, Andrzej Kapostas, Michal Kochanowski, Alexander Linowski, Stanislaw Woyczynski, Ludwik Gutakowski, Antoni Bazyli Dzieduszycki, Kazimierz Nestor Sapiecha.

To the second group belonged radical activists of conspiracy, among whom we find Freemasons as:
Eliasz Aloe, Piotr Grosmani, Joachim Muszynski,
Erazm Mycielski,
Józef Herman Pawlikowski, Stanislaw Wegrzecki i Wojciech Boguslawski.

The Warsaw leftists, the activists of the conspiracy founded on April 21, 1794, the Jacobin club. On January 1, 1808, the "Brothers of the United France and Poles" camp was established in Poznan. The lodge in 1814 had 233 brothers. The master was Gen. Wincenty Axamitowski, and also, for some time, Prince Józef Poniatowski.
Axamitowski was a military commander of Poznan.

Among the brothers were:
Col. Stanislaw Mycielski,
prefect of the department Józef Poninski,
president of Poznan Bernard Rose,
count Kacper Skarbek,
general Jan Henryk Dabrowski,
general Kazimierz Turno,
general Antoni "Amilkar" Kosinski,
count Aleksander Bninski,
count Melchior Lacki and others.

Near PONIEC
is situated
Żytowiecko / Seide, in the Gostyń county.
Here Mikołaj Mycielski founded a church in the 17th cent.; next church in 1777 Maksymilian Mielżyński founded.
Żytowiecko was the part of the Rokosowo landestate, owned by (1846) Józef Mycielski.
Józef Roman Stanisław Mycielski b. 1801, died in 1885, Count, insurgent in 1831, the member of the MALTA ORDER.
Józef Mycielski was the son of Stanisław Mycielski (General) and Anna Mielżyński Mycielska [see PONIEC].
Józef Mycielski owned Spławie and Kobylepole. Studied in Poznan and in Berlin, in Italy, moved to Warsaw, emigrated, and back in 1831.

Drzewce
- at way from Poniec to Gostyń. The manor of Żółtowski.

Łęka Wielka -
in 1870 Leon Mielżyński built a palace.

We back to
Haraszkiewicz in Lithuania:
Bohuszki, Niwki, Pietkowszczyzna, Mieszkuciszki (1834-1843), Kozłowszczyzna (1812).


Emil (Emilian) Bednarczyk (1812-1888) - he studied at the Polytechnic Institute in Warsaw. He fought in the Greater Poland during the Uprising of 1848, and the January Uprising of 1863-1864; in 1866 he fought as a lieutenant. Since 1832 in France, worked close to Paris, he was one of the first members of the Polish Democratic Society. In the years 1833 - 1835 he was as an emissary in Galicia. In 1853 stayed in Constantinople, where he helped to General J. Wysocki. And he was a friend of Adam Mickiewicz and witnessed his mysterious death. "November 26, 1855 Mickiewicz woke up in the morning, he asked to give a cup of tea and fell asleep. When at approx. 10 came to him Colonel Emil Bednarczyk, saw...".
See:
Dłużyna - a village in the Przemęcki Park. Here in the mid-nineteenth century began the history of the House of Bednarczyk, ancestors of Anna Hudzik / Chudzik. Czeslaw Bednarczyku 1889 - 1980 ran the family chronicle, was born in Radomicko; his parents Stephen Bednarczyk and Anastasia Skorupiński; Stefan / Stephen was involved in trade and moved (back probably!) from the central Polish - around Lodz - to Radomicko ca 1888. Here he met Anastasia Skorupińska. She was born 1860 in Radomicko.
Dluzyna is located 7 km east of Radomierz and north-west of Leszno, close to ex-Polish border before 1793.
ALEXANDER JOSEPH SULKOWSKI, was b. 1695 in Cracow, and died 1762 in Leszno.
Radomicko north of Leszno, and 14 km east of above named Dluzyna.
Rydzyna of the Sulkowskis is located around 10 km south-east of above mentioned Leszno.

In the tradition of the family of Czeslaw Bednarczyk, he was a close relative of Colonel Emilian Bednarczyk 1812 - 1888.
Emilian Bednarczyk 1812-1888, a soldier of the uprisings 1830/1 and 1848/9, 1863/4 insurgent, a volunteer in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. An eyewitness to the death of Adam Mickiewicz, buried in the cemetery in Krakow at Rakowice, acc. to 'sowa.website.pl/cmentarium/Cmentarze/spisRakow'.
Emilian Bednarczyk was born around 1810 / 1812; awarded the Military Virtue. The captain and commander in Pleszew in 1848; the Baden infantry regiment of 1849; the Turkish troops in 1853. The January Uprising in 1863. He died in Krakow in 1888.


At archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com:

DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland; in 1851 he was living in Kinlochscridain / Kinloch Scridain, and died 1880;
Kinloch Scridain is located on east of Bunessan.
he married SUSAN MC LEAN in 1836; stayed in 1837 in Kilfinchen, and 1837 at Iona, minster; Susan was daughter of DUGALD MC LEAN and SUSANNA MC LEOD, she was born 1808 in Ardfinaig
[Ardfenaig is located at the Isle of Mull, west of Scotland, ca 9 km east of Iona Island, 4 km west of Bunessan; Ardfinaig / Ardfenaig / Ardfinnaig. Kinlochscridain, Isle of Mull, Argyllshire: Isle of Mull is east of Iona. That is Loch Scridain (5 km north-east of Bunessan), Isle of Mull],
and died 1883;
children of DONALD MCVEAN and SUSAN MCLEAN are:
1. COLIN ALEXANDER MCVEAN, b. 1838, 2. HELEN SUSAN MCVEAN, b. 1839; 3. ANN CATHERINE MCVEAN, b. 1840, 4. SUSAN ISABEL, 5. MARY HELEN MCVEAN, 6. DUGALD HECTOR MCLEAN, b. 1845, 7. ISABEL MERRIAM; 8. ARCHIBALD ARTHUR MCLEAN, 9. DONALD HECTOR MCLEAN, b. 1855, Iona.
Descendants of Colin Alexander McVean b. 1838, and surveyor in Japan, returned to Scotland 1886; in 1891 Killimore House, m. Mary Wood Cowan b. 1837 in Edinburgh, 1868 (1862 ?) in Edinburgh, with children:
Helen Brodie McVean b. 1869 in Japan; Donald Archibald Dugald McVean b. 1870 in Yokohama; Susan McLean McVean b. 1872 in Japan; Alexander Gillies McVean b. 1873, Flora Ann Phoebe; Colin Arthur Campbell McVean b. 1877; Elizabeth Josephine 1878 in Oban; Norman Neil George Cowan, Janet Lucretia Catriona m. Arthur Manson Huston in 1909.
Note under copyright by Merle & Ida King at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/.

At margin:
In Japan, a public telegraph service was inaugurated using Breguet's one; Louis François Clément Breguet b. 1804, d. 1883, was a French physicist and watchmaker, acted in the early days of telegraphy. Educated in Switzerland, Breguet was the grandson of Abraham-Louis Breguet, founder of the watch manufacturing company Breguet.
He became manager of Breguet et Fils watchmakers in 1833 after his father Louis Antoine Breguet retired. With Alphonse Foy, in 1842 he developed an electrical needle telegraph, and his telegraph system (1847) was applied to French railways and exported to Japan. Four Breguet dial telegraph devices is in the museum's collection in Japan;
the Breguet ABC telegraph was first put into commercial use in 1870; but in 1869 a telegraph service was started between Tokyo and Yokohama (December 25, 1869) with the assistance of an English expert named G. M. Gilbert.
The telegraph apparatus used at that time was called the Breguet letter-point telegraph, and was operated by moving a handle over a disc on which letters were written. This telegraph was operated by pointing to letters on the disc, and was easy for novices to work. The foreign expert then was an Englishman named G. M. Gilbert. In those days, many hired foreigners were invited to Japan to introduce the Western system and technology. The Meiji Government had 300 foreigners at the Industry Ministry; one of these foreigners was an English engineer Gilbert, who in Sept. 1869 adopted a dual instrument; Jan. 1870 the first message was send.


The famous Richard Henry Brunton (1841 - 1901), so-called "Father of Japanese lighthouses", was born in Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland.
He was a foreign advisor to build lighthouses in Japan. Muchalls is a small village in Kincardineshire, Scotland, south of Newtonhill and north of Stonehaven, south of Aberdeen - is the birthplace of Richard Henry Brunton; he was a railway engineer, joined the Stevenson brothers (David and Thomas Stevenson) who were engaged by the British government to build lighthouses.
Japan hired the Edinburgh-based firm of D. and T. Stevenson to chart coastal waters and to build lighthouses, what begun under French foreign advisor Leonce Verny;
Brunton was sent from Edinburgh in August 1868 to head the project.
François Leonce Verny / Leonce Verny born in Aubenas in Ardeche, 1837, d. 1908, a French officer and naval engineer of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in Japan, from 1865 to 1876;
studied at Lyon and École Polytechnique. Verny was sent to Ningbo and Shanghai in China from 1862 - 1864, he was also French Vice-Consul in Ningbo. Verny was persuaded to go to Japan by his distant relative, French ambassador Leon Roches in September 1865; 1865 he briefly returned to France helped in the negotiations for the First French Military Mission to Japan.
Mentioned Léon Roches b. 1809, Grenoble, was a representative of the French government in Japan from 1864 to 1868, then assist friends of his father as a trader in Marseilles! Under Bugeaud's recommendation, Roches joined the French Foreign Ministry as an interpreter in 1845. 1863, Roches was nominated Consul General of France in Edo, Japan. His great rival was the British consul Harry Parkes.
François Leonce Verny cooperated with Jules Brunet b. 1838, a French officer who played an active role in Mexico and Japan, and later became a General and Chief of Staff of the French Minister of War in 1898. He was sent to Japan with the French military mission of 1867.
François Leonce Verny also built four lighthouses in the Tokyo area, and managed the building of the shipyard at Nagasaki.

Above Thomas Stevenson (1818 - 1887) was a Scottish lighthouse designer, was a president of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1884 - 1886); he was the youngest son of engineer Robert Stevenson, and brother of the lighthouse engineers Alan and David Stevenson;
James Melville Balfour was trained under D. & T. Stevenson and then emigrated to New Zealand;
Thomas Stevenson married Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour in 1848 with son, the writer Robert Louis Stevenson; Maggie Balfour was the older sister of James Balfour.
James Melville Balfour (1831 - 1869) was a Scottish-born New Zealand marine engineer, built the network of lighthouses; among his siblings were the physician George William Balfour (1823-1903), and Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour (1829 - 1897) who in 1848 married the lighthouse builder Thomas Stevenson.
Balfour was born in Colinton near Edinburgh, Scotland in 1831. He was the youngest son of Rev. Lewis Balfour (1774 - 1860; but we know on James Balfour Mackintosh 1774 - 1860), a minister for the Colinton parish.
The philosopher James Balfour was his father's paternal grandfather
(James Balfour b. 1705 !, d. 1795, a Scottish philosopher, was born at Pilrig, near Edinburgh; he was studying at Edinburgh and at Leyden, his great-grandsons - brothers George William Balfour and James Balfour were a heart specialist in Scotland, and a marine engineer in New Zealand),
and the physician Robert Whytt was his father's maternal grandfather
(Robert Whytt b. 1714 in Edinburgh, was a Scottish physician, on "unconscious reflexes, tubercular meningitis, urinary bladder stones, and hysteria", acc. to Wikipedia; College of Physicians of Edinburgh; he was the second son of Robert Whytt of Bennochie, advocate, and Jean, daughter of Antony Murray of Woodend, Perthshire).
Above mentioned James Balfour 1774 in Edinburgh, Midlothian, d. 1860, father of Margaret Paul; John Mackintosh Balfour-Melville of Pilrig and Strathkinness; Jane Balfour; James Balfour; Robert Balfour; and Anne Balfour; he was brother of Lewis Balfour, Minister of Sorn and Melville Balfour.
Above named Brunton travelled all over Japan making a survey of sites suitable for lighthouses, and advised the government on their actual construction.
He was a Scotsman, and he introduced a fellow countryman, George Miles Gilbert.
The Gilbert family at present in Aberdeen; we know about: Mollie Gilbert 1706 Baniffshire, Scotland; Jobina Gilbert b. 1853 Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland; main area of this family is the CENTRAL DISTRICT, GLASGOW, LANARK; samples: 1822 Old Monkland, Lanark, in 1856 OLD MONKLAND, LANARK, SCOTLAND. LANARK - 42 km south-east of Glasgow, SCOTLAND, and Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland - 16 km east of Glasgow.
Under the superintendence of an English engineer named George Miles Gilbert, wires were put up to connect Tokyo with Yokohama, a distance of eighteen miles, in 1870. George Miles Gilbert, was a telegraphic technician.

Acc to http://www.kosmoid.net/lives/mcvean:
Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan married in Edinburgh in mid 1862 (1868 ?), come for a long voyage and life together in Japan.
Rev. Donald McVean of Iona, Scotland, and Susan MacLean of the Moy Castle clan,
were living together with Colin's younger siblings Mary, Dougald, Ann, Isabella and Archie McVean. Mary Wood Cowan's sister in 1857 married to the Reverend Boog Watson.
Her father Alexander Cowan was the papermaker but died in 1859. Mary's mother Helen Brodie, was Alexander's second wife, died in 1863. Alexander Cowan and his first and second spouses had twenty children, Mary was the seventeenth. Mary and Colin sailed to Japan after their wedding, in the company of Richard Henry Brunton, the father of Japanese lighthouses, to the Japanese Imperial service.
In Japan, Colin and Mary McVean had a first children, Helen / Noni, later Mrs Gubbins, and Donald / Dondo in 1869 and 1870. Helen Brodie Noni McVean later Mrs Gubbins born 22 March 1869),

but his father was born in India, educated in England;
he was Irish by an ancestor Joseph - George Gubbins, a Captain of Dragoons who campaigned for Oliver Cromwell in Ireland, in 1649 moved to County Limerick
(Limerick / Luimneach is a city in Ireland, located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster);
the family prospered; next soldier in the family was
Colin's great-grandfather Joseph born in 1775;
and next soldier was in 1896 when Colins was born; but above Joseph Gubbins in 1802 returned from service abroad and spent 3 years fortifying the southern counties of England against French invasion; Joseph b. 1775 died 1832, married Charlotte Bathoe of Bath; he served in Santo Domingo with the South Hampshire Regiment, in Holland, Malta, and Egypt with the 2nd Somersetshires and in 1810 he went to Nova Scotia as Inspecting Field Officer of Militia, then in New Brunswick in Canada; was living in Fredericton with 3 children; 1816 returned to England as retirement; his wife Charlotte died 1824, he was now major-general, died 1832;
their third son was Martin Richard Gubbins, 1812 - 1863, Colin's grandfather, joined the Bengal Civil Service of Bombay; in 1856 Martin was Financial Commissioner for the Oudh Province in India; adviser of Sir Henry Lawrence, Chief Commissioner.
Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence b. 1806, d. 1857, a British soldier and statesman in India, who died defending Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny; he was born into an Irish family at Matara, Ceylon, as the eldest son of Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander William Lawrence and was the brother of John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence. Educated at Foyle College, Derry in Ireland, and then Addiscombe, next in 1823 he joined the Bengal Artillery at the Calcutta, where Henry Havelock was also stationed.
Above John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, 1811 - 1879, 1858 to 1869, was the British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Lawrence came from Richmond, North Yorkshire, but spent his early years in Derry, Ulster, then the East India Company College, went to India in 1829 to Delhi with Henry Montgomery Lawrence.
We back to Colins:
in 1919 joined the staff of General Sir Edmund Ironside in the North Russia Campaign serving as his ADC in Murmansk from 13 April to 27 September 1919.
His father John Harington Gubbins was a British linguist, consular official and diplomat: he was appointed to the British Japan Consular Service in 1871
- see 'Collected Writings of Ian Nish', by Ian Hill Nish; then to the Conference at Tokyo in 1883; 1889, became Japanese Secretary at Tokyo; in London at the Foreign Office in 1894, a close friend of Satow's. He wrote among others things 'The civil code of Japan', Tokio 1897-1899.
By Peter Wilkinson and Joan Astley:
in 1857 Martin Gubbins at siege of Lucknow, in 1858, Martin Gubbins was a Judge of the Supreme Court in Agra, he returned to England in January 1863, to his brother's house in Leamington Spa.
A grandmother of Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins had five sons, another had died very young in India; and a daughter;
his father going to Harrow's school, then Cambridge;
Colin's father John was the youngest of Harriet's five sons.


The Illuminati district? Poniec - Przemet - Wroniawy - Wilkowo Polskie.

PONIEC

- at half way from Rokosowo [Rokossowski and Wola Pszczolecka] to Rydzyna [Sulkowski - the Malta Order];
23 south-east to LESZNO;
27 km west-south to GOSTYN;
15 km west to KROBIA.

Przemęt / Przemet
- 14 km south-west to WILKOWO POLSKIE [Kiedrzynski and Pradzynski from Wola Wiazowa];
29 km north-west to named LESZNO;
around 34 km south-east to Chobienice [MIELZYNSKI].


The palace in Wroniawy
was built in 1820; Wroniawy belonged to Adam Gajewski of Wolsztyn, who given Wroniawy to his daughter Antonina, married Count Plater; in 1885 or 1895 Count Plater sold Wroniawy to hands of Baron Goldschmidt - Rotschild;
name Goldschmidt - Rotschild Maksymilian from Franfurt / Maximilian von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (1843 - 1940) was a German banker and art collector.

The son of Benedict Hayum Salomon Goldschmidt, he was the co-inheritor of the Goldschmidt family bank along with his brother Adolphe Goldschmidt [copyright by Wikipedia].
He married Minna Karoline Freiin von Rothschild, the daughter of Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild.
He was the richest person in the German Empire.
After the death of his father-in-law, the last male of the Frankfurt Rothschilds, Maximilian Goldschmidt and his wife adopted Rothschild's name.
Emperor William I gave him the title of Baron de Goldschmidt-Rothschild.
His son was Albert Maximilian von Goldschmidt-Rothschild b. 1879 in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1941 in Lausanne, the Vaud County [see Duflon, Anna Konstantynowicz nee ARMAND, Lenin...], Switzerland.

Above Minna Caroline "Minka" von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (von Rothschild) b. 1857, daughter of Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild and
Hannah Mathilde nee Rothschild b. 1832, who was the daughter of
Anselm Salomon von Rothschild b. 1803

[ANSELM - son of Salomon Mayer von Rothschild b. 1774

{Salomon Mayer - was the son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild / Mosche Meir, b. 1743 or 1744 in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1812 in Frankfurt am Main; Mayer Amschel Bauer, an Ashkenazi Jew,
the son of Moses Amschel Bauer, a proprietor of a counting house.

In 1770, "Mayer Amschel Rothschild draws up plans for the creation of the Illuminati and entrusts ... Adam Weishaupt, ... with its organization and development...". Mayer Amschel Rothschild marries Gutle Schnaper. In 1773, was born
Amschel Mayer Rothschild, the first of Mayer Amschel Rothschild's sons.

"...He like all his brothers who follow him, will enter the family business at the age of 12".

1774, Salomon Mayer Rothschild born.

In 1776, "Adam Weishaupt officially completes his organisation of the Illuminati on May 1 of this year. The purpose of the Illuminati is to ... fight amongst themselves; destroy national governments; destroy religious institutions... Weishaupt soon infiltrates the Continental Order of Freemasons with this Illuminati doctrine and establishes lodges of the Grand Orient to be their secret headquarters..."},

and Caroline STERN],

and Charlotte Nathan nee Rothschild b. 1807.

Apollon (Apollo, Apellon) Wasylewicz Konstantynowicz who b. ca 1862, was the son of Wasilij / Wasyl Konstantynowicz who was born ca 1835 / 1840. The wife of Apollon was Anna Armand, oldest - Anna nee Armand was born on 19 August 1866 in Moscow - daughter of Evgenii / Eugeniusz Armand - Eugene born about 1842.
Eugene Konstantynowicz - son of above mentioned Apollon Konstantynowicz, Polish, and Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand, Polish roots - and his children were living in Switzerland and Paris, France, that is grandchildren of Anna nee Armand, and great-grandchildren of Varvara Karlovna Demonsi / Demonets or DEMONTET.
Eugene Konstantynowicz, as a patient, was treated in Switzerland, there he became acquainted with Marusya, who cared for her uncle Leon Bakst, along with Sophia, Bertha, Paul and Emily.
Eugene Konstantynowicz / Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinowitz (1890 - 1977) had two sons, architects - Nikolai and Pyotr Constantinowitz

(Mikolaj Konstantynowicz and Piotr Konstantynowicz; but also is inf. about 3 children of Maria nee Klaczko / Maria Markovna Klyachko and Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinovich / Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz),

acc. to correspondence of Howard D. Rothschild to Constantinowitz Marie in 1976-1980; Howard Rothschild born 1907 and died 1989 in New York.

Constantinowitz, Pyotr Yevgenievich (Kanstantinovich / Constantinowitz Pierre was born 1928 and address: Orée du Bois Brulé, 78380 Bougival) and Constantinowitz Nikolai Yevgenievich (born 1931 - Nicolas, 45B Route des Gardes, Meudon).
Constantinowitz, Yevgeny Apollonovich (Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz son of Apollon Konstantynowicz; born 1890 - died 1977) was a cello and piano player.

Mentioned above Howard D. Rothschild / Howard Rothschild born 1907, d. 1989, "...was an artist and a major collector of art work related to Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. His fascination with Ballets Russes began in 1915 ... he became a close friend and an anonymous benefactor of many aging Ballets Russes dancers...".
Howard D. Rothschild b. in New York, United States, d. in London. Son of Frederick William Rothschild

["Fred" b. 1867 in New York, died 1940 in New York. Son of William "Wolf" Rothschild

{"Wolf" b. 1829 in Göppingen, Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. Son of Marx ben Herz Rothschild

(born in 1789 in Jebenhausen, Göppingen, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, d. 1851 in Göppingen. Son of Herz Marx Rothschild {{"Naphtali" b. 1738 in Bad Mergentheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Son of Marx Herz Rothschild born ca 1700, and Gudele}} and Frommet OTTENHEIMER)

and Braendel KATZ daughter of Weil}

and Matilda ROSENHEIM]

and Sarah B. Rothschild nee ADLER.
Copyright by Thomas Föhl in 2015 at geni.com.

Marx Herz Rothschild and Gudele - b. ca 1690/1700 ?

Moses Kalmann Rothschild / Moses Bauer / Mosche ben Kalman Rothschild, b. in Frankfurt am Main; he was the son of Kalman Herz Rothschild, zur Hinter Pfann and Gütle;
husband of Schönche (Schönle);
father of Herz Moses Rothschild b. ca 1690 ?
[compare above named Marx Herz Rothschild b. ca 1690/1700 ?, and his wife Gudele]
and Amschel Moses Rothschild [b. 1710; see below].

Above Herz Moses Rothschild / Hirsch Hirz / Hertz / Hersch, b. ca 1690 ?, in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1728 in Frankfurt am Main.

Named above Frommet Rothschild (nee Ottenheimer) [nee Oppenheimer?], b. 1754 in Jebenhausen, Göppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany; d. 1821 in Göppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg.
Daughter of Salomo Ottenheimer and Jette. Wife of Herz Marx Rothschild. Mother of Sara Lindauer; Isidor Isaak Rothschild; Hindle Dettelbacher; above Marx ben Herz Rothschild and Simon Naphtali Herz Rothschild. Sister of Jacob Ottenheimer; Maier Ottenheimer; Behle Kaufmann and Isak Ottenheimer, by geni.com.

Above Salomo Ottenheimer b. 1725 in Mühringen, Horb am Neckar, Baden-Wurttemberg; d. 1791 in Göppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg. Son of Josle Isai Odenheimer or Ottenheimer from Haigerloch, Tübingen, Baden- Wurttemberg, and Zettlin.

Mentioned
Sarah B. Rothschild (Adler) b. 1879 in New York, daughter of Samuel Adler and Caroline nee ABRAHAM.
Above Samuel Adler b. 1827 in Germany, died 1918 in New York. Mentioned Caroline Adler (Abraham) / "Carrie Abraham" b. 1848. Daughter of Judah Abraham and Sara Abraham.
Named above Judah Abraham born in 1810 in Bavaria, Germany, d. 1888 in New York. Son of Abraham.

Acc. to 'michaeljournal.org/nwo1.htm'
in 1773 - Mayer Amschel Rothschild assembles twelve of his most influential friends, and convinces them that if they all pool their resources together, they can rule the world. This meeting takes place in Frankfurt, Germany. Rothschild also informs his friends that he has found the perfect candidate, an individual of incredible intellect and ingenuity, to lead the organization he has planned - Adam Weishaupt.

May 1, 1776 - Adam Weishaupt (code named Spartacus) establishes a secret society called the Order of the Illuminati.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild, written also Anschel (1744 - 1812), was a German Jewish banker and the founder of the Rothschild dynasty.
Meyer Amschel Rothschild was born in 1744 in Frankfurt am Main, as one of eight children of Amschel Moses Rothschild (d. 1755) and his wife Schönche née Lechnich, d. 1756.

Above Amschel Moses Rothschild / Anschel ben Mosche Rothschild, b. 1710 in Frankfurt am Main, Hessen- Nassau. Son of Moses Kalmann Rothschild - born ca 1670 ?

Above Moses Kalmann Rothschild / Moses Bauer / Mosche ben Kalman Rothschild, b. in Frankfurt am Main; he was the son of Kalman Herz Rothschild, zur Hinter Pfann and Gütle; husband of Schönche (Schönle); he was the father of Herz Moses Rothschild b. ca 1690 ? [compare above named Marx Herz Rothschild b. ca 1690/1700 ?, and his wife Gudele] and Amschel Moses Rothschild [b. 1710; see above].

Above Herz Moses Rothschild / Hirsch Hirz / Hertz / Hersch, b. ca 1690 ?, in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1728 in Frankfurt am Main.

The illuminati were apparently founded in Bavaria in 1770 [1776] by one Adam Weishaupt. In 1744, Mayer Amschel Bauer / Mayer Rothschild was born in the free city of Frankfurt, Germany, to an Ashkenazi Jew who ran a counting house and also worked as a money exchanger. Mayer Rothschild started working for a bank owned by the Oppenheimer family in Hanover, Germany. Following the death of his father, he returned to Frankfurt in order to take over his father’s business. It was during this time that he changed his last name from Bauer to Rothschild.
Mayer married Gutle Schnaper, the daughter of an influential and respected merchant, Wolf Salomon Schnaper.

By 1785, the Illuminati was banned and all of the Bavarian lodges of the Grand Orient were closed down. Around the same time, Mayer Rothschild moved with his family to a five story house in Frankfurt, which he shared with the Schiff family.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744 - 1812) was also a financial advisor of Landgrave of Hesse Hanau - Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (1747 - 1837). Landgrave was born as the youngest son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (the future Landgrave Frederick II - see below) and Princess Mary of Great Britain. He was the last surviving grandchild of George II of Great Britain.

Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel married Maria Princess of Hanover, cousin of Frederick II the Great King of Prussia, and the daughter of [mentioned above] George II King of England.
In December 1745, Frederick [Frederick of Hesse] landed in Scotland with 6000 Hessian troops to support his father-in-law, [named above] George II of Great Britain, in dealing with the Jacobite rising.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, his [Mayer Amschel Rothschild] five sons began expanding the family business:
1809, Nathan Mayer Rothschild 1st (1777-1836) in London;
1812, Jakob Rothschild (1792-1868) in Paris; 1820,
Salomon Rothschild (1774-1855) in Vien;
in 1821, Kalman Rothschild or Carl Mayer von Rothschild (1788-1855) in Naples;
oldest Amschel Mayer Rothschild (1773-1855) in Frankfurt.

The family supported the creation of the state of Israel. Edmond James de Rothschild is the patron of the first settlements in Palestine in Riszon le-Cijjon, ca 1887 (see Oliphant and Odessa).

Baron Solomon Benedict de Worms (1801 - 1882) was an Austrian aristocrat, plantation owner in Ceylon [see tea and Azbelev - Duflon and Konstantynowicz family; Pilsudski and Sieroszewski in Japan]; stockbroker in London. His father was Benedikt Moses Worms (1769 - 1824) and his mother,
Schonche Jeannette Rothschild.
He had two brothers, Maurice Benedict de Worms (1805-1867) and Gabriel Benedict de Worms (1802-1881).

His maternal grandfather was Mayer Amschel Rothschild.

Samuel Oppenheimer (born 1630, Heidelberg - 1703, Vienna) was a Ashkenazi Jewish banker, imperial court diplomat. Oppenheimer's son, Simon Wolf Oppenheimer, established a banking house in Hanover. Simon Wolff's [d. 1726] son, Jakob Wolf Oppenheimer continued the family banking house.

"It was there, from 1757 to 1763, that Mayer Amschel Rothschild apprenticed and learned the banking business that would become synonymous with that family name".

1.
Johanna Oppenheimer (Rothschild) b. 1833 in Hochhausen, Karlsruhe, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany; d. 1901 in Hesse / HESSEN, Germany; wife of Moritz Oppenheimer; sister of William Rothschild.
2.
Ida Rothschild (nee Oppenheimer) 1853 - 1910, daughter of Sigmund Salomon Oppenheimer [come from Emanuel Oppenheimer b. 1787 in Bavaria, Germany, d. 1840 in Bavaria; son of Joseph Löb Oppenheimer of Burgkunstadt, Upper Franconia, Bavaria] and Babette.
She was 1st time married to Salomon Julius Rothschild son of Isaak
[he come from Herz Marx Rothschild and Frommet, daughter of Jacob Simon Wolf Oppenheimer / Wolf Oppenheimer; he was born in 1759 - died in 1797 in Hannover],
and 2nd to Salomon Rothschild son of WOLF [come from Wolf (Wolf-Gang) Rothschild b. 1810].

See: Marx ben Herz Rothschild b. 1789 in Jebenhausen, Göppingen, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg; died 1851 in Göppingen.
Son of Herz Marx Rothschild and above Frommet.

Mentioned above Wolf Jacob Simon Oppenheim / Wolf Oppenheimer, b. 1759, died April 12, 1797 in Hannover. Son of Jacob Simon Wolf Oppenheimer b. ca ?, died July 6, 1760 in Hannover.
His father was Simon Wolf Oppenheimer b. ca 1650 in Vienna, Austria; d. 1726 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany.
And grandfather was Samuel Wolf Oppenheimer b. 1630 in Heidelberg, Germany; d. 1703 in Vienna, Austria.


WRONIAWY and the Illuminati:

Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI married in 1682 to Anna Goszycka / Gorzycka - she died in 1733, the daughter of Andrzej Goszycki / GORZYCKI and KATARZYNA MYCIELSKA, d. 1712.
MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska Gorzycka, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki or Andrzej Gorzycki.

Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI had the son Andrzej Walenty Mielzynski, 1698-1771; born in 1698 in Goscieszyn close to Wolsztyn (Wollstein); that is 9 km south-east to WOLSZTYN, 8 km north-east to WRONIAWY; north-west to PRZEMET; 18 km north-west to WILKOWO POLSKIE of Kiedrzyski-Zamoyski family.

See Pradzynski-Kiedrzynski line. Compare Wola Wiazowa.

Andrzej Mielzynski d. 1771 in Pawlowice. Married in 1734 to Anna Petronella Bninska, b. before 1720 in GLOGOW - d. 1770, the daughter of Stanislaw Bninski + JOANNA Krzycka.
Andrzej's son -
Maksymilian Antoni Mielzynski, 1738-1799, born in Laszczyn - Cieladz [close to RAWA MAZOWIECKA]; d. in Pawlowice. Married in 1771 in Mierzeszyn (Meisterswalde) close to Trabki Wielkie, the Gdansk Pomeranie, to Konstancja Czapska, 1749-1813.
Her daughter:
Katarzyna Regina Barbara Cecylia Mielzynski, b. in 1775 in Rabin (Rombin), close to Koscian; d. 1817 in the Chobienice - Siedlec estate near Wolsztyn, and the PRUSSIAN border.
Married in 1793 in Pawlowice (Pawlowitz) to Prokop Rufin Jozef Mielzynski, 1763-1800, the son of Hipolit Maciej Jozef Mielzynski 1733-1797 + Seweryna Lipska d. 1801,
with daughter
Gabriela Maria Konstancja Józefa Mielzynski POTULICKA OGINSKA, b. 1798 in Kotowo - Granowo,
close to Grodzisk Wielkopolski and south-west to Poznan; d. 1822 in Nice, France.

Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849.
She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son
Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki
[compare above mentioned MIELZYNSKI of PAWLOWICE and the WOLSZTYN district].



Edmund Charaszkiewicz, was born in 1895 in Punitz / Poniec, in the Province of Posen, the German Empire; the son of Stanisław Charaszkiewicz; on 15 November 1918, Charaszkiewicz joined the Polish Army in the rank of sublieutenant.
1919–21 he participated in battles against Soviets and was taken prisoner by the Lithuanians; 15 December 1920 was assigned to the Second Division of the General Staff. Edmund Charaszkiewicz in 1922 was assigned to Division II of the General Staff, with intelligence and counterintelligence offensive against the neighboring countries of Poland - later became head of the Branch No. 2 in Warsaw - so-called "Promethean action".
Eugene Edmund Charaszkiewicz specialized in clandestine warfare, coordinated Marshal Józef Piłsudski's Promethean movement, aimed at liberating the non-Russian peoples of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union; the Promethean concept was based on the fight against the Soviet imperial state by supporting the activities of independence among the nations belonging to the Soviet state. In 1928 (?) took over the management of the Branch No. 2 of the Division II, with the organization of sabotage.
1931 - 1939, Charaszkiewicz served, last in the rank of major, as chief of "Office 2" of the General Staff's Section II: with the planning, preparation and execution of clandestine-warfare operations, and was also responsible for "Promethean operations," conceived by Józef Piłsudski.
"...The idea was to combat Soviet imperialism by supporting irredentist movements among the non-Russian peoples of the Soviet Union. Thus the Prometheists' ultimate goal was nothing less than the dismemberment of the Soviet Union. The movement's leaders included ... Colonel Walery Sławek, and ... Tadeusz Hołówko. Great importance was attached to Prometheism by Section II's successive chiefs, Colonel Tadeusz Schaetzel and Colonel Tadeusz Pełczyński, and by deputy chief Lieutenant Colonel Józef Englicht. The movement's intelligence operations were directed by Edmund Charaszkiewicz. Contacts were maintained with Ukrainians and Cossacks, and with representatives of several peoples of the Caucasus: Azeris, Armenians and Georgians" - under copyright by Wikipedia. "...In its prosecution of the Promethean agenda, Office 2 worked with official institutions such as the Institute for Study of Nationality Affairs ... and the Polish-Ukrainian Society ... and its Polish-Ukrainian Bulletin ... as Leon Wasilewski, Stanisław Łoś and Stanisław Stempowski, ... Włodzimierz Bączkowski, a leading figure in the "Promethean movement." ... From March 1934 Charaszkiewicz was a member of the Commission for Scientific Study of [Poland's] Eastern Lands ... and the Committee on [Poland's] Eastern Lands and Nationalities ... at the Council of Ministers...".

At the conference of the Central Committee of the Polish Socialist Party held on 17-20 October 1904 in Cracow, Jozef Pilsudski spoke on the new tactics as the results of discussions with the Japanese. No one expected to overthrow of the tsarist regime in Russia, but had to use the new elements related to the internal situation in the country. Jozef Pilsudski advocated the use of the tactics of action, involving the creation of national events and to force society to action; he believed that the new tactics must even led to the blood. On November 13, 1904 a manifestation at the Grzybowski Square in Warsaw was the first organized with arms against the government in Congress Poland since the fall of the January Uprising in 1863/1864; it gave a signal to the revolution of 1905.
During these events, Pilsudski was in Zakopane in Austria-Hungary. It was in September 1904. Pilsudski with Mrs. Maria came to Bukovina Tatrzanska, highland village near Zakopane, where his close friend, the poet Andrzej Strug had a hut, acc. to Landau; this is the only source from which we get to know more details on the visit of Pilsudski in Bukowina; it is not known how long he stayed here, and who else was among the guests invited by the poet. Then Jozef Pilsudski in April 1905 took part in a conference of socialist and revolutionary parties of Russia in Geneva. Here was also Vladimir Lenin, representative of the Social Democratic Party of Bolsheviks.
The house in Bukowina, where Pilsudski arrived was located on Olczanski Peak.
Kazimierz Dłuski in 1897 visited Zakopane, and Kościelisko village was a part of the city; 1898 Bronisława and Kazimierz went to Zakopane, but 1900 permamently because Kazimierz was without the right to return to the Russia; they created a sanatorium in Kościelisko in 1902; the ville 'Dyrektorówka' of Bronisława and Kazimierz Dłuski was here; the board of directors: Maria Curie-Skłodowska, Ignacy Paderewski, Henryk Sienkiewicz. Close to the sanatorium in Koscielisko was the 'President's House' of the Dluski family. In 1904 Jozef Pilsudski visited Bukowina Tatrzanska close to Koscielisko and Zakopane; ville 'Za bramką II' at the Nowotarska street in Zakopane, belonged to Kazimierz Dłuski; in Zakopane 1899 were together Piotr Curie, Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Erazm Dłuski a brother of Kazimierz, Józef Skłodowski, Józef Dłuski a brother of Kazimierz.
Kazimierz Dłuski got married a sister of famous Maria Sklodowska. Bronislawa Dłuska b. 1865, d. 1939, the Polish doctor, the older sister of Maria Sklodowska-Curie, the first director of the Radium Institute, the wife of Kazimierz Dłuski (see on the Breguet family genealogy). Joseph Skłodowski grandfather was a teacher in Lublin. Father Wladyslaw Skłodowski was a teacher of mathematics and physics and director in Warsaw; father was an atheist;
Bronislawa went to Paris to study medicine, and her sister Mary was in the country and tried to help her financially; Bronislawa in 1890 married to Casimir Dłuski, political exile and invited Maria to himself; Kazimierz Dluski was graduated in Paris with political science and medicine; the Paris apartment of Dłuski was open to the Polish political emigrants, among others, later Presidents of Poland: Ignacy Moscicki and Stanislaw Wojciechowski; in 1892 was born a daughter, Helena, later known mountain-climber. After returning home in 1902, Dluski created in Zakopane a hospital of tuberculosis; in 1919, he was send by the Head of State Jozef Pilsudski to the Polish National Committee and was a member of the Polish delegation to the peace conference at Versailles. Kazimierz Dłuski b. 1855 in Sosnówka near Mohylow Podolski; 1878 emigrated to Switzerland, where he met with Polish socialists staying there. Published to the "Equality", was the author accused of anarchist sympathies and had conflict with Boleslaw Limanowski; 1881, Dłuski took part in the convention in Coire, replaced Louis Waryński there. In 1882 Kazimierz Dłuski went to Paris with a letter of recommendation from Johann Philipp Becker, where he had contact with Karl Marx. Dłuski remained in Paris, and was a member of the National League, a secret political organization, established on April 1, 1893 from the Polish League - the center of the national movement; see Milkowski / Jez. In 1894, the National League held a series of demonstrations across the country.

"Piłsudski's elaboration of Prometheism had been aided by an intimate knowledge of the Russian Empire gained while exiled by its government to eastern Siberia. The term "Prometheism" was suggested by the Greek myth of Prometheus...",
at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheism.
And a text below also from Wikipedia:
"...A brief history of Poland's Promethean endeavor was set down on February 12, 1940, by Edmund Charaszkiewicz, ... Charaszkiewicz wrote his paper in Paris...
The creator and soul of the Promethean concept [wrote Charaszkiewicz] was Marshal Piłsudski, who as early as 1904, in a memorandum to the Japanese government, pointed out the need to employ, in the struggle against Russia, the numerous non-Russian nations that inhabited the basins of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas, and emphasized that the Polish nation, by virtue of its history, love of freedom, and uncompromising stance toward [the three empires that had partitioned Poland out of political existence at the end of the 18th century] would, in that struggle, doubtless take a leading place and help work the emancipation of other nations oppressed by Russia.

A key excerpt from Piłsudski's 1904 memorandum declared:
Poland's strength and importance among the constituent parts of the Russian state embolden us to set ourselves the political goal of breaking up the Russian state into its main constituents and emancipating the countries that have been forcibly incorporated into that empire. We regard this not only as the fulfilment of our country's cultural strivings for independent existence, but also as a guarantee of that existence, since a Russia divested of her conquests will be sufficiently weakened that she will cease to be a formidable and dangerous neighbour.
The Promethean movement, according to Charaszkiewicz, took its genesis from a national renaissance that began in the late 19th century among many peoples of the Russian Empire. ... this was so in Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia and Azerbaijan. These socialist parties would take the lead in their respective peoples' independence movements. ... Ultimately the peoples of the Baltic Sea basin - Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania - won and, until World War II, all kept their independence. The peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins - Ukraine, Don Cossacks, Kuban, Crimea, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Northern Caucasus - emancipated themselves politically in 1919-1921 but then lost their independence to Soviet Russia.
In 1917-21, according to Charaszkiewicz, as the nations of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins were freeing themselves from Russia's tutelage, Poland was the only country that worked actively together with those peoples.
... Immediately after the loss of independence by the peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins and the annexation of those lands in 1921 by Soviet Russia, Poland was the only country in Europe that gave material and moral support to the political aspirations of their Promethean (pro-independence) emigres.
... Throughout the years 1918–39, according to Charaszkiewicz, the Polish Promethean leadership consistently observed several principles. The purpose of the Promethean enterprise was to liberate from imperialist Russia, of whatever political stripe, the peoples of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins and to create a series of independent states as a common defensive front against Russian aggression.
Each Promethean party respected the political sovereigny of the others.
... Poland's role in the Promethean process was marked by the conclusion of a Polish-Ukrainian political and military alliance (the Warsaw Agreement, April 1920) with Symon Petlura's Ukrainian People's Republic, Piłsudski's expedition to Kiev (begun April 25, 1920), the designation (February 1919) of Bohdan Kutylowski as Polish minister to the Ukrainian People's Republic, the accreditation of a Polish minister to Caucasus, the naming of a military mission to Caucasus, and the Crimean Republic's motion at the League of Nations (May 17, 1920) that Crimea be made a protectorate of Poland.
Marshal Piłsudski's immediate collaborators in this period included Witold Jodko, Tytus Filipowicz, Gen. Julian Stachiewicz, Col. Walery Sławek, Col. Tadeusz Schaetzel, a Maj. Czarnecki, August Zaleski, Leon Wasilewski, Henryk Józewski, Juliusz Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz Hołówko, Marian Szumlakowski, Jan Dąbski, Mirosław Arciszewski, Maj. Wacław Jędrzejewicz and Roman Knoll. ...
1922, the first group of Georgian officers, recommended by the Georgian government, were accepted into the Polish Army. ... Polish contacts with the Promethean emigres were continued, ... by Col. Schaetzel, Maj. Czarnecki and Captain Henryk Suchanek-Suchecki, chief of the Nationalities Department in the Ministry of Internal Affairs; and at the Foreign Ministry, by the chief of the Eastern Department, Juliusz Łukasiewicz.
An exception to the Polish government's official attitude pertained to Georgian Prometheism, which enjoyed support with both the foreign minister, Aleksander Skrzyński, and the chief of the General Staff, Gen. Stanisław Haller.
... Since 1927, Wasilewski, Sławek, Schaetzel and Hołówko had been laying foundations for Promethean movements in Paris, Warsaw and Istanbul. They had been studying questions involving national self-determination and federative polities with help from academic experts at institutions such as the Eastern Institute in Warsaw and an analogous one in Vilnius...(under copyright by Wikipedia)".
Office "B" (responsible for the East), headed in 1937-39 by Major Dąbrowski, prepared clandestine actions against the Soviet Union, conducting "Promethean operations" among non-Russian peoples (e.g. Caucasus, Tatar, Ukrainian and Cossack emigres) and creating covert organizations at Poland's borders with Soviet Belarus and Ukraine.
Charaszkiewicz suggested to an old Polish Legions comrade, Wiktor Tomir Drymmer - from 15 September 1933 to the outbreak of World War II, director of the Polish Foreign Ministry's Consular Department - the creation of an organization covering all countries that harbored substantial Polish communities. They agreed that this would be necessary due to the inevitability of war with Nazi Germany.
It was decided that the organization should be run by a "Committee of Seven" (K-7) comprising half Foreign Ministry personnel - Drymmer, his political deputy Dr. Władysław Józef Zaleski, Tadeusz Kowalski, and the latter's deputy Tadeusz Kawalec - and half Office 2 personnel: Charaszkiewicz, Ankerstein and the latter's deputy, Captain Wojciech Lipiński. Later, Lieutenant Colonel Ludwik Zych, chief of staff of Poland's Border Guard.
All data at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Charaszkiewicz.
During his career as an intelligence and covert-operations officer, Charaszkiewicz helped pioneer modern techniques of asymmetric warfare. Just before World War II, during a week's visit to London, he shared information on these with Britain's Colonel Holland, Lt. Colonel Gubbins (future leader of the Special Operations Executive), and technical specialists. In his reports about these meetings, Charaszkiewicz noted how far Poland's techniques outstripped Britain's.
"...In Bucharest, in October 1939, Charaszkiewicz received from his British colleague, Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins - soon to become the prime mover of the Special Operations Executive (S.O.E.) - a very warm letter informing him that Gubbins had been personally searching for him, and offering every possible assistance, including financial ... In Scotland he was accommodated at the Douglas officers' camp (July–August 1940), ... In exile continued operations in Promethean movement, also belonged to the League of Polish Independence exile".

At margin on
the Balfour Declaration of 1917:
Acc. to www.history.com:

"On November 2, 1917, Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour writes a letter to Britain's most illustrious Jewish citizen, Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild, expressing the British government's support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. ... The government of Prime Minister David Lloyd George - elected in December 1916 - made the decision to publicly support Zionism, a movement led in Britain by Chaim Weizmann, a Russian Jewish chemist who had settled in Manchester.
(on 02 Nov. 1917 Lenin secretly returned from Finland - the house of Bruievich - to Petrograd. 02 Nov. - to evening of 06th Nov. Lenin was in Petrograd in unknown place)
... On November 2, Balfour sent a letter to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a prominent Zionist and a friend of Chaim Weizmann, stating that:
'His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home (The phrase "national home" was intentionally used instead of "state" because of opposition to the Zionist program within the British Cabinet) for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country'
... (Nov. 5 the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks assumed Resolution of armed uprising and created the first 'Politburo'. On 5 November, the Parliament of Finland declared itself to be the possessor of supreme State power in Finland, based on Finland's Constitution; On 5 November 1917, Bolshevik Jaan Anvelt taken Tallinn; 6 Nov. were made attempts to close the writings of the Bolsheviks, but 06th Nov. evening the Bolsheviks hastily assembled meeting where it was decided the revolution - Lenin was in the Smolny - set the date 6th / 7th November for uprising; in the night November 6th/7th, the Petrograd Soviet was meeting in the Smolny Institute; in this night: the Winter Palace was guarded by Cossacks; telephone and telegraph buildings were taken over, the power stations, and bridges; also railway stations; throughout the 7th Nov. the Red Guards kept on occupying important buildings; Nov. 07th Petrograd Council has established the Military Revolutionary Committee, officially to defend the capital against the Germans - in fact, as the staff preparing the coup; by mid-afternoon of the 07th Nov., the only building not held by the Bolsheviks was the Winter Palace; at 9:40/9:45 p.m. 07 Nov. shot from the cruiser Aurora; the Palace was taken at about 2 a.m. 08 Nov.; night 07/08 Nov. in the Smolny Institute, those politicians who did not agree with what had happened and did not want the Bolsheviks in power walked out of the building; at 1 a.m. on November 8th, Lenin told in the Smolny Institute that he was forming a government of Bolsheviks; by the end of the day 8th Nov. the members of the Provisional Government were under arrest, the tsar and his family were also under house arrest.)
By the time the statement - James Balfour letter - was published in British (on 9 November 1917) and international newspapers one week later (command of publication of this letter had fallen on 08th Nov.), one of its major objectives had been rendered obsolete: Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks had gained power (night 07th/08th Nov.) in Russia, and one of their first actions was to call for an immediate armistice.
Russia was out of the war, and no amount of persuasion from Zionist Jews ... could reverse the outcome
(Both the Zionist Organization and the British government devoted efforts over the following decades, including Winston Churchill's 1922 White Paper, to denying that a state was the intention, by Wikipedia)...".

In book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' (ed. 1981), Carroll Quigley explained that the Balfour Declaration was actually drafted by Lord Alfred Milner;
William D. Rubinstein wrote that Leo Amery was the main author of the Balfour Declaration.

Parvus arrived in Switzerland in May 1915;
Parvus met Lenin in Bern in May 1915 and agreed to collaboration;
1915 - the Austrian intelligence through Parvus gave money to Russian emigre newspapers in Paris;
the British Secret Intelligence Service traced Hanecki / Ganetsky to Parvus; 1916 - Parvus went for support to the German Navy, working as their advisor; March 1917, in a plan strategized together with Parvus, the German intelligence sent Vladimir Lenin from Switzerland through Germany, under supervision of Fritz Platten, to Petersburg / Petrograd; on April 13, 1917 met Lenin in Stockholm;
November 1917 he retreated to a German island near Berlin.


Let us now consider parental genealogies of Colonel Edmund Charaszkiewicz / Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz born in Poniec in 1895. Two names of Edmund Charaszkiewicz's parents - Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz and his wife Bronisława Rajewska indicate that they could be refugees from Russia [for example the Oshmiana county or from the ex-province of MSCISLAV] after the defeat of the Uprising of 1831. After short emigration in Prussia in 1831-1832, many returned to the Grand Poland in Prussia.

Edmund Charaszkiewicz was born on October 14, 1895, in Punitz (Poniec), in the Province of POZNAN.

His father - Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz born ca 1850.

I hypothetically assume that Stanislaw's father maybe back with Mielzynski from Lithuania.
The Polish troops under Giełgud, Dembiński, and General Chłapowski [and Włodzimierz Gadon, Onufry Jacewicz] fought near Wilno, Ponary on 13 June 1831, Kiejdany, Rosienie, Szawle, to Nowe Miasto Żmudzkie on 13 July 1831 [58 km south-east-south to Gorżdy / Gargždai of MIELZYNSKI and von RONNE]; an east part of the Oszmmiany county, Zdzieciol close to Nowogrodek, LIDA.

Maybe in 1832/1833 named Charaszkiewicz emigrated - this obviously requires proof; the Stanislaw's Charaszkiewicz father maybe was born ca 1810. Maybe in 1831 he acted together with Paweł Rajewski born ca 1810 [maybe in Lithuania ?].

In 1830 Count Maciej Mielzynski of Chobienice [see his genealogy !] was insurrgent of the November Uprising of 1831 under gen. Dezydery Chlapowski in Lithuania. Major Maciej Mielzynski was the Adjutant of general Chlapowski, like Gustaw Potworowski. Then he was jailed on 9 months by Prussians.

In 1848, Chobienice, was the center of Uprising with Józef Mielzynski (son of Maciej), Ignacy Bobrowski, Jan Adamczak, Ignacy Szumski, and landlord of Wroniawa / WRONIAWY - Stanislaw Plater.

Ca 1900 acted here Maciej Mielzynski [junior] of Chobienice.

We back to the Rajewski family from the Grand Poland:

Anna Rajewska (nee Gniotowska) b. 1849 in Koebnitz (Chobienice), the daughter of Jan Gniotowski and Marianna Krawczyk. Wife of Andrzej Srót; 2nd to unknown, and 3rd to Franciszek Rajewski.
Above
Franciszek Rajewski b. 1857 in Karna, the son of Paweł Rajewski and Julianna. Husband of Jadwiga Rajewska and Anna Rajewska. Father of Franciszek Rajewski; Agnieszka Rau; Jadwiga Rajewska and Marianna.
Brother of BRONISLAWA Charaszkiewicz Rajewska b. ca 1860?

Above Franciszek Rajewski b. in Karna, the son of Paweł Rajewski born ca 1810 [maybe at Lithuania ?] and Julianna PUTERCZYK, Rajewska. Husband of Jadwiga
[Jadwiga Paździor b. 1854. She came from Wawrzyn Paździor b. 1775 in Pakosław, in the Nowy Tomyśl County, the Greater Poland, 3 km east to GOLEJEWO; 18 km east to RAWICZ]
and Anna Rajewska.
Maybe the brother of BRONISLAWA RAJEWSKA CHARASZKIEWICZ - the wife of Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz.

Named
KARNA
- in the Wolsztyn county, close to Siedlec. Karna was owned by
Prot Mielęcki (1792-1867), Major in 1831;
His son was born in Karna, Colonel Kazimierz Mielęcki (1837-1863), fought in Kujawy in 1863; he was wounded in Mikorzyn, but he died in Mamlicz near Szubin; buried in Łabiszyn.

Around 1815-1848 named Karna belonged to Jan Bniński.

Grójec close to above Siedlec owned by Mielzynski family - the part of Chobienice owned by Konstancja Mielżyński;
Belecin to Mielecki, 7 km north-west to Stara TUCHORZA and 10 km north-east to CHOBIENICE;
Wielka Wies owned by Bloch.

Karna, is situated 5 km east to Chobienice

[Wirydianna Fiszerowa / Fiszer / Wirydianna Radolinska, Kwilecka b. in Wyszyny, d. in Dzialyn in 1826 (Dzialyn - a village in the administrative district of Klecko, in west-central Poland, at way from Klecko to Gniezno); she known Frederick II of Prussia, Izabela Czartoryska, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, Józef Poniatowski, Jan Henryk Dabrowski, and Tadeusz Kosciuszko; her sisters: Katarzyna b. 1762, and Antonina b. 1770.

Chobienice appear for the first time in the diaries of Wirydianna due to the changes in the live of her family after the Prussian annexation. The parents decided to move from Lobzenica to Winnogóra, but the kids were send to grandmother. Later, along with her mother and sister, Wirydianna a lot of time spent in Chobienice's mansion; Chobienice belonged at that time to
the second husband of grandmother - the governor Joseph / JOZEF Mielzynski

[Józef Klemens Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI, the owner of CHOBIENICE, governor of Kalisz (1758-1763), Poznan (1763-1782), Kalisz (1782-1786), Poznan (1786-1792), 1729-1792; m. Wirydianna / Wirydiana Bninska- Mielzynska-Raczynska, 1718-1797].

His father Franciszek Mielzynski / Francis [Franciszek Walenty Mielzynski, 1682-1738, the owner of CHOBIENICE] in the 30s and 40s of the eighteenth century built a new residence by Adam Stier.

When Wirydianna Radolinska-Kwilecka, already the wife of Anthony / Antoni Kwilecki, spent time in Winnogóra, her mother moved to Chobienice.

The construction of classicist palace of Catherine Radolinska [Katarzyna Raczynska-RADOLINSKA, 1744-1792; Katarzyna born Raczynska in 1744, to Leon Raczynski b. in 1698, and Wirydianna Raczynska-Mielzynska-Bninska b. in 1718. Katarzyna had sister Estera; Katarzyna married Józef Radolinski] began in 1786-1788, by Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer, under the direction of Antoni Höhne.
In 1793, Wirydianna Radolinska-Kwilecka moved to Chobienice, with independence from her husband; after her divorce from first husband Wirydianna left with two children and settled in Warsaw. It was there that she met General Stanislaw Fiszer, to whom she married in 1806];

5 km north to Siedlec

[the part of Chobienice estate -
Jan Nepomucen Uminski, the officer of the Polish army; service ended in the rank of Major General; participant of the 1794 Insurrection; adjutant of General Antoni Józef Madalinski; Napoleonic Wars and November Uprising 1830 - 1831 (Chief of Staff on September 23, 1831). In 1820 was meeting of General Jan Nepomucen Uminski with Colonel Dobrogoyski, envoy of Kalisz. Dobrogoyski informed on the secret network in Cracow, and Uminski was claiming to be a branch in Great Poland; he had a confidential relationship with Lieutenant Colonel Ludwik Sczaniecki.

His parents:
Hilary Uminski / Hilarion Uminski, 1730/1735/1760-1792 + Franciszka Ryszewska b. ca 1740

[HILARY Uminski (b. ca 1730 - d. 1792), the son of Antoni UMINSKI b. ca 1700, and Teresa Rogalinski;
Hilary Uminski was the owner of Czeluscin close to GOSTYN in 1778;
m. in 1767 in Biechowo to Franciszka Ryszewska];

Czeluscin - close to PEPOWO, 4 km; 20 km west to KROTOSZYN the city [it has nothing to do with Krotoszyn close to Wloclawek!]; 14 km east to KROBIA; sout-east to SIEDLEC !];

5 km west to Stara Tuchorza

[Kazimierz Brzezinski junior studied in Zloczow, then in Lwow; 1889 back home to Zolkiew; 1894-1897 worked in Zloczow; married in 1894 in Zólkiew or in Zloczow, to Zofia Woroniecka daughter of Maksymilian WORONIECKI and Ernestyna Kropaczek. In 1896 was born son - above mentioned Tadeusz.
Tadeusz in 1928-1931, lived in Lille, then 1931-1935 in Lipsk, 1936 - 1937 in Charkow; 1938, Tadeusz and Leonia b. 1896 in Brzeziny close to Lodz, with sons: Adam, Zbigniew, Lech and Jerzy Zylinski, moved to New York, and Montreal.

Mentioned above wife of Kazimierz Brzezinski - Zofia, after death of her husband in 1924 in Przemysl, was living in BORUJA / Broruja / Borui in the Wolsztyn county; d. June 1941,
and buried in KROSNO [Laczki Jagiellonskie ?; now in Przemysl]; Laczki Jagiellonskie - village in the Krosno county.

Named above Ernestyna Woroniecka nee Kropaczek, b. ca 1850, was the wife of Maksymilian Woroniecki [born ca 1840; a branch of the Galicia Woroniecki clan from - ?? - Brzezany, Zloczow, Zbaraz], and the mother of Zofia Brzezinska.

Duke Dymitr Wisniowiecki restored the castle in ZBARAZ; after the death of Michal, voivode of Wilno, the last of the dukes Wisniowiecki (died 1774), Zbaraz and estates came under the ownership of the house of Potocki.

Above Zofia Brzezinska nee Woroniecka, maybe come from Wincenty Woroniecki (ca 1780 - 1826), Colonel [with dauhters Anna Woroniecka m. 1825 to Zygmunt Piotr Los, and Ignacja Woroniecka, m. Piotr Stadnicki of Zmigrod], or from Józef Woroniecki (ca 1807 - 1885, insurrgent of 1830 - 1831, Hungaria in 1848 - 1849, then in Turkey).

Mentioned above Zofia Brzezinska b. circa 1866 / 1870, died 1941 in BORUJA, west border of Poland,
buried in Laczki Jagiellonskie, close to Krosno.
Mother of Tadeusz Brzezinski and Bogdan Brzezinski. Above Bogdan Brzezinski was the father of Bronislaw Brzezinski b. 1909 in Krematorów, died 1990 in Góra Kalwaria. Above Kazimierz Brzezinski, Jr. b. 1866 in Zólkiew, died 1924 in Przemysl.

Named Boruja / Boruia / Borui - village in the Wolsztyn county; 1776, Kuznica was owned by Ludwik Mielecki; Boruja Kuznicka was named Boruja Koscielna [Kirchplatz-Borui]; Chobienice and Grójec to Mielzynski family !, Belecin to Mielecki; Wielka Wies owned by Bloch; Tuchorza to Kotwitz / Kottvitz.

In 1830 Maciej Mielzynski of Chobienice [see below his genealogy !] was insurrgent of the November Uprising under gen. Chlapowski in Lithuania.
In 1848, Chobienice, was the center of Uprising with Józef Mielzynski (son of Maciej), Ignacy Bobrowski, Jan Adamczak, Ignacy Szumski, and landlord of Wroniawa - Stanislaw Plater. Ca 1900 acted here Maciej Mielzynski [junior] of Chobienice].

Grojec Wielki 3 km west to Chobienice.

BORUJA is situated 9 km north to Stara Tuchorza; 13 south-east-south to ZBASZYN; 14 north-east to Chobienice; 7 km north-east to Belecin. 39 south to Milostowo of von UNRUH [Milostowo - west to Pniewy, south-east to Miedzychod].

We back to the Rajewskis:

Anna Borowczak (born Gniotowska), born 1849, to Jan Gniotowski and Marianna Adamczak; her sister was Anna Rajewska (born Gmiotowska). Anna married Marcin Borowczak in 1891, born in 1839, in Chobienice.
Mentioned
Marcin Borowczak, 1839 - 1893, married 1st Marcjanna Matysiak in 1885; Marcjanna was born in 1852, in Poświętno.
Named
Poświętno, Polska - 1 km south to Popowo Stare and 7 km south to Wilkowo Polskie; 1 km east to PRZEMET. 25 south-east to WRONIAWY. 26 km north-west to LESZNO.

KARNA and some data about the area to the west of KUJAWY:
1.
Kuśnierz
- a village in Poland located in the Mogilno County, in the municipality of Jeziora Wielkie. In 1863, Mierosławski withdrew to the Duchy of Poznań, and Mielęcki went to the forests near Kazimierz Biskupi. Colonel Kazimierz Mielęcki under the protection of Julian Wieniawski, got across the border and found himself in Kuśnierz, the property of Bolesław Moszczeński.
2.
Freemasonry in Poznań -
Maksymilian Moszczenski and Adam Moszczeński + Spława - Neyman; Umiński; Mierosławski.
3.
Mentioned Kazimierz Mielęcki born in 1837 in KARNA close to Wolsztyn. Karna - 5 / 7 km east to CHOBIENICE; 5 km west to TUCHORZA; north-west to Wolsztyn and WRONIAWY; near Siedlec.

Prot Mielęcki (1792-1867), Major, was the landlord; his son - Colonel Kazimierz Mielęcki (1837-1863), fought in Kujawy.
Karna then belonged to Jan Bniński.
4.
Mielęcki Prot was the officer in 1812, Major in 1831; married Wanda Sokołowski.
Colonel Kazimierz Mielęcki (1837-1863) married Salomea Pągowska, and then moved home to the Polish Kingdom. He was the owner of Nowa Wieś, near Włocławek.
Nowa Wieś - 8 km east to BRZESC KUJAWSKI; north to CHOCEN; 15 km north-east to LUBRANIEC.
5.
Kościelna Wieś near Osięciny, and Radziejow; the owners:
Kościelski;
Moszczeński
and Zakrzewski.
Next to Zieliński and
in 1913 Jan Franciszek Mierosławski bought the estate - 5 km south to RUSZKI; 5 km west to Krotoszyn Kujawski; south-west to BADKOWO.
6.
Kuśnierz - 14 km south to Strzelno; 3 km north-west to Jeziora Wielkie.
Kazimierz Mielęcki - 1863 stayed in Kuśnierz, of Bolesław Moszczeński.

Moszczeński Bolesław Józef Wincenty (1826-1900), member of the insurrection of 1848, activist in Poznań and commissioner in 1863. Born in Stępuchów (officially Stempuchów) in the area of Wągrowiec - was the son of Wincenty and Aniela Radońska (1804-1829).
He settled in his home town of Wiatrow near Wągrowiec. In the Greater Poland Uprising of 1848, he distinguished himself with courage at the attack on the palace in Miłosław.
After 1848, he managed Kożuszkowo and Wapno in Kujawy.
He settled with his son in Srebrna Góra for some time, then he moved to a family in Poznań, where he died on October 25, 1900.

Wapno, located in Greater Poland (Pałuki); WAPNO - 24 km north-west to ZNIN.

KARGOWA and Angela Merkel's ancestors on her mother's side:

acc. to Brandenburg, Germany, Transcripts of Church Records -
Emil Richard Drange was son of Carl Gottfried Drange b. in the Lubuskie province, Poland. That is Emil Richard Drange b. 1866 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa, Provinz Posen / the Poznan prov., Prussia; died 1913 in Elbing / Elblag, Deutschland / Germany - now Poland.

He was the son of Carl Gottlieb Drange and Christiane Emilie Drange, and husband of Emma Drange with daughter Gertrud Alma Jentzsch.

Above Christiane Emilie Drange nee Günther, b. 1835 in above Unruhstadt 18 km south-west of Wolsztyn and ca 20 / 22 km south-west of STARA TUCHORZA - see genealogy of ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI.

Christiane Emilie was the daughter of Samuel Gottlob Günther and Johanne Christiane; she was the mother of named above Emil Richard Drange.

Named above Johanne Christiane Günther nee Kadach, born ca 1793, and died 1863 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa south of BABIMOST [the Lubusz Voivodeship, Poland].
Mentioned above Samuel Gottlob Günther b. ca 1783, died 1860 in Unruhstadt / Kargowa.
Named above Gertrud Alma Jentzsch (Drange) b. 1891 in Elbing / Elblag, Westpreußen, Germany [Poland], to Emil Richard Drange and Emma Drange. Gertrud Alma was the wife of Willi Jentzsch - he was born 1886 in Bitterfeld- Wolfen to Wilhelm Jentzsch.

Western Borderlands of Poland.

PRZEMET - 28 km east-south-east to KARGOWA [Kargowa in 1541 to Zychlinski; it served as a customs chamber of POLAND at way to Brandenburg and north Silesia of the Czech Kingdom. But Trzebiechow was situated in Brandenburg / Prussia in 1482 to 1945].

PRZEMET - 16 km south-west to Wilkowo Polskie [Wilkowo Polskie - 27 km north-east to ex-border of Silesia and the Czech Kingdom]; and 16 km north-west to ex-border of Silesia [Silesia in 1742 to Prussia].

Jezierzyce Koscielne - 14 north-east to WSCHOWA [Wschowa in 1343 to Poland]; 14 km south-east to GORSKO. 4 km west to Golanice and Krzycko Male. 5 km to ex-border of Bohemia - Czech / Silesia [1348-1742].

GORSKO, 10 km south-west to PRZEMET; 13 km north-west to Jezierzyce Koscielne.

Wilkowo Polskie 23 km north to KRZYCKO WIELKIE.
In 1815-1848, Wilkowo Polskie belonged to the Kosten county; and Wilkowo Polskie was owned by Marceli Czarnecki, including Siekowo, Siekówko, Ziemin and Bielawy in 1841. At the beginning Osowski in 1644 put away the dowry to his daughter, who married a Catholic, Radomicki. In the 17th cent. owned by Szoldrski, inf. 1679.

Popowo Stare was the part of the parish of Wilkowo Polskie until 1660; the distance is 3 km.

Wschowa - Kunowo - Wilkowo Polskie:

1. Lukasz Kiedrzynski married to (1st time ?) Franciszka Buczynski / Buczynska, he was owner of Kunowo / Kunow in 1767 (from hands of his mother), he was son of Ludwika nee Sitnicka or Sielinski - 6 km north of Gostyn and 31 km south-east of Koscian. This is Kunow / Kunowo 6 / 8 km north of Gostyn, that is east of Leszno of the Sulkowskis. See: Koszkowo - 13 km north-east of Gostyn; Noskow / Noskowo - 9 km south-west of Jarocin and 16 km east of above Koszkowo; Gostyn / Gostingen, is a town in Greater Poland Voivodeship, in Gostyn County.

2. In WSCHOWA in 1775 Marianna Zamoyska [widowed after death of Stanislaw Rembowski of Dobrzyn {marriage in 1752}, and after Stanislaw Kostka Kiedrzynski, writer in Wschowa], after receipt of payment from Ignacy Szoldrski of Smolensk, formally recognized the case is closed about Wilkowo Polskie and the Bielawy farm, since 1768 in hands of Jakub Szoldrski. Wilkowo Polskie, 25 km east of Wolsztyn; north of Leszno [see Sulkowski]; 15 km north-east of PRZEMET / Przemet [see in named Przemet a father of Andrzej Mielzynski of Kcynia, 1698-1771 + Anna Petronela Bninska, 1720-1771].

3. Józef Klemens Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI [see Radziejow] of Kalisz (1758-1763) and Poznan (1763-1782), 1729- 1792, m. Wirydianna Bninska, 1718-1797

{her second husband before 1744: Leon Raczynski 1698-1755 with daughter Katarzyna Raczynska 1744-1792 who married in 1757 to Józef Stanislaw Radolinski - officer in Wschowa (1776-1777) (they had daughter Wiridianna / Wiridiana Radolinska, 1761 - 1826 + ca 1780, to Antoni Maciej Konstanty Kwilecki, and 2nd + in 1806 to General Stanislaw Fiszer [see Jefferson and Kosciuszko with Paszkowski] 1759-1812)}.

Józef Stanislaw Radolinski born 1730 - died in 1781 in Winnogóra. His father was Józef Stefan Radolinski of Wschowa b. 1680 - died in 1740, who was brother of Zofia Walewska 1677 - 1723 who married Kazimierz Walewski. Kazimierz Walewski was son of Stanislaw Walewski and Katarzyna Lanckoronska.
Named above Stanislaw Rembowski
[1691-1768; son of Wojciech Rembowski and Marianna Przedzynska / PRADZYNSKA !; Stanislaw had sister Katarzyna Konarska and a brother Jan Rembowski]
and Marianna Zamoyska
[daughter of Michal Zamoyski b. 1690 {or before !}, and Konstancja Zamoyska nee Rozen]
had son Klemens Rembowski b. 1752, and grandchildren:
Katarzyna Rembowska / Rembowska b. 1780, Maciej Rembowski 1780-1833, Stanislaw Rembowski 1780-1849, and Antoni Jan Rembowski 1785-1858
[landowner of Szczytniki, in the Kalisz county; died in Nowa Wies; married in 1810 to Marcjanna Marianna Wolska b. 1793].

Michal Zamoyski b. 1690 or acc. to me: born ca 1679, and Konstancja Zamoyska nee Rozen - that is Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski the 6th landlord of ZAMOSC, b. ca 1679 or after 1679, died 1735 - Zamosc; he married three times; 3rd time to unknown with two daughters born ca 1720 {above Marianna Zamoyska [? = Marjanna nee Zamoyska]} and the second daughter after 1720.

Stanislaw Rembowski b. 1691 or born in 1696-1768 married two times: in 1733 [with son Jan REMBOWSKI] and 2nd time in ca 1750; he had granddaughter Marianna Rembowska married to Andrzej Kurowski (b. 1750 Mrowiniec - d. after 1799) officer in Poznan in 1791 to ca 1795, who was
in 1798 landowner of Górsko / Gorsko close to Przemet - Przemet / Priment, in the Wolsztyn county, 5 km to ex-Prussian border, 19 north of WSCHOWA, south-east of Wolsztyn [see Mielzynski and Sulkowski !] - marriage before 1797.

Above Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski was the father of
Ludwina Wielhorska;
Tomasz Antoni Zamoyski;
Jan Jakub Zamoyski [married Ludwika Maria Zamojska nee Poniatowska, 1728 - 1781];
Andrzej Zamoyski, Count;
Helena Potocka;
Teresa Anna Hutten-Czapska,
and Katarzyna Wandalin-Mniszech born 1722, married Jan Karol Wandalin Mniszech 1716-1759, General.

Ludwika Maria Zamojska nee Poniatowska, 1728 - 1781, was wife of Jan Jakub Zamoyski; and was mother of Urszula Maria Wandalin-Mniszech
[wife of Michal Jerzy Wandalin-Mniszech born 1742, son of above Jan Karol Wandalin-Mniszech and Katarzyna Wandalin-Mniszech 1722-1771, daughter of Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski]
and Brygida / Maria Brygida Galecki / Brygida Galecka.

In 1775 Florian / Florjan Kiedrzynski, a clark in KALISZ, and his relatives: Pawel Kiedrzynski [heirs], son of Marcin KIEDRZYNSKI with Wiktoria nee Pstrokonska; with Stanislaw Kiedrzynski, the writer of the customs chamber in WSCHOWA [see Sulkowski]; and his brother Józef Kiedrzynski - heirs.
Stanislaw Kiedrzynski, ? - 1774 [married Marjanna nee Zamoyska].

Stanislaw Kiedrzynski / Stanislaw Kostka Kiedrzynski, was the son of Marcin Kiedrzynski [ca 1700- 1788], born ca 1730 / 1739,
married to Marjanna nee Zamoyska [b. ca 1720 / 1730]. Stanislaw died in 1773 / 1774 or after 1775.

Stanislaw Kiedrzynski / Stanislaw Kostka Kiedrzynski, son of Marcin Kiedrzynski [ca 1715/1720-1788], born ca 1730 / 1739, married to Marjanna nee Zamoyska [b. ca 1720 / 1730]. Stanislaw died in 1773 / 1774 or after 1775.

Jeseritz / Jezierzyce Koscielne:

In 1566, Jezierzyce Koscielne

[Golanice - 4 km south to Krzycko Wielkie; at half way from Leszno to Gorsko. 4 km south-east to Jezierzyce Koscielne]

along with Golanice belonged to Mr Golanicki. In 1670 the church was subordinated to the parish in Golanice. By the end of the 19th century the name Jezierzyce Niemieckie / Jeseritz Deutsch, was used. Anhalt- Coethen Fryderyk Erdman, owner of Pszczyna / Isenburg, General, bought in 1785 Wloszakowice, Bukowiec, Grotniki, Ujazdowo, Dominice / Domianice, Miastko, and Jezierzyce;
Jezierzyce Koscielne belonged to Teodor Bilewicz,
before him to Stanislaw Krzycki; Fryderyk bought it in 1782.

Wloszakowice - at half way from Gorsko to Krzycko Wielkie; 14 km south-east to PRZEMET.

Miastko - 1 km south to Gorsko.

DOMINICE / Domianice - 4 km east to Gorsko.

Golanice - 4 km south to Krzycko Wielkie; at half way from Leszno to Gorsko. 4 km south-east to Jezierzyce Koscielne.

Named
Stanislawa Krzycki -
in Golanice, 1776, Stanislaw Kostka Franciszek Ksawery Bartlomiej, was born - son of Stanislaw Krzycki and Weronika, owners of Golanice, Jezierzyce Koscielne, Krzycko Wielkie;
godparents: Bartlomiej Stecki, the Maltese knight,
and young Weronika Gurowska.

Golanice, 1757, [wedding in Rogowo close to Krobia], Jerzy Twardowski younger married Krystyna Konstancja Bronikowska, owner of Lukow, widowed after death of the owner of Rogowo in the Krobia parish;
witnesses:
Andrzej Twardowski, the Chamberlain of the Prussian king, owner of Golanice and Jezierzyce Koscielne;
and Zygmunt Unrug / Zygmunt UNRUH, the owner of a part of Drzewce - 4 km west to ROKOSOWO.

Golanice, 1781, Józef Kazimierz was born - son of Andrzej Korsini owner of Golanice and Jezierzyce Koscielne, and Anna Gruszczynska; witnesses:
Kazimierz Korsini, owner of Ruchocice - 7 km south-west to Grodzisk Wielkopolski - and Ludwika Jablonowska - Niezychowska, widow after Ignacy, official in Wschowa, owner of Dlugie.

Maria Jarzebowska (born Krzycka), 1768 - 1815, was the daughter of Stanislaw Krzycki and Anna Weronika Krzycka nee Niezychowska; Stanislaw b. 1731. Anna was born in 1750. Maria married Józef Jarzebowski b. 1763 with the son Stanislaw Jarzebowski.

Above Stanislaw Kostka Krzycki b. ca 1731, died 1794, son of Wladyslaw Krzycki and Teresa; Above Weronika Krzycka (Niezychowska) b. ca 1750, died 1807.
Mentioned above Wladyslaw Krzycki died 1746, was the son of Jan Krzycki.

KARGOWA and von UNRUH:

Unrug family came to Poland very long ago, because in 1579 from Thuringia and settled in Silesia. Initially, they called themselves Unruh, they received from the Polish King Zygmunt II August the "right of homeland", that is citizenship of the country [in Poland in 1594].

CHRISTOPH VON UNRUH (1550-1622) bought MIEDZYCHOD.

This is a branch of Tadeusz Gustaw Unrug, born in 1834 - died in 1907, in the Sielec estate near Znin, Major General of the Prussian Guard. Tadeusz came from a Polish Calvinist family derived from count Jerzy Unrug / UNRUH, the official in Gniezno

{Christoph von Unruh was in Gniezno in 1641, and traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh. BOGUSLAW was the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705. Boguslaw married to Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski}

and JERZY UNRUH was the founder of the city of Kargowa in 1641, then called "Unrugov".

Tadeusz UNRUH was the son of Henryk Kajetan Unrug

(Henryk Kajetan = Kajetan Unruh died 1884 - Henryk was the son of
Fryderyk Sebastian Unrug 1734 - 1802
{Unruh sold Miedzychod in 1785 to Adam MIELECKI};

grandson of Aleksander Unrug / von Unruh, 1704 - 1773

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof who bought Trzciel and Wytomysl. Aleksander Unruh bought Kobylka in 1772 from hands of Duke August Sulkowski, who had this estate after August Poniatowski. Kobylka is situated close to Wolomin. Here was a mint};

the great-grandson of Georg Sebastian von Unruh = JERZY Unruh, ca 1666 - 1723

{JERZY Unruh bought Kargowa; Jerzy born ca 1666, had a brother Christian von Unruh = Christoph von Unruh, auf Pieske born 1666, d. 1723, the owner of Pieski / Pieske near Miedzychod, and Nowy Gorzyck = Nowe Gorzycko. Christoph was the father of Sophie Catharina von Unruh, and Urszula Marianna Brudzewska};

the great-great-grandson of Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628

{Aleksander Unruh had a brother Krzysztof founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689, the official in WALCZ and in GNIEZNO; Krzysztof had a son Jerzy 1652-1710, the official in POZNAN and WALCZ})

and his wife Anna Kurnatowski (died 1884). In the 1850s [or in 1849], Tadeusz and some of his siblings converted to Catholicism.
In a marriage with the Saxon countess Izydora von Bunau (1851-1923) he had two sons, including Vice-Admiral Józef Unrug. Tadeusz after 1870 settled near Znin, died in 1907.

Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628, had a brother
Krzysztof - the founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689.

The son of named Aleksander:
JERZY SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1666-1723);
the grandson
ALEKSANDER UNRUG (1704-1773);
the great-grandson
FRYDERYK SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1734-1802),

the great-great-grandson HENRYK KAJETAN MAURYCY UNRUG (1791-1849), the owner of Szolow, Dzieczyn and Skrzydlew,
had 8 children.

Heinrich Kajetan von Unruh, passed in 1849 on Catholicism [his son Józef Bartlomiej Unrug / Józef Baltazar Unrug, b. 1825]. He also changed the spelling of his last name from Unruh to Unrug. Two of his sons died in the uprisings in April 1848 near Miloslaw in the Wrzesnia district. He fought against Prussia. Kazimierz, the second son, died in May 1863 in the January Uprising. He fought against the Russians.


We must back to Russia, to the Romanovs:

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, born 1832, served 1862 - 1882 as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi. Despot Zenovich Stanislav Ivanovich, son of Jan Despot Zenowicz / Jan Despot-Zenowicz (b. ca 1800) was born in 1833 or 1835, education in France, he settled in the Caucasus, 1856 with the rank of titular counselor, served as an officer of the Caucasus Governor, the Baku District Court, was appointed by the Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France. Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies. Mason, and called himself Philalethes. Receiving education at home in Georgia, often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909; the funeral was in Russia; Field Marshal.

Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene.

Children of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich:
1. Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia;
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia, b. 1859, d. 1919, the eldest son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich, and a first cousin of Alexander III; he urged the Tsar to implement reforms, and he even participated in discussions of a palace coup. Nicholas spent his childhood and youth in Georgia, a socialist, he often visited Paris, the south of France; Francophile, he offended Germany during a visit to Paris when he expressed his anti-German political views; critic of most of his male cousins, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikholaievich in particular; a pacifist and was against the war in a time of uppermost patriotism.
Above Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856 - 1929) was the eldest son to Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia (1831 - 1891) and Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg (1838 - 1900). His father was the sixth child to Nicholas I of Russia and his Empress consort Alexandra Fedorovna of Prussia (1798 - 1860).
Alexandra Fedorovna was a daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
His maternal grandfather was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Württemberg.
Grand Duke Nicholas played a main role during the Revolution of 1905, from 1905 was commander-in-chief of the St. Petersburg Military District.
1907, Nicholas married Princess Anastasia of Montenegro, who reinforced the Pan-Slavic tendencies of Nicholas.
The Grand Duke had no part in the planning and preparations for World War I. The February Revolution found Nicholas in the Caucasus, next two years in the Crimean Peninsula, 1922, Nicholas was proclaimed as the emperor of all Russia.
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich or Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov (1856 - 1929) served in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 1878 and was inspector general of the cavalry for ten years from 1895; was Commander in Chief of the Russian army during the first year of the First World War and, for the briefest moment, at the end of Tsar Nicholas II's reign. I said that the maternal grandfather of Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov of Russia was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Württemberg. Duke George of Oldenburg (1784 - 1812) was a younger son of Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg and his wife Duchess Frederica of Württemberg. He had two sons: Peter Georg Paul Alexander Georgievich of Oldenburg, and Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg (1812 - 1881). Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich von Holstein-Gottorp of Oldenburg was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. Konstantin Friedrich Peter Oldenburg or Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg began a flirtation with Agrippina; Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel 'Daniel' Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command; Dadiani were a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty; Agrippina was Tariel Dadiani's second wife but Agrippina in 1882 divorced Dadiani.
1882, Constantine entered into a morganatic marriage with Agrippina Japaridze; by the early 1890s, they were doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe). See the Armands and Konstantynowiczs in Moscow and Alexandrovsk. "...Georgian nationalist, Prince Viktor Nakachidze, was convicted in late 1885 for participating in a nihilist bomb plot to kill the Tsar. Through his Mingrelian relatives, Prince Nakachidze had connections to Agrippina Japaridze, the wife of Constantine Petrovich, and to the Dadiani family - Salome, Niko and Andria Dadiani - the Georgian royal family then living in exile at Nice ... For his role in the bomb plot, Prince Victor Nakachidze was sentenced to death and sent to Siberia. However, with the aid of his wife, Roedel, he managed to escape, travelling across the Pacific to the United States. The couple eventually resurfaced in London... Shortly after the marriage of Prince George Yurievsky to Countess Alexandra von Zarnekau at Nice in 1901, a connection between Prince Viktor Nakachidze and the Yurievsky circle in Nice became clear...".

The Saparov family:
Saparov Gerasim had children:
a. Saparov Mariam was married to Arutyunov,
b. Saparov Bagdasar / Baghdasar was married to Taliko daughter of Sarkisov with children: Saparov Ivan (d. 1912), Saparova Eugene was married to NN Karganova, Saparova Tamara;
c. Saparov Gaspar married to Catherine Yenikolopov with children:
Saparova married to George G. Ambardanov,
Saparova Maria was married to Markar'yan,
Nina married to Nikolai Shadinov,
and last Sofia married to Prince Cherkezov / Czerkasow;
d. Saparov Peter married to Yarovoy with children :
Nicholas married Melikova, Michael Mary Mirimanova, and Darius married to Vakhtang Jalalov;
e. Saparova Tatela was married to Kalabekov,
f. Saparov Pavel Gerasimov (1820 - 1878), was married to Sophia Grigorevne Paat (d. 1866) with children:
1. Anna b. before 1845,
2. Saparov Gerasim (1845 - 1869),
3. Elizabeth (ca 1854 - 1919), was married to Sergei Teimurazovich Melik-Beglarov (d. 1905),
and 4. Saparov Arkady (1854 - before 1921), was married to Varvara Maypariani with children:
Elena,
Tamara Arkadevna SAPAROV was married 1st to Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and
2nd marriage to Lev / Lion Emilievich Armand (Inessa Armand relatives);
Saparova Nina Arkadevna d. before 1920;
Saparov Paul;
Catherine Arkadevna d. 1916;
Saparova Maria;
5. Saparova Olga Salome / Olga Saparian / Ольга Сапарова Сапарьян (born March 25 / April 6, 1859 in Signach 100 km of Tbilisi - died in 1951; mentioned Signach that is maybe Гыццыл Сихиат / პატარა ციხიათა - close to Didi Tsikhiata / Styr Sichiat; ca 18 km north-west of Cchinwal / Chinval on way to Oni), was married to Alexander Ivanovich Florensky (30 September / October 12, 1850 - 1908), with children:
A. Pavel Florensky (9 / 21 January 1882 - December 8, 1937), was married to Anna Mikhailovna daughter of Hiacynt (1889 or 1883 - 1973) with 5 children, 12 grandchildren, 24 great-grandchildren:
Florensky Vasily Pavlovich (1911 - 1956), Cyril P. Florensky (December 27, 1915 - 1982), Michael P. Florensky (1921/22 - 1961), was married to Helena daughter of Ivan;
B. Florenskaya Julia A. (1 / 13 July 1884 - 1947), was married to Mikhail Mikhailovich Asatiani (1881 - 1938) founder of scientific school of psychiatrists in Georgia;
C. Florenskaya Elizabeth A. (7 / 19 May 1886 - 1959),
D. Florenskaya Raisa Alexandrovna (16 / 28 April, 1894 - 1932).
6. Saparova Barbara (1861-1891),
7. Saparova Ripsime / Repsimiya P. (1865 to 1930), married the 1st to Tavrizov and 2nd to Leonid G. Konovalov;
8. Saparova Sofia P. (1866-1939), was married to Nicholas Romanovich Karamyan (d. 1930).

2. Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna,
3. Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich b. 1861 and in 1891 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie of Merenberg (relatives of the Pushkin family / Puskin/ Alexander S. Puszkin - family was near by military counterintelligence headquarters),
4. Grand Duke George Mikhailovich,
5. Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) b. 1866 - freemason, and near by military intelligence headquarters,
6. Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich
7. and last Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich.
Above named Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia; in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus; Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years; served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel. In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg, acc. to Wikipedia. In 1888, he had an affair with Princess Walewski; later, with Countess Catherine Nikolaevna Ignatieva daughter of Minister of Interior, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev. In 1900, moved to Keele Hall, in Staffordshire, close to Newcastle-under-Lyme; visitor of North Berwick in Scotland, and in the south of France, Cannes where he met his sister Anastasia and in 1903 his father, also brother Alexander and his family; he moved with his family to Hampstead in 1909 and every year Grand Duke Michael would visit Edward VII at Windsor Castle, Sandringham and Buckingham Palace. 1912, Grand Duke Michael was with a visit in Russia. 1914 as an agent for Russian loans in France.
On 31 October 1916 he "...wrote to Tsar Nicholas II warning him that British secret agents in Russia were expecting a revolution".
And (by Wikipedia) "General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort, stated that Russian communist elements working against the Tsar had betrayed Kitchener's travel plans to Germany. He stated that Kitchener was killed 'because of his ability', as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover...".
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia after November 1917 moved to Regent's Park. In 1916 his youngest daughter, Nadejda (Nada) married Prince George of Battenberg, eldest son of Prince Louis by Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Anastasia (Zia), the eldest daughter, in 1917 married Sir Harold Wernher. Michael Mikhailovich and his wife returned to Cannes in 1923, and died in 1929.


Explanations to the 1905 revolution in Petersburg:

Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Swiatopelk Mirski took part in the Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878; he studied at the General Staff Academy to 1881, in 1887 he was the commander of staff of 3rd Grenadier division; 1895 the Governor of Penza, and in 1897 the Governor of Yekaterinoslav. 1900 Sipiagin appointed him Assistant Minister of the Interior and Commander of the Imperial Corps of Gendarmes. 1902 Governor-General of the North-Western province: Vilna, Kovno and Grodno; was credited with successful liberal reforms, stopping pogroms against the Jews. 1904 Minister of the Interior after Plehve's assassination. His appointment was seen as a victory of liberals, as a victory of the party of widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna who supported the liberal reforms; the Sviatopelk-Mirski's plan included transferring more power to the State Council of Imperial Russia.
On January 22 / January 9, 1905 occurred the massacre known as Bloody Sunday; he never had authorised the shooting of the demonstrators, but his opponents said that he not only did authorise the shooting but also in order to push his own political agenda actively encouraged the demonstration.
He was replaced (on 18 January) as Minister of the Interior by Bulygin in February 1905.
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski 1857 - 1914, married to Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska; she was from a branch of Wassili Bobrinsky, b. 1804, d. Moscow in 1874, son of Alexei Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1752, who
married 1796 to Anna Dorotea / Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg (1769 Tallinn - St. Petersburg in 1846) daughter of the Tallinn commendant Woldemar Conrad von Ungern-Sternberg b. 1739;
Wassili Bobrinsky 1 m. 1824 to Pss Lydia Gortschakova b. 1807, 2 m. 1830 to Sofia Sokownina b. 1812, 3 m. 1869 to Alexandra Utschakova

(his brothers:
A.
Alexei Bobrinsky, 1800 - 1868, m. 1821 to Css Sophia Samojlowa b. 1799,

B. Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in
Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski),
m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899 ?).

Her daughter was
Julia Pawlowna Bobryńska / Julia Broel - Plater, Gołąbek - Jezierska, nee Bobrinski / Bobryńska, 1823 - 1899, married Waldemar Gołąbek-Jezierski Count, b. 1822, died 1855 in Warsaw. He was son of Jan Nepomucen Paweł Gołąbek-Jezierski Count and Karolina.
Julia 2nd time married Cezary August Plater / Cezar August Broel - Plater in 1859; Cezar was born on September 8, 1810, in Wilno. They had 2 sons including Cezary Broel-Plater.
Julia 1st married Waldemar Gołąbek - Jezierski in 1851; Waldemar was born in 1822. They had one son Aleksander Gołąbek - Jezierski.
The father of mentioned above Julia was above named Paweł Aleksiejewicz Bobryński and Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska Junosza, Countess, nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska. Paweł Bobrynski / Bobrinski was born on October 27, 1801, in Saint Petersburg; Julia Sonocka Bielińska was born in 1790 or 1804.
Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska, ca 1790 / 1804 - 1892; m. 1822, after death of husband she moved to Paris; her father
Stanisław Kostka Bieliński died 1812 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, served on the court of the King Stanisław August Poniatowski; Marshal of the Parliament in 1793,
m. Katarzyna nee Golicyn, b. 1775, d. 1825 in Saratów.
The family of above Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
a. Elżbieta Bielińska m. 1779 in Mogilany to Franciszek Wielopolski,
b. Franciszek Bieliński 1740 - 1809, 1776 Nat. Educ. Com., 1794 the Kosciuszko Uprising, owner of Kozłówka to 1799, and the Otwock palace, m. Krystyna Sanguszko.
The father of above named Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski: Michał Bieliński died 1747, the Chelmno province governor, Sztum office, 1725 the King court, 1736-42 Kozłówka palace near by Lubartow, m. 1st to Aurora Maria Rutowska daughter of
Fryderyk August II and Fatima, grand-daughter of Jan Jerzy II Saxon / Sas and Anna Zofia of Danmark, 2-v. Claude Marie de Bellegarde;
m. 2nd time to Tekla Pepłowski grand-daughter of Jadwiga Niemyski, of the Kozłówka estate.

The Chełmno province:

1. Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten of the Chelmno province in Poland, married to Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł, daughter of Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko. Francis Stanislaus Kostka Hutten-Czapski, coat Leliwa, b. 1725, d. 1802 in Warsaw, Senator, the last provincial governor of Chełmno / Chelmno (June 25, 1766 - to April 9, 1802).
2. The father of Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski: Michał Bieliński / Michael Belinsky, coat Junosza, d. 1746, the provincial governor of Chelmno. Son of Casimir Louis Bielinski, a Polish diplomat and Louisa Maria Morsztyn (d. 1730), daughter of the poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn / John Andrew Morsztyn. Brother of Franciszek / Francis Bielinski, also the governor of Chelmno and the Grand Marshal of the Crown.
Michal's 1st wife Aurora Maria Rutowska (d. 1750), illegitimate daughter of the Polish king Augustus II the Strong Saxon, divorced.
The second wife was Tekla Popłowska (d. 1774) with son Franciszek Bielinski / Francis (d. 1809), the writer of the Crown and Stanislaus Kostka (d. 1812), Marshal of the Grodno Parliament. Michal was in 1738-1746, the voivode / governor of Chelmno.
3. Above mentioned Franciszek Bielinski / Francis Belinsky, coat Junosza, b. 1683, d. 1766 in Warsaw, the Grand Marshal of the Crown 1742 to 1766, the court marshal of the Crown 1732 to 1742, the provincial governor of Chelmno 1725-1732, treasurer of Prussia 1714 -1738.

Wassili Bobrinsky / Wasyl Bobrzynski had 2 children:
I.
Alexei Bobrinsky 1831 - 1888, 1st m. 1855 to Pss Catherine Lvova b. 1834,
2nd m. 1859 Sofia Cheremeteva b. 1842.
He had 4 children:
1. Wassili Bobrinsky 1860 - 1861,
2. Ct Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937, he m. twice,
3. Ct Wladimir Bobrinsky 1862 - 1938, married to a French woman,
4. Css Catherine Bobrinsky / Ekaterina Alexeiievna 1864 - 1926 m. 1886 to Pr Peter Swiatopolk-Mirski / Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski d. 1914;
II. Css Sofia Bobrinsky 1837 - 1891 m. Viktor von Keller d. 1906.

Since early January 1905, Sviatopolk-Mirsky had no power, even though he was minister. On January 7 to the Ministry of Interior was delivered the text of Gapon petition; political demands made ​​on the officials shocking; it was a complete surprise to the Justice Minister, who wanted to meet with Gapon. He urged the Minister to go to the king and beg him to accept the petition, then Gapon asked to call the Minister of the Interior, P. D. Svyatopolk-Mirsky.
Svyatopolk-Mirsky explained his refusal to talk with Gapon that did not know him personally.
The evening of 8 January:
the Minister of Internal Affairs held a meeting to discuss the situation. The meeting was attended by Interior Minister P. D. Svyatopolk-Mirsky, the Minister of Justice, Muraviov / Н. В. Муравьёв, Finance Minister V. N. Kokovtsov, Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs K. N. Rydzewski, assistant minister of the Interior P. Durnovo, Deputy Minister of Finance V. I. Timiriazev, director of the Police Department A. A. Lopuhin, the mayor of St. Petersburg I. A. Foulon and military commander of the Guard and St. Petersburg Military District N. F. Meshetich;
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Svyatopolk-Mirsky, according to some reports, suggested that workers could be at the Palace Square, on the condition that they agree to elect a deputation, however, against this vigorously made Muraviov and Kokovtsov. Muraviov spoke about his meeting with Gapon, and proposed to arrest him, supported him Kokovtsov; Fullon opposed the arrest Gapon, and it was decided to place on the outskirts of the gates the military units and avoid working in the city center; it was also decided to deploy troops on the Palace Square, in case of the workers still penetrate to the center; officials believed that armed soldiers will stop working and they go home;
late in the evening on January 8:
Sviatopolk-Mirsky and director of the Police Department A. A. Lopuhin went to Tsarskoye Selo to Nicholas II, and informed the king about the letter of Gapon and the petition; the king wrote about it in his diary; the same evening Svyatopolk-Mirsky instructed the chief of gendarmes K. N. Rydzewski to arrest Gapon and send him to the fortress.
According to the testimony of General A. A. Mosolov, Rydzewski explained that Gapon sat down in one of the houses of the working quarters;
January 8 in the evening newspaper "Our days" and also Maxim Gorky offered to send a deputation to the Minister of the Interior, to inform him about the peaceful intentions of workers; it was immediately elected a deputation of ten people, which includes:
Maxim Gorky, B. A. Myakotin, A. Peshekhonov, K. Arsenyev, V. I. Semevskii, N. Kareev, I. B. Hesse, E. I. Cedrenus and D. Vladimir Kuzin;
late in the evening a deputation arrived at the Ministry of Interior, but Svyatopolk-Mirsky had just left to Tsarskoye Selo, but they were received by the commander of the gendarmerie K. N. Rydzewski, who told do not need their advice; then the delegation went to the chairman of the Committee of Ministers S. Witte; Witte said that he can not intervene, and suggested that the deputies should once again appeal to the Minister of the Interior, which immediately contacted by telephone.
However Svyatopolk-Mirsky said that - in the reception of the deputation - it is not necessary; frustrated deputies returned to the editors.
This deputation from St. Petersburg writers ask him to overturn some military action, but he refused to accept the deputation; 9 of 10 members were arrested.

Some details:
1.
Mikolaj / Nicholas Światopełk-Mirsky acquired in 1895 the Mir castle from the descendants of Prince Dominik Radziwill and her daughter Stefania Radziwill - Wittgenstein (see Miezonka and Hutten-Czapski and Konstantynowicz).
Stefania Radziwill b. 1809 in Paris, d. 1832, in Bad Ems, heir to a huge fortune of the Radziwills; the so-called "Wittgenstein inheritance"; was the daughter Dominik Radziwill (1786-1813) of Nieśwież and on Olyka and his second wife Teofilia Moravski.

2. In Lubotina / Lyubotyn in (1899 ?) December 1905, was dead and buried here, known public figures of the Russian Empire: Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, his son Prince Peter Dmitriyevich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, as well as his grandchildren: naval officers, Alexander and Nicholas Den (Denam).

3. General of Infantry Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1824 or 1825 - 1899 or 1905 ?) began his military service in 1841 as the Caucasus cadet of Adjutant General Prince Chernyshev; fought against Hadji Murad and Shamil. At the end of the Crimean War, Svyatopolk Mirski / Mirsky returned to the Caucasus to the Kabarda regiment, which has made a campaign in 1858 in the mountainous part of Chechnya. On April 12, 1859 promoted to major general and appointed Chief of Staff of troops of the Caspian region. After the capture of Shamil and the conquest of the eastern Caucasus was the assistant commander of the Kuban region and in the campaigns on the Kuban River and Ubin.
Promoted to lieutenant general and appointed head of the Terek region, served as Governor-General of Kutaisi. On August 30, 1873 Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky received the rank of General of Infantry. In addition, Prince Svyatopolk-Mirsky was elected a member and honorary chairman of the Caucasian branch of the Russian Geographical Society. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 was the commander in chief of the Caucasian Army and took an active part in planning of the assault of Kars. In 1880 Svyatopolk-Mirsky was appointed a member of the State Council. In 1881-1882, the acting commander of the Kharkov Military District and temporary Kharkiv Governor-General.

4. Adjutant-General Prince Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857-1914) began service of the Guards Hussar His Majesty's Regiment. Participated in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-78, and then graduated from the course of the Nikolayev Academy of the General Staff. Commanded a division, was governor of Penza and Yekaterynoslav. He also served as Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire from 26 August 1904 to 18 January 1905, which was dismissed shortly after the start of the riots in January 1905.

5. Two brothers - Alexander and Nicholas were the sons of Den Vladimir Alexandrovich, Minister, Secretary of State of the Grand Duchy of Finland and Nina Dmitrievna nee Princess Svyatopolk-Mirsky. The elder brother Alexander Den - Lieutenant of the Russian Imperial Navy, of the Russian-Japanese War, died at Port Arthur in 1904. Younger brother Nikolay Vladimirovich Den, a lieutenant of the battleship Emperor Alexander III, was killed in 1905 in the naval battle of Tsushima.

Nina Dmitrievna nee Princess Svyatopolk-Mirsky: wife of Ден Владимир Александрович / Вольдемар Карл / Dan Vladimir or Woldemar Carl von Daehn / Den Vladimir Alexandrovich, Minister, Secretary of State of the Grand Duchy of Finland; he born 1838.02.20 in Sippola in the Grand Duchy of Finland, died in Rome, Testaccio on 1900.12.28;
Woldemar Carl von Daehn / von Deen, was a Finnish-Russian General and the Grand Duchy of Finland Minister of State in 1891-1898, a defender of the rights of Finland; born to a German, Russia and Finland
(his father Alexander Gustav von Daehn 1788 - 1855, son of Johan Samuel von Daehn and Katarina)
military family, who owned the estate Sippola; the Military Academy in Hamina and the Nicholas General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg, and then
served as an officer in the Caucasus; 1873, in the Caucasus under command of the Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich Romanov (the Emperor Alexander II's brother); then governor of Stavropol and since 1882 in Vyborg;
Von Daehn's Sippola was sold and he moved abroad. He died in 1900 in Rome.

Karl Woldemar Vladimir Alexandrovich von Daehn's children: Maria Daehn von; Dmitri Daehn von; Alexander Daehn von; Nikolai Daehn von and Peter de Daehn. Above his sons:
1. Peter (1882.02.06-1971.01.19) colonel, commander of the 17th Regiment of Dragoons; 2. Den Dmitry b. 1874.09.06 died 1937.09.04 in Rome; wife Sofia Vladimirovna Sheremetev, in Lagodeki in the Caucasus.
Karl Woldemar Vladimir Alexandrovich von Daehn's wife was Nina D. Svyatopolk Mirski b. 1852.01.18 in Tbilisi - d. 1926.05.14. Nina D. Svyatopolk Mirski's father was General (1864) Дмитрий / Дмитрий Харитон Рюрик Мирон / Иванович Святополк- Мирский (1825-1899), Adjutant General (since 1864), General of Infantry (1873);
Dmitry Kharitonov Rurik Miron Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky come from the Lithuanian noble family; in 1821, Tomas Bogumil / Theophil-Jan / Ivan Semenovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1788) recognized by the Senate of the Kingdom of Poland in the princely dignity, and Russia confirmed the title of prince in 1861 for him and his sons, Dmitry and Nikolai, without presenting documents this title lost during the Polish revolt in 1831.

Nina D. Svyatopolk Mirski's mother was Princess Sophia Orbeliani Yakovlevna;
sisters of above Nina: Maria (1853-1889), married Prince Orbeliani I.; Olga (1855-1898), for the colonel, Prince Baryatinsky; brother of Nina: famous
Piotr / Peter (1857-1914).
Husband of Nina: mentioned above the Vyborg Governor, Waldemar (Vladimir) Von Daehn / Dan.

6. Franciszek Ksawery ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI b. ca 1760, married to Katarzyna Badowska;
his son Tomasz Bogumił 1788, d. 1868, m. Marianna Nostitz-Jackowska;
next generation, two sons:

1. DMITRIY KHARITON RYURIK MIRON / Dymitr SVYATOPOLK MIRSKI / DMITRIY IVANOVICH / Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky b. 1824 or 1825, d. 1899 (1905 ?), Duke in 1861, m. Zofia Orbeliani / SOFIA YAKOVLEVNA ORBELIANI b. 1831, d. 1879

(son of Dymitr:

Piotr 1857 - 1914 m. Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska),

2. Mikołaj 1833 - 1898 m. 1st to Wiera Bagratyd / Pss Vera b. Tbilisi 1842 - Vladikavkaz on 4 May 1860, m. in Tbilisi on 4 May 1860 to Pr Mikolaj / Nikolay Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky / Mikolaj Swiatopelk Mirski b. Miastkow 5 Jul 1833 - d. 15 Jul 1898,
Ataman of the Don Cossacks; mentioned Princess Vera Ilyinichna, b. at Tiflis, 1842, educ. and married in Tiflis, 4th May 1860 as first wife of General Prince Nikolai Ivanovitch Sviatopolk - Mirskii (Polish, b. at Miastkow, 5th July 1833; m. second, Cleoptra Mikhailovna Khanikova / Chanikow, and d. at Mir, 15th July 1898),
Ataman of the Don Cossacks, third son of Prince Tomasz Boguslaw Jan Sviatopolk-Mirskii, and by his second wife, Princess Marcianna, nee von Nostitz-Jackowska. She d. at Vladicaucase, 1863, having only son, who d. young;
a branch of Vera / Wiera was from Erekle II, king of Kacheti 1744-62, king of united Georgia 1762-98 (born Telavi on 7 Nov 1720 and died in Telavi 11 Jan 1798);
above Mikołaj b. 1833 married 2nd to Kleopatra Chynkow

(children of Mikolaj Swiatopelk - Mirski:

1. Michał 1870 - 1938;
2. Jan 1872 - 1922 m. Nadia Engelhardt;
3. Dymitr 1874 - 1950 m. 1st Maria de Bellegarde;
4. Włodzimierz 1875 - 1906 m. Maria Gudim-Lewkowicz;
5. Symeon 1885 - 1917 m. to Ludmiła Leliawska).


7.
Michał Światopełk-Mirski 1926-1944, was son of Kazimierz Światopełk- Mirski b. 1891 and Izabela Potulicka of Więcborg b. 1899; her mother: Krystyna Hutten-Czapska b. 1860;
her grandfather: Adolf Hutten-Czapski - Marshal of the Kowno government, b. 1820-1883,
he was son of Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1779-1844

(grandson of Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Hutten-Czapski 1725-1802 and Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł born 1754; great-grandson of Ignacy Hutten-Czapski 1699 or 1700-1746)

and Zofia Obuchowicz 1797-1866 -
she was grand-daughter of Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Radziwiłł 1740-1778.
A grandfather of Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski was:
Kazimierz Ignacy Florian Światopełk-Mirski 1818-1886
(son of Tomasz Światopełk-Mirski 1788-1852 and Konstancja Światopełk-Mirska; grandson of Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski b. ca 1760;
great-grandson of Jan Stanisław ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI born ca 1720, died in 1761).

Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski b. on July 3, 1891 in Woroniec near Biala Podlaska, d. July 8, 1941 in Auschwitz-Birkenau; Polish landowner, social activist, politician, Member of Parliament of the Second Republic. Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski was son of Czesław Światopełk-Mirski and Maria Antonina; was husband of Izabela Jabłońska
(Izabela Jabłońska Potulicka also known as Światopełk-Mirska, b. 1899 in Riga, Latvia, d. 1980 in Warszawa; daughter of Mieczysław Potulicki and Krystyna; wife of Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski and Jerzy Włodzimierz Jabłoński; mother of Krzysztof Światopełk-Mirski and Michał Światopełk-Mirski; inf. by Leszek Mila; above Mieczysław Potulicki Count, 1858 in Jeziory Wielkie, d. 1910 in Obory, Poland, son of Józef Kazimierz Maciej Potulicki and Ofelia Potulicka).
Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski was brother of Julia Rużyczka de Rosenwerth; Józef Światopełk-Mirski and Maria Ludwika Bronisława Górska.
Above Maria Antonina Światopełk-Mirska nee Fraget, 1869 - 1938, daughter of Julian Mikołaj Fraget and Antonina.
Above Czesław Światopełk-Mirski 1862 - 1920, son of Kazimierz Ignacy Florian Światopełk-Mirski and Franciszka; copyright by Leszek Mila at geni.com. Above Franciszka Światopełk-Mirska nee Jagmin, died 1867, daughter of Paweł Antoni Feliks Jagmin and Konstancja. Above mentioned Kazimierz Ignacy Florian Światopełk-Mirski 1818 - 1886; son of Tomasz Światopełk-Mirski and Konstancja; husband of Franciszka; father of Czesław Światopełk-Mirski. Named above Tomasz Światopełk-Mirski 1788 - 1852, son of Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski and Anna. Above named Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski son of Jan Stanisław Światopełk-Mirski and Joanna.

Princess Marcianna, nee von Nostitz-Jackowska. She d. at Vladicaucase, 1863 or 1853, having only son, who d. young; she had 2 children, acc. to 'nobility.pro':
1. Dmitrij / Dmitry born 1824 or 1825 - 1899,
2. Nikolai / Nikolay 1833 - 1898.

Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski (1788-1868) fought in the November Uprising in 1830 near Suwalki and exiled to Paris, where he represented the Poles; participant in the French colonization of Algiers; served the French Foreign Legion of Polish exiles from France; he received a large grant of land in Africa; converted to Orthodoxy, and return to Russia, where he remained under house arrest until his death.

Mentioned above sons: Dmitry (1824 / 1825 - 1899) and Nikolai (1833 - 1898) were educated as members of the Russian nobility;
Nikolay / Nikolai bought the historic castle of Mir in 1895; see below on Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg.
Jan Nepomucen Ksawery Nostitz-Jackowski born 1770, was son of Aleksander Nostitz-Jackowski and Marianna nee Kczewska / Marcianna Antonie Barbara Nostitz-Jackowska; Aleksander was born in 1729.
Marianna Kczewski / Marcianna Antonie Barbara Nostitz-Jackowska Kczewska, born in Straszewo, near by Aleksandrów Kujawski; she was daughter of Andrzej Kczewski and Marianna; wife of Aleksander Nostitz-Jackowski; mother of Jan Nepomucen Ksawery Nostitz-Jackowski.
Marianna was born in 1745 or 1750. Jan had one brother Hipolit Nostitz-Jackowski; Jan married Anna nee Tucholka, and they had 4 children: among others Marianna nee Nostitz-Jackowska.
Then Jan married 2nd to Petronela nee Drywa-Zakrzewska in 1804, she was born 1776 / 1780.
They had one daughter Marianna Marcjanna nee Nostitz-Jackowska married Swiatopelk-Mirski Tomasz Bogumil Jan b. 26.12.1788 - d. 1861 / 1878.
Above named Иван Семёнович Святополк- Мирский and Marianna Marcjanna had
1. Владимир Иванович Святополк- Мирский;
2. Dmitri Ivanovich Svätjopolk-Mirski;
3. Bolesława Rodys;
4. Николай Иванович Святополк- Мирский.
Acc. to www.myheritage.com, Marianna Nostitz-Jackowska had 3 other sibilings. Daniela Joanna Marciana / Marcjanna Nostitz-Jackowska born 1807 - died 27.10.1853; her brother was Aleksander Nostitz-Jackowski 1821 - 1910, with his daughter Leonarda Kielczewska; but we remember about Ludwik Ostaszewski b. 1824 + Maria Nostitz Jackowska.
Dmitrij / Dmitry 1824 or 1825 - 1899, was son of Tomasz Teofil Jan Swiatopelk Mirski (Tomasz Teofil Jan Światopełk-Mirski 1788-1868 was son of Franciszek b. ca 1760, and Katarzyna Badowska) or Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski 1788-1868 (the same parents), Duke in 1861, and above mentioned Daniela Joanna Marciana. Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron back to Russia in 1840, 1841 served at Caucasus.
Brothers
(and sisters:
1. Bolesława Rodys 1831 - 1915, wife of Wilhelm Rodys, mother of Pelagia Joanna Findeisen
[Pelagia Joanna Findeisen 1849 Lublin - 1875 in Śmiłowice, wife of Gustaw Adolf Findeisen, and mother of Jadwiga Pawińska and Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948:
his children: Gustaw Findeisen; Andrzej Findeisen; Tomasz Findeisen and Krystyn Tadeusz Findeisen]
and Zofia Joanna Saturnina Śliwicka;
2. Ekaterina d. 1879):
1. Vladymir 1823 - 1861, and
2. Dmitri / Dmitry Ivanovich / Dmitrij 1824 or 1825 - 1899 (Infantry General and politician, Caucasus and Russo-Turkish wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia;
his son Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857 - 1914), the governor of Penza and Vilna governments, Minister of Interior of Russia),
3. Mikolaj / Nicholas Ivanovitch Sviatopolk-Mirski 1833 - 1898; a godson of Tsar Nicolas II, and was "aide de camp" of the Tsar, General-Adjutant 1874 (1877-1878 war), the Caucasus wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia, 1881-1898 The Don Cossack chief; 1891 he bought at Princess Mary Lvovna Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst the estate of Zamir, located in the Minsk government, the Novogrudek county, after death of Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg; 1898 Member of the State Council; he died at his estate Mir;
1st m. Princess Vera Ilyitchnina Gruzinsky / Grouzinzky in Tiflis, Georgia on 4 May 1860; 1842-1861 or 1863, daughter of Ilija Georgijevich, with son Ilija;
2nd m. in St. Petersburg in 14 April 1868 to Cleopatre Mikhailovna Khanykov, 1845-1910.
They had seven children:
1. Prince Michel Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born in Tsarkoie Selo in St. Petersburg 1870 - died in Warsaw, 1938, minister of state;
2. Prince Ivan Sviatopolk Mirsky born in St Petersburg 1872 - died Mir 1922;
3. Prince Dimitri Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born 1874 - died Sibiu, Romania 1950, member of the Parliament in Russia;
4. Prince Wladimir Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born 1875 - died Alexandria, Egypt 1906, titulary minister, marshal of the Balta nobility;
5. Prince Vassili Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky 1877 - 1879;
6. Prince Pierre Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky 1881 - 1882;
7. Prince Simon Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born in Novotcherkassk, Russia 1885 - died in Kharkov, Russia on 26 July 1917.

Jan Swiatopelk Mirski / Ivan Ignatiev Svyatopolk, Ignacy Alexander and Thomas Faddeev Svyatopolk-Mirski in 1815, and Thaddeus Antoni Mirski should be called Svyatopolk-Mirsky in the Congress Poland. The decree on April 18, 1861: request of Major General Dmitry Svyatopolk-Mirsky, and his brother, Colonel Nicholas and them father Thomas Boguslav Jan Svyatopolk-Mirsky on title of the Russian princes, without presenting documents for this title.
Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky was born in 1825, a General of Infantry, a member of the State Council, His Imperial Majesty's adjutant general, married Princess Sophia Yakovlevna Orbeliyani. They have children:
Prince Peter D. (b. August 18, 1857), Princess Marie (b. August 10, 1853), Princess Olga (b. May 30, 1855) and Princess Nina D. (b. January 28, 1859).
Prince Nikolai Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General, the military ataman of the Don Cossacks (b. July 5, 1833), twice married.

Father of two adjutants general - Иван Семёнович / Tomasz Teofil Jan Światopełk-Mirski / Thomas Bohuslav Ivan / Tomasz Bogumił Jan Światopełk-Mirski (1788-1868), a member - Counsellor of the Delegation of the former administration of the State Council of the Kingdom of Poland and in 1821 received the right to be called Prince.
Thomas Bohuslav Ivan / Tomasz Bogumił was born on December 26, 1788 and was the son of Franciszek Ksawery ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI b. ca 1760 (Franciszek Ksawery Mirski and Katarzyna).

Different opinion!
We know about Jan Felicjan / Ivan Felitsiyan born October 29, 1754, son of Franciszek Ksawery ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI / Franz Xavier, and grandson of Ivan / Jan, who moved to the end of the 1730s at the Polish border from the province of Smolensk and taken the Polish service: the royal customs officer at the border office in Milov, near Krakow, Ivan / Jan's first marriage to Teresa NN with two sons - Joseph and Paul.
Felitsiyan in 1749 married to Catherine Cleopatra daughter of Michal Gniazdowski / Mikhail Gnyazdovsky - and Felitsiyan had a son Franz Xavier;
Felitsiyan b. 1674, died in 1759.
It is the next branch from Ivan Felitsiyan, whose father is not specified, so it is difficult to connect all others members with the names of Svyatopolk-Mirski of the Russian Empire. For example:
Jan Stanisław Światopełk-Mirski, 1690-1761, married Anna Sołtan born in 1700.
Jan married 2nd Joanna Rymsza born in 1690. They had one son Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski. Jan married 3rd Teresa Sieklucki born in 1690. They had son Antoni Światopełk-Mirski. Jan died 1761.


The conspiracy in Russia created curtains and protected from the beginning by the modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia created by Benkendorff and Dubbelt from Estonia and Latvia - thanks to this major role in this system can be played a German families from Estonia.

They anchored (Fabian Pilar von Pilchau of Parnu) in Lithuania / Belarus and joined with families from Belarus: Piłsudski, Dzierzynski, Konstantynowicz and so on. Thanks to this connections the German Empire took over from the top of all this political system according to some theorists, and by others - the British intelligence.
This statement is not true, or not true fully. The main ally of Britain during the First World War was Russia, and the Romanov dynasty with its last tsar. This is confirmed by the organization of the Allied mission to Russia in January 1917 and earlier such a mission to Romania. Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. Ireland fought then about freedom, just like the Poles. Scotland also fight, like Estonia.

Important note on the Cork Co.:
Terence MacSwiney was born 1879. He was the son of John MacSwiney and Mary Ann Wilkinson. He married Muriel Frances Murphy, daughter of Nicholas Murphy and Mary Gertrude Purcell, in 1917. He died in 1920 at Brixton Prison; he held the office of Mayor of Cork, Member of Parliament for Cork. He was a prominent figure in the Irish Independence movement. Brothers of above Terence: Peter MacSwiney and John MacSwiney.
Kathleen Cashel born 1872, and her sister Aunt Al were great friends with the Cork republican family, the MacSwiney's, siblings Terence MacSwiney, Mary MacSwiney, Sean MacSwiney and Annie MacSwiney. Address at 66 Knockrea, Blackrock, Cork. Kathleen and Al's step-mother was Marion Mc Swiney. Mary and Annie MacSwiney founded St. Ita's School for girls, Cork, in 1917; Kathleen and Al's brother-in-law was James O'Mara; The Riordan house at 13 Myrtle Hill Terrace was one of Terence MacSwiney's safe houses when he was on the run in 1919-20 during the War of Independence.
An unofficial government policy of reprisals began in September 1919 in Fermoy, County Cork; "...on Bloody Sunday, 21 November 1920, fourteen British intelligence operatives were assassinated in Dublin, a week later, seventeen Auxiliaries were killed by the IRA in an ambush at Kilmichael in County Cork. ... The British government declared martial law in much of southern Ireland. ... The fighting was heavily concentrated in Munster (particularly County Cork)".
In late 1920, the Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney, died on hunger strike. Terence Joseph MacSwiney (1879 - 1920) was an Irish politician. He was elected as Sinn Fein Lord Mayor of Cork during the Irish War of Independence in 1920.
His father, John MacSwiney, of Cork, "had volunteered in 1868 to fight as a papal guard in Rome against Garibaldi, had been a schoolteacher in London and later opened a tobacco factory in Cork". His mother Mary MacSwiney nee Wilkinson; Mary Ann MacSwiney was English and met John MacSwiney in London in 1870. He was working as a teacher after spending some time in Rome. However, on arriving in Rome he found the fighting was already over. His sister: Mary MacSwiney and her family relocated to Cork when Mary was six years old. Once settled in she joined Inghinidhe na hEireann (Daughters of Ireland) an Irish Nationalist organization for women founded in 1900 by Maud Goone. She also joined Conradh na Gaeilge (the Gaelic League) founded in 1893. Her mother Mary Wilkinson, was an English Catholic with strong Irish nationalist opinions.
In the mid 19th century the representatives of John McSweeny held land in the county Cork parishes of Kilnaglory and St Finbarrs, barony of Cork, and John McSweeney held land in the parish of Drishane, barony of West Muskerry.
"...In the 1870s various members of the McSweeney family owned lands around Cork city and John McSweeney of Macroom owned 599 acres. The MacSwiney family originally held land at Mashanaglass near Macroom. Valentine Emanuel Patrick MacSwiney (1871-1945), son of Valentine P. MacSwiney, a banker, was born in Paris and created a Marquess by Pope Leo XIII. Copy of confirmation of arms to the descendants of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom by Margaret Cremen, and to his grandson, Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII and only son of Valentine MacSwiney by Emma Issabella Countess Konarska daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, with mention of descent from MacSwiney of Mashanaglass, Sept. 17, 1895. Genealogical Office: Ms. 110, pp. 186-7".
See at this page 1 a genealogy of MacSwiney and the Konarskis.
Muriel Frances Murphy born 1892. She was the daughter of Nicholas Murphy and Mary Gertrude Purcell. She married, firstly, Terence MacSwiney, son of John MacSwiney and Mary Wilkinson, in 1917. Child of Muriel Frances Murphy and Terence MacSwiney was Marie MacSwiney b. 1918; Rory Brugha is the son of Cathal Brugha. He married above Marie MacSwiney, daughter of Terence MacSwiney.
"...At present Sinn Fein in Cork, birthplace of iconic figures like Terence McSwiney and Tomas MacCurtain, has a proud republican tradition...". We know on Mick Nugent is the Sinn Fein councillor for the North-West Ward in Cork.
See at my websites:
Nugent in Napoli / Naples in Italy, with family Beckendorff of Estonia;
MacSwiney and Konarski;
MacSwiney and Wittgenstein, with the Radziwilles.

When Irish immigration to the New England and then to the United States of America began, the Irish Charitable Society was founded in Boston, in 1737, then as the Ancient and Most Benevolent Order of the Friendly Brothers of Saint Patrick, founded in New York, and the Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick for the Relief of Emigrants in Philadelphia in 1771.
The Irish Free State was established in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, following uprising - The Easter Rising, also known as the Easter Rebellion, in Ireland, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland. It was the most significant uprising in Ireland since the rebellion of 1798.
Remember!
In 1915 Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Thomson, a fluent French speaker, was sent to Bucharest as British military attache on Kitchener's initiative to bring Romania into the war.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. He was making his way to Russia in order to attend negotiations but the ship struck a German mine.

After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison. Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans. Frederick Joubert Duquesne, a Boer soldier and spy, claimed that he had assassinated Kitchener after an earlier attempt to kill him in Cape Town failed. Duquesne's story was that he posed as the Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky in 1916 and joined Kitchener in Scotland.
In 1883 Kitchener became a Freemason. He was initiated in Cairo.

In the spring of 1916 Herbert Asquith decided to send Lord Kitchener, his Secretary of State of War, to Russia in an attempt to rally the country in its fight against Germany. On 5th June 1916, Horatio Kitchener was drowned.
Horatio Bottomley, the editor of the John Bull magazine, promoted the idea that Kitchener had been murdered.
In July 1920, Alfred Douglas, the former boyfriend of Oscar Wilde, according to Michael Kettle, continued his campaign against Winston Churchill.
Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas b. 1870 in Powick, Worcestershire; the third son of John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, and his first wife, Sibyl nee Montgomery. Above John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig and Caroline Margaret Clayton. His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt. Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas. Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green,
Scotland - on border of England, Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.

Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas.


A plot against Rasputin in 1916:

1. Фе́ликс Фе́ликсович Юсу́пов / Felix Yusupov (1910 - 1st Russian Car Club) in 1914 married
Ирина Александровна / Irina Alexandrovna, daughter of Александр Михайлович / Alexandr Michailovich (Sandro / Сандрo, 1866 Tbilisi - 1933 France), son of Michail Nikolaievich / Михаил Николаевич.
The Oxford University Russian Society was founded in the Oxford University in 1909 by Prince Felix Yusupov, b. 1887, d. 1967, a student at the University College, Oxford. From 1909 to 1912 or 1913 he studied Fine Arts at Oxford, a member of the Bullingdon club; then his friend was Oswald Rayner, and also in St. Petersburg.

2. Дми́трий Па́влович / Dmitrij Pavlovich (1891 - 1942 Davos), son of General Pavel Alexandrovich (1860 - 1919), grandson of Александр II.

3. Влади́мир Митрофа́нович Пуришке́вич / Vladimir Purishkievich (1870 - 1920 Novorossijsk), 1917, 18 November jailed to 17 April 1918.

4. Oswald Theodore Rayner (1888 - 1961) a British MI6 agent in Russia during World War I. 1907 - 1910 Rayner studied Modern Languages at Oriel College, Oxford. 'Rasputin: The Role of Britain's Secret Service in his Torture and Murder' by Richard Cullen - claiming that Yusupov, Grand Duke Dmitri and Purishkevich, were joined in the murder of Rasputin by a British spy named Oswald Rayner. Cullen has established that the accounts published by Yusupov and Purishkevich, are a tissue of lies.
See www.blackcountrybugle.co.uk/
"...Firstly, he found no evidence of poison, and there was no evidence of his drowning either, no fluid in his lungs. ... Rasputin had been shot three times, was most definitely dead when he was dumped in the freezing river ... The shot to the head was probably fired from a British service revolver. ... Rayner in 1915 became a barrister at the Inner Temple".
Rayner was sent to the St Petersburg Secret Intelligence Service station in 1916; Rasputin had links with the Germans and was trying to arrange an end to the war on the Eastern Front.
Tsar told George Buchanan, British ambassador, that he suspected a young Englishman, one of Yusupov's Oxford university friends, played a part in the murder. Buchanan denied any British involvement.
Rayner in 1918 was sent to the British spy base in Stockholm. He returned to Russia in 1919, staying in Vladivostok, returning to Moscow in 1921.
Grand Duke Dmitri was exiled by Nicholas II to the Persian Front.
Felix Yusupov was put under house arrest; Vladimir Purishkevich in 1917 jailed, fleeing to Southern Russia with help of Felix Dzierzynsky.
See: Richard Cullen, published by Dialogue.

"...In January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson as chief military representative, and including a banker and two munitions experts - on the mission to Russia. There were 50 delegates in total including French, led by de Castelnau, and Italians. The object of the mission, stressed at the second Chantilly Conference in December 1916, was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed with a view to coordinating attacks...".
Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy.
Above Field Marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet, b. 1864, and "...Loyd George wanted Russia persuaded to make the maximum possible effort... on a British mission to Russia in January 1917 (delayed from November 1916), the object of which was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale ... The War Office briefing advised that Russia was close to revolution. Wilson met the Tsar but thought him 'as devoid of character and purpose as our own poor miserable King'. Even senior Russian officials were talking openly of assassinating the Tsar or perhaps just the Tsarina. Wilson was impressed by Generals Ruzski (Rucki) and Danilov ... Knox, who had been British military attaché since 1911. He toured Petrograd, Moscow ... and Riga ... His official report (3 March 1917) said that Russia would remain in the war and that they would solve their 'administrative chaos'. However, many other observers at the time, e.g. the young Archibald Wavell in the Caucasus, felt that the advent of democracy in Russia would reinvigorate her war effort, so Wilson's views were not entirely unusual. ... Wilson was appointed Chief of British Mission to the French Army on 17 March 1917, with a promotion to permanent lieutenant-general which Robertson had blocked in November 1916...".
Noël Edouard Marie Joseph, Vicomte de Curieres de Castelnau b. 1851, was a French general in World War I. "...After the dismissal of Joffre ... in 1916 Castelnau was retired from active service. He was sent on the Allied Mission to Russia in the early months of 1917, just prior to the Fall of the Tsar. ... Castelnau was recalled to the command of the Eastern Army Group ... in 1918...".

Today it is difficult to say who, what country, either a government, or an institution, maybe a NGO managed this complicated structure.

Sovereign Military Order of Malta / The Knights of Malta / the Order of Malta in Russia, Poland and Paul I the Russian Emperor:

1.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Francis Servatius Hutten-Czapski b. 1851, d. 1937, in 1890 negotiated with Pope Leo XIII end of the Kulturkampf in Germany; he was friend with the Cardinals of the Vatican; persuaded the German general staff to support the Bolsheviks (1916 - 1917) and in the independent Poland (since 1918) was the
president of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta.

His father Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to (January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833; 1833 - 1837 Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834, including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland. Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to H. Koziel, in 1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt. The republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini.

2.

Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapska, b. 1894 in Prague, died in 1981, Maisons-Laffitte; the granddaughter of Emeryk Czapski / Emeric Hutten-Czapski of the family who had a huge estates from Radziwill, around Minsk, in Curland, Lithuania and Volhynia, acc. to Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski, vol. 1-2, Berlin 1936.

Ferdinand Radziwill of the Polish Knights of Malta, has come after Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, an old friend of the Prussian court and military.

The estate of Pryluki to the Hutten - Czapskis was situated on Ptych river; a house of 1882 and terraced park. Pryluki / Priluki ca 14 km south-west of the Minsk core, and 15 km west of Koroliszczewiczi / Korolishchevici of the Konstantynowiczs; 13 km west of Gatovo / Hatowo, and 23 km north-east of Kojdanow / Koidanov; south-west of Minsk in Belarus, on way to Dzierzynsk / Dzierhinsk / Kojdanow / Koidanov.

3.

Stanisław Sołtan b. 27.8.1756 - died in 1836 in Mitawa, General, secret acted in 1793, then in 1812, member of Parliament of 1782, 1788,
m. Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł d. 1802,
daughter of Stanisław and Karolina Pociej,
owned Zdzięcioł;
m. 2nd in 1820 to Konstancja Toplicka-Tupalska 1-v Kasper Korsak, daughter of Antoni and Róża Górska.
Children of above Stanislaw Soltan:
Karolina Sołtan, b. ca 1780 / 1790 + Józef Piottuch-Kublicki;
Anna Sołtan, b. ca 1790 + Antoni Wańkowicz,
with children:
Waleria Wańkowicz, m. Konstanty Tyzenhauz,
Wanda Wańkowicz, + Benedykt Tyszkiewicz-Łohojski,
Klementyna Wańkowicz, + Mostowski.

Next children of above Stanislaw Soltan:
Helena Sołtan + Franciszek Sołtan, member of the Order of Malta,
Adam Leon Ludwik Sołtan, b. 2.7.1792 in Warszawa, freemason,
m. Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839.

Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan was born 1824 in Uzukrewno (his mother's estate) and died on March 15, 1900 in Prezma, now Latvia;
son of Stanislaus Soltan (collaborator of the Constitution of 3 May, imprisoned in Smolensk in the 1794-1796, the President of the Provisional Government of Lithuania in 1812, d. Mitawa 1836)
and Constance Toplicki / Konstancja Toplicka,
a high school in Mitawa in 1835-1842 Courland, his parents after confiscating the 'Zdzieciol' estate (in the Slonim area and mentioned by Mr. Tadeusz Mickiewicz) moved house on the Livonia area, he was the insurgent in 1863, exiled to Ufa, interned in Riga. Study at the University of St. Petersburg in 1843-1844,
married in 1849, with a relative of his, Oktawia nee Soltan,
daughter of Joseph and Valentina,
and settled in the estate of his wife, Pryzma in Polish Livonia. In 1858 - 1859 he traveled abroad, where he conferred with Adam Czartoryski and Witold Czartoryski and Count Zamoyski on the current state of Lithuania and Belarus. He was against armed Insurrection. When the uprising broken out, Soltan, unable to stop it, joined to the Insurrection in the Livonia province and after
Soltan was arrested in Vitebsk on June 5th, 1863.
He was exiled to Ufa on August 18, 1863, and remained there until 1866.
Then he was interned in Riga 1872 - 1875,
was allowed to return in 1875 to assets of his wife in Polish Livonia, where
he died in September 1900 in Prezma / Presman near to Malta in Inflanty / Lettgallen / Livonia, the Rēzeknes Rajons - 18 km south west from Rezekne
acc. to http://exonyme.bplaced.net/Board/Thread-Lettgallen.

Remember about

Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852, writer, born 1796 - Kraslaw, died in 1852 - Wilno, married in 1819 to Antonina Soltan 1800-1871, daughter of Benedykt Soltan b. 1770 and Józefa Benislawska b. 1770,
with children:
Ludwika 1821-1897, Eugeni Joachim Herkulan born 1826, August Joachim 1830, Wilhelm Joachim Kazimierz Plater 1830-1856, Kazimierz Konrad 1830-1863,
Michal Hieronim Joachim 1834-1924 m. 1st to Aniela Felkerzamb 1825-1884 and 2nd to Gabriela Jaraczewska 1860-1935 with children:
Maria Anna Apolonia Broel-Plater 1894-1948 + Stanislaw Maria Jan Römer 1892-1965, Ludwika b. 1895 + Sigvalt Ankarhall 1894, Leon Broel-Plater 1897-1980 + Maria Drucka-Lubecka 1895-1987;
and last son Leon Joachim Blazej Broel-Plater 1836-1863 - member of the January Uprising in 1863.
The great-grandparents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:
1. Jan Ludwik Plater born in 1686 or 1690-1736
(son of Jan Andrzej Henryk Plater and Ludwika Maria von Grothuss; husband of Rozalia Brzostowska; father of Konstancja; Konstanty Ludwik and Józefa; brother of Fabian Ksawery Broel-Plater; Aleksander Konstanty; Izabela Borch and Anna Sybilla von Syberg / Zyberk),
2. Józef Tadeusz Oginski
(1693 - 1736, son of Kazimierz Dominik Oginski and Eleonora; husband of Anna; father of Augustyna Plater; Katarzyna Przezdziecka; Michal Kazimierz Oginski; Elzbieta Wielhorska and Genowefa Brzostowska; brother of Marcibela Zawisza-Kiezgajlo and Helena Oginska)
3. Waclaw Beydo-Rzewuski b. 1705 / 1706 - d. 1779;
4. Michal Kazimierz Radziwill
(Prince Michal Kazimierz Radziwill born in 1702, Olyka and died in 1762, nick-name Rybenko, owner of Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk, Kopyla and Shumsk. He was Court Marshal of Lithuania since 1734, Field and Grand Commander-in-Chief of Lithuania and in 1725 in Biala Krynica he married Urszula Franciszka Wisniowiecka, 2nd time married Anna Luiza Mycielska in 1754 in Lviv. His lover was Maria Karolina Sobieska, grand daughter of John III Sobieski);
5. Rozalia Brzostowska 1690-1746;
6. Anna Wisniowiecka 1695-1732;
7. Anna Lubomirska
(1717 - died 1763, m. in 1732 to Waclaw Rzewuski of Cracow, the Grand Commander-in-Chief of Poland, 1706 - 1779);
8. Urszula Franciszka Wisniowiecka 1705-1753.
Grandparents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:
1. Konstanty Ludwik Plater 1722-1778,
2. Augusta Oginska 1724-1791,
3. Stanislaw Ferdynand Beydo-Rzewuski 1737-1786,
4. Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Radziwill 1740-1789.
Parents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852: August Jacek Hieronim Broel-Plater / August Hiacynt 1745-1803 and Anna Beydo-Rzewuska 1761-1800.
Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater studied in Kroże (the Rossienie county) in Żmudz / Samogitia, then in 1815 studied at the Wilno Univ.; he was heir of Kombula / Kombul and Kazanów in Livonia / the Polish Inflanty, also Sickeln and Rozaliszki in Courland. He was elected nobility Speaker of the Rzeżyce / Rezekne county in Livonia;
after the November Uprising 1831 was persecuted by the Russian authorities as a relative of participants of the uprising: Emilia Plater and Cezary Plater.
Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater was sentenced to settlement in Smolensk, where he lived with his family to 1846. In Smolensk he has established a contact with Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski. After 1846 he returned to Kombula, in 1847 was elected assessor of the Criminal Chamber of the Novgorod province.
Writer under nick-name Joseph Płaskoziemski in 1846, gave his own theory of light, heat and electricity, but not supported by experiences in the mid-nineteenth century.
He was also the author of the short history and geography of Livonia; died in 1852 in Vilnius, was buried in Krasław.
He was married from 1819 to Antonina Pereświt-Soltan (1800-1871) and had 14 children:
Louise (1821-1897), Helen (b. 1825), twins Stefania (b. 1830) and Józefa (1830-1887) heiress of the Kombula estate,
Cecilia (1839-1864), a nun in Chelmno at Pomerania,
and the sons:
August (1822-1861),
William / Wilhelm (1824-1856) the president of the court in Dyneburg / Daugavpils, the heir of Kazanów;
Kazimierz (1829-1863),
Eugeniusz / Eugene (1826-1916) owner of Żubry;
Michal / Michael (1834- 1924) the heir of Kombula;
Leon
(Leon Plater b. ca 1836, d. on May 28 / June 9, 1863 in Daugavpils, Earl, a participant of the January Uprising in 1863. Shot at the Dyneburg fortress because of a successful attack on the transport of weapons on 25 May 1863, after which, was captured - protecting the actual organizer and commander Zygmunt Bujnicki - buried in the place of execution but the body was dug and transported to another location in a unknown place).

The von der Borch family from Prele / Preili/ Priji near to Dyneburg and from Wyping in the Rzezyce / Rezekne district was owner of the Prezma estate before 1714.

Above named Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan moved in 1891 to Riga, where he many years honorably served as President of the Charitable Society.

4.

Catherine married Francis Kossakowski (b. 1815), that is Katarzyna O'Brien de Lacy, 1820 / 1827-1910, married Franciszek Korwin-Kossakowski in 1840. Franciszek was born in 1815, in Marciniszki.

Katarzyna Korwin - Kossakowska nee O'Brien de Lacy, was born to Patryk O'Brien de Lacy and Julia O'Brien de Lacy nee von Damme; Patryk was born in 1800. Julia was born in 1800. Katarzyna had brothers - Piotr O'Brien de Lacy, and Aleksander O'Brien de Lacy b. 1830 m. Gabriela Radowicka b. 1850, who had daughter Aleksandra 1895 - 1987, by www.sejm-wielki.pl: m. ca 1915 to Andrzej Miączyński 1876-1936 with daughter Zofia 1919- 2015 m. Stanisław Komorowski 1915-2004 with Andrzej Komorowski 1950, Stanisław Komorowski 1950, Krzysztof Komorowski 1954, Anna.

Grandparents of above Franciszek: Antoni Korwin-Kossakowski 1735-1798 and Eleonora Straszewicz b. 1750; Ludwik Gorski from Retów 1749-1815 and Konstancja Odachowska.

Parents: Szymon Korwin-Kossakowski, a member of the Malta Order (the Sulkowskis!), 1777-1828 and Józefa Ewa Rachela Gorska b. 1783. Franciszek d. 1887.

Hipolit Gorski (his sister Józefa Górska married to Szymon Kossakowski b. 1777 in Marciniszki, died in 1828, with sons: Ludwik Kossakowski b. 1805, d. 1843, and Franciszek Kossakowski b. 1815, and one child more). Hipolit Gorski b. ca 1790 was son of Ludwik Gorski and stepson of Konstancja Odachowska b. 1750.

Her family: Józefa Ewa Rachela Korwin-Kossakowska daughter, Karolina Cecylia Morykoni, Zofia Pulcheria Giedrojć daughter, Adam Gorski son, Seweryn Gorski stepson, Aleksander Gorski stepson, Bogumiła Billewicz stepdaughter, Prakseda Billewicz stepdaughter, Hipolit Gorski stepson (he was father of Stanisława Hutten-Czapska b. ca 1830, and grandfather of Krystyna Potulicka [mother of Henryk Józef Adolf Potulicki; Józef Zygmunt Potulicki; Teresa Potulicka; Zofia Dowgiałło; Izabela Jabłońska; and Krystyna Potulicka] and Adolfina Maria Hutten-Czapska - her daughter was Zofia Barbara Światopełk- Czetwertyńska), Joanna Billewicz stepdaughter.

Above Józefa Ewa Rachela Gorska (Korwin-Kossakowska), born 1783, to Ludwik Górski and Konstancja Odachowska; Ludwik was born on September 3, 1749. Konstancja was born in 1755. Józefa had 3 brothers: Adam Górski, Hipolit and one more.

Hipolit Gorski b. ca 1790 (his sister Józefa Górska m. to Szymon Kossakowski) son of Ludwik, had daughter Stanislawa Gorska m. Adolf Hutten Czapski.

5.

Jozef Sulkowski in 1779 to 1782 with an uncle or a grandfather was in Naples, Flanders, Netherlands, England, Spain, Portugal, Paris to Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche; in 1783 in Russia to Ekatherina II who given to him title of officer.

I am thinking that a boy Jozef was taken into the care of a wealthy uncle, the Duke Casimir Augustus Sulkowski. August fancied himself that Jozef is an adoptive son; Duke took him on nearly 3-years tour in Europe. Joseph Sulkowski was taken to the highest courts. Particular sympathy to him showed the queen of France, Marie Antoinette. According to the chroniclers, made him a page to her; Prince August died in 1786. In 1783 served the Rydzyna Regiment of the Polish army, 1786 lieutenant.

Duke August Sulkowski died on 7 Jan. 1786 and given to him title of the 'Commandor of the Malta Order' with 12000 'zlotych' per year; 1786 served 10th regiment of the Polish army; Dec. 1791 Captain, 1792 in Lithuania on the Zelva river banks fought against the Russian Army (Virtuti Militari) under General Michal Zabello / Zabiella 1760-1815; escaped from Poland in Autumn 1792 to Paris.
1793 the French citizen, 1793 married daughter of Jean-Michel de Venture de Paradis 1739-1799; 1793 served the secret service of the 'Convention nationale' in Syria, India, Constantinopole, but in Autumn 1794 back to Poland, under Tadeusz Kosciuszko troops; around Nov. 1794 back to Paris, on 1 May 1796 the French Army; in 1796 - 1797 Italy: a friend of Napoleon Bonaparte and on 27th October 1796 his Adjutant.

6.

In 1774, in Poland was established the Grand Priory of the Order of Malta, headed by Prince Adam Poniński.

In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte setting off on the Egyptian campaign took Malta and the Order was exiled. Adam Poniński b. 1732, Speaker of Parliament from 1773 to 1775, and
the Prior of the Priory of the Polish Order of the Knights of Malta; it was adopted in the eighteenth century, Bartholomew Ignatius Stecki. In Poland were two 'komandorie' (Commanderies).

Alexander Sulkowski Sulima 1731 - 1786, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire from 1752, lieutenant general of the royal army in 1785, Austrian field marshal, was the son of Alexander Joseph Sulkowski; the Order of Malta cavalier.

Francis Sulkowski Sulima born in 1733, died on April 28, 1812, prince of the Holy Roman Empire from 1752, inspector general of infantry, Chamberlain of Stanislaw August Poniatowski, superior of the Commandery of St. John the Baptist, of the Knights of Malta since 1776 to ?, the Austrian court chamberlain from 1754.

The Order of the Knights of Saint John, also known as Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, and the Hospitallers, were among the most famous of the Roman Catholic military orders during the Middle Ages. The Roman Catholic order was further damaged by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798 and became dispersed throughout Europe. By the early 19th century, the order had been severely weakened by the loss of its priories throughout Europe. Only 10% of the order's income came from traditional sources in Europe, with the remaining 90% being generated by the Russian Grand Priory until 1810. This was partly reflected in the government of the Order being under Lieutenants, rather than Grand Masters, in the period 1805 to 1879, when Pope Leo XIII restored a Grand Master to the order. Copyright by Wikipedia.

The Russian Emperor, Paul I, gave the largest number of knights shelter in St. Petersburg, an action which gave rise to the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitallers and the Order's recognition among the Russian Imperial Orders. The refugee knights in St Petersburg proceeded to elect Tsar Paul as their Grand Master – a rival to Grand Master von Hompesch until the latter's abdication left Paul as the sole Grand Master. In 1834, the order, by this time known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), acquired new headquarters in Rome where it has remained since.

Michał Radziwiłł Red (1870 - 1955 in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) was a nobleman and diplomat in the embassy of the Russian Empire in Paris. He was also a Knight of Malta. He was born to Ferdynand Radziwiłł and Pelagia Sapieha; his great grandfather was Prince Anton Radziwill and his great grandmother was Princess Louise of Prussia (1770 - 1836).

Above Ferdynand Fryderyk Radziwiłł (1834 in Berlin - 1926 in Rome), was also a Knight of Malta since 1889; father of Janusz Franciszek, Michał Radziwiłł Red, Karol Ferdynand; son of Bogusław Fryderyk Radziwiłł and Leontyna Gabriela von Clary und Aldringen. 1874-1919 member of Reichstag.

Above Janusz Franciszek Ksawery Józef Bronisław Maria Radziwiłł 1880 in Berlin - d. 1967, 1935 - 1939 senator; was also a Knight of Malta since 1926 - President.

Also: Stefan Przezdziecki, Rajnold Przezdziecki; Alfred Chłapowski.

7.

Antoni Wankowicz / Anton Vankovich married Catholic noblewoman Anna Stanislavovna Soltan, who belonged to a wealthy and influential in those days family, was in close relationship with the magnate clans; her mother was Franciszka Teofila Radziwill / Francisco Theophile Stanislavovna Radziwill, daughter of Stanislaw Radziwill (1722-1787) and Karolina Pociej / Carolina (1732-1776); her father Stanislav Stanislavovich Soltan Pereswiat (1756-1836), who was court Marshal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1791-1792 ), and in 1812 he led the Commission to the Provisional Government;
on June 19, 1812 was created on the orders of the French Emperor Napoleon administrative authority in the occupied territory of the French troops in the Lithuanian-Belarusian provinces of the Russian Empire during the Franco-Russian war.
With his wife Anna Soltan, Anton Tadeushevich Vankovich had three daughters who married off very well.
The first daughter Clementine Antonievna Vankovich married a wealthy Count Edward Mostowski / Edward son of Jozef Mostowski (1790-1855), the Sventsiany county leader (1812-1840), the provincial leader of the Vilna (1840- 1843), owner of the estate Цэрклішкі / Cerkliszki / Tserklishki in Vilnius province;
the second daughter Valeria Antonievna Vankovich (1805 - ?) married a wealthy Count Konstantin Ignatievich Tizengauzen / Konstanty Tyzenhaus (1786-1853), owner of the Пастаў / Postawy, the Rakiszki / Rakishki county, famous ornithologists and regional specialists.
The third daughter Wanda Antonievna Vankovich (1808-1842) married the wealthy Count Benedykt Tyszkiewicz / Mihalavich Benedict Tyszkiewicz (1807-1866), the provincial leader of the Kovno (1846-1849), owner of the estate Чырвоны Двор / Czerwony Dwor close to Kaunas / Kovno.
Antoni Wankowicz / Anton Vankovich, having a rather large estate in Igumen County, made ​​a career of the noble service in native county, had friendly relations with the most influential families of the county: Wankowicz, Konstantynowicz, Osztarp, Moniuszko, Jelski, Pruszynski, Slotwinski, Janiszewski; he hold positions of cornet in the Igumen county (1802-1804), chairman of the Igumen county court (1804-1805), Marshal of the Igumen county (1805-1808).
He got quite rare in those days, the Maltese Order of St John of Jerusalem. He became a member of the local Masonic lodges, which was very popular and common in those days - "Vladislav Jagiello" and The Peace Room / 'The shrine room'.
In 1812, when the Franco-Russian war in Minsk province began, came the French troops that established here its management system. Anton Vankovich joined the French authorities and set up local administrations under Prince Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout on July 13 / July 25 - the Commission of the Provisional Government of the Minsk province; cooperated with Prince Michael Kryshtafavich Dominikovich Puzyna and the Commissioner-General Michael Antonovich Zenovich / Michal Zenowicz;
Anton Tadeushevich Vankovich and Michael Antonovich Zenovich were members of the economic department, headed by chairman Ignacy Moniuszko / Ignatius Stanislavovich Moniuszko (1787-1869).
According to the decree of the French Emperor Napoleon I on June 19 (July 1) 1812 to control the territories seized by the French, were created departments in Vilna, Grodno, Minsk and Bialystok; Vankovich became part of the new administration and has been a member since July 17 to August 15, 1812, and then was supervisor of the military hospital of the French "Grand Army" in Minsk.
He inherited his father's estate, in Minsk Province, Zazere and Vidagoshch; the palace in Vilnius, called the Vankovitski palace.

Those who have studied the roots of this complex structure, the most common commit certain substantive and methodological mistakes, runs the risk of retaliatory attacks and ridicule, and even fully social ostracism.

"...Lenin was preceded by a Swiss spy named Pierre Gilliard who was hired to tutor the Romanov children in French.
Charles Sydney Gibbes was their English tutor.
The Revolution was planned in London and Geneva... Both men were MI6 operatives (this is an opinion of Scrivener) and they could be relied upon to maintain strict secrecy as to the final fate of the Romanovs...", acc. to Patrick Scrivener.

The four daughters of Tsar Nicholas II spoke English with a slight Belfast accent, wrote Gareth Russell, historian. " The Emperor's four daughters had a Belfast nanny, Margaretta Eager / Margaretta Alexandra Eagar, ... along with their English tutor, a Scotsman called Mr Epps. When the Russian Imperial Family visited relatives in Britain, the girls' great-uncle, King Edward VII, was amused at the regional twangs they had picked up when they spoke English. The Tsarina quickly brought onboard another English tutor, Sydney Gibbes...".
Margaretta Alexandra Eagar, from Limerick, 1898 until 1904 a nanny at the Russian Court. Margaretta / Margaret Alexandra Eagar b. 1863, an Irishwoman, 1906 she wrote a memoir entitled 'Six Years at the Russian Court'; she was born to a Protestant couple, Francis McGillycuddy Eagar and Frances Margaret Holden; a medical nurse in Belfast, nurse to the daughters of Nicholas II in 1898.
By Sharon Slater:
"Francis McGillycuddy Eagar (1823-1902) and Frances Margaret Holden (1831-1913) were married 1855 in King County (Offaly). From 1862 to at least 1880 Francis was the governor of Limerick County Gaol, ... he was the governor of Naas Gaol. The couple retired to the West End, Kilkee, Co. Clare (west of Limerick in western Ireland). After the death of Francis McGillycuddy his wife Frances moved in with their daughter Jane and her husband Alister Macleod in Wicklow (we know on MACLEOD, Grace born ca 1862 in Scotland, married Alister Hy Macleod ca 1884, and she was in the 1911 census for Baltinglass Town, Baltinglass, County Wicklow, Ireland;
Wicklow, 45 km south of Dublin). ... In 1898 Margaretta Eagar was appointed nurse to the daughters of Tsar Nicholas II. She had been recommended to the family by Emily Loch
(Emily Loch, "...knew Alix, Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, the last Tsasrina of Russia, from her early years. Emily was associated with the family of Helena, Princess Christian, Queen Victoria's fifth child and was lady-in-waiting to Princess Christian from 1883 until the Princess death in 1923. During these years Emily kept a diary recording daily events... Emily Loch's friendship with the future Tsarina grew through visits to the Hesse family in Germany and when they visited their grandmother, Queen Victoria in England and Scotland. During the winter months of 1897 / 1898 Emily accompanied Princess Helena (Thora), Princess Christian's eldest daughter on a visit to Tsar Nicholas and the Tsarina in Russia. Her friendship with the Imperial Family is reflected in the many leters ... until early 1917..." - copyright by forum.alexanderpalace.org)
to the Tzarina Alexandra. ... She was responsible for the day to day lives of Olga (b. 1895), Tatiana (b. 1897), Maria (b. 1899) and Anastasia (b. 1901) ... It was noted by the Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna, the younger sister of Tsar Nicholas II that Margaretta had a great love of politics. ... Margaretta discussed the Dreyfus Affair with a friend. ... She exchanged letters with the grand duchesses for years after leaving Russia describing her work as a governess for other families...".
From 1905 to 1908 (1910?) Mr. Epps was the tutor. "...Janet Epps has already published her book including these documents or is in the process...".
Mr Epps was a Scottish 'English' tutor.
"...Charles Sydney Gibbes was employed to right the dreadful wrong of the imperial children speaking English with a Scottish accent observed by Edward VII. Mr Epps was possibly the culprit".
We know on John Epps (the first) who was born into a Calvinist family in Sevenoaks, Kent in 1805. George Napoleon Epps was his half-brother. In 1824 Epps moved to Edinburgh to study medicine to 1827. "...His activism brought him into contact with Joseph Hume, Lady Byron, George Wilson (president of the Anti-Corn Law League), Giuseppe Mazzini, Thomas Slingsby Duncombe, James Stansfeld, Lajos Kossuth, and Robert Owen", by Wikipedia.

Our tutor Epps had a Scottish degree, but no license. After graduating John Epps moved back to London. If John Epps was the illegitimate son of Sarah Eppps, could he have used the surname of Merikin / Merrikan etc for his marriage?
In 1880 John left England for Russia. John Bilby Merikin Epps died 29 July 1935. His wife in Russia was Lana of Russian origin, her first name may have been Svetlana. John Epps was an English tutor in 1910, who had left the Imperial children with a decidedly Scottish twang, by the Grand Duchess Olga, the daughter of Russia's last emperor, Tsar Nicholas Romanov II.
Janet Epps, an Australian descendant of John Epps, from Sydney, has been researching the family history; she had come across an article John Epps had written in an English publication in 1921 which included some pictures of the Romanovs. Mrs Epps' great-grandfather, William, had sent the documents to Maggs Bros for appraisal back in 1935, on advice from the Mitchell Library in Sydney. John Epps was the first cousin of great grandfather, William.

Emily Loch was Lady in Waiting to Princess Helena for 50 years; Princess Helena was Queen Victoria's daughter - Helena Augusta Victoria Princess Christian of Schleswig- Holstein b. 1846 died 1923.
Emily Loch was a personal friend of most of the European royalty. These are her diaries at court in Britain, Germany and a winter spent in St Petersburg: The Memoirs of Emily Loch, published by Librario Publishing Ltd.
Emily Loch d. 1932 or 1848 - 1931 / Emily Elizabeth Loch was daughter of George and Catharine Loch and she was sister of Anne, Alice Helen, Marion Clementina Mary, and Catherine Grace Loch.
Grandfather James Loch 1780 - 1855 was a Scottish estate commissioner and later a Member of Parliament. James Loch was an employee of George Granville Sutherland Leveson Gower 2nd Duke of Sutherland,
inf. at sueyounghistories.com;
George Loch's daughter Emily was Lady in Waiting to Queen Victoria's third daughter, copyright by Sue Young:
"Alice Loch (1840-1932) lived at The Cottage, Bishopsgate, close to the south eastern boundary of Windsor Great Park. The eldest of the five daughters of George Loch ... she studied painting in Paris in the 1860s and won an Honourable Mention for an unmounted fan leaf at the Fan Makers Exhibition in 1878. ... Between 1883 and 1923 Alice's sister, Emily (1848-1931), was Lady in Waiting to Queen Victoria's third daughter, Princess Christian, whose chief residence was Cumberland Lodge, Windsor Great Park, close to Bishopsgate. According to Princess Marie Louise (Princess Christian's daughter), during the troubled period of her marriage in the 1890s it was suggested that she should travel overseas. ... George Loch 1811 - 1887, was a British politician. He was elected as a Liberal Member of Parliament for Wick in 1868, resigning in 1872 by becoming Steward of the Manor of Northstead. ... George Loch was a participant in the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method in 1866. ... In 1866, the Treasury placed rooms at Adelphi Terrace at the disposal of John Winston Spencer Churchill the 7th Duke of Marlborough, who was the Chairman of the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method, based on the research done in Belgium by Edward Hamilton, with John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough overseeing the work of Edward Hamilton, George Lennox Moore, James Moore and Alfred Crosby Pope. ...
George Loch was a friend of Granville Leveson Gower 1st Earl Granville, and his brother James worked for George Granville Sutherland Leveson Gower 2nd Duke of Sutherland...".
Acc. to David R. Fisher at www.historyofparliamentonline.org:
"...Loch, James b. 7 May 1780, 1st son of George Loch of Drylaw, Edinburgh and Mary, daughter of John Adam of Blair Adam, Kinross; brother of John Loch; ... Edinburgh Univ. 1797; ... m. (1) 4 Jan. 1810, Ann (d. 28 Jan. 1842), da. of Patrick Orr of Bridgeton, Kincardine, ... married (2) 2 Dec. 1847, Elizabeth Mary, da. of John Pearson of Tettenhall Wood, Staffs., wid. of Maj. George Macartney Greville... Loch's ancestors migrated in the late fifteenth century from Gloucestershire to Edinburgh, where they prospered in the Baltic trade, became prominent in municipal affairs and acquired the Drylaw estate in 1641.
His grandfather James Loch (1698-1759) was a Jacobite sympathizer who donated Ł10,000 to the Stuart cause ... His father, ... much given to art and generally accomplished', married the sister of William Adam, a rising Scottish lawyer and Whig Member of Parliament, and followed his brother-in-law's advice by selling Drylaw ... Loch was raised, after his father's death, by his mother in the family's town house in Edinburgh, which he inherited on coming of age in 1801. He also spent much time with his uncle, an improving landlord, at Blair Adam.
At Edinburgh University, where he studied law, he was one of the intellectual circle dominated by Henry Brougham, Francis Horner and Francis Jeffrey, and as a member of the Speculative Society he espoused egalitarian and anti-Trinitarian views.
... contributor to the Edinburgh Review, but an article in July 1804 caused a temporary rift with Brougham, who considered its gratuitous attack on the East India Company's monopoly to be ill-advised, especially as Adam was counsel to the Company. Brougham also chided him for his raffish conduct in canvassing for Sir Francis Burdett at the Middlesex by-election that summer. ...
Early in 1808 Adam and Tierney recommended him to Grenville, now leader of the opposition,
... Loch was taken on in 1823 as estate manager by the 5th earl of Carlisle, and he subsequently became responsible for the Bridgwater, Dudley, Egerton and Keith estates. ... he shared, that ministers had no clear Irish policy and that the fate of Catholic relief would depend on the first division in the Commons. ... 1829. He was named to the select committee on Scottish entails... He divided with government on the Russian-Dutch loan ... At the general election of 1832 Loch was returned for what had now become Wick Burghs, and he sat until his defeat in 1852. He died in June 1855 and left his freehold property and London house in Albemarle Street to his eldest son, William Adam Loch...".
James Loch of Drylaw was father of Granville Gower; Clementina Maria Marion Nicholson, Btnss; Henry Brougham Loch, 1st Baron Loch; John Charles Loch; Thomas Coutts Loch; James Patrick Loch;
William Adam; George
and Anne Marjory Loch.

Explanations:

1. Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux b. 1778 d. 1868, a British statesman who became Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. "Brougham was born and grew up in Edinburgh, the eldest son of Henry Brougham, of Brougham Hall in Westmorland, and Eleanora, daughter of Reverend James Syme. ... As a young lawyer in Scotland Brougham helped to found the Edinburgh Review in 1802 and contributed many articles to it..." at Wikipedia.

2. Francis Jeffrey Lord Jeffrey b. 1773 d. 1850, a Scottish judge, born in Edinburgh, the son of a clerk in the Court of Session; studied at the University of Glasgow to 1789, a member of the Speculative Society - close to Sir Walter Scott, Lord Brougham, Francis Horner, the Marquess of Lansdowne, Lord Kinnaird.

3. Francis Horner: b. 1778 d. 1817 was a Scottish Whig politician. He was born in Edinburgh and studied at its university; a member of the Speculative Society.

4. John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough b. 1822, Earl of Sunderland from 1822 to 1840 and Marquess of Blandford from 1840 to 1857, was a British statesman; born at Garboldisham Hall, son of George Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of Marlborough and Jane Stewart, daughter of Admiral George Stewart, 8th Earl of Galloway. He held office under Disraeli as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1876 to 1880; married to Frances Anne Emily Vane daughter of the 3rd Marquess of Londonderry.

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill b. 1874 d. 1965 was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. Above Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill b. 1849, was father of Sir Winston Churchill and John Strange Spencer-Churchill. Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill was the third son of above mentioned the 7th Duke of Marlborough, and his wife, Lady Frances Vane.

5. Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville b. 1773, as Lord Granville Leveson-Gower from 1786 to 1815, as Viscount Granville from 1815 to 1833, and as Earl Granville from 1833; Granville served as British ambassador to Russia 1804 - 1805 and 1806 - 1807, and France 1824 - 1828, 1830 - 1841; his sons: Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, a politician; Hon. Frederick Leveson-Gower was also a politician.

But Bob Atchison wrote (© Copyright 2011):

"...Pierre Gilliard - Thirteen Years at the Russian Court ...
GILLIARD NOTE:
Ludendorff exaggerates the role of the Entente in the Russian Revolution when he writes:
'In March, 1917, a Revolution, the work of the Entente, overthrew the Tsar'.
The movement was supported by the Entente, but it was not their work.
Ludendorff shows well enough what were its immediate results for Germany. "The Revolution meant a fatal loss of military power to Russia, weakened the Entente and gave us considerable relief in our heavy task. The General Staff could at once effect important economies of troops and ammunition, and could also exchange divisions on a much greater scale."
And further on: "In April and May, 1917, it was the Russian Revolution which saved us in spite of our victory on the Aisne and in Champagne"
(Ludendorff, My War Memories, vol. II).
The Imperial train left Mohilev on the night of the 12th (March 1917), but on arriving at the station of Malaya- Vichera twenty-four hours later it was ascertained that the station of Tosno, thirty miles south of Petrograd, was in the hands of the insurgents, and that it was impossible to get to Tsarskoe - Selo. There was nothing for it but to turn back.
The Tsar decided to go to Pskov to General Russky, the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Front. He arrived there on the evening of the 14th. When the General had told him the latest developments in Petrograd the Tsar instructed him to inform M. Rodzianko by telephone that he was ready to make every concession if the Duma thought that it would tranquillize the nation. The reply came: "It is too late."
To finish her work of destruction, Germany had only to give Lenin and his disciples a plentiful supply of money and let them loose on Russia.
Lenin and his friends never dreamed of talking to the peasants about a democratic republic or a constituent assembly. They knew it would have been waste of breath. As up-to-date prophets, they came to preach the holy war and to try and draw these untutored millions by the attraction of a creed in which the finest teaching of Christ goes hand in hand with the worst sophisms ...
BOB ATCHISON NOTE:
In the previous paragraph Pierre Gilliard suggests that the Jews were responsible for the revolution.
Here he presents (Anti-Semitism) anti-semetic opinions that were widely held at the time.
While many Jews, who as a group had been disenfrancised from the Russian Empire, were active supporters of the Revolution,
those who became Bolsheviks were agnostics or non-believers who most often found themselves oppressors of their own people, religion and culture...".

This structure had a military - intelligence - political nature. This structure created for decades the leading politicians, and drove to the spectacular political internationally events. The mystery of the complicated machines - several octopuses - caused the birth of conspiracy theories, such theories and journalism as Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894.

For a 100 years such theories indicate specified states, as well as some nations or particular politicians, as drivers of the intelligence structure - this situation lasts from 1916 to today, 2014.

The answer to the above question at the moment is gone.

In the history of Tsarist Russia, it is difficult to find a detail, because there is difficult to get to archives of a special services and political institutions.

Below I quote the text of the book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' by Carroll Quigley ed. in 1981 (copyright by The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden. 1981, New York: Books in Focus, 354 pages, ISBN 0-916728-50-1; reprinted by Rancho Palos Verdes: GSG & Associates, date unknown, ISBN 0-945001-01-0). The author of this book reveals details of secret intelligence and political structures of the United Kingdom and the USA in the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the twentieth century.

These data obviously yet not suggest who or what was the driving force of the intelligence network and the military-political structures, which in details is discussed on this web site, and broadening data on the site designated as part two. Both of these parties were formed in the second half of 2014. So Carroll Quigley wrote in 1981:

"... in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole.
For these men were organizing a secret society that was, for more than fifty years, to be one of the most important forces in the formulation and execution of British imperial and foreign policy. ... The leader was Cecil Rhodes, fabulously wealthy empire-builder ... The second was William T. Stead, the most famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day. The third was Reginald Baliol Brett, later known as Lord Esher, friend and confidant of Queen Victoria, and later to be the most influential adviser of King Edward VII and King George V. ... the three drew up a plan of organization for their secret society and a list of original members. The plan of organization provided for an inner circle, to be known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers. Within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be exercised by the leader, and a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was to be Rhodes, and the junta was to be Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner.
In accordance with this decision, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner was added to the society by Stead ...
Rhodes had been planning for this event for more than seventeen years (around 1873).
Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890.
... in modified form, it exists to this day.
From 1891 to 1902, it was known to only a score of persons. During this period, Rhodes was leader, and Stead was the most influential member. From 1902 to 1925, Milner was leader, while Philip Kerr (Lord Lothian) and Lionel Curtis were probably the most important members. From 1925 to 1940, Kerr was leader, and since his death in 1940 this role has probably been played by Robert Henry Brand (now Lord Brand).
During this period of almost sixty years, this society has been called by various names. During the first decade or so it was called 'the secret society of Cecil Rhodes' or 'the dream of Cecil Rhodes'. In the second and third decades of its existence it was known as 'Milner's Kindergarten' (1901 - 1910) and as 'the Round Table Group' (1910 - 1920). Since 1920 it ... has been called 'The Times crowd', 'the Rhodes crowd', the 'Chatham House crowd', 'All Souls group', and the 'Cliveden set'. ...
The Milner Kindergarten and the Round Table Group, for example, were two different names for The Association of Helpers and were thus only part of the society, since the real center of the organization, The Society of the Elect, continued to exist and recruited new members from the outer circle as seemed necessary. Since 1920, this Group has been increasingly dominated by the associates of Viscount Astor. In the 1930s, the misnamed 'Cliveden set' was close to the center of the society, but it would be entirely unfair to believe that the connotations of superficiality and conspiracy popularly associated with the expression 'Cliveden set' are a just description of the Milner Group as a whole.
In fact, Viscount Astor was, relatively speaking, a late addition to the society, and the society should rather be pictured as utilizing the Astor money to further their own ideals rather than as being used for any purpose by the master of Cliveden...".

Above mentioned Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894, d. 1955, was a British Army officer who later went into politics as a Scottish Unionist Member of Parliament. Ramsay was from a Scottish aristocratic family, a descendant of the Earls of Dalhousie
(Dalhousie Castle near by Edinburgh - 16 km south-east, and Glenmark in the County of Forfar - Angus was historically a county, known officially as Forfarshire, borders Aberdeenshire, Dundee, Perth and Kinross);
in 1913 he served in France for two years, then at the War Office in London; married on 30 April 1917 Lady Ninian Crichton-Stuart, nee Ismay Preston, daughter of Viscount Gormanston; served at the British War Mission in Paris to 1920; the 1920s was a company director,
near Arbroath (25 km ENE of Dundee), and Angus (area borders Dundee and Perth);
in 1936 he pointed to links between Spanish Republicans and the Soviet Union. Ramsay and Tyler Kent, a cypher clerk at the Embassy of the United States in London, were members of the Right Club but they were arrested - Ramsay was arrested under Regulation 18B on 23 May 1940. "The New York Times" published an article on "Britain's Fifth Column" in July 1940 which claimed Ramsay had sent to the German Legation in Dublin treasonable information given to him by Tyler Kent; in 1952 Ramsay wrote "The Nameless War" as an autobiography, theory re-interpreting the whole of modern history.

Above named the Earls of Dalhousie:

George Ramsay (d. 1705), younger son of the second Earl, served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Scotland in 1702. William Ramsay was created Baron Panmure in 1831;
John Ramsay (1775 - 1842), a Lieutenant-General of the General Staff of India. John Ramsay b. 1775 in
Cockpen, Midlothian, Scotland that is Cockpen and Carrington Parish, ca 15 km south-east of Edinburgh
- d. 1842. Son of George Ramsay, 8th Earl of Dalhousie
- 16 km south-east of Edinburgh -
and married in
Edinburgh in 1800 to Mary, daughter of Philip Delisle of Calcutta, India.
John Ramsay was maj.-gen. 1830; lt.-gen. 1841. Ramsay in 1793 served in Holland, then was stationed in Ireland in 1798, and proceeded to Egypt, 1801;
John Ramsay of Ochtertyre - 32 km west of Perth, Scotland - met him in 1801.
He was put up for Aberdeen Burghs in 1806 by his brother William Maule. He was Commander-in-Chief of the 79th Highlanders, Military Secretary to the Governor-General of Canada, 1819 and 1828.
He was Military Secretary to the Viceroy of India, the 9th Earl of Dalhousie between 1829 and 1832. He gained the rank of Lieutenant-General in the service (1833 ? to 1842 ?) of the General Staff, India - 1841.
Children of Lt.-Gen. John Ramsay and Mary Delise:
1. William Ramsay (1804–1871), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
2. Admiral George Ramsay, (the twelfth Earl, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1886; his eldest son, the fourteenth Earl, was succeeded by his eldest son, the fifteenth Earl - a Deputy Lieutenant of Angus),
3. James Ramsay (1808–1868), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
4. Lt.-Col. John Ramsay, 5. Anne Finlay Anderson,
6. General Sir Henry Ramsay (1816–1893), a General in the Bengal Army, whose grandson was mentioned above politician Archibald Maule Ramsay;
7. Lt.-Col. Robert Anderson Ramsay.

See in Bengal: Latour and
Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of
Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.

Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. It used French families located in Switzerland, Ceylon, France, Russia. Scottish and Irish families combined to Naples and Marseille, Ceylon, Odessa and Japan; Russians, English and Pilsudski entered by Japan to Ceylon; parallel from Odessa the Zionist movement came out founding a base of the state of Israel. Odessa has paired their to Berezino, Ireland - Japan - Ceylon.

And the whole system took over the movement of Germans from Estonia, and underground combat movement of Pilsudski, combining the objectives of the independence of these two states: Poland / Lithuania / Belarus + Estonia / Latvia, and as I wrote above Israel. Then they created a counterintelligence and intelligence of new Bolshevik Russia and the USSR. It already was a masterpiece, but totally wrecked by Stalin in 1937 - have to say that in this case, Stalin was a genius.

At the end part of that intelligence system of Soviet Union took over the colony by building its so-called People's Polish Republic and the Ministry of Defence, through affinitized of the Konstantynowiczs: the Jaroszewicz, Spychalski, Zarako Zarakowski families and friendly Swierczewski family. Interesting in all of this is the use of Frenchmen to the creation of this system, most moved on the Konstantynowiczs - not so completely. This is the connection: Waclaw Sieroszewski a colleague of Azbelev, who was in Nagasaki - his brother is a director of the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz; so, the Nobel family with Sydney Reilly, an Irishman and a Jew from Odessa - this is the same family of Nobel, where the brother of above-mentioned was the head of the board of the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - this is short way to the Swedish Enigma! Waclaw Sieroszewski of course was mate to a brother of Jozef Pilsudski - Bronislaw, which of course anchored in Nagasaki, and then here sailed Reilly. One very interesting figure - erased from history: Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski from the Mscislaw district.

It's amazing that the October Revolution in 1917, which swept the Russian Empire, allowing the reconstruction of Poland, broke out just on the anniversary of the death of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, exactly the 100th anniversary of his death, and around Lenin appeared figures of the Polish nobility, which adopted a sense of the Kosciuszko Polish patriotism.
"Instead, after the fall of Napoleon's empire in 1815 he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I in Braunau. In return for his prospective services, Kosciuszko demanded social reforms and territorial gains for Poland, which he wished to reach as far as the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east".

On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.
Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.

The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities. This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland.

Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state.

Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed. Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.

Józef Piłsudski, Walery Sławek, Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz were 'collaborators' of military intelligence service of Austria - Hungary, with nickname "Stefan" since 1908; co-operated Aleksander Prystor, Gen. Bolesław Roja, Józef Beck, Gen. Edward Rydz- Śmigły, and Gen. Kordian Zamorski. Pilsudski in 1904 collaborated with Japan intelligence; Captain Joseph Rybak took care on Pilsudski, placing a group of agents in paramilitary organizations in Galicia, described as "The Informer R". Jozef Pilsudski was dismissed from the Austrian army in September 1916. Brigadier General Wlodzimierz Zagorski was born in 1882 in France. He grew up with his brother in Germany. In 1900 joined the Austrian army. Eleven years later, he began to work for "K-Stelle", 1914, as a captain, he was Chief of Staff Headquarters of the Legions. Formally, was the head of Jozef Pilsudski, who gave him the reports. Cooperation was not the best. When the Japanese-Russian war broke in 1904, Pilsudski decided to use the conflict for the Polish cause, get technical and material help for Polish irredentist aspirations. Japanese will give us the money to buy weapons and facilitate its reception in Hamburg, and we will collect them messages about the movements of the Russian troops sent to the East. These relations were surrounded by the biggest mystery. Only Pilsudski, Jodko, Filipowicz and Stanislaw Wojciechowski knew of them over one and a half year (April 1904 - October 1905).

Pilsudski had its plans to create in Galicia conditions for the military training of volunteers in the event of war between the aggressors and would create Polish troops fighting against Russia and would become the reborn Polish Army personnel.

In 1908 in Lviv, Cpt. Gustav Iszkowski teamed up with the Pilsudski movement. Probably by the end of 1908 Pilsudski spoke with the chief of the Intelligence Census Bureau, Maximilian Ronge. Then probably come to an agreement to organize the grid intelligence and sabotage against Russia in exchange for allowing the activities of the independence movement. In March, 1909 representatives of the Census Bureaus conferring with Pilsudski, Jodko and Slawek in Vienna. The project is called intelligence operation Informer R, directed the same Ronge - hidden it even from his own intelligence apparatus. The management of the organization called The Informer R were Jozef Pilsudski, Valery Slawek responsible for ongoing contacts with the representative of the interview, Captain Joseph Rybak; and Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz. By the end of 1912 Pilsudski organization might only auxiliary information.

Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1864 in Słuck, d. 1924 in Warsaw, nickname A. Wroński, Jowisz, diplomat; his parents: Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1834 - d. 1898 (probably son of Onufry) and Maria Sokołow - Skwarcew b. ca 1842. His father was ophthalmologist. Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz member of the Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat since 1889, and Polish Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat / as II Proletariat, or Small Proletariat established in February 1888 and operated for March 1893. From January to July 1885 he studied medicine at the University of Dorpat / Tartu, Estonia; he came to Warsaw, then in September 1885 he went to Lviv, expelled from Austria, 1886, he studied in Würzburg, and then in Paris, graduated in 1889; London next; collaborator of the Centralization Social-Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat. In 1892 co-founder of the Polish Socialist Party.
Jodko-Narkiewicz counted on the war between the aggressors and on ​​an armed uprising against Russia.
Above
Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, born on 23 Dec. 1834 in Puków in the Ihumen district,
died 1898 - Bobownia; Onufry Jodko - Narkiewicz was living in Pukow. Pukau / Pukowo / Pukow, at present: Komsomolskaja, a few km west of Sunaje and Kisiele;
north-west of Truchanowicze and Gresk, Anufrovichi and Anufri, north of Kondratowicze; south-west of Marina Gorka. In 1870, to the Минская губерния, the Игуменский уезд, in the Пуковская волость; Pukowo / Пуков is situated south-east of Tatury / now Charitonowka, and Kutschinka, east of Starica, Sloboda, Dumitshi; north-east of Kopyl. North of Sluck.
Janina Wiktoria Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1869
in Warsaw / Warszawa, was daughter of Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz from Puków.
The Polish well-off proprietors in the Ihumen (Cerven) district in the second half of 19th cent. was the Jodko family in landed properties Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo and Onufrowo / Anufri.
Gardening in estates of the Ihumen district: Kuchcice, Tolkaczewicze, Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo, Cieplen, Smilowicze and Rawanicze.
In Pukow is a church, in the 16th cent. to the Puk / Пук family; 17th cent. to Olelkovich / Олельковичь and Radzivill / Радзивилл family; at the beginning of the 18th century to the Neuburg / Нойбург family from German taken from Boguslaw Radziwill / Богуслав Радзивилл, because his daughter Людвика Каролина / Ludwika Karolina Radziwill married to Karl Filipp Neuburg / Karl III Philipp von der Pfalz / Carl Philipp, b. 1661 in Neuburg; that is he married on August 10, 1688 in Berlin to Princess
Ludwika Karolina Charlotte Radziwill of Birze, daughter of Bogusław Radziwill, from this marriage four children were born: Leopoldine Eleonore Josephine, Maria Anna, Elisabeth Auguste Sophie m. Joseph Karl von Pfalz-Sulzbach.
At Пуково / Pukowo in 1731 wielded the earth Franciszek Drucki-Lubecki / Франтишек Друцкий- Любецкий. In 1744 again to the Radziwill family, but at the beginning of the 19th cent. Dominik Radziwill / Доминик Радзивилл lost Pukowo, now Pukowo and Bobownia to the Narkiewicz - Jodko / Наркевич-Иодко;
in 1846 to Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz / Томаш Наркевич-Иодко, Catholic. 1857 new church; close to Пуково (now Komsomolskaja) is Кондратовичи and here in 1862 was the second church;
Ksawery / Ксаверий was son of above named Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, and he bought from Wojnillowicz / Войниллович the Lopuchi estate / Лопухи, 3 km of Pukowo / Пуково; a father of Edward Wojnillowicz / Эдвард Войниллович - Adam was proprietor of above Lopuchi.
Estate of "Оттоново" to Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Онуфри Наркевич-Иодко;
Jakub Jodko-Narkiewicz / Якуб Наркевич-Иодко has the Nadnieman / Наднеман estate;
Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Наркевич- Иодко has son Otton Jodko-Narkiewicz, in 1840 owner of 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm of Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina 1848.

Jodko-Narkiewicz owner of the 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina in 1848. Наднёман was property of

Jakob Jodko - Narkiewicz son of Otton Jodko - Narkiewicz, biologist, meteorologist, physicist and electrician, lived 1848–1905;

next owner Konrad Jodko - Narkiewicz, son of Jakob, in 1921 moved to Cracow;

next of kin Kristian Narkiewicz - Lein is living now in Chicago.

Наднёман is located north of Kopyl, near by Piasocznaje, south-west-south of Uzda, and north-west of Pukowo. Ханичево / Атонава / Калінаўка or Оттоново / Ханічава is located north-west of Pukowo, south of above Наднёман, near by Piasocznaje.

Above mentioned Jodko-Narkiewicz in Pukowo ca 80 km west of Osipovichi and north of Sluck. See near by:

1. Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666;

2. Michal Zbieranowski born Berezino in 1882 son of Jozef Zbieranowski and his wife Zofia nee Witkowski, after Bobrujsk, Sluck and Riga / Ryga 1899 - 1904;

3. Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Sluck! His mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749; grandfather: Florian Stanislaw Bulhak.

Aldona Kojałłowicz Bułhak nee Dzierżyńska, 1870 - 1966, had son Antoni Bułhak b. 1898.
His wife Wanda Bułhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and
Maria Juchniewicz nee Piłsudska, b. 1873.
She was daughter of Józef Wincenty Piotr Piłsudski, b. 1833; and her brother was Józef Klemens Piłsudski b. 1867.
The second son of above Aldona: Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895.
Sister of above Aldona: Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska / Hedwig / Jadwiga Kuszelewski (1871 - 1949) + Konstanty Kuszelewski - Prawdzic (1857 - 1922). Her son: Jerzy Kuszelewski, 1895-1939.
Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895, his brother Antoni Bułhak born 1898;
Antoni Bulhak died after 1970, was one of the aides of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski and husband of Wanda Kadenacy, niece Marshal (mistake!?).
After the invasion of the Germans in Poland in September 1939, he was taken from Warsaw to its assets in the Suwalki region:
Pilsudski wife - Alexandra / Aleksandra Szczerbinska and her daughters, her sister and their cousin Anna.
Jozef Klemens Pilsudski + Aleksandra Szczerbinska has daughter Jadwiga Jagoda Pilsudska married to Andrzej Jaraczewski
(Andrzej Jaraczewski / Andrzej Antoni Jaraczewski, nickname Andrew, b. 1916, d. 1992, a Polish Navy lieutenant, the Zaremba coat of arms. In 1944 he married Jadwiga Piłsudska, an Air Transport Auxiliary pilot and daughter of Marshal Józef Piłsudski.
They had a son, Christopher Joseph / Krzysztof Józef, and daughter, Jane Mary / Joanna Maria, who married Janusz Onyszkiewicz);
they had daughter Joanna Jaraczewska / Jane Mary / Joanna Maria, married to Janusz Onyszkiewicz / Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz born 1937.
Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów m. 1st to NN 1933-1967, and m. 2nd Joanna Jaraczewska b. 1950.
Zofia Kadenacy nee Piłsudski, b. 1865 was sister of Józef Klemens Piłsudski; her husband Bolesław Kadenacy (1845 - 1918), her daughter
Wanda Kadenacy + Antoni Bulhak, b. 1898 (mistake!?), the aide-de-camp of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski.
We need check this genealogy!
Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas and Aldona, the house Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898;
married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of
Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska.
The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.
So, we are thinking, Antoni Jerzy Bułhak / Antoni Bulhak, the aide-de-camp of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, had wife Wanda nee Juchniewicz.
Above mentioned Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów / Lviv; a Polish mathematician and politician. 2007 until 2009, he served as the Vice-President of the Foreign Affairs Committee in the European Parliament. Minister of Defence under Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka, and again from 1997 until 2000 under Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek. 1984 - 1986 member of the Warsaw University Senat; his parents:
Stanisław Onyszkiewicz and Franciszka Cencora b. ca 1910;
he was older child;
we know on Karol Mościcki + Maria with Franciszka vel Maria Mościcka + Onyszkiewicz with children: Jerzy Onyszkiewicz d. 1939 in Zamość and Maria Onyszkiewicz + Handzel.
Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów m. NN 1933-1967, and m. 2nd Joanna Jaraczewska b. 1950, with Danuta, Wanda, Witosława, Andrzej, and Stanisław Onyszkiewicz.
Above named Stanisław Onyszkiewicz, born 1910 and Franciszka Cencora had one child?
But Stanisław Onyszkiewicz, 1906 - March 1989, was born to Tomasz Onyszkiewicz and Katarzyna Mucha. Stanisław had one brother Kazimierz Onyszkiewicz. Stanisław married Franciszka Cencora in 1936, at age 30. He had 2 children: daughter married to Bogobowicz.
We know on Tadeusz Stanisław Onyszkiewicz b. 28 Apr. 1906 in Lwow, d. 21 Nov. 1989 in Zamośc, doctor, son of Stanisław Onyszkiewicz and Agata Keller. 1946 in Zamośc. He had older brother Edwarda and sister Jadwiga, He had children: Tomasz (Lublin then) and Jerzy (Warsaw then) b. 1940, and Andrzej b. 1941.

4. Zofia Bulhak daughter of Hipolit Bulhak / Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесницы / Колесничи of the Копыльски р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937.

5. The Konstantynowicz family: Вязовница that is Wiazownica / Viazovnica, west of Swislocz (see Szostak family), north - east of Osipovichi; west of Berezyna river; south-east of Grodzianka (see Marian vel Jerzy Konstantynowicz); and Фортуны - here lived (also Чайковский Петр Николаевич, Чайковская Раиса Петровна / Raisa Czajkowska and the Томкович / Tomkowicz family) parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz (grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich): Константинови ч Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county.

6. The Bulhak family: Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk.

7. 1867-1913 I. Bulhak (?) or Bulgak purchased (1861) from Lipovskii, villages Kamionka or Matseevich; Насыцк near by Talka, south-east of Marina Gorka, north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze, near by Kamienka / Kamionki. And above Камионки or Kamienka close to Talka, north-west of Osipovichi.

8. Hieronim Bulhak son of Stanislaw Bulhak / Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and ca 26 km west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937.

9. Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи - 15 km west of Bobruisk; south-east of Osipovichi (I check my mistake), close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo; killed 1933.

10. Bulhak family in 1870 in the Minsk government, Sluck district, the Lanska area - Kosmowicze; Kosmowicze / Kosmowiczi - close to Pukielevshcina, Bychovshcina, Tshanovici, north of Kleck, south of Niezviz / Nieswiez, near by Osmolowo, Lan, Leonowiczi.

11. Konstantynowicz, Wiesielowo / Veselovo village in the Osipovichi district, Mogilev region;

12. Konstantynowicz in 1894, Spustik village, the Igumen County; Byelorussian, individual farmer, lived in the Osipovichi district, Yasenovka / Jasieniowka;

13. Szymon Bułhak b. ca 1660 / 1680?; 1686 Nowogrodek, owner of Ostrówka close to Mir, Janowszczyzna near by Iwieniec, Nowodwórek, Osipowszczyzna, Nacz, Puszcza Moszukowska, Domatkanowicze close to Kleck, Połoneczka by Dzwieja. Mikołaj Bułhak b. circa 1670 / 1695?, son of Benedykt Bułhak and Eufemia, husband of Katarzyna and Marianna, father of Florian Stanisław Bułhak ca 1695 - 1745?

14. Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski
(of Bulhak in 1867-1913); the estate Bluza (Bluza close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family)
from hands of Sophia Prosor / Zofia Prozor - Swietorzecka / Sventorzhetski, owned in those places.

The Prozor family was near by to Malkiewicz - Horodecka Izabela.



My research concerns many state intelligence networks created in the first half of the 18th century.

Initially it was a global political network of the Russian intelligence infiltrated by the British [1791], French [from the 40s of the 18th century] and Germans [1769/1776], and by the Polish independence conspiracy [was established 1792/1799] starting from a years 1870/1878.

Compare three dates:
1.
6 km to the south of the BRZEZIE was the palace in Wieniec founded in the early nineteenth century by the family of Miaczynski; in 1868 the property bought a Warsaw banker of Jewish origin and a great Polish patriot - Leopold Kronenberg.

2.
1870, Brown of London - takes over the Breguet company [below];

3.
and the letter of 1871 from Albert Pike to Mazzini.

Breguet cooperated also with Chambrier, V. Foy, the French government (dial telegraph in 1845), the Telegraph Company in 1863 (electric telegraph - Breguet System, late 19th century), in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s with Wood, Edward George b. in Clerkenwell, Islington, January 1812, d. 1896 from Cheapside, City of London, who was friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist (galvanic telegraph, Crossley's Telegraph in Halifax), d'Arlincourt (transmitter); Breguet patented a Telegraph Communicator - Breguet Alphabetical Type, circa 1870; manufactured the telephone transmitter (Boudet, Laborde, Breguet, Ader, Du Moncel, and others) and telephone receivers (Bell, Breguet, and others).

In 1877 telephones appears in Russia but in the Russian army experiments on telephone made in 1878.

L. Dyuflon and Dizeren in St. Petersburg established the Electrotechnical workshop on 1892, June 27. On 1896, December 14, L. Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and A. V. Konstantinovich [Apollon Konstantynowicz son of Wasyl Konstantynowicz] in St. Petersburg established The Factory of electromechanical structures when Tesla received a British patent on the design of the spark gap - rotating strap. 1898, K. F. Siemens, W. Siemens, A. V. Gvineria and A. Y. Rothstein in St. Petersburg established the Russian joint stock company of electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske'. 1899 were starting experiments on radio in Russian War Department. 1902 (1901), the Plant of electromechanical structures reorganized into a joint stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co', DECA.

Albert Pike [Albert Pike b. 1809, died 1891, was an attorney, soldier, writer, and Freemason, elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction in 1859, of thirty-two years] described in a letter wrote to Mazzini [Giuseppe Mazzini, 1805 - 1872, an Italian politician, journalist; "William R. Denslow lists Mazzini as a Mason, and even a Past Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy"], dated August 15, 1871, plans for three world wars necessary to bring the One World Order, and it is a "commonly believed fallacy that for a short time, the Pike letter to Mazzini was on display in the British Museum Library in London, and it was copied by William Guy Carr...".

It was the plan known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers, and within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was Rhodes with Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner who was added to the society by Stead.

Rhodes had been planning this event for more than seventeen years (before 1872).

See: the letter of Pike to Mazzini in 1871, and Edward Brown - Breguet Company in 1870.

Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. In modified form, it exists to this day.

Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) and Polish officers:

Army commandant in 1877:

Nikolaj Nikolajevic senior, Romanov; that is Mikolaj Mikolajewicz Romanow, b. 1831, d. 1891; Grand Duke, General Adjutant - 1856, General Field Marshal - 1878. Third son of Tsar Nicholas I and Tsarina Aleksandra Fedorovna, born as Charlotte / Charlotta Princess of Prussia. His older brothers were Tsar Alexander II and Grand Duke of Russia, Konstanty Mikolajewicz.

"... The Knights of the Order of the Garter are the leaders of the Illuminati hierarchy ...

[Queen Victoria, Alexandrina Victoria b. 1819 was daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent

(son of George III {his father Frederick, Prince of Wales and mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha} + Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1744 - 1818 {her father Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow, and mother Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen})

and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1786 - 1861

(1803 at Coburg, she married 1st to Charles, Prince of Leiningen; 2nd to Prince Edward, Duke of Kent {the TEMPLARS} and Strathearn, in 1818 at Amorbach. Victoria's father was Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and mother Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf daughter of Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg)]

... [mentioned above] Charlotte was the grandmother of Queen Victoria {Maltese Orders}, and whose son married the daughter of Frederick III of Hessen-Kassell {Frederick III of Hessen-Kassel / Friedrich III von Hessen- Kassel, born in 1747, the father of Auguste Wilhelmine Luise von Hessen-Kassel b. 1797 married Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the son, of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg- Strelitz}.

Charlotte's brother was Charles II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whose daughter married the heir of the Prussian crown, Frederick William III.

Frederick II of Prussia was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, who married Louise of Brunswick- Wolfenbuettel.
She was the sister of Frederick Duke of Brunswick, the Grand Master of the Strict Templar Observance, and who had convened the great Masonic convention at Wilhelmsbad in Hessen-Kassel.

Frederick Wilhelm II of Prussia was the father of Frederick William III, who became a member of the Order of the Garter.

Of Frederick William III and Louise' four children, three married the brothers and sisters of Csar Alexander I. Frederick William III's daughter, Charlotte of Prussia, married Paul's son, Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander I, and who also belonged to the Order of the Garter.
Frederick's son Wilhelm I married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the daughter of Nicholas' sister Maria Romanov.

A third child of Frederick, Friedrich Karl Alexander of Prussia, married Maria's Romanov other daughter, Marie Luisa Alexandrina von Saxe-Weimar.

The son of Csar Nicholas, Constantine Nicholaievitch Romanov, Grand Duke of Russia, fathered Olga Constantinovna Romanov, who married George I King of Greece. George was a member of the Order of the Garter, as was his father, Christian IX of Denmark. ...".

Mikolaj Mikolajewicz married his cousin Aleksandra Oldenburg

[see Oldenburg in St Petersburg and the Duflon & Konstantynowicz Company. She was the daughter of Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich Oldenburg (1812-1881).
Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg, 1812-1881, m. Therese Wilhelmine Friederike Isabella Charlotte von Nassau, 1815-1871, with children:
1. Alexandra Friederike Wilhelmine von Oldenburg, m. Nikolaj Nikolajewitsch of Russia, 1831-1891

[Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia / Nicholas Nicolaievich the Elder, 1831 - 1891, was the third son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Alexandra Feodorovna. Field Marshal and the commander of the Russian army of the Danube in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878]
with son: Peter Nikolajewitsch, 1864-1931;

2. Alexander Friedrich Konstantin von Oldenburg, 1844-1932, with son Peter Friedrich Georg von Oldenburg, 1868- 1924;

3.
Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg, 1850-1906 m. in 1882, Agrippina Djaparidse / Agrippina JAPARIDZE, 1855-1926,
with daughter Alexandra von Oldenburg, Gräfin von Zarnekau, 1883-1957.
The JAPARIDZES - see Armand - PASZKOWSKI - DEMONSI home in Moscow and Konstantynowicz line of Moscow- Swolna-Miezonka-Lida.

Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich von Holstein-Gottorp of Oldenburg was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I.
Above
Konstantin Friedrich Peter Oldenburg or Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg began a flirtation with Agrippina; Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel 'Daniel' Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command; Dadiani were a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty;

Agrippina was Tariel Dadiani's second wife but Agrippina in 1882 divorced Dadiani. 1882, Constantine entered into a morganatic marriage with Agrippina Japaridze; by the early 1890s, they were doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).
See the Armands and Konstantynowiczs in Moscow and Alexandrovsk.
Prince Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani, b. 1842, m. first to Princess Sopio Dadiani b. 1838 daughter of Prince Levanti Shervashidze of the Guria. On June 28, 1882, Agrippina divorced Dadiani.
His father:
Prince Aleksandri Manuchari Dadiani.
And his grandfather:
Major-General H. E. Prince Nichola Giorgi Dadiani / Nikolai Georgievitch Dadianov / Bolshoi Niko, Lord of Kurdzu, b. 1764 - Duke of Mingrelia, fourth son of Katsia II Dadiani, Duke of Mingrelia.

Prince Aleksandri Kviti Niko Dadiani, b. 1864, m. Princess Nino Dadiani (b. 1868), younger daughter of Prince Tarieli Taia Dadiani, by his second wife, Princess Agrafina Countess von Zarnekau, daughter of Prince Konstantini Japaridze.

Eugene's ARMAND of Moscow brother - Emil E. ARMAND was married to Zofia Hacker / Sophia nee Osipovna Hecke (Hakker, Hacker, Hekke) from Estonia.
They had six children:
LEW ARMAND / Leo (1880 - 1942) + Japaridze-Saparov [Saparova Tamara Arkadevna - Japaridze married 2nd to Leo Emilievich ARMAND.

Saparov Arkady (1854 - before 1921), was married to Varvara Maypariani with the daughter
Tamara Arkadevna SAPAROV married 1st to Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and
TAMARA SAPAROV - JAPARIDZE was 2nd married to Lev ARMAND / Lion Emilievich Armand (Inessa Armand relatives).

Ivan Iaparidze was the son of Constantine Japaridze / Constantin Japaridze (Ivan b. ca 1860; his father Konstantyn died in 1860 !) from the upper Racha region of Georgia. Ivan Japaridze b. ca 1860, had sister Agrippina, Countess von Zarnekau, b. 1855, nee Agrippina Constantines Japaridze, and Ivan Japaridze's parents were Constantine and Melania Japaridze; named father Constantine died 1860].

His {Mikolaj Mikolajewicz} brother was Michal Mikolajewicz Romanow b. 1832, d. December 1909; Grand Duke of Russia, field marshal, chairman of the Council of State (1881-1905). In 1862-1882 he was the general-governor of the Caucasus. He worked in Tbilisi.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France.
Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia [Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company], on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies.

Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) was the Freemason, and he called himself Philalethes.

Receiving education at home in Georgia, Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909; the funeral was in Russia; Field Marshal.
Mentioned
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska [see Trubecki, Konstantynowicz, Oginski and Wola Pszczolecka] but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Oginski by name and Romanov by gene.


The Rajewski family:

Or Rajewskij, Rajauskas with Nalecz and Radwan arms in Belarus as early as 1509, here in 1528 and after 1595, 1623, owned Kislowicze and Fenowszczyzna in 1663, Perany in 1664, Stajow from the Ipacewicz family and Jurkowszczyzna [near the Konstantynowiczs, at the Russian border with Belarus at present] since 1858 - together with Polubinski; their neighbours: Komorowski from Mazyki, Ipacewicz, Strzyzewski, Zloczewski c. 1664.

A.
Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski b. 1771, died in 1829, the Russian General; fought in 1812.
Nikolaj Rajewski came from the Polish nobility with the Swan / Labedz coat of arms.

His father Nikolaj Siemionowicz RAJEWSKI / MIKOLAJ RAJEWSKI shortly before the birth of his son took part in the Russian-Turkish War of 1768-1774. He married Yekaterina Samojlov / SAMOJLOV, nieces of prince Grigorij Potiomkin, and the sister of prince Alexander Samojlov. He died a few months before his son Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski was born.

His grandfather - Siemion Rajewski [= Szymon Rajewski / Simon] was the prosecutor.

In 1794 Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski married Zofia Konstantinow, the granddaughter of Michail Lomonosow. They had 2 sons and 4 daughters:
Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Rajewski, junior, 1801 - 1843;
Marija Nikolajewna Wolkonskaja / Marija Nikolajevna Volkonskaja, b. 1805/1806, died in 1863, m. Sergei Grigorjewitsch Wolkonski.

B.
Rajewski and the Polish Conspirators -
Ignacy ZAWISZA of Kowno,
Duke Konstanty Radziwill of Nowogrodek,
and Count Aleksander POCIEJ

[Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, married Idalia Pociej b. 1801 {Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839}, the daughter of named above Aleksander Michal Pociej.

Leonard Pociej 1727 - 1774 - who was son of Aleksander Pociej senior, and Teresa Brzostowska - was the brother of Anna Tyszkiewicz; Karolina Radziwill and Ludwik Pociej.

Leonard had son - Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846). Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was the husband of Anna Korzeniowska; he was the father of Teodor Pociej and named Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839 married Soltan.
Above Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was son of Maria Aleksandra Radziwill POCIEJ, b. 1753; his grandfather was Wojciech Albrycht Radziwill 1717-1762.

Aleksander Pociej senior, 1698 - 1770, was son of Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej. Above Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej 1666 - 1728, was son of Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina.
Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej was brother of Ludwik Konstanty Pociej.

Above Ludwik Konstanty Pociej b. 1664, d. 30 January 1730, in 1709 commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian army, his parents: Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina Oginska.
Ludwik Konstanty was father of Ludwika Marianna Pociej (b. ca 1715) who married to Franciszek Borzecki (ca 1693 - 1739)
with daughter
Justyna KALINOWSKA Borzecka (m. Ignacy Kalinowski born ca 1720 died 1782).
Her son was count Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.

Justyna nee Borzecka b. ca 1735 (1710 it's error).

Above named Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski was born 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760,
with children:
1. Jozef Kalinowski / Osip Kalinowski, the general of Polish Army, b. after 1780, died 1825 - his wife Emilia Potocka born 1790

{Marianna Elzbieta Uvarova nee Lubomirska, ca 1766 - d. 1810, was daughter of Kasper Lubomirski and Barbara Poninska; she was the wife of Protazy Antoni Potocki; Count Valerian Zubov, and Uvarov; she was the mother of above Emilia Kalinowska},

2. Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 and

3. Justyna Kalinowska married Russocka b. 1790 d. 1876.
Above Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 had son Wladyslaw Kalinowski.

Children of mentioned count Jozef Kalinowski:
1. Seweryna Kalinowska, b. 1814 d. 1852,
2. Jozefina Kalinowska married Oginska, born 1816 and died 1844;
3. Olga Kalinowska, born 1822, died 7 April 1899 in Retow;
4. M. Kalinowska (Maria Kalinowska Trubecka) married Troubetzkoy / Trubecki was sister of above Seweryna, Jozefina and Olga, but this data need to be check, of course (see the Konstantynowiczs in Estonia)!

Above countess Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to
Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki [compare MIELZYNSKI of PAWLOWICE and WOLSZTYN].

I wrote above that the grandfather of Olga, Jozefina and Seweryna {and Maria Trubecka} was Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.

The grandson of named above Seweryna Kalinowska was Mikolaj Plautin, b. 1868 who married to Maria Michajlowna Rajewska 1872 - 30 December 1942

[Nikolai Plautin / Mikolaj Plautin / Mikolai Sergeevich PLAUTIN, 1868-1918
{Nikolaj was the brother of Selina NEAME b. 1869 in Tsarskoe Selo, and she married George Neame from ENGLAND},
the son of SERGEY PLAUTIN, b. 1837, and Eleonora PRINGLE.
The grandson of NIKOLAJ PLAUTIN born in 1794, and SEWERYNA Kalinowska b. 1814,
the daughter of JOZEF Kalinowski].

Maria Rajewska PLAUTIN, died in ALGERIA in 1942, the daughter of Michail Nikolaevich Rajevskij, b. Feb. 1841 in KERCH, and Marija Grigorievna GAGARIN born 1851 in TBILISI.

Maria Rajewska b. 1872, had a brother Michail Michailovich Rajewskij, and a sister Anna Shipov

{Anna Rajewska SHIPOV, 1876 - 1967, married General Major Nikolai Nikolaevich SHIPOV born in February 1876 in Tsarskoe Selo.
They had 3 children:
Marija Nikolaevna SHIPOV married Hanut = Chanut, she was born in 1902, husband - Paul Chanut, 1885 - 1975 in United States. Marija Shipov Chanut had 2 brothers:
Nikolai Nikolaevich SHIPOV b. 1904, and
Michail Nikolaevich Shipov, b. 1908.

They were children of Nikolai Nikolaevich SHIPOV, junior, b. 1876 in TSARSKOE SIELO (died in Paris in 1958), and ANNA Rajewska / Anna Mikhaylovna Rajevskaja, 1876 - 1967.

Nikolai junior was the son of Nikolai Nikolaevich SHIPOV, senior, born in 1846 in St Petersburg, died in 1911 + Zofia LANSKA,
the daughter of Piotr LANSKI, b. 1799 in MOSCOW, the granddaughter of Piotr Lanski, senior, 1752-1805 + Izabella LEPARSKA

(named Nikolai Shipov, senior, b. 1846, was the son of
Nikolai Shipov, older, b. 1806 in Bielkovo, the son of PAVEL SHIPOV.
Colonel NIKOLAI SHIPOV b. 1806 was the owner of Александровское-Осташёво / OSTASCHEVO / Ostaszewo - see GENERAL ARTUR NIEPOKOJCZYCKI. Nikolai Shipov was the owner of Ostaschevo in 1854, in the Mozshajsk county, from hands of A. N. MURAVIEV - also BOTOVO in the Volokolamski county.
Nikolai married DARIA OKULOV in 1836.
They had also a son
FILIPP Shipov, 1848-1926, the owner of Ostashevo and the home in SIMBIRSK. Filipp divorced with Lidia Chomutov Shipov,
and moved to Niznij and then to Moscow)}.

General Artur A. Nepokojchitsky / Artur Niepokojczycki owned the estate Ostashevo [ca 1840 - 1854 or from hands of divorced SHIPOV ? - see below !]. Until 1861 it was called Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo; Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky was born in Slutsk [or in Niepokojczyce close to Zabianka and to Brzesc] in the family of Adam Niepokojczycki [von Unruh], the district leader of the nobility, on December 8, 1813, when the war with Napoleon rattled.

Maria Rajewska Plautin had 4 sons: Georgij Nikolaevich Plautin.

Maria's mother:
Marija Grigorievna nee Gagarin
had a sister Anastazja Grigorievna nee Gagarin b. 1853 died 1876 married to Piotr Michajlovich Orlov Denisov born 1852, who was the son of
Michail Vasilievich Orlov Denisov born 1823,
and named Michail ORLOV DENISOV was the brother of
Nadiezda Orlov Denisov married Katenin = Nadiezda KATENIN.

From the other hand we can look at the Orlov Denisov family from Vasily Orlov vel Orlov-Denisov, born 1775, count and his children:
1. Sophia Orlov Denisov b. 1817 and married to Vladimir Pietrovich Tolstoy, countess;
2. Mikhail Orlov-Denisov born 1823 with wife from the Chertkov family, graf;
3. Lyubov Orlova-Denisova / Orlov - Denisov married to Nikolai Trubetskoy, she b. 1828, d. 1860;
4. Fedor / Fiodor born 1802 or 1806 with wife from the Nikitin family;
5. Nadiezda / Nadjezda / Nadine Orlov-Denisov married to Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin, he born ? and died before 1868, Major-General, ataman Orenburg Cossacks.
His parents: father
Andrew / Andrej Katenin 'youngest' b. 1768 and d. 1835,
mother - Irina Lermontov.
His grandfather Fedor Katenin and his
great-grandfather Ivan Nikitich Katenin d. 4 December 1723.

Mother of above named Michail - Irina Lermontov b. 1771 d. 1818.

His brother Alexander A. Katenin, b. 1800 Kluseevo or Polovtsov in 1803 with wife Barbara I. Vadkovsky from Jan Wadkowski family.

Above Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin daughters:
1.
Sofia d. 1908 and married Martynov.
Sofia Katenin d. 1908 and married ca 1880 to Viktor Martynov b. 1858 d. 1915 - his father, Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich b. 1816
and his grandparents:
Solomon M. Martinov and Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya b. 1783.

Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich, 1815 / 1816 - 1875 / 1876, in 1841 killed Lermontov in a duel, his family related to Kolirovsky and Romeiko - Hurko (Polish); NIKOLAI's sister was Ekaterina Martynova Solomonovna married Rzewska (Polish) / Rzhevskij Michal.

2.
The second daughter Mary / Marija Michailovna Katenin b. ? and died 1903; married 1868 or 1869 to His Highness Prince Nikolaoz / Nikolai Ilyich Gruzinski / Nikolai Ilyich Bagration Gruzinskij of Georgia
(b. 1844, d. 1916, his father Elizbar / Ilija Bagration-Gruzinskij who was b. 1790 and died 1854, a son of Georgij XII Bagration - Kachietinskij who born 10 October 1746 and died 28 December 1800).

Grandfather of above Marija nee Rajewskaja was Mikolaj Mikolajevich Rajevskij Younger / RAJEWSKI MIKOLAJ from the Kiev government, Moscow and St Petersburg; b. 14 September 1801; and the second grandfather of above Maria nee Rajewska was Grigorij Grigorievich Gagarin b. 1810 d. 1893].

C.
In 1794 mentioned above Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski - senior - married Zofia Konstantinow, the granddaughter of Michail Lomonosow.
They had 2 sons and 4 daughters:
a. Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Rajewski, junior, 1801 - 1843
[Mikolaj Mikolajevich Rajevskij Younger / RAJEWSKI MIKOLAJ from the Kiev government, Moscow and St Petersburg; b. 14 September 1801];
b.
Marija Nikolajewna Wolkonskaja / Marija Nikolajevna Volkonskaja, b. 1805/1806, died in 1863, m. Sergei Grigorjewitsch Wolkonski.

D.
Bronislawa Rajewska married Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz.
Stanislaw was born in Poniec. Architekt. They had 5 children: Józefa Maria Helena Bieniaszek; Maryla Charaszkiewicz; and
Colonel Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz, b. 1895 in Poniec, d. 1975 in London.
Bronislawa died in 1942.

Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz was a Polish military intelligence officer. He was the son of Stanislaw Charaszkiewicz, a building contractor, and Bronislawa Rajewska. Edmund completed his elementary school in Poniec [Mielzynska], then attended secondary schools successively in Krotoszyn [Mielzynski], and Katowice.

E.
Note:
David Dadiani of the House of Dadiani, was Prince of Mingrelia, in western Georgia, from 1846. David was sent to Tiflis to be educated under the guidance of the Russian generals Vasili Bebutov and Georg Andreas von Rosen.

Baron Rosen's son-in-law, Colonel Prince Alexander Dadiani.

Lydia Grigorievna Dadianov = DADIANI (von Rosen) b. 1817, married Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien, b. 1800
[Lydia Dadiani was the mother of Praskovya A. nee Dadiani married to FERDINAND Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg. She was born 1846 or 1847 = Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian 1847-1919];

LYDIA von ROSEN DADIANI was the daughter of Gregor (Grigori Vladimirovitch) von Rosen 2-nd
and granddaughter of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen, b. 1742 in Reval
[baron Vladimir I. Rosen, born 1742, died 1792, married Olympia Raevskaya / Olimpia RAJEWSKA / Olimpiada Rajewska born ca 1746];
and great-granddaughter of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, born in 1717 in Linden.

Above Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien b. 1800, was the son of Leon A. Dadiani and
the grandson of
Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753 and Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd ] born 1753 died 1812.

The parents of above Alexander DADIANI:
Peter G. Dadiani / PIOTR DADIANI and Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja [1st] died March 19, 1780.

F.
Wrangell von Gyubental Vladimir Leonidovich, 1918 - 1939 in Paris, the Page Corps in 1909, Cornet Guards, a Cavalry Regiment, in exile in France.
And his brother [?]
Wrangell von Gyubental Matthew Leonidovich, 1888 - 1965 in Paris, the Page Corps in 1908, Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards, a Cavalry Regiment, in exile in France, the owner of the machine shop and factory, a member of the Main Board of the Union of Pages.
Wife Antonina Mihailovna Rajewski / Raevskaya - she died 1970 in France, Artist.

G.
Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin b. May 26 / 6 June 1799 in Moscow, Russian poet; his paternal grandfather, Leo / Lev A. Pushkin was artillery colonel;
father - Sergei L. Pushkin (1767-1848), a Pushkin's mother was a granddaughter of Hannibal.

Brother of the poet - Lew vel Lev born 1805 [note - KONSTANTYNOWICZ].

Nikolai Leontievich / Nicholas DUBBELT (1819-1874) was also Lieutenant-General (1864), commander 1852 - 1856 Belarusian Hussar Regiment.
Brother of Leonti Vasilievich DUBBELT -
Peter V. Dubbelt (born 1794 in Mogilev, Belarus now), the Adjutant in 1822-26 of General N. N. Rajewski

[Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski b. 1771, died in 1829, the Russian General; fought in 1812. Nikolaj Rajewski came from the Polish nobility with the Swan / Labedz coat of arms. His father
Nikolaj Siemionowicz RAJEWSKI / MIKOLAJ RAJEWSKI shortly before the birth of his son took part in the Russian-Turkish War of 1768-1774. He married Yekaterina Samojlov / SAMOJLOV, nieces of prince Grigorij Potiomkin, and the sister of prince Alexander Samojlov. He died a few months before his son Nikolaj Nikolajewicz Rajewski was born].

A cousin of Leonti Vasilievich - Ivan M. Dubbelt (born 1805, Riga), served in the Estonian Jaeger Regiment, took part in suppressing the Polish uprising of 1863-64. His son Evgenii / Eugene I. Dubbelt, served from 1861 in Tiflis / Tbilisi.

H.
B. J. Rossinski, M. G. Lerch, A. J. Rajewski / A. E. Raievsky (the first Polish to fly in a Bleriot monoplane was a young student, RAJEWSKI = Raievsky) and G. W. Jankowski / Yankovsky (when Sikorsky started to build machines of his own, Yankovsky became his pilot) - experimental pilots (the Polish were 33 % of Russian pilots in 1911, and besides Lew Maciewicz died in 1910.

I.
In the Mscislav province:
Kurko in Jurkowszczyzna village, close by estates of the families Hurko, dukes Polubinski and Rajewski in the 19th cent.

Hurko
in Jurkowszczyzna - 1330 ha. - near to Soino [see KONSTANTYNOWICZ], Russia now;
the Hurko house related to Dabrowski family of the Abdank coat of arms, branch from the Siauliai and Kaunas territories; relations: the Konstantynowiczs;
Korzeniewski Jerzy + Konstancja nee Jablonski from the Mscislau province were owners of the Jurkowszczyzna farm in 1766
(Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth / Grand Principality of Lithuania i.e. a federal monarchy-republic formed by the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania then, and Russia now; they verified themselves in Hrodna in 1835; related to Ulanowski family).



My research concerns many state intelligence networks created in the first half of the 18th century by Russia [and in 1937 by Soviet Union].
Let the example be an ominous figure of Jakob Johann von Sievers who has been active in the Russian intelligence since 1748.

His genealogy from Joachim Johann von Sievers, b. ca 1674 - d. 1753, SENIOR:
1.
His younger son Karl Eduard von Sievers, b. 1710 in Nybygard, Finnland, d. 1774 in St. Petersburg, the father of:
Elisabeth Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata [she was wife of Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808];
Johann Carl Sievers of Ropkoy b. Lais (Livl.) 1749 d. 1805 acc. to: Peter Trefilov;
Benedikte b. 1750;
Peter;
and Karl Gustaf Joachim of Waiwara b. 1758 in Petersburg.
2.
Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808,
the son of Joachim Johann von Sievers (b. 1699), JUNIOR;
the grandson of above Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753, SENIOR.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, the FREEMASON; Caunt in 1798, Extraordinary Ambassador to Poland. He was buried at the cementery in Wolmar in Livonia / Valmiera / Wolmar, is a town in northern Latvia, about 100 km north-east of Riga and 50 km from the border with Estonia. From 1749 to 1755 as a diplomat in London and Kopenhagen (links with the embassy of Prussia) in 1748

[in 1740 King Frederick II (Frederick the Great) came to the throne. In 1744 Frederick invaded Silesia again. He failed, but French pressure on Austria's ally Great Britain led to a series of treaties and compromises, culminating in the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that restored peace and left Prussia in possession of most of Silesia].

The Sievers family descended from Holstein.
The relative of Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers was Joachim Karl, born in Finland, a servant of Ernest Biron - the favorite of Empress Anna. In 1743, Karl took him to Saint Petersburg, then twelve-year-old boy.
He became a writer at the College of Foreign Affairs. The next level was reading the encrypted messages. Finally, in 1748 he was sent to the Russian diplomatic mission in Copenhagen. About ten months later, he was sent to London, where his uncle Karl had the friend - ambassador Piotr Czernyszew.
The stay in LONDON until 1755 was a real school for Sievers. He was a diplomat with the knowledge of foreign languages. During the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) he served Russian Army.
He took part in the siege of Kolobrzeg. In 1759-1760 he was the secretary of the Russian-Prussian commission appointed to exchange prisoners of war. He was promoted to general of the Guard. Catherine II appointed him governor of Novgorod in 1764, and in 1776 also Pskov and Tver, and thus the general-governor of these three provinces.
In 1767 he married his cousin Elzbieta Sievers Puciata, Lisinka, a childhood companion. As the administrator of the lands entrusted to him, he showed great energy. In May 1781 he wrote a request for resignation.
He moved back to Bauenhoff.
Platon Zubov send a letter of November 13, 1792 and he announced that the Empress's wish was to go to Poland as her extraordinary ambassador to the king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Aleksander Chrapowicki - Katarzyna's personal secretary - noted that Sievers' departure to Poland was being prepared by Zubow and Morkow, and Bezborodko.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, Count Jacob Sivers b. 1731, in Wesenberg / Rakvere, Estonia; died 1808, in Bauenhof, Governorate of Livonia, near WOLMAR = Valmiera; he was appointed general governor of Novgorod (1764-1776), Tver (1776 - 1781 as governor of Tver and Novgorod - Viceroy) and Pskov; son of Joachim Johann von Sievers, JUNIOR;
he was gifted with great possessions:
several villages near Minsk in Belarus
[Dec. 1792 in Grodno. He acted in Belarus in 1799-1803; the Minsk governorate was reorganized in 1795],
in Estonia (Heimar, Rasik and Kampen),
Livonia / LIVLAND (Bauenhof, Neuhall, Zarnau and Ostrominsky),
Ingria (Gadebusch, Lopatino, Selco / Seltso, and Muratovo),
the province of Polotsk (Kasian in 1781, and Dobra Rudnia),
in Finland (Sackala).

In Poland SIEVERS was in the company of
the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski,
King's sister,
Lady Zaluska,
Css Mniszech;
Bishop Michal Jerzy Poniatowski,
Lady Radziwill,
Count UNRUH / Aleksander Unrug, of the Great Poland
[director of the royal mint, previously in the army of Saxony and friend of Igelstrom, Stackelberg and Madalinski; Stanislaw August brought him to Warsaw as the leadership of the mint. He was jailed in Warsaw on 18 May 1794];
Kazimierz Poniatowski;
Lady Tyszkiewicz
[Maria Teresa Tyszkiewicz (1760 - 1834) - the sister of Duke Józef Poniatowski;
Maria Teresa Antonina Józefina Poniatowski married Tyszkiewicz, born in Austria, the Lady of the Maltese Order; the daughter of General Andrzej Poniatowski - the brother of the KING. She was taken under guardianship by her father's brother, King Stanislaw August Poniatowski.
She married Wincenty Tyszkiewicz (1757 - 1816) of LOHOJSK and SWISLOCZ.
He was the son of Antoni Kazimierz TYSZKIEWICZ, 1723-1778;
the grandson of Michal Jan TYSZKIEWICZ, 1692-1762];

and widowed Lady Grabowska the lover of the KING Poniatowski.

In 1794 Holowczyce [in 1793 in Russia] - the estate of Oskierka - was taken by Russians, then the estate belonged to General JAKOB Sievers;
and next of Stanislaw Horwatt in 1825 [then to his cousin Maurycy; and Maurycy's son - Stanislaw Horwatt].
Holowczyce is situated 14 km south-west to Narowla, close to Ukraine. Holowczyce in 1764 owned by Oskierko = Oskierka.

Ludwik Tyszkiewicz born 1748 in Vilnius, d. 1808, Field Lithuanian Commander in 1780 to 1791, Great Lithuanian Treasurer in 1791, Great Lithuanian Marshal from 1793. Stanislaw August Poniatowski had a niece Konstancja Poniatowska, the daughter of mentioned Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski, and Konstancja married in Warsaw on April 4, 1775 to Ludwik Tyszkiewicz. They took in 1793 Berezyna - Luboszany.
Their daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz married Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki.

During the Grodno Sejm, Ludwik Tyszkiewicz was chosen as a negotiator with the Russian ambassador Jacob Sievers, and so on 22 July 1793 he signed the treaty of the cession of lands to Russia, and then on 25 September to Prussia, as part of the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, married mentioned Elisabeth Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata SIEVERS, b. 1746 in St. Petersburg, Russia, died in 1818. Daughter of Karl Eduard von Sievers, of Lagena and Waiwara; the granddaughter of Joachim Johan von Sievers / Johann, b. 1677, d. 1753 in Rujen-Grosshof;
the great-granddaughter of
Joachim Sievers died March 1700 in Tallinn.
ELZBIETA was also wife of Nikolai Abramovich Putjatin. Above Nikolai Abramovich Putjatin b. 1749 in Kiev. He was the family of ARTEMIJ Vasilievich PUCIATA / Putjatin, the landowner in 1706 of RZEW.



I am presenting here below several Poles fighting in the Russian army during the war 1877-78:

Artur Niepokojczycki / Niepokójczycki (1813-1881)
- Russian general. Pole. After graduating for some time he served in the General Staff.
NIEPOKÓJCZYCKI Artur, born in 1813 in the Niepokójczyce estate close to ZABINKA, died in Petersburg.

Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky wasn't born in Slutsk.
His father ADAM NIEPOKÓJCZYCKI / Niepokojczycki was the district leader of the nobility - the Sluck marshal of nobility.
Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky was born when the war with Napoleon rattled. Originated from the old German clan von UNRUH [not von-Upru], who moved to Poland.
The Niepokojczyce chapel of the Helvetic congregation was operated under the auspices of the family Rayski
[Evangelische Kirche Helvetischen Bekenntnisses / Evangelische Kirche, is the Calvinist church of the reformed trend; Calvinism is the dominant confession in Scotland and in the many cantons of Switzerland].

Niepokojczyce, is situated near Jamna / Jamno / Yamno [east district in BRZESC], the Kobryn county, Polesie; rural commune of Zbirohi / ZBIROGI [18 km north-east to the center of BRZESC] by the Muchawiec river; near Zabianka.


Compare:
Rasna

- in the second half of the nineteenth century, RASNA was bought by Calvinist Count Jan Grabowski born in 1827.
Already from the beginning of the nineteenth century, a small Calvinist church in the village stood where the mausoleum of the Grabowski family was located. Count Adam Jan Pius Waclaw Goetzendorf-Grabowski b. in 1827 in Lukow close to Oborniki, as the oldest son of Józef Goetzendorf-Grabowski the owner of Lukow. Jozef Grabowski was Napoleon's officer, director of the Credit Bank in Poznan. Jozef GRABOWSKI married Klementyna Wyganowski. Jozef's father - Adam Mateusz Grabowski the owner of Welno and Parkow, the Royal Court official of August III.
Adam Jan Pius Waclaw Goetzendorf-Grabowski b. 1827, married 1853 to Jadwiga, the daughter of Duke Konstanty Lubomirski. His daughter Maria m. Duke Hieronim Drucki-Lubecki.
The Grabowskis came from Grabówki, in the Sieradz county: here Elzbieta the wife of Mikolaj Hanczel of Mokrsko, close to WIELUN - inf. in 1508;
Jan Grabowski, the zealous Calvin, moved to Lithuania, where he left a few sons, of whom Krystyan Grabowski, the official in Lithuanian Brest, and Marcin Grabowski, a Vitebsk official; they acted in the Kaunas county, and Jan signed the choice of the king Jan III. Stefan Antoni Grabowski, the official in Brzesc Litewski in 1696.

Albert GRABOWSKI, the Prussian Count in 1816, Major, died in 1819 [or in 1799 ?], married Wilhelmina von Winterfeld,
with the son Wilhelm Grabowski and the daughter Albertyna Grabowska ROSEN [b. 1784 or 1786 - Wartenburg, d. 1856 - Warszawa].
The great-grandparents of Albertyna / ALBERTINA ROSEN:
Stefan Grabowski 1680-1756; and Teodora Stryjenska.
Stefan Grabowski was the son of a Brzesc Litewski official.

Albertina Grabowska married to Aleksander Rosen, baron, b. ca 1780; Alexander Vladimirovich von Rosen 3rd, born in 1780 in Ostrogorsk, was the son of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen born in 1742;
the grandson of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, b. 1717 in Linden.

Albertina had children:
Woldemar von Rosen;
Alexei von Rosen;
Maria Ledochowski b. 1814 married PAWEL LEDOCHOWSKI / Paul count Ledochowski;
Elisabeth von Möller and
Grigori von Rosen.

Note:

David Dadiani of the House of Dadiani, was Prince of Mingrelia, in western Georgia, from 1846. David was sent to Tiflis to be educated under the guidance of the Russian generals Vasili Bebutov and Georg Andreas von Rosen.
Baron Rosen's son-in-law, Colonel Prince Alexander Dadiani.

Lydia Grigorievna Dadianov (von Rosen) b. 1817, married Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien, b. 1800
[Lydia Dadiani was the mother of Praskovya A. nee Dadiani married to FERDINAND Sayn-Wittgenstein- Berleburg. She was born 1846 or 1847 = Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian 1847-1919];

LYDIA von ROSEN DADIANI was the daughter of
Gregor (Grigori Vladimirovitch) von Rosen 2-nd
and granddaughter of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen, b. 1742 in Reval
[baron Vladimir I. Rosen, born 1742, died 1792, married Olympia Raevskaya / Olimpia / Olimpiada Rajewska born ca 1746];
and great-granddaughter of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, born in 1717 in Linden.

Above Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien b. 1800, was the son of Leon A. Dadiani and the grandson of Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753 and
Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd ] born 1753 died 1812.
The parents of above Alexander:
Peter G. Dadiani and Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja [1st] died March 19, 1780.

Parents of above Piotr / Peter:
George / Egor Levanovich Dadiani b. 1683 and
Sophia A. Imereti of Mukhrani b. 1691 died 1747.

Above mentioned Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, b. 1834, died 1888, married in 1868 to Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian, 1847-1919.
Praskovya A. nee Dadiani / Paraskewa Alexandrovna married to Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg; she was born 1846 or 1847; her father was Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800.

Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1834, the son of August Ludwig zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg; and Ferdinand was grandchild of Christian Heinrich Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, 1753-1800 (married 1775 Charlotte Friederike countess of Leiningen-Westerburg 1759-1831),
great-grandchild of Ludwig Ferdinand 1712-1773, and
great-great-grandchild of Casimir 1687-1741.
His father Ludwig Franz Sayn-Wittgenstein, 1660 - 1694.


Note on the Rosen family:

From Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791:

Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn and died 1884 in Reval,
her father -
Karl Johann von Gernet 1776 Lehhola / Lehola - 1857 in Lauenhof / Love, Podrala, Valdamaa, Estland;
and her grandfather -
Carl Gustav von Gernet 1747 - 1812,
and her great-grandfather -
Carl Gottlieb von Gernet b. on March 18, 1700 and died on May 4, 1791 in Lehhola.

Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn married
Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus / Woldemar von Rosen 1813 - 1892
and his father -
Hans Wilhelm Gustav von Rosen 1780 - 1862;
grandfather
Robert Friedrich von Rosen b. 1748 in SONORM, Estland;
great-grandfather was
Hans Christian von Rosen b. 1717 in LINDEN, Estland.

Above Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus von Rosen, b. 12 Jan 1813 at Resna, m. 1844 at Hapsal / Haapsalu to Hedwig Charlotte von Gernet b. at Reval,
the daughter of Johann von Gernet and his wife Hedwig Elisabeth von Patkul of Habbinem.

Sons of above named Hedwig:
1. Johann Wilhelm Fabian Richard von Rosen, b. at Neuenhof near Hapsal, m. at St. Petersburg to Sophie Valentine Schottländer d. 28 Sep 1912 at Reval,
2. Leo Felix Karl von Rosen, b. in St. Petersburg, m. 2ndly in 1927 at London to Magna Smith daughter of Nadeschda Kowalewskaja Smith / Kowalewski.

The palace of Herrenhaus Neuenhof that is Uuemoisa mois east part of Haapsalu at present.

The noble Schillings / Schilling family moved to Estonia / Estland from Courland (Kurland). Karl Gebhard von Schilling began his service in the Russian army, married to Helene Charlotte von Römer of Müüsleri / Seinigal and Orina / Orgena - 2 km north-east of Jarva-Jaani (Orina, Järva-Jaani vald).
Müüsleri (Seinigal by German) is a village in the rural community Kareda - ca 80 km east-south of Saku, close to Jarva-Jaani.

Pauline Amalie Sophie von Schilling b. 1806 in Reval / Tallinn, Estland / Eesti, her mother Anna Juliane von Rosen b. 1770.

Explanation to
Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753:
he married Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd] born 1753 died 1812.

Above named Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani born 1753, died in Moscow, February of 1812, married Alexander Petrovich Dadiani b. 1753/54, died in Moscow on 26 Jan. 1811.
Her father Levan Bagration-Gruzinsky, born Moscow 1739, or 1730 acc. to me!
He was in 1753 married to Alexandra Yakovlevna Sibirsky b. 1728.
Her grandfather Bakar I King of Kartli, born Kutaisi in 1700, married Anna Eristavi of Aragvi b. 1706.
Her great-grandfather Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675.

Brief to Georgian genealogy:

Alexander [son of Bakar] or Aleksandr Bakarovich Gruzinsky, born 1726 died 1791, was a Russian-born Georgian prince of the Mukhrani branch of the Bagrationi royal dynasty. Aleksandre was born ca 1724 / 1728, in Moscow. Alexander was married to Princess Daria Aleksandrovna nee Menshikov, d.1817.
Named
BAKAR, 1699 / 1700 - 1750, was the son of Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675 - died on March 26, 1737.

Vakhtang VI married in Imereti, in 1696, a princess Rusudan (died in Moscow, on December 30, 1740). They had children:
named above Prince Bakar (1699 / 1700 - 1750), ruler of Kartli;
Prince George (1712 - 1786), general of the Russian Empire;
Princess Tamar (1696) married, in 1712, Prince Teimuraz, the future king of Kakheti and Kartli;
Princess Anna (Anuka) (1698), married, in 1712, Prince Vakhushti Abashidze;
Princess Tuta (1699), married the Imeretian nobleman of the ducal family of Racha, Gedevan, Duke of the Lowlands.

We back to the Grabowskis:

Count Wilhelm GRABOWSKI, the son of Albert Grabowski, d. 1851, m. Zofia Zawisza, Count in Russia in 1840. He had 8 sons:
Count Karol Oktawian GRABOWSKI, d. 1893, the owner of Rasna, Szymonowicze and Eustaszyn, m. Zofia Horwat.
Zofia HORWAT GRABOWSKA had daughter Zofia m. Count Konstanty Broel - Plater,
and Zofia Horwat had a son Aleksander Grabowski, b. 1852, the owner of Tolkaczewicze, in the MINSK governorate, m. Maria Reytan, with a daughter
Magdalena Grabowska m. Antoni Kieniewicz.

The Calvinist chapel of the RASNA parish was in Niepokojczyce under the patronage of the Rayskis.
Here in RASNA / Rasna, 1765 Tadeusz Matuszewicz was born - Polish politician, Minister of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Poland and Minister of Treasury of the Warsaw Duchy

{Tadeusz Wiktoryn Matuszewicz - born 1765 in Rasnia, died 1819 in Bologna, Polish speaker, publicist, translator, poet and theater critic. Minister of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815-1817, member of the Provisional Government of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815. A member of the Central Military Government of the Galicia in 1809, a Freemason. He was the son of Marcin Matuszewicz, of Brest, and Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt, daughter of Józef, and Petronella Wolodkowicz}.

Niepokojczyce - in the Kobryn county, near Zabinka.


Grabanów close to Biala Podlaska;

in 1818, Grabanów is already the court property of Adam Niepokojczycki, the father of GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki

[Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780
{see also: 1.
Karol Niepokojczycki the son of Piotr Niepokojczycki and Zofia Wierczak; Karol Niepokojczycki was the Lieutenant of the Lithuanian regiment in 1827, born 1800, in 1839 widowed and married 2nd to Dorota Puzewicz, the daughter of Ludwik.
2. Benedykt Wilhelm Niepokojczycki, 1796 - 1865, the President of the Polish Bank}].

Adam Niepokojczycki had wooden residential building made of oak tree.
1822, Grabanow farm was bought from the Radziwills by Poplawski. Shortly thereafter, these estate passed on to the property of the Grabowski family.
Kozula's mill in the Grabanów farm in 1781, belonged to the Radziwills, who had a hunting lodge here - near BIALA PODLASKA.

GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki in 1841, was sent to the Caucasus under General Grabbe.
Artur A. Nepokojchitsky owned the estate Ostashevo. Until 1861 it was called Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo on the left bank of the Ruza Reservoir, 21 km from the Volokolamsk suburb near Moscow.
The Polish origin had the actual commander-in-chief of the 1877/1878 Army, the Chief of Staff, General Artur Niepokojczycki and his deputy, General Karol Lewicki, and two leaders of the Bulgarian uprising, dictator and commander-in-chief - Stanislaw StClair, and major Ludwik Wojtkiewicz.

Artur A. Nepokojchitsky was next of kin to the KRUPSKI family.
Krupski Bonifacy, the son of Urban Krupski and Katarzyna Antoniewicz, was born in 1822 in Ihnatow in the MINSK county in Belarus; he studied in SLUCK; then Bonifacy lived in the BOBRUJSK county in the Wittgenstein estate [see SZUMSKI]. 1856, his father Urban bought from Korsak the Mieciawicze estate in the Sluck county, and in 1861 from Ratyski bought Nowosióki in the IHUMEN county. Bonifacy Krupski in 1861 was married Stefanja widow, born ca 1830, the daughter of Florjan SWIDA, and Konstancja Niepokojczycki Swida, b. ca 1805.

{Erazm Swida-Polny, b. 1882 - Mieciawicze, d. 1928 - Malecz; a brother of his father was Wladyslaw Swida-Polny b. 1842, d. 1924 - Siechniewicze near Pruzany. Wladyslaw Swida was the son of Florian Jakub Swida-Polny and named Konstancja Niepokojczycka born ca 1805. Wladyslaw Swida-Polny 1842-1924 m. Jadwiga Rewkowska, 1850-1922}.
In Nowosiólki was a folk school, under Ligenza from Kiev.
B. Krupski fought in 1863 in the Ihumen county.

Niepokojczycki had the WAGA coat of arms - together with Abramowicz, Korzeniowski, Pociej.


Rózana and BEREZYNA-LUBOSZANY:

After the November Uprising in which Eustachy Kajetan Sapieha took part, Rózana was confiscated by the Tsarist authorities. Rózana was one of the main headquarters of the Rózana line of the Sapieha family. In 1644, Sapieha received King Wladyslaw IV in Rózana. Eustachy Kajetan Ostafi Sapieha was born in Werki [now in WILNO] in 1797, died in PARIS in 1860; Insurgent of 1831; the son of Franciszek Sapieha born in 1772

[Franciszek Sapieha was the son of Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA and Magdalena Lubomirski - Magdalena Agnieszka was the daughter of Antoni Benedykt Lubomirski. Magdalena Agnieszka Sapieha Lubomirska was the Polish mistress of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski; her son Michal Cichocki, and her daughter Konstancja Zwan Szwan, RUZYCKA PETERS CICHOCKA];

EUSTACHY SAPIEHA, due to the failure to give the oath to the Emperor Mikolaj I, was confiscated all the goods in the country. In exile, he was associated with the Lambert Hotel camp. Eustachy Sapieha was married to Róza Mostowski, daughter of Tadeusz Antoni Mostowski; father of Jan Pawel Aleksander and Eustachy Franciszek Sapieha (1836-1909) and Maria Aniela, wife of Wladyslaw Branicki.

The great-grandfather of named above Eustachy Kajetan Ostafi Sapieha was Kazimierz Leon Karol Sapieha, 1697 in Warsaw - 1738, General, in 1738 the BRZESC LITEWSKI governor, 1718/1719 took Dubrovna/Dabrowna or DUBROWNA situated 42 km south to BABINAVICHY of the Oginskis and south to KRYNKI of the Hurko family - it is a total distance around 73 km from Krynki to Dubrowna. In 1728-1731 intimate friends to Oginski. 1726 - the DRUJA owner; 1730 - IWIE in the Oszmiany county; Dyrwiany and Zogoty in LIVONIA; Niechniewicze of his wife; after death of his father took OSWIEJA / Oswieje until 1735; Balbierzyszki in the KOWNO county; CZEREJA in the Orsha / Orsza county from his uncle Michal Jozef Sapieha; KOCK, Wysokie and SIEMIATYCZE in the Brzesc Litewski province. Kazimierz Leon Karol Sapieha died in WSCHOWA were he met the King.

The ROZANA residence built in the early 18th century was almost completely destroyed during the Northern War. Another residence was built as a palace in 1784-1786 and it was one of the largest in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with its own picture gallery, theater and library.
The palace was after the November Uprising 1831 confiscated by the Tsarist authorities. Wonderful paintings, a rich library and the SAPIEHA archive of Rózana and Dereczna were taken by the Russians to St. Petersburg.

More on the SAPIEHA family:
Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski born in 1747, was the son of Stanislaw Lubomirski, born in 1704, d. 1793, married in 1740 to Ludwika Honorata Pociej. They owned Dubrowno in the Sienno (north-east of Miezonka) catholic area; the Orsha county, Moghilev government; at present in the Vicebsk oblast; 90 km to Vicebsk, 19 km north-east of Orsza / Orsha.
Dubrovno was owned by SAPIEHA to 1774.
Then by Count R. A. Potiemkin / G. A. Potemkin to 1791 (a watch factory!), close to Ksawery Lubomirski estate (and his daughter Klementyna girlfriend of Piotr Kroer); since 1791 Lubomirski taken Dubrovno - now this place is "capital" of the government;
then to Eugeniusz Lubomirski - 1809 new Orthodox church; Dubrovno was the Lubomirski family estate to 1917!

DUBROWNA is situated 42 km south to BABINAVICHY of the Oginskis and south to KRYNKI of the Hurko family - it is a total distance around 73 km from Krynki to Dubrowna.

And now about the Sulkowski - Sapieha line:

ALEXANDER JOSEPH SULKOWSKI, b. 1695 in Cracow, d. 1762 in Leszno [see MIELZYNSKI and ROKOSSOWSKI], a companion of August III, son of August II, and was his Minister of State in Saxony from 1733 to 1738; a Count of the Holy Roman Empire in 1733; Prince by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in 1752; bought the estates of Rydzyna and Leszno from the exiled ex-king of Poland Stanislaw Leszczynski, and estates of Bielsko in Cieszyn Silesia;
he married Baroness Maria Francis Stein zu Jettingen, and had
four sons and three daughters:
1. August Casimir (Kazimierz) SULKOWSKI, b. 1729, general of the royal army, Marshal of the Polish parliament 1775 - 1776, married Louise Mniszech in 1766;
2. Alexander Antoni Sulkowski, b. 1730, General of the royal army 1785, married Elenor Cetner in 1755;
3. FRANCIS (FRANCISZEK Sulkowski), b. 1733, d. 1812, the Bielsko estates,
4. ANTONI PAUL / Antoni Pawel Sulkowski, b. 1734, the RYDZYNA line;
5. Marianna, b. 1728, d. 1749, married Franciszek Jakub Szembek in 1747;
6. Joanna Sulkowska, b. 1736, d. 1800, married Prince PIOTR SAPIEHA / Peter Sapieha in 1750

{Piotr Pawel Sapieha b. 1701 in DRESDEN, the son of
Jan Kazimierz Sapieha died in 1730 in RAWICZ
and the grandson of Franciszek Stefan Sapieha ca 1647 - 1686/1688 in Lublin + Anna Krystyna Lubomirska, the daughter of JERZY SEBASTIAN LUBOMIRSKI;
the great-grandson of PAWEL JAN SAPIEHA 1609 - 1665,
the great-great-grandson of Jan Piotr Sapieha b. 1569};

7. Josepha Petronela / Jozefa Petronela Sulkowska, b. 1737, married Prince Ignacy Potocki in 1753.

The Potockis - CONSPIRATORS:

Leon Dembowski born on October 16, 1789 in Pulawy; the head of internal affairs, justice and war departments in the Provisional Government in the Kingdom of Poland in 1815; Minister of the Treasury of the National Government of the Kingdom of Poland during the November Uprising, 1831, a trusted collaborator of the prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski.
His parents were Józef Dembowski and Konstancja Narbutt - the owner of Harmaki and Haluzinka, the captain of the national cavalry.
Leon Dembowski organized National Guards and reserve divisions of the Lublin department in the war of 1812. During the November Uprising he was a member of the Administrative Council. In 1861-1867 he was a member of the Council of State of the Kingdom of Poland; the director of the Justice Commission. The owner of Bronice and Drzewica. Married Julia Kochanowski; 2nd to Seweryna Chledowski.
Leon Dembowski was a master of the Freemasonry 'Freedom Regained' in 1815.

Józef Lipinski, b. 1764 in Tetyjow in Ukraine; Polish activist, educator, novelist, poet, translator, literary and theater critic. Collaborator of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki; a Freemason. He approached I. Potocki. After the Third Partition of Poland, he settled in the countryside. During the time of the Warsaw Duchy, a member of the Civil and Administrative Chamber. 1821 general inspector of the schools of the Kingdom of Poland. 1805, a member of the Society of Friends of Sciences in Warsaw.

Mentioned Stanislaw Kostka Potocki / Un Polonais, born in November 1755 in Lublin;
Polish politician, count in the Congress Kingdom in 1820; member of the Warsaw Jewish Education Chamber in 1808; Member of the Patriotic Party in the Four-year-Parliament; freemason, president of the Council of State and the Council of Ministers of the Warsaw Principality, president of the Senate of the Kingdom of Poland in 1818-1821, memoirist, poet, playwright and translator.
He was the son of Eustachy Potocki, general of the Lithuanian artillery,
and Marianna Katska / Koncka or Kacka;
the brother of Ignacy Potocki.
In 1772-1775 he traveled a lot around Europe, visiting Italy, France, Switzerland and Germany; and in 1777, 1779-1780, 1783, 1785-1786 and 1796-1797.
Above
Roman Ignacy Franciszek Potocki / Jan K. Szabranski, born February 28, 1750 in Radzyn Podlaski, police minister in 1791, great Lithuanian marshal in 1791-1794; the Department of Foreign Interests of the Perpetual Council in 1779; member of the National Education Commission in 1773-1791;
in 1781-1784 Grand Master of the Polish National Grand Orient,
Polish politician and patriotic activist, publicist, playwright, poet, pedagogue, historian and translator.

The first on JAN Potocki:
in 1785, Jan Potocki in Warsaw married Julia (1767-1794), the daughter of Izabela Lubomirski and the cousin to Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (1770-1861). They moved home to Paris for 2 years. 1786, was born
Alfred (1786-1862).
Potocki make friends with Lady de Staël. 1787, was born
Artur (1787-1832).
Potocki come to Spa, with Anna Teresa and Lady de Genlis [see below]. Potocki stayed in Antwerpia, then in England; back to Paris. 1788 - he met Stanislaw August the King. Moved to Ukraina; met Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki; he, in Lublin, met Seweryn Potocki. In Poznan and Sroda - he is elected a Great Poland deputy.

JAN Potocki corresponds with his brother-in-law, Ignacy Potocki; Jan inherited together with Seweryn Potocki the property of Józef Potocki and Wincenty Potocki in Ukraine. In November, a political club with 150 members was founded in Warsaw.

According to the accounts of the orientalist Wladyslaw Kotwicz, Jan Potocki goes to Berlin, where he approached to Frederick William I and his uncle, Prince Henry. It is likely that he was working in the libraries of Ewald Hertzberg (1725- 1795), the minister of the king, and geographer Anton Friedrich Büsching (1724-1793). In October he goes to France and then in Leipzig and Landau. In Paris, he met Baron de Staël, the ambassador of Sweden.

Alexandra Feodorovna, born Princess Charlotte of Prussia (1798 - 1860), was Empress consort of Russia. She was the wife of Emperor Nicholas I, and mother of Emperor Alexander II. Charlotte was born the eldest surviving daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia, and Louise of Mecklenburg- Strelitz. In 1814, her marriage was arranged for political reason with Grand Duke Nicholas Pavlovich of Russia, the future Tsar Nicholas I.
Mentioned
Frederick William III / Friedrich Wilhelm III (1770 - 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. His parents: Frederick William II of Prussia + Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Above named Frederick William II / Friedrich Wilhelm II, b. 1744, was King of Prussia from 1786. His father Prince Augustus William of Prussia, August Wilhelm, b. 1722, was Prince of Prussia and a younger brother of Frederick II.
Augustus was the second surviving son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea.

Frederick II of Prussia was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, who married Louise of Brunswick- Wolfenbuettel. She was the sister of Frederick Duke of Brunswick, the Grand Master of the Strict Templar Observance, and who had convened the great Masonic convention at Wilhelmsbad in Hessen-Kassel.
Frederick Wilhelm II of Prussia was the father of Frederick William III, who became a member of the Order of the Garter.
Of Frederick William III and Louise' four children, three married the brothers and sisters of Csar Alexander I. Frederick William III's daughter, Charlotte of Prussia, married Paul's son, Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander I, and who also belonged to the Order of the Garter.
Frederick's son Wilhelm I married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the daughter of Nicholas' sister Maria Romanov. A third child of Frederick, Friedrich Karl Alexander of Prussia, married Maria's Romanov other daughter, Marie Luisa Alexandrina von Saxe-Weimar.

Baron Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, born in 1749 in Loddby, Sweden, died in 1802 in Poligny; Swedish ambassador in France. His daughter Hedvig Gustava Albertina, born 1798, died in Paris on September 28, 1838. She was married to Victor de Broglie in 1816. Her biological father could be Benjamin Constant.

Henri Benjamin Constant de Rebecque born 1767 in Lausanne, died in 1830 in Paris; French writer, philosopher and liberal politician of Swiss descent. In 1786 he came to Paris, where he met with politicians and thinkers preparing revolutions. There, he made an affair with Isabelle de Charriere. In 1796-1797 Constant published three brochures on the current French policy. Jacobin's terror has condemned them. In 1799, with the consent of Napoleon Bonaparte, he was appointed a member of the Tribunate.

Above Stephanie Felicite du Crest de Saint-Aubin, Comtesse de Genlis, born in 1746, died in 1830, was the French writer. Author of didactic-moral novels for young people and her memoirs.


We back to Artur Stanislaw Potocki.
ARTUR POTOCKI was the Count, the owner of the Krzeszowice and Lancut estates,
graduated of the Ernangen Protestant University, officer of the Polish army,
the adjutant of Prince Józef Poniatowski in 1812,
the adjutant of the emperor of France [fligiel- adjutant of Emperor Napoleon I] - Napoleon I - in 1815
[Napoleon Bonaparte I abdicated on 22 June 1815 in favour of his son Napoleon II. On 24 June the Provisional Government proclaimed the fact to the French nation and the world].

Wojciech Paszkowski [the half-brother of General Franciszek Paszkowski] was the manager of KRZESZOWICE owned by Artur Potocki.
Wojciech Paszkowski managed also Trzebniew / Trzebniow [not Trzebnica !] of BYSTRZANOWSKI.
CAPTAIN Wojciech Paszkowski, 1780 - 1856, the brother of famous General Franciszek Paszkowski [close to the TEMPLARS - in Cracow] who was the friend of General Tadeusz Kosciuszko [Kosciuszko was the friend of Thomas Jefferson b. 1743 - Illuminati].
Wojciech Paszkowski, 1780 - 1856, was the plenipotentiary [1821-1832] of Artur Potocki / Artur Stanislaw Potocki
(b. 1787 in Paris / Paryz, died in 1832 in Wien / Wieden - Artur Potocki, the Templar masonic degree, in 1830-1832 in CRACOW closely cooperated with GENERAL FRANCISZEK PASZKOWSKI in The Committee for the Reconstruction of the Krakow Castle in the Free City of Krakow and its District (1830 - 1836). The Committee, whose work was supervised by Maciej Rembowski, the first - only nominal president was Count Artur Potocki - followed by general Franciszek Paszkowski, was never formally resolved, his activity decreased in 1833, and from 1836 his last documents came),
Napoleonic officer.

Wojciech Paszkowski was Commissioner General to Artur Potocki.

ARTUR POTOCKI married to Zofia Countess Branicka, probably granddaughter of Empress Katarzyna II.
He bought a Palace in Cracow; and in Krzeszowice he built a summer residence
{the cousin of named General Franciszek Paszkowski - Paszkowski Franciszek (1818-1883), painter, landowner, deputy to the Galician parliament, economic activist. He was the son of Dominik Paszkowski and Anna Niemojewska (died 1872), the younger brother of Józef Edmund. He learned painting with Rafal Hadziewicz, and then with Wojciech K. Stattler in Cracow, where he lived with his uncles Franciszek PASZKOWSKI, general, and Wojciech PASZKOWSKI, junior, a member of the Galician government in 1809, the manager of the Trzebniow estate and Krzeszowice. Franciszek Paszkowski - painter - went to Düsseldorf (1838), Dresden and Rome for further studies. He painted religious paintings, and many portraits: his father, brother and uncle, General Franciszek PASZKOWSKI in 1814 [in Warsaw], Tytus Chalubinski, and Antonina Jachowicz}.

In 1818, Artur Potocki became an adept of the 33rd degree of the Scottish Masonic Lodge.


And now about SOLTYK - SAPIEHA line: Maciej Soltyk senior, died in 1780 - Krysk; he had sons:

1. Józef Soltyk - MP and the official in Zawichost (1786-1795), 1750-1803 + Józefa Urbanska;
2. Maciej Kajetan Soltyk junior, 1750-1804;

3.
Stanislaw Soltyk, MP in 1830-31, acted in 1791; born 1751/1752 - died in 1833 + Karolina Sapieha

{Karolina Sapieha 1759-1814, was the wife to TEODOR POTOCKI

(Teodor Potocki, 1730-1812, was the son of JAN POTOCKI = Jan Kanty Potocki, b. 1693; the grandson of Józef Stanislaw Potocki born ca 1645; the great-grandson of Pawel Potocki b. ca 1612, who was the son Stefan Potocki b. 1568, and grandson of Mikolaj Potocki)

and named STANISLAW SOLTYK.

KAROLINA Sapieha was half sister of Nil Sapieha; Konstancja ZWAN b. 1768, and Michal Cichocki / Mykolas Cichockis / Michal Mikolaj CICHOCKI born in 1770 in Warsaw.

KAROLINA Sapieha Soltyk was born in 1759, the daughter of
Aleksander Michal Sapieha b. 1730 in Wysokie / Vysokoje - died in 1793 in Warsaw, and

the granddaughter of Kazimierz Leon Karol Sapieha, b. 1697 in Warsaw; d. 1738 in WSCHOWA;

the great-granddaughter of Aleksander Pawel Sapieha born in Warsaw in 1672;

the great-great-granddaughter of Kazimierz Jan Sapieha b. 1637/1742, Duke in 1700, commanded the Lithuanian Army -

the son of Pawel Jan Sapieha

(1609-1665; the owner of RETOW, SZAWLE, Wolpin.

PAWEL JAN Sapieha was the father of
Kazimierz Jan;
Benedykt Pawel;
Franciszek Stefan;
Leon Bazyli SAPIEHA)

the enemy of the Radziwills,
the grandson of Jan Piotr Sapieha.

Named PAWEL JAN Sapieha passed on to his sons in 1665:

Kazimierz Jan Sapieha - the godfather was LEON SAPIEHA - took Szkudy, Kretynga, Szawel, Ikazn, Druja, Sapiezyn, Oswiej / Oswieja, Ormiej, BYCHOW, Wolpin.

Benedykt Pawel Sapieha took CZERCIA, LUBOSZANY + Berezyna; Wojskie, Siemiatycze, RETOW.

Franciszek Stefan Sapieha - Tronienice, BOCKI, LACHOWICZE.

Leon Bazyli SAPIEHA - ROZANA / Rozanna, Kossow / Kosow Poleski, Lewpun, Poniemun}

+ 2nd to Agnieszka Komorowska,
with the son -
Roman Soltyk 1790-1843.

Above Benedykt Pawel Sapieha d. 1707, took CZERCIA/ Czereja + Mieleszkowicze and Horodek in the Vicebsk province; Wysokie; Roslaw in the Smolensk prov.; RETOW in 1664 until 1700 - then his son Michal Sapieha; Korelicze; Siemiatycze and ROSNA after a brother Leon Bazyli Sapieha; DZISNA; and
LUBOSZANY in 1665 [near Miezonka] with Berezyno Ihumenskie by the Berezyna river. Ca 1693, Michal Siesicki back him Luboszany, the Witebsk / Vicebsk prov., and Benedykt Pawel Sapieha gave it to his son Michal Jozef Sapieha in 1699.
Benedykt Pawel Sapieha d. 1707 was living in ROZANA. Acted in Kobryn, Biala Podlaska, Wysokie, and Brzesc Litewski.

Michal Sapieha - Michal Józef Sapieha (1670 - 1738 in Chalons-sur-Marne), the governor of Podlasie, the son of mentioned Benedykt Pawel Sapieha + Izabella Tarlo. Supporter of Jakub Sobieski.
In 1699 - owner of Luboszany and Berezyno Ihumenskie / BEREZYNA.
In 1714 General Lieutenant. 1735 moved to France.

After 1738 until 1793:
Luboszany / Luboszany - years 1735-1750 were very difficult for the Sapiehas after death of Michal Józef Sapieha in 1738. Benedykt Pawel Sapieha d. 1707, took CZERCIA/ Czereja + Mieleszkowicze and Horodek in the Vicebsk province; Wysokie; Roslaw in the Smolensk prov.; RETOW in 1664 until 1700 - then his son Michal Sapieha; Korelicze; Siemiatycze and ROSNA after a brother Leon Bazyli Sapieha; DZISNA; and
LUBOSZANY in 1665 [near Miezonka] with Berezyno Ihumenskie by the Berezyna river. Ca 1693, tenant Michal Siesicki back him Luboszany, the Witebsk / Vicebsk prov., and Benedykt Pawel Sapieha gave it to his son Michal Jozef Sapieha in 1699.
Benedykt Pawel Sapieha d. 1707 was living in ROZANA. Acted in Kobryn, Biala Podlaska, Wysokie, and Brzesc Litewski.
Michal Jozef Sapieha owned Luboszany in 1699 but LUBOSZANY was taken by Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA, b. 1730 in Wysokie - died in 1793 in Warsaw.
Aleksander Michal Sapieha acted in Brzesc Litewski in 1696; he owned Luboszany - Berezyna in the Vicebsk province since 1697. Luboszany was officially handed over to Aleksander Michal Sapieha by his father on 30 July 1699, and Aleksander Michal Sapieha ceded it in 1710 to Antoni Nowosielski as a tenant.

Senator Antoni Karol Nowosielski b. 1675, died 1726, the son of Wawrzyniec Nowosielski + Helena Wrobek-Lettaw / von Lettow-Vorbeck; Antoni had a son Leon Nowosielski b. ca 1700/1706, and grandson Józef Nowosielski. Antoni was the Orsha official and in Nowogrodek in 1709-1725.
Leon NOWOSIELSKI married in 1726 to the daughter of Jerzy Stanislaw Sapieha 1668-1732, the granddaughter of Kazimierz Jan Pawel Sapieha b. ca 1642;
the great-granddaughter of Pawel Jan Sapieha born in 1609,
son of Jan Piotr Sapieha b. 1569, d. 1611 in MOSCOW.

Pawel Jan Sapieha (1609-1665), was the owner of Luboszany and Berezyna / Berezino.

Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA, b. 1730 in Wysokie - died in 1793 in Warsaw. After his death, in 1793 Berezyno and Luboszany was taken by Tyszkiewicz, then to POTOCKI.



Note to
TYSZKIEWICZ - POTOCKI of Luboszany / Lubuszany and Berezyna, with the POTOCKI [the TEMPLARS] - PASZKIEWICZ [+ Bystrzanowski] branch of Trzebniow-Cracow-Tonie:

Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Tyszkiewicz, I voto Potocka, II voto Dunin-Wasowicz (1779 - 1867 in Paris) - Polish diarist; she was the landowner of LUBOSZANY - BEREZYNO / BEREZYNA.


Remember - Aleksandra Potocka, with nick-name Aleksandryna

(1818-1892, born in St Petersburg, the daughter of Stanislaw Septym Potocki; the granddaughter of Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki 1751-1805;
the great-granddaughter of Franciszek Salezy Potocki, 1700-1772,
who was the son of Józef Potocki (died 1723),
and grandson of Feliks Kazimierz "Szczesny" Potocki (1630-1702),
the great-grandson of Stanislaw "Rewera" Potocki, 1589-1667),

married her cousin August Potocki

(= August Aleksander Potocki b. 1805; the son of Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778;
the grandson of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki b. 1755;
the great-grandson of Eustachy Potocki born in 1720; the great-great-grandson of Jerzy Potocki who was the son of Feliks Kazimierz Potocki 1630-1702, and grandson of Stanislaw Rewera Potocki).

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR [she died in 1892] to AUGUST POTOCKI, 1847-1905; then, in 1905, it belonged to widowed Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka Potocka, the widow after death of AUGUST POTOCKI. Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka, 1870-1925. And ca 1908/1909, Eugenia sold the estate Zator to Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, of Krzeszowice
[I had explained incorrect inf. on Jerzy Dunin-Wasowicz of the 18th century].

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold [? ca 1887/1890] Luboszany / LUBUSZANY [she died in 1892]
(K. Lipinski - the manager of Berezyna, Tepliki, Zwinogród),
to hands of Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz

(born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN; the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA; the great-granddaughter of Michal Tyszkiewicz Count, b. 1761 in BIRZAI / Birze;
the great-great-granddaughter of Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in Valozyn),

the wife of the Galicja governor -
Andrzej Potocki.



And here are very strange events in 1908-1911-1914.

Andrzej Potocki is murdered in 1908 while he fulfills the duties of the Governor of Galicia. The murderer uses the nationalist-Ukrainian ideology.
But the widow Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, asks the Austrian authorities to exchange the death sentence for this offender, for a prison sentence.
And of course, the prisoner escapes in 1911 from the Stanislawow prison. Where? To Sweden! And here he lives peacefully until 1914 - with what passport? In 1914 he left for the USA and there he lives peacefully until death in the 70s of the 20th century! How did he get a visa if he was a criminal?

Krystyna Potocka in 1908 has around 40, and 9 children. Krystyna in 1946 left for Kenya, to the Tyszkiewiczs. The murderer Siczynski, on 12th of April, shot dead the governor of Galicya, Count Andrzej Potocki.
The murderer is Miroslaw Siczynski, Rusin, a university student. He shot four times. "Glos Warszawski" was realistically reported. Siczynski born in 1887. The bishops Bilczewski and Bandurski also came to the wounded, but Andrzej Potocki died.
Andrzej Potocki was born in 1861.
He attended the High School in Krakow and at the Jagiellonian University, graduated in 1884 with a PhD degree.
Ca 1885 he devoted himself to the diplomatic service and became attache at the Austrian-Hungarian embassy in Madrid. That is intelligence service.
In 1891 he was elected to the parliament, and in 1901 - a member of the House of Lords. In September 1900, Andrzej Potocki was the Marshal of the Galician Parliament.
Soon thereafter, in June 1901, Emperor Franz Joseph appointed him governor of Galicia.
Count Andrew was born in Krzeszowice. Three generations of the Potocki family have combined their biographies with this place.
During the funeral they were present:
the Archduke Karol Stefan from Zywiec; Zamojski with Branicki, Radziwill, from Vienna senior officials; Deputy Emperor Count Cholonewski, president of ministers Baron Beck, minister Bienerth, Korytowski and Abrahamowicz, Stanislaw Tarnowski, Member of the Council of State; cardinal Puzyna, archbishops Bilczewski and Teodorowicz, bishops Pelczar from Przemysl, priest Nowak from Krakow, and the representatives of all Polish territories came.

1908 - Jan Andrzej Miroslaw Siczynski shooting him several times, so Krystyna Potocka went to Vienna for the imperial audiences. Five of the oldest children accompanied her. They asked for the grace of mercy. The governor Michal Bobrzynski, changed the sentence to 20 years in prison. Shortly thereafter, he escaped to Sweden; on November 10, 1911, in Stanislawów / Iwano-Frankowsk, Siczynski escaped from the prison at 4 am. There was a wave of the first speculations, rumors, unbelievable darts about it.

The son of Governor Potocki - Andrzej - born in 1900 - was killed in the September 1939 campaign by Ukrainians in the village Wielkie Oczy.

Krystyna Tyszkiewicz Potocka died 85 years in 1952, in Miali - in Kenya or KONGO.

Miroslaw Siczynski - in 1914 he found himself in the USA, where he died in 1979.

Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz-Lohojska born 13 Jul 1866 in Riga, Latvia.
Daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz-Lohojski. Sister of Jan Tyszkiewicz-Lohojski. Wife of Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki - married 29 Oct 1889 in Vilnius, Lithuania.



Andrzej Potocki died in 1908 =
Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861, died in LWOW, the owner of Krzeszowice, the orderly officer of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria, Andrzej's wife KRYSTYNA Tyszkiewicz Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of ZATOR, ca 1908/1909, and ca 1887/1890 {?} of LUBOSZANY / Lubuszany - 13 km to MIEZONKA

[they had children: Maria Teresa Tyszkiewicz; Izabela Maria Krasinska; Kystyna Siemienska-Lewicka; Adam Wladyslaw Franciszek Potocki; Artur Antoni Bonawentura Hubert Maria Potocki born in 1899 in Krzeszowice close to CRACOW].

But the last owner of BEREZYNA
{Beata Terczynska inf. Maurycy Potocki was the owner of Berezyna in the 80's of 19th cent. ? - but we know Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR and Lubuszany [when ?], and named
Luboszany / LUBUSZANY took Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz, Potocka, of Krzeszowice, 1866-1952!
BEREZYNA belonged to Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880, and to his sons}

before 1916 until Dec. 1918 was Maurycy Stanislaw Potocki b. May 1894 in Jablonna, died in 1949
- the son of August Adam Potocki b. 1847, died in 1905 in Warsaw - the owner of BEREZYNA Ihumenska
{a widow after death of August in 1905 took ZATOR and maybe Berezyna [1905-1909]; she sold Zator in 1908; she sold Berezyna after 1909 to hands of her son - MAURYCY POTOCKI. August Potocki also was the owner of JABLONNA. Next owner of ZATOR in 1908 - Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz of KRZESZOWICE, and her son Adam Potocki, 1896-1966};

the grandson of Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880, the landowner of BEREZYNA

{Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880 - was the owner of BEREZYNA!
In 1880 his son August Potocki took JABLONNA, Zator, and HALF of the BEREZYNA ESTATE.
The second half of named BEREZYNA took August's brother Eustachy Potocki / Eustachy Maurycy Aleksander 1859-1914.
August Potocki - the Austrian citizen - bought in 1890/1891 the second part of BEREZYNA belonged to named Eustachy with Baron Eugeniusz WULF, Klimkiewicz manager, Colonel KOZLOWSKI, and Zaglowski};

the great-grandson of Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778
{the husband of Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Dunin-Wasowicz [the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz b. 1748 in WILNO - Ludwik was the owner of Poloziny in the IHUMEN county and BEREZYNA - LUBOSZANY (Luboszany took his wife Konstancja nee Poniatowska) in 1793 after Sapieha] and Izabella Potocka MOSTOWSKA [her son Stanislaw Potocki Count, ca 1824 - 1887]. Partner of Aleksandra Stokowska};

the great-great-grandson of
Stanislaw Kostka Potocki 1755 - 1821, the FREEMASON.

Above
ANDRZEJ POTOCKI of Krzeszowice,
the son of Adam Józef Mateusz Potocki; died in Krzeszowice in 1872 - acted in STASZOW;
the grandson of Artur Potocki, 1787-1832, the Freemason-TEMPLAR and Zofia Branicka 1790- 1879.
The great-grandson of Jan Nepomucen Potocki 1761-1815, who was the son of Józef Potocki 1735-1802, and the grandson of Stanislaw Potocki 1698-1760 and Helena Zamoyska 1717-1760
and the great-grandson of
Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski - the Smolensk governor, 1679-1735 {see Wilkowo Polskie - Kiedrzynski - Pradzynski - Szoldrski};
Józef Stanislaw Potocki (1673-1751) = Józef Potocki in Cracow in 1748
- who was the son of Andrzej Potocki died in 1691 in Stanislawow;
and the grandson of Stanislaw Potocki Rewera b. 1589 in Podhajce, d. 1667.


Berezyna of Potocki; Luboszany of Potocki
[Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz, Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of LUBUSZANY / Luboshany. Maurycy Stanislaw Potocki (1894 - 1949) was the owner of BEREZYNA],
Kaluzyca of Wankowicz [WITOLD Wankowicz] and Miezonka of Konstantynowicz were the core of Polish underground movement in Belarus at the turn of the centuries, 19th on 20th.


Named Aleksandra Potocka, Aleksandryna (1818-1892), born in Petersburg, as a child of Stanislaw Septym POTOCKI + Katarzyna Branicki;
the granddaughter of Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki.

Stanislaw Potocki died in 1831; then Aleksandryna Potocka was living under care of Zofia, the wife of Artur Potocki - the Templar - in Biala Cerkiew, St Petersburg and Krzeszowice.
ARTUR married to Zofia Countess Branicka, probably granddaughter of Empress Katarzyna II.
He bought a Palace in Cracow; and in Krzeszowice he built a summer residence

{the cousin of General Franciszek Paszkowski - Paszkowski Franciszek (1818-1883), JUNIOR, painter, landowner, deputy to the Galician parliament, economic activist. He was the son of Dominik Paszkowski and Anna Niemojewska (died 1872), the younger brother of Józef Edmund. He learned painting with Rafal Hadziewicz, and then with Wojciech K. Stattler in Cracow, where
he lived with his uncles Franciszek PASZKOWSKI, general, and Wojciech PASZKOWSKI junior, a member of the Galician government in 1809, the manager of the Trzebnica estate and Krzeszowice.

Franciszek Paszkowski - painter - went to Düsseldorf (1838), Dresden and Rome for further studies. He painted religious paintings, and many portraits: his father, brother and uncle, General Franciszek PASZKOWSKI in 1814 [in Warsaw], Tytus Chalubinski, and Antonina Jachowicz.
Compare - MARIA WILHELMINA PASZKOWSKA ARMAND of MOSCOW}.

ARTUR POTOCKI in 1818, became an adept of the 33rd degree of the Scottish Masonic Lodge.

Aleksandryna Potocka became friends with her cousin, Eliza Branicka, the later Eliza was the wife of Zygmunt Krasinski, in 1835 until 1876. Miss Potocka formally remained under the care of Tsar Nicholas I. Around 1836, she became the lady of the imperial court. On her marriage with her cousin August Potocki from Wilanów recalled Jadwiga Dzialynski Zamoyska years later.



TRZEBNIOW of Sebastian Bystrzanowski - Krzeszowice of Artur Potocki:

Sebastian Bystrzanowski inf. in Bystrzanowice in 1783; in Dabrowno in 1783.
Dabrowno - the LELOW parish; near NIEGOWA.

Sebastian Bystrzanowski was the Checiny official (1774-1783), he was the owner of Bebelno / BEBELNO- KOLONIA - north-east to LELOW and 12 km south to WLOSZCZOWA; landlord in Cieletniki in 1792, the owner of Sekursko, south to ZYTNO - in 1761 bought from Józef Bystrzanowski; of Raczkowice and Nowa Wies (in the Kalisz prov.); b. ca 1730, d. 1795.
Cieletniki - 4 km west to SEKURSKO; and close to Zytno. In 1742 - 1761, Cieletniki was owned by Józef Bystrzanowski; then his nephew [the son of his brother] Sebastian Bystrzanowski.

ZYTNO - north-east to Cieletniki - ca 7 km; Zytno is situated north to LELOW.

SEBASTIAN Bystrzanowski - b. ca 1730, d. 1795 - married to Magdalena Soltyk b. ca 1750, the daughter of Maciej Soltyk 1720-1780 and Salomea Nakwaska 1728-1778.

Emilia maybe was the daughter of named Sebastian and Magdalena Bystrzanowski-Soltyk or of KAJETAN BYSTRZANOWSKI?
Emilia was born ca 1775/1780. Emilia Bystrzanowska married Wojciech Paszkowski b. 1780 - he was the half- brother of General Franciszek Paszkowski. Magdalena Bystrzanowska was the sister of
Józef Soltyk - MP and the official in Zawichost (1786-1795), 1750-1803,
who married twice:
1. Józefa Urbanska,
2. Justyna Kalinowska b. ca 1750.
Justyna's parents:
Ignacy Kalinowski b. ca 1710 + Justyna Borzecka b. ca 1720.
Justyna's sisters:
1. Agnieszka Kalinowska b. ca 1750,
2. Franciszka Kalinowska b. ca 1760/1765 + Olszewski / OLSZOWSKI.
3. Józefa Kalinowska b. ca 1750 + Jan Sadel Sadlo + 2nd time to Glogowski,
4. Antonina Kalinowska b. ca 1750 + Ludwik Walewski.
Justyna's brother:
Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759 + Elzbieta Bielska.

And again back to
Wojciech Paszkowski born in 1780, the son of Jan Paszkowski b. 1742, and Petronela Paszkowska born Kulikowska. Petronela was born ca 1755. Wojciech had 2 brothers [or more]: Dominik Paszkowski and General Franciszek. Wojciech married [ca 1805 ?] 1st Emilia Paszkowska born Bystrzonowska / Bystrzanowski. Emilia Bystrzanowska was born in Brody [here was born General Franciszek Paszkowski].


Note to TRZEBNIOW:

Nearby Gorzków Nowy owned by Bystrzanowski, ca 1730 - ca 1770; at half way from Trzebniow to Bystrzanowice-Dwor.
New Gorzkow-Trzebniow parish cover the area: Gorzków Nowy, Gorzków Stary, Góry Gorzkowskie, Ludwinów and Trzebniów. 1739 - 1763 Gorzków paid to the Bystrzanowski chapel in Lelow.

Ludwinow - 3 km north-east to TRZEBNIOW; west to Gorzkow Nowy. In Ludwinow, Ludwina Martyniewicz lived.
Bystrzanowice - 9 km north-west to LELOW:
1385-1833 in Bystrzanowice, the Bystrzanowski family had their headquarters. 1680 - Andrzej and Marcin Bystrzanowski; 1783 until 1791 - Sebastian Bystrzanowski, the official in Checiny; he bought Cieletniki, and moved home there. 1833-1852 owned by Wincenty Komornicki. Then to Wincenty Krasinski (1852-1878), and after him - Count Raczynski (1878-1945).

Bystrzanowice - Sebastian Bystrzonowski shared the village with Sulewski / Sulejowski. Sebastian Bystrzanowski b. ca 1730, d. 1795 - was the son of Karol Bystrzanowski the official in Checiny, 1710-1752 + Apolonia Misiowska.
SEBASTIAN Bystrzanowski married to Magdalena Soltyk b. ca 1750, the daughter of Maciej Soltyk 1720-1780 and Salomea Nakwaska 1728-1778


Luboszany / Libushany / LIBUSZANY is situated close to MIEZONKA [Libuszany is 13 km west- north-west to noble Miezonka locality, the gentry area; Miezonka village is 2 km yet further. Libushany - 12 km east to Kaplancy, and 6 km east to Milastava / MILOSTOW], Berezyna [south-east], Pohost [south-east] and Kozlowy Brzeg / Kozlowyj Bierieh [south-west to Kozlowy Brzeg] in BELARUS !

Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Tyszkiewicz, I voto Potocka, II voto Dunin-Wasowicz, was the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, and Konstancja Poniatowski, the king's niece
[Konstancja Poniatowska Tyszkiewicz, 1759-1830; was the niece to
the King, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, who had a brother KAZIMIERZ Poniatowski born 1721].

Konstancja was the daughter of Apolonia Ustrzycka, 1736-1814, and Duke Kazimierz Poniatowski (1721-1800), General, the brother of named King, Stanislaw August Poniatowski.

The brother of mentioned Konstancja was Stanislaw Poniatowski (1754 - 1833); the sister - Katarzyna Poniatowska b. 1760.
Konstancja in 1775 married Ludwik Tyszkiewicz (1750-1808), MP, the Lithuanian Marshal in 1793.

Konstancja's daughter:
Anna Tyszkiewicz (1776-1867), m. Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki in 1805 in Wilno, with 3 children: Natalia Potocka, Maurycy Potocki and August Potocki.

Anna Tyszkiewicz (1776-1867), grew up in Bialystok under the care of a French governess at the court of her cousin, Izabela Branicka, the sister of King Stanislaw August PONIATOWSKI.

Anna Tyszkiewicz married Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki, the son of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki. Her second marriage with Dunin-Wasowicz, Adjutant of Emperor Napoleon I.

Above Stanisław Wąsowicz - Dunin b. in 1785 in Wołyn / Volhynia, died in 1864 in Paris, General in 1831, Count. In 1831 - moved out to ZATOR.

Above Count Ludwik Tyszkiewicz (1748 - 1808), took in 1793 Berezyna - Luboszany / Lubuszany, close to MIEZONKA.

Mentioned
Stanislaw Kostka Potocki b. 1755 in Lublin, Count in 1820, Senator in 1807, the Freemason, Prime Minister. The son of Eustachy Potocki.

Eustachy Potocki (1720 - 1768 in Radzyn Podlaski), Lithuanian General in 1759, Crown General- Lieutenant in 1752; the son of Jerzy Potocki;
the grandson of Feliks Kazimierz Potocki.
Named
Feliks Kazimierz Potocki (1630 - 1702), the Commander of the Lithuanian Army; the Cracow governor in 1683, in Kiev in 1682, Sieradz in 1669 [see below on his brother ANDRZEJ POTOCKI].

FELIKS Potocki was the son of Stanislaw Rewera Potocki;
Feliks Potocki was the brother of Andrzej Potocki.

Named Stanislaw Potocki Rewera (1589 in Podhajce - 1667 in Lwow), the Commander of the Polish Crown Army in 1654.


We back now to
CAPTAIN Wojciech Paszkowski, 1780 - 1856, the brother of famous General Franciszek Paszkowski [close to the TEMPLARS - in Cracow] who was the friend of General Tadeusz Kosciuszko [Kosciuszko was the friend of Thomas Jefferson b. 1743 - Illuminati].
Wojciech Paszkowski, 1780 - 1856, was the plenipotentiary [1821-1832] of Artur Potocki / Artur Stanislaw Potocki
(b. 1787 in Paris / Paryz, died in 1832 in Wien / Wieden - Artur Potocki, the Templar masonic degree, in 1830-1832 in CRACOW closely cooperated with GENERAL FRANCISZEK PASZKOWSKI in The Committee for the Reconstruction of the Krakow Castle in the Free City of Krakow and its District (1830 - 1836). The Committee, whose work was supervised by Maciej Rembowski, the first - only nominal president was Count Artur Potocki - followed by general Franciszek Paszkowski, was never formally resolved, his activity decreased in 1833, and from 1836 his last documents came),
Napoleonic officer.

In 1818, Artur Potocki became an adept of the 33rd degree of the Scottish Masonic Lodge.
Wojciech Paszkowski was Commissioner General to Artur Potocki.

ARTUR POTOCKI married to Zofia Countess Branicka, probably granddaughter of Empress Katarzyna II.

Artur Stanislaw Potocki (b. 1787) -
a Napoleonic officer, the son of the writer and traveler Jan Potocki, and Julia Potocka nee Lubomirski b. 1767 in PARIS

{JAN POTOCKI was the son of Józef Potocki b. 1735, d. 1802, Wien;
the grandson of Stanislaw Potocki 1698 - 1760;
the great-grandson of Józef Potocki 1673 - 1751;
the great-great-grandson of
Andrzej Potocki died in 1691 / 1692 in Stanislawow - see above on his brother FELIKS POTOCKI}.

{SKNILOW - close to LWOW. In 1744 belonged to Katarzyna Kossakowska nee POTOCKA

(KATARZYNA bought Stanislawów in 1771 from hands of Józef Potocki. She was born 1716 or 30 April 1722, d. March 21, 1803 in Krystynopol. The political activist of the second half of the eighteenth century, she was the daughter of
Jerzy Potocki d. 1747, and Konstancja Podbereska-Drucka, 1st voto Zamoyska.
On May 24, 1744, she married her cousin, Stanislaw Kossakowski 1721-1761.
She was the granddaughter of Feliks Kazimierz Potocki 1630-1702

[FELIKS's brother - Andrzej Potocki, junior, died in 1691/1692 in STANISLAWOW - see above !],

and Krystyna Lubomirska;
and great-granddaughter of Stanislaw Rewera Potocki 1589-1667;
great-great-granddaughter of Senior Andrzej Potocki, Lieutenant + ZOFIA PIASECKA)}.


Note to
Hieronim Florian Radziwill married:
1. Teresa Sapieha on September 9, 1740

[Teresa Potocka Sapieha Radziwill born in 1715, d. 1784,
the daughter of Józef Franciszek Sapieha died in Pratulin 25 km north-west to Brzesc Litewski; north-east to Biala Podlaska {the Pratulin estate included ROKITNO 17 km north-east to GRABANOW !}, was born ca 1670.
The granddaughter of Franciszek Stefan Sapieha born ca 1647;
the great-granddaughter of Pawel Jan Sapieha born in 1609
- the son of Jan Piotr Sapieha b. 1569 in BYCHOW.

Named PAWEL JAN Sapieha passed on to his sons in 1665:

Kazimierz Jan Sapieha - the godfather was LEON SAPIEHA - took Szkudy, Kretynga, Szawel, Ikazn, Druja, Sapiezyn, Oswiej / Oswieja, Ormiej, BYCHOW, Wolpin.

Benedykt Pawel Sapieha took CZERCIA, LUBOSZANY + Berezyna; Wojskie, Siemiatycze, RETOW.

Franciszek Stefan Sapieha - Tronienice, BOCKI, LACHOWICZE.
Leon Bazyli SAPIEHA - ROZANA / Rozanna, Kossow / Kosow Poleski, Lewpun, Poniemun];

2. Magdalena Czapska in October 1745 in Warsaw;
3. and Aniela Miaczynska on January 1, 1755.


In the 19th century Luboszany / Lubuszany - 13 km to Miezonka - belonged to the Potockis (in 1793 to Konstancja Tyszkiewicz nee Poniatowska, 1759-1830).
The map concern the dispute between Luboszany's estate belonging to Konstancja Poniatowski married Tyszkiewicz and Przyborka's estate belonging to Jerzy Massalski
(see - Jerzy Niepokojczycki in 1825. Duke Aleksander Ludgard Massalski, b. 1808 in Jewsjewicze in the Ilhumen county; the son of Teofil Jakub Massalski b. 1768, and Franciszka Zabiello b. 1770. Ludgard married Emilia RITZE. Ludgard had the brother - Jerzy Bernard Massalski born 1802. Compare - MIORY, 20 km to Druja - belonged to Massalski, and the Castle of Druja in the 19th century.

Jewsjewicze = Wiejsieje - at present in Lithuania, west to Lejpuny, 25 km east to SEJNY, 19 km south to Swietojeziory, south-east to LOZDZIEJE:
Massalski Michal Józef (bef. 1700-1768), the son of Jan Massalski + Joanna Wollowicz. The parents died in 1706 in Prussia. Jan was the owner of Wiejsieje, Olekszyce, Bulkowo and Narewka;
his grandmother was Marianna Anna Oginski;
in 1737, he was the governor of MSCISLAW.
His sons: Kazimierz Adrian died after 1777; Józef; Jan; Ignacy. His daughters: Teresa; Marianna; Katarzyna married Józef Niesiolowski of Nowogródek.
We back again to
Massalski Michal Józef (b. before 1700 or in 1697 - 1768), Commander of the Lithuanian army, he was the grandson of Marianna Anna nee Oginska.
His wife in 1724, was Franciszka nee Oginska, of Troki, died in 1750; she owned
Rawanicze [the BEREZYNA parish; see SLOTWINSKI - Ravanichy around 24 km north-west to BEREZYNA] and Drecheza,
part of Indura [south of Grodno], Swislocz [south to Indura], Hrayne,
Wiejsiejki [Wiejsieje - 21 km south-east to LAZDZIEJE], Strunne, Mohylno,
Kolpin [Kolpina is 30 km north-west to POLOCK],
Dukoza, Dryczyn [Dereczyn east-north to Indura] and Berzniki [east of SEJNY].
Franciszka nee Oginska, of Troki, married Massalska, in 1748 convey land possessions to sons.

JAN MASSALSKI was the owner of Wiejsieje, Olekszyce, Bulkowo and Narewka.
Jan Mikolaj Massalski 1728-1763 buried in WIEJSIEJE, was the son of Michal Józef Massalski 1697-1768 and Franciszka Oginska, 1690-1750.
In Wiejsieje the church was built in 1767 - 1817 by Massalski and Wiktoria Oginska Zyniew. Here Tadeusz Oginski (d. 1844) was buried. Zyniew transformed the town of Wejsieje into a village. Title Count of ZYNIEW in the Kingdom of Prussia in 1798 for Mateusz Zyniew and in Poland in 1817-1824 for Wiktoria Zyniew nee Oginska, his wife. Extinct 1830 at her death.
After the death of Zyniew, the DUMBEL estate passed into the hands of the Oginski in 1822 [WIKTORIA was the owner of Wiejsieje and next also of DUMBEL].
Earl Zyniew was married to Oginska, a princess, but when she was childless, the estate of WIEJSIEJE passed to Tadeusz Oginski of Kozielsk, a Prince, died in 1844 [his wife died 1897 - Maria Tekla von Rönne, Oginska].

Both above maps [Luboszany's estate belonging to Konstancja Poniatowski married Tyszkiewicz and Przyborka's estate belonging to Jerzy Massalski] were prepared on 30 July 1818.
There is a map of the properties of Poloziny / Palozhyna, located in the Ihumen county, belonging to Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, which in the 19th century became the property of the Potocki family. The map was made in 1778 by a sworn geographer, Józef Zochowski: Berezina, bridges and carriage on the Berezina River were marked. The map shows
Polozin / PALOZYNA / Palozhyna / POLOZHINO (4 km west to Berezyna and 25 km south-east to Rawanicze / Ravanichy; 23 km south to KALUZYCE),
situated between the river Berezina and the river Troscianka, bordering (?) the Luboszany estate, Niehonicze / NIAGONICHY (9 km south-west to Berezyna / Berazino), Lohi and the Borysów land.

In 1793 Berezyno / Berezyna / Berazino was taken by Tyszkiewicz, then to POTOCKI.

Princess Konstancja Poniatowska (1759-1830) was a niece of king Stanislaw August Poniatowski. Konstancja was the daughter of Kazimierz Poniatowski and Apolonia Ustrzycka, and married Ludwik Tyszkiewicz in 1775 in Warsaw. She was one of the closest friends of the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord was Napoleon's chief diplomat during the years of the French hegemony. Talleyrand attended the Estates-General of 1789, representing the clergy, the First Estate. During the French Revolution, Talleyrand strongly supported the anti-clericalism of the revolutionaries. He assisted Mirabeau in the appropriation of Church properties.
Mentioned
Apolonia Ustrzycka (1736 - 1814) was the sister-in-law of the King of Poland, Stanislaw August Poniatowski. She was the daughter of Bazyli Ustrzycki and Katarzyna Zielonka. She married Prince Antoni Lubomirski in 1749, and Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski in 1751. She became the mother of Stanislaw, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania, and above Konstancja Poniatowska.
Apolonia's second husband was one of the clients of Henrietta Lullier.

Henrietta Zofia Puszet Lullier (1716 - 1802, Warsaw), was a French fortune teller. She was the influential favorite of king Stanislaw August Poniatowski of Poland and his brother Kazimierz Poniatowski. In 1753, she was the mistress of Stanislaw August Poniatowski during his visit to Paris. In 1754, she married Augustus Louis Lullier, who was employed in the court of Augustus III of Poland, and settled with him in Poland. She resumed her contact with Poniatowski, who was elected king of Poland. In 1765, the king's brother bought her a house; she was also a diplomatic agent to the Russian diplomat Nicholas Repnin and the Prussian diplomat Gedeon Benoit.

Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski (1721 - 1800) was Lieutenant general of the Royal Polish forces. He was the eldest of the children of Princess Konstancja Czartoryska and of Count Stanislaw Poniatowski.
His siblings were:
Stanislaw Antoni Poniatowski (1732-1798), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1764-1795);
Andrzej Poniatowski (1734-1773), an Austrian Feldmarschall;
Michal Jerzy Poniatowski (1736–94), Primate of Poland [see MALESZEWSKI, Venture de Paradise; Breguet; Duflon and Konstantynowicz].

KAZIMIERZ Poniatowski was a great-grandson of the poet, Jan Andrzej Morsztyn and through his great- grandmother, Catherine Gordon, lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga, he was related to the House of Stuart [see TEMPLARS in France and Scotland].
1751, he married Apollonia Ustrzycka (1736 - 1814), by whom he had Princess Konstancja Poniatowska who in 1775 married Ludwik Tyszkiewicz (1748 - 1808), next they were owners of BEREZYNA and LUBOSZANY.

Above
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz born 1748 in Vilnius - d. 1808, was a Field Lithuanian Commander in 1780 to 1791, Great Lithuanian Treasurer from 1791, Great Lithuanian Marshal in 1793; he married Konstancja Poniatowska, the daughter of Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski, in Warsaw in 1775. Their daughter Anna married Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki.

Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was a Polish politician. He was the senator of the Polish Kingdom in 1824 and chamberlain of Napoleon I.
He married Anna Tyszkiewicz (with whom he had August; Maurycy [Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880, the landowner of BEREZYNA] and Natalia Potocka).
In 1823 he entered into a marriage with Izabella Mostowska, with whom he had Stanislaw Potocki junior. Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was involved in a romance with a widow, Aleksandra Stokowska.
In 1802 was made a Knight of Malta.

Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was the son of the third Prime Minister of Poland, Count Stanislaw Kostka Potocki, the FREEMASON, and his wife Aleksandra Lubomirska. Stanislaw Kostka Potocki was the son of General Eustachy Potocki and Anna Katska, and was a brother of Ignacy Potocki.
Eustachy Potocki b. 1720 and died in 1768 in Radzyn Podlaski.
EUSTACHY was a grandson of Feliks Kazimierz POTOCKI,
and the son of Jerzy Potocki (died in 1747).

Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778

{the husband of Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia TYSZKIEWICZ, Dunin-Wasowicz [the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz b. 1748 in WILNO - the owner of Poloziny in the IHUMEN county and BEREZYNA - LUBOSZANY in 1793 after Sapieha] and Izabella Potocka MOSTOWSKA [her son Stanislaw Potocki Count, ca 1824 - 1887]. Partner of Aleksandra Stokowska}.

We back to
Krystyna Potocka of LUBUSZANY, ZATOR and Krzeszowice.
Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz, Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of LUBUSZANY / Luboshany. But Maurycy Stanislaw Potocki (1894 - 1949) was the owner of BEREZYNA. Krystyna was the wife of ANDRZEJ POTOCKI.
Her father was
Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN.

Below the branch of
Krystyna Tyszkiewicz-Lohojska of LUBUSZANY, 1866-1952, m. Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki, the Galicja governor - born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861.

Maciej Soltyk 1720-1780, Salomea Nakwaska 1728-1778, Aleksander Michal Pawel Sapieha 1730-1793, Agnieszka Magdalena Anna Lubomirska both were the grandparents of Konstancja Soltyk.
The parents of named Konstancja SOLTYK: Stanislaw Soltyk 1752-1833 and Karolina Sapieha, 1759-1814.

Konstancja Soltyk 1794-1836 m. Ludwik Anastazy Stanislaw Lempicki, senator, 1791-1871,
with
great-grandson:
Edward Cezar Marian Broel-Plater, 1871-1958 who married in 1900, Waka, to Janina Tyszkiewicz-Lohojska, 1877-1928, the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz, 1831-1892 + Iza Hortensja Adelajda Tyszkiewicz.

Above JANINA:
parents - Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz 1831-1892 Iza Hortensja Adelajda Tyszkiewicz, 1836-1907.
Mentioned
Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz
had also the oldest daughter
Krystyna Tyszkiewicz the owner of LUBUSZANY, 1866-1952, m. Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki, the Galicja governor. Andrzej Potocki / Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861, died in LWOW, the owner of Krzeszowice, the orderly officer of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria. Andrzej's wife KRYSTYNA Tyszkiewicz Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of ZATOR, ca 1908/1909, and ca 1887/1890 {?} of LUBOSZANY / Lubuszany - 13 km to MIEZONKA - ANDRZEJ was the grandson of Artur Potocki 1787-1832, the TEMPLAR; the great-grandson of Jan Nepomucen Potocki.
Andrzej's daughter was
Katarzyna Iza Maria Potocka 1890-1977, married Leon Aleksander Adam Sapieha, 1883-1944,
the son of
Wladyslaw Leon Adam Sapieha 1853-1920,
the great-grandson of
Leon Sapieha, 1802-1878,
who was the great-grandson of
Ignacy Józef Piotr Sapieha 1702-1758; Józef Aleksander Jablonowski 1711-1777; Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski 1679-1735; Stanislaw Kostka Czartoryski 1700-1766; Anna Krasicka, 1707-1758; Karolina Teresa Pia Radziwill 1707-1765; Anna Teresa Dzialynska; Anna Józefa Rybinska.

Above IGNACY SAPIEHA:
Ignacy Józef Piotr Sapieha 1702-1758
the son of
Wladyslaw Jozafat Sapieha b. 1652 in Kossow / Kosow Poleski, d. 1733, the Brzesc Litewski governor and of MINSK;
the grandson of
Krzysztof Franciszek Sapieha b. 1623,
was the great-grandson of
Fryderyk Sapieha b. bef. 1599, the MSCISLAV governor;
The great-great-grandson of
Mikolaj Michajlowicz Sapieha b. ca 1560, MP. The great-grandson of Bohdan Sapieha, b. ca 1470; Bohdan Semenowicz Sapieha was the brother of Iwan.
Semen b. ca 1440. Semen Sopiha came from Sunigajlo.


Aleksander Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1775, was the great-grandson of Jerzy Stanislaw Sapieha, 1668-1732

[the Mscislaw governor in 1732, with the son Antoni Kazimierz Sapieha, 1689 - 1739 in Dereczyn, in 1734 jailed by Russians. And the daughter of named Jerzy Stanislaw:
Benedykta Sapieha d. 1724, m. 1716 to Jerzy Tyszkiewicz died in 1735,
with the son - Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1717-1790.
Jozef married twice:
1736 to Benedykta Oginska the daughter of Marcin Michal Oginski 1672-1750;
2nd to Anna Pociej, 1720-1783, the daughter of Aleksander Pociej d. 1770,
with 2 sons:
Aleksander Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1775, and
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army, d. 1808
with daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776-1867 {see below !}],

who was the son of Kazimierz Jan Pawel Sapieha + Krystyna Hlebowicz,
and was grandson of Pawel Jan Sapieha (1609-1665), the owner of Luboszany and Berezyna / Berezino.

Aleksander's brother was Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1808 {see above !}, who married Dss Konstancja Poniatowska, the owner of BEREZYNO-LUBOSZANY, 1759-1830, the daughter of Kazimierz Jakub Poniatowski 1721-1800; with daughter
Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1779-1867, the owner of BEREZYNO-Luboszany + Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845 [Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was the son of the third Prime Minister of Poland, Count Stanislaw Kostka Potocki, the FREEMASON, and his wife Aleksandra Lubomirska. Stanislaw Kostka Potocki was the son of General Eustachy Potocki and Anna Katska, and was a brother of Ignacy Potocki],
with the son August Aleksander Potocki, 1805-1867 + Aleksandra Julia Potocka, 1818-1892.


In 1784, the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski, who left Grodno, with Bishop Adam Naruszewicz, arrived at Sapieha's Rózana

{ROZANA was owned by Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA - compare above on SOLTYK - b. 1730 in Wysokie - died in 1793 in Warsaw. A protegee of Józef Stanislaw Sapieha [Józef Stanislaw Sapieha - the son of Aleksander Pawel SAPIEHA, and Maria Krystyna de Bethune, daughter of Franciszek Gaston de Bethune, niece of queen Maria Kazimiera. The brother of Kazimierz Leon Sapieha and Michal Antoni Sapieha], b. 1708 in Gdansk [Stanislaw Leszczynski was the godfather of Józef Stanislaw Sapieha]

[Józef Stanislaw Sapieha taken care on Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA in 1738/1740; Bishop Jozef Stanislaw Sapieha send Aleksander Michal Sapieha to LUBARTOW to school. In 1754 under care of uncle Michal Antoni Sapieha. Aleksander supported Adam Chmara / Adam Michal Chmara born in 1720, the governor of MINSK, in 1784 until 1793.

Aleksander MICHAL Sapieha owned in 1740-1754 Punsk; Mscibow in 1759; Olsztyn close to LELOW ca 1773; Wysokie close to Brzesc Litewski; Druja in the BRASLAW county; Wiazyn in Volhynia; ZELWA close to Wolkowysk, and a part of Dubrovna in the Orsha county until 1781/1783; since 1766 after the brother MICHAL Sapieha, took the estates of Michal Antoni Sapieha d. 1760 - Stary Bychow, Nowy Bychow + Bakalabowce, DOBOSNA in the Rzeczyca county; Dereczyn and Ostrow in the Slonim county; HOLYNKA in the Orsha county, Czerlona, Lawno and Lunne Wola in the Grodno county; ROZANA in the Slonim county; with his wife he had also Mniszew in the Czersk district; and the palace in Warsaw; Sielec ?].

BEREZYNA - ca 1550 belonged to the Sapieha family, in the Ihumen county. In 1633/1641 the Duke Kazimierz Leon Sapieha b. 1609 in BRZESC LITEWSKI, d. 1656, built a wooden Catholic Church [Kazimierz Leon Sapieha in Bereza Kartuska founded the convent in 1648]. Kazimierz Leon Sapieha was the son of Lew Sapieha [see below !]. Kazimierz was studied abroad. LEW Sapieha in 1617 met Polish King Wladyslaw Waza in ROZANA.

Kazimierz's brother was Krzysztof Mikolaj Sapieha b. 1607; and the half-brother was Jan Stanislaw Sapieha b. 1589. Berezyno in 1793 incorporated into Russia. Berezyna belonged to the LUBOSZANY / Libushany estate.

By Wikipedia: "Sapieha owned the town until partition took place in 1793, and Berezino was granted by Empress Ekaterina II to Count Ludwik Tyszkiewicz. From him, the Berezino estate went to his daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz (married 1st time Potocka, 2nd time Wasowicz.) Anna Tyszkiewicz-Potocka-Wasowicz ... built the Palace well before 1850. She was starting a carpet factory in Horenichi village, but the investment didn't survive for long. The town was under French/Polish command in 1812. ... The town was in Potocki ... family possession well until June 1920... Last owner of Berezino was Count Antoni Ludwik Potocki."

Brief note on Lew Sapieha, b. 1557 in Ostrowna, the Great Secretary of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1580, Great Clerk of the Grand Duchy in 1581, Court Chancellor in 1585, Grand Chancellor from 1589 until 1623. LEW died in 1633 in Wilno. His children: Katarzyna Sapieha, Krzysztof Sapieha, Jan Stanislaw Sapieha, Andrzej Sapieha; Anna Sapieha, Krzysztof Michal Sapieha, Kazimierz Leon Sapieha. LEW was the son of Iwan Sapieha died ca 1580 + Bohdana Drucka Konopka [IWAN had also a son HREHORY. Iwan junior was the son of Iwan Sapieha SENIOR, b. 1486, d. ca 1546 + Teodora Drucka Babicz d. 1519 - see below !].

Named above Pawel Jan Sapieha (1609-1665), was the son Jan Piotr Sapieha (1569 in BYCHOW - 1611 in MOSCOW), the grandson of Pawel Sapieha (the KIEV governor; b. 1546 - died in 1580), and the great-grandson of IWAN SAPIEHA + HANNA SANGUSZKO [Iwan Bohdanowicz Sapieha SENIOR, b. 1486, d. ca 1546, had 2 sons: PAWEL and IWAN junior - see above !].

Aleksander's daughter - ANNA SANGUSZKO; but you remember on Anna Katarzyna Sanguszko Radziwill, b. 1676, the daughter of Hieronim Sanguszko and Konstancja Sapieha Sanguszko.

Hanna Teofila Potocka-Sanguszko-Kowelska Sapieha b. 1758 the daughter of Duke Aleksander Michal Pawel Sapieha b. 1730. Hanna = Anna SAPIEHA b. 1758. d. 1813 - was the wife of Seweryn Potocki, and Duke Hieronim Janusz Sanguszko, with children: Julia Caboga; Leon Potocki, and Paulina Lubienska. Hanna / Anna was the sister of Kazimierz Michal Sapieha; Karolina Soltyk; Maria Katarzyna Sapieha; Amelia Emilia Jelska; Adam Romuald Sapieha. Hanna = Anna SAPIEHA b. 1758. d. 1813 was the half sister of Nil Sapieha, Konstancja ZWAN and Michal Cichocki, General, 1770 - 1828. Michal Mikolaj Cichocki was a member of the Masonic lodge, the Slavic Unity.

Aleksander Sapieha became the governor of Plock in 1753; the son of Kazimierz Leon Sapieha and Karolina Teresa PIA Radziwill. He married Magdalena Agnieszka Sapieha in 1756. She was known as the mistress of king Stanislaw August Poniatowski and had the son with him, Michal Cichocki, in 1770. Magdalena Agnieszka Lubomirska Sapieha also was lover of the son of Henryk Brühl - Alojzy BRUHL.

Kazimierz Leon Karol Sapieha, b. 1697 in Warsaw; d. 1738 in WSCHOWA, the son of Aleksander Pawel Sapieha born in Warsaw in 1672, the grandson of Kazimierz Jan Sapieha b. 1637/1742, Duke in 1700, commanded the Lithuanian Army},

greeted by
Paradowski,
Lady Bystrzyna [Bystrzanowska ?]

{Ms Bystrzanowska ? - b. ca 1730/1740. Note on Bystrzanowski:
Karol Bystrzanowski Szafraniec, the Checiny official; born ca 1692 or ca 1700/1710-1752 and Apolonia Misiowska.
KAROL's children:
1. Kajetan Bystrzanowski the official of Podole (1760 - compare on Brody in Podole - Paszkowski), in Radom (1765); MP, Count in 1801, the Busk official (1785-1786), in Malogoszcz (1786-1795), in Piotrków (1761) and Radom (1784); 1730-1807 + Marianna Marcjanna Mlodzianowska; 2nd to Katarzyna Grodzicka.
2. Sebastian Bystrzanowski, of the Checiny (1774-1783) official; again in Checiny (1757 and 1765); 1730-1795 + Magdalena Soltyk [note - Kiedrzynski and Paszkowski].
3. Kamilia Bystrzanowski or Domicela Szafraniec-Bystrzonowska born ca 1730 / 1735; m. Michal Czarnocki; 2nd married to Feliks de Valois Skorupka. Her granddaughter [great-granddaughter ?] Anna / Antonila or Antonilia Czarnocka 2nd, died in Paris 1899 and she writes his wealth on the foundations of the Hotel Lambert in Paris.
4. Klemens Bystrzonowski, the Checiny official (1764), b. 1730 - 1774 + Antonila Czarnocka 1st, b. ca 1735 {maybe his unknown son after 1774 / 1776 in France and in August 1776 in USA ??}.
5. Michal Bystrzonowski at the Royal court (1761); b. 1740/1742-1798 + Katarzyna Borzyslawska b. ca 1730/1740 - with the son:
Kazimierz Szafraniec-Bystrzanowski, 1764-1840 [Freemason of the Lodge 'Przesad Zwyciezony'] married ca 1795/1796, Anna Russocka 1775/1780-1844 with:
Ludwik Tadeusz Bystrzanowski, 1797-1878 [Freemason of the Lodge 'Przesad Zwyciezony' (in 1818 ?)]; Liberata Bystrzanowska b. 1800; Kamila Szafraniec-Bystrzanowska b. ca 1800.

Karol Szafraniec-Bystrzanowski of Checiny, born ca 1692 or ca 1710-1752, + Apolonia Misiowska {Bystrzanowice - Sebastian Bystrzonowski shared the village with Sulewski / Sulejowski. Sebastian Bystrzanowski b. ca 1730, d. 1795 - was the son of Karol Bystrzanowski the official in Checiny, 1692/1710-1752 + Apolonia Misiowska} b. ca 1712.
Karol Bystrzanowski Szafraniec, the Checiny official; born ca 1692 or b. ca 1700/1710-1752, the owner of BEBELNO, and Wegleszyn. He had a brothers:
Antoni Bystrzanowski, and Jozef died 1717.
Named Antoni Bystrzanowski was born ca 1691; the Checiny official in 1736-1746; died 1754, the owner of Wegleszyn, Rembiechow, Debiny; married Katarzyna Kochowska, with children:
Pawel Bystrzanowski b. ca 1725; Jan Bystrzanowski b. ca 1730/1740 [we know on Jan Bystrzanowski, the Mscislaw official ca 1790]; Mikolaj Bystrzanowski born ca 1740; Katarzyna Rozycka; Anna Gawlikowska.

Above Karol Bystrzanowski, Jozef Bystrzanowski, and Antoni Bystrzanowski were the sons of JAN Bystrzanowski, b. ca 1660. Jan Bystrzanowski married Helena Grabkowska. They owned Ostrow close to Checiny. Since 1703 they were owners of Wegleszyn [until 1861 to Bystrzanowski] close to Checiny. Jan Bystrzanowski, junior, come from Jan Bystrzanowski senior, born ca 1600/1620, m. Zofia Maj.
Jan Bystrzanowski b. ca 1660, had a brother Aleksander Bystrzanowski b. ca 1640.
Aleksander Bystrzanowski senior had a son Aleksander Bystrzanowski junior, b. ca 1680, m. Barbara Opocka, with the son: Pawel Bystrzanowski b. 1720 - d. 1783.
Pawel Bystrzanowski was the Czernichow official and he owned Dzbany, and Przyborowice / Przeborowice - south-west to Opatow. Pawel's brothers:
Wojciech Bystrzanowski; Jozef Bystrzanowski, Lieutenant Jan Bystrzanowski - inf. in 1782 in Radom, m. Mlodzianowska.
Pawel's [+ Agnieszka Grzymala] sons:
1. Franciszek Bystrzanowski b. 1750, d. 1815 in Sedziszow; 2. Stefan Bystrzanowski b. ca 1752, d. 1808; 3. Stanislaw Bystrzanowski b. ca 1754, the official in WISLICA in 1792 + Wiktoria LUBANSKA.
Above Franciszek Bystrzanowski:
owner of Lowina / Lownia [Lowina], and the official in Checiny in 1769 until 1810; m. Joanna Laskowska in 1775 in Zlotniki, with 3 or 4 daughters:
Katarzyna Fink, Komornicka; Anna Starowieyska, Witkowska; Joanna; Aleksandra Zrebicka;
and above Franciszek's sons:
1. Izydor Bystrzanowski b. after 1777, the owner of Lownia [Lowina / Lowinia, close to Jedrzejow and south to Naglowice; and north-east to Sedziszow - east to Szczekociny and Lelow] since 1807 + Ludwika LINOWSKA with a daughter Xawera / Ksawera Bystrzanowska, born 1808;
2. Maksymilian Bystrzanowski in WEGRZYNOW [13 km north to Strawczyn, and north-west to Kielce] - inf. in 1837 in the Polish Kingdom + Magdalena KONARSKA [Maksymilian Bystrzonowski and Magdalena Konarska, in Kraków; they came from the Lowina estate close to Sedziszów]}

with her son in low, Niepokojczycki;
also with Chmara [Aleksander Michal Sapieha supported ADAM CHMARA for the offices. Below more of different Chmara],
and Grabowski, the head of the Lithuanian Guard;
Lady Puzyna; Ms Slizien;
Polubinska, of Slonim;
Koscina; and Bychowiec;
inviting to the palace by
Ladies Ober; Niepokojczycka; Grabowska, Wolkowa.

Rózana 28 km north-west to Kosow Poleski; and
Mereczowszczyzna - 3 km north-west to KOSOW POLESKI / Kossow!
25 km to Rozana !
Named
Adam Michal Chmara
born in 1720, died 1805, the governor of Minsk (1784-1793), in 1779, the member of the Perpetual Council, marshal of the Grand Court of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, member of the Targowica Confederation, in 1792.

Mentioned above
Regiment of the Horse Guards of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania:
Stanislaw Ignacy Radziwill, general lieutenant, chamberlain (1759-1764);
Major General Michal Grabowski (1765-1786);
General Major Mikolaj Radziwill (1786-1790).

Above Niepokojczycka, the wife of foreman.

Bystrzynski came from Poznan. In KOBYLIN, 7 km south-east to CZELUSCIN, south-east to Gostyn; west to Krotoszyn at way to RAWICZ: Stanislaw Bystrzynski b. ca 1850, the son of Antoni Bystrzynski and Elzbieta.


The Grabowski - Kosciuszko branch:

Elzbieta Grabowska b. 1748 or 1749, d. 1810 in Warsaw, the daughter of Teodor Kajetan Szydlowski the official in PLOCK, and Teresa Witkowska.
Elzbieta married Jan Jerzy Grabowski (d. 1789) with:
Michal Grabowski, Aleksandra Grabowska, Kazimierz Grabowski.

Elzbieta married 2nd Stanislaw August Poniatowski, with:
Kazimierz Grabowski,
Stanislaw Grabowski [see below],
Izabela Grabowska.
Elzbieta Grabowska nee Szydlowska m. Jan Jerzy Grabowski (b. ca 1730, died in 1789 or in 1784) and had children:
1.
Stanislaw Grabowski, b. 1780, Warszawa, d. 1845, Warszawa, Secretary of the Council of State and Ministers Council of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, married Cecylia Dembowska, the daughter of
Józef Dembowski + Julia Zabiello.
2.
Izabela Grabowska b. ca 1770 - 1856, m. Walenty Faustyn Sobolewski;
3.
Konstancja Grabowska, m. Wincenty Doria-Dernalowicz;
4.
Michal Grabowski, 1773 - 1812.

Jan Jerzy Grabowski born ca 1730 at Lithuania, died 1789, Lieutenant General of the Crown Army, general inspector of Lithuania;
Calvinist (Reformed Evangelist), in 1767 he became the marshal of the dissident SLUCK confederation under the patronage of Russia
[compare Jerzy Wilhelm von Goltz (vel Golcz) b. in Golczewo, d. 1767, the General Lieutenant in 1760, General major in 1750, the Torun marshal of Protestant confederation in 1767, the official in Tuchola].
In 1769, Jan Jerzy Grabowski married Elzbieta Szydlowska. Most of the children from this relationship were really children of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski and they were brought up to Catholics. One of them was Stanislaw Grabowski.
Jan Jerzy was the son of Stefan Grabowski, b. ca 1680/1700, died in 1756 and Teodora STRYJENSKA Grabowska.
The grandson of
Krystian Krzysztof Jerzy Grabowski b. ca 1640, d. in 1711 [see below], the official in BRZESC LITEWSKI in 1693, married to Katarzyna OBORSKA.
The great-grandson of
Jan Grabowski - Calvinist - b. ca 1620, d. ?

Compare:
Wiktoria Grabowska + Faustyn Benedykt "Siechnowicki" Kosciuszko, the official in Brzesc Litewski in 1746, born ca 1670 ? His father -
Aleksander Jan Kosciuszko (the great-grandfather of General Tadeusz Kosciuszko) the first Catholic in the family. Aleksander Jan Kosciuszko (1629-1711) was the judge in the Brzesc Litewski province.

Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko Siechnowiecki 1667 - ca 1720/1723, was the son of named Aleksander Jan Kosciuszko Siechnowiecki. Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko - the owner of Siechnowicze and the judge of the Brzesc Litewski province; Ambrozy's uncle - Chryzostom Kosciuszko, who in 1669 managed of Kobryn. Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko - the grandfather of Tadeusz - had 3 brothers.
Ludwik Tadeusz Kosciuszko (1700-1758), was the son of named Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko. Ludwik took Mereczowszczyzna close to Kosow Poleski.
Ludwik Kosciuszko had the son Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kosciuszko.

Wiktoria Grabowska b. ca 1690, was the daughter of
Krystian Jerzy Grabowski d. 1711 + Katarzyna Oborska. Krystian Krzysztof Jerzy Grabowski b. ca 1640, d. in 1711, the official in BRZESC LITEWSKI in 1693. Krystyan Grabowski was the son of Jan Grabowski.
Wiktoria's brother was Stefan Grabowski, b. ca 1680/1700, died in 1756, m. Teodora STRYJENSKA. Jan Jerzy was the son of Stefan Grabowski.
Wiktoria had a second brother Józef Grabowski who had
great-great-granddaughter Teodozja Grabowska + Aleksander Oskierka.

Wiktoria's Grabowska Kosciuszko son - Jan Nepomucen Kosciuszko Siechnowiecki born 1720.


Brief note:
1. Sniadecki knew Benedykt Niepokójczycki well.
2.
SOSNOWICA:
close to PIESZOWOLA, Wytyczno, LIBISZOW, and Parczew.

In the first half of the 19th century, the lands near Sosnowica belonged to the large landowners and the clergy. In 1822, it belonged to Józef Sosnowski. They come from Kruszewo near Choroszcz, west to Bialystok

[Wlodzimierz Karol Józef Sosnowski, 1822-1888, had a son Wlodzimierz married Amelia Maria Romana Dembinska the great-granddaughter of Ignacy Dembinski 1753-1799; Ignacy Aleksy Jakub Dembinski 1766-1829; and
Duke Antoni Pawel Sulkowski, 1785-1836 who was born in 1785 - Leszno, died in 1836 - Rydzyna. Duke Antoni was the grandson of Duke Aleksander Józef Sulkowski, 1695-1762 in RYDZYNA
- he bought LESZNO in 1738, and in 1752 also BIELSK in Silesia].

Józef Sylwester Sosnowski d. 1783, was the owner of SOSNOWICA, after his father MARCIN; Rokitno and Przegaliny in the Brzesc Litewski province.
Near to Marcin Radziwill of KLECK and to Bartlomiej Stecki, Maltese bachelor, in 1765 of Stwolowicze [1737 Jozef was in Wschowa; acted with the Poniatowskis of Wolczyn].
JOZEF married in 1741 in DAUKSZE to Tekla Zenowicz / Despot Zenowicz, with the daughters,
Katarzyna PLATER
and Ludwika + JOZEF LUBOMIRSKI.
Ludwika - Tadeusz Kosciuszko fell in love with her, unsuccessfully because of her father's opposition, in 1774.

Józef Sosnowski bought Sosnowica in 1802 from his cousin of the same name and surname as he.

Józef Sylwester Sosnowski born 1729, had 2 daughters: Katarzyna Sosnowski Plater; and Ludwika Sosnowski.

Józef Sosnowski died 1823 and Sosnowica was acquired by his children: Tekla b. 1801, Joanna born 1804, and Stanislaw Stefan Sosnowski b. 1805.
In 1824 Tekla Sosnowska sells her part, to her future husband, Jan Niepokójczycki [b. ca 1790/1800], maybe the family of Adam Niepokojczycki [Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780 - Niepokojczycki Adam, of the Wilno government; the member of 'Orzel Bialy' Masonic Lodge. Compare also: Niepokojczycki Michal the SLUCK judge, the 'Szczesliwe Oswobodzenie' Lodge; and Niepokojczycki Wincenty the member of 'Swiatynia Izis'].

In 1827, Pieszowola was bought by Wojciech Weglinski. 1832 -
the division of the property between Jan Niepokójczycki [b. ca 1790/1800], Joanna Sosnowski Skarszewska and Stanislaw Sosnowski. As a result, Sosnowica's land estates, took the last one.
1871, Stanislaw Sosnowski died and Sosnowica was inherited by daughters of Tekla NIEPOKOJCZYCKA: Waleria and Sabina Niepokójczycki.
1892, they sold Sosnowica to Alfons Libiszowski.
Waleria was living in the Sosnowica manor.
1894 - Teodor Libiszowski, son of Alfons.
Sosnowica village and Turno, in 1832 took Jan Niepokójczycki. Then to Antoni Zembrzuski husband of named Sabina Niepokójczycki.
1888 Turno belonged to Ksawery Bielski.
Jan Niepokójczycki was a brother of ADAM ?

Note to Tadeusz Kosciuszko in Sosnowica:

"I see him OFTEN, ... He is as pure a son of liberty, as I have ever known, ... and of that liberty which is to go to all, and not to the few or rich alone. Thus did Thomas Jefferson describe his new-found friend General Kosciuszko in 1798. Kosciuszko had left his native Poland in 1776 to join the American patriots ... Jefferson had scarcely known him then, but when he returned to his adopted fatherland for a second time in 1797 the two men became close friends and saw each other, for a time, almost daily.

Kosciuszko travelled in 1796 / 1797 from Russia to Sweden with his secretary J. U. Niemcewicz and with cheerful officer, Libiszewski who often had to carry the General

[Libiszowski / Libiszewski willingly performed this service. In Sweden, Kosciuszko was listening to Libiszewski playing the guitar at his bedside and to a concert organised in his honour by the best musicians; in Philadelphia was a musician in orchestra. He died - still young - of fever in Cuba. In 1892 the Sosnowski manor from Waleria Niepokójczycki, bought Alfons Libiszowski. In Libiszow is the Libiszowski manor, 'Rybakówka'; Libiszow is situated 5 km west of Sosnowica; east of Ostrow Lubelski].

The American newspapers followed with interest his triumphal fourney through Sweden and England. At Gothenburg, the principal inhabitants turned out to greet the Polish hero ... In London, the leaders, including Fox, Wilberforce, and Sheridan, waited on him. The members of the Whig Club had their president, General Banastre Tarleton, the former dashing cavalry commander who almost captured Jefferson during the American Revolution, present a sword worth 200 guineas to Kosciuszko as a public testimony of their sense of his exalted virtues and of his gallant, generous, and exemplary efforts to defend and save his country. Rufus King, the American Minister to Britain, arranged his passage to the United States. At Bristol, where the citizens presented him with a magnificent mahogany case of silver plate weighing more than 216 ounces, each piece inscribed "The Friends of Liberty in Bristol to the Gallant Kosciuszko", the General stayed in the home of the American Consul. ... Kosciuszko arrived at Philadelphia in August, 1797. ...

Niepokojczyce by the Muchawiec river - Rayski Edward; close to JAMNO and Zabinka, near Brzesc.
Zygmunt Rayski b. 1917, of Niepokojczyce.


Ostashevo (until 1861 - Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo)
is a fragmentary preserved estate on the left bank of the Ruza reservoir, 21 km from the Volokolamsk suburb near Moscow.
Ostashevo, a small village, 140 kilometers to Moscow.

The grandson of Nicholas I, Konstantin Romanov, received this estate in 1903.
The previous owner, Nikolai Shipov, was one of the greatest agricultural innovators of his era. In 1854 he bought 200 cows, hired a specialist from Switzerland and established a cheese factory at Ostashevo [FRAUCHI ?].

The Ostashevo estate was owned by

1.
an energetic entrepreneur A. V. URUSOV [N. D. Urusov in KOTOVKA];

2.
MURAVIEV

[in the early 1820s young Prince Valentin Shakhovskoy, a pupil at the famous cavalry school in Moscow run by Nikolai Muraviev of nearby Ostashevo, became involved in the DECEMBRISTS movement. A sister of named WALENTY SZACHOWSKI married the leading Decembrist, Alexander Muraviev of Ostashevo];

3.
Artur A. Nepokojchitsky / Artur Niepokojczycki owned the estate Ostashevo [ca 1840 - 1854]. Until 1861 it was called Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo; Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky was born in Slutsk [or in Niepokojczyce close to Zabianka and to Brzesc] in the family of Adam Niepokojczycki [von Unruh], the district leader of the nobility, on December 8, 1813, when the war with Napoleon rattled.

4.
N. P. Shipov since 1854 or before

[Nikolai P. Shipov, to 1903 {b. ca 1830 ?}. Nikolai Shipov, JUNIOR, the son of PAVEL SHIPOV, junior, was one of the greatest agricultural innovators. Nikolai Smirnov, P., and Nikolai Shipov traveled together. PAVEL junior b. ca 1795/1800 had a brother,
Sergei Shipov b. 1790.

In 1813 until 1844, the serf entrepreneur Nikolai Shipov SENIOR roamed the Russian Empire. Aleksey Feofilaktovich Pisemsky b. 1821, a Russian novelist and dramatist, was born at his father's Ramenye estate in the Chukhloma province of Kostroma. His parents were retired colonel Feofilakt Gavrilovich Pisemsky and his wife Yevdokiya Shipov.

Nikolai's junior brother was Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919) was an Imperial Russian Politician. Ivan Pavlovich Shipov after graduating from the Imperial Alexander Lyceum, entered the Ministry of Finance. He rose to the position of Assistant Director of the Special Credit Office, and was eventually Director of the General Office (Ministerial Chancellery).
In addition, Ivan Pavlovich Shipov served on the Board of the State Bank in 1902-1905. In 1905, he was appointed Minister of Finance during the Witte government. In 1906, he left that position when Witte resigned, due in part to his long association with Witte. He was executed by the Bolsheviks in 1919.
Compare:
Nikolai Shipov junior had a son Dmitry Shipov, b. 1851.
DMITRY was the founder of the All-Zemstvo Organization, which was banned shortly after it was founded in 1896. He was elected chairman in the first Zemstvo Assembly from 6-9 November 1904 during the Zemstvo Congress. Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Sviatopolk-Mirsky gave permission for their assembly. Alexander Guchkov and Dmitry Shipov refused to work with the reactionary. "... Witte was in October 1905, charged with the task of assembling the nation's first cabinet government, and he offered the liberals several portfolios (Ministry of Agriculture to Shipov; Ministry of Trade and Industry to Guchkov; Ministry of Justice to Koni; Ministry of Education to Trubetskoy; Milyukov and Lvov were also offered ministerial posts). None of these liberals agreed to join the government...".

Most remarkable of the Shipovs was Sergei Pavlovich Shipov (1790-1876), that is SERGEI the son of PAVEL senior born ca 1760.
PAVEL junior b. ca 1795/1800 had a brother, Sergei Shipov b. 1790.

Nikolai's junior [b. ca 1830] brother was Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919).

Sergei Shipov, b. in 1790, was descended from a well-to-do gentry family in Kostroma province. In 1832 he served Ministry of War. 1841 - 1846 the governor of KAZAN - compare DEMONSI and Wasyl Konstantynowicz + Breguet in KAZAN + V. A. KOKOREV in KAZAN ca 1843 {1844 tax reform note on farms; near LIKHACHEV before 1844; 1843-1844 he had two farms close to Kazan}.

SERGEI born 1790, had youngers brothers
[the textile manufacturing - see also ARMAND:
DMITRII P. Shipov - a governor;
and Pavel born ca 1795/1800;
and maybe the serf entrepreneur Nikolai Shipov SENIOR roamed the Russian Empire in 1813 until 1844].

Nikolai P. Shipov owned to 1903 the Ostashevo estate (his son Dmitry Nikolaevich Shipov b. on 14 May 1851 - d. 14 January 1920). His brother Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919) was an Imperial Russian Politician.
Mentioned Dmitry Nikolaevich Shipov (14 May 1851 - 14 January 1920) was a Russian liberal Slavophile politician of the 19th and 20th century. Shipov acted as a political mentor of Georgy Lvov, Russia's future first Prime Minister.
see:
Karl Wilhelm also known as Karl Vasilievitj Hagelin was born in St. Petersburg in 1860. His parents Wilhelm Hagelin (1828-1901) and Anna Lovisa Eriksdotter (1818–1870) ... In 1861, the family moved to the Volga where his father worked for a period as a second engineer on passenger boats and towboats. ... In autumn 1870, he started at the Givochini boarding school in Nizhny Novgorod ...
In 1875, thanks to a recommendation from family friend A. I. Sandström, he was accepted into the design workshop at the shipbuilding factory belonging to D. P. Shipov in Kostroma. He received his first real assignment working on the designs for a motorboat, ... and two smaller steamers
... he was employed as a mechanic at the Kaukaz & Mercury shipping company in Astrakhan, where he worked on preparing boats ... he met two Swedes, N. Qvarnström and master mechanic Westvall, with whose recommendation he was able to secure employment as a mechanic in the instrument workshop at the Nobel paraffin factory in Baku. Hagelin’s first working day at Robert Nobel's factory was on 4 April 1879. ... During his initial period in Baku (1879- 1883), Wilhelm ... assisted chemist E. Tell ... When engineer Alfred Törnqvist returned from his trip to the USA and started setting up a new paraffin factory, Hagelin was given a job as a draughtsman. ... he decided to apply to the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. In order to pass the entrance exams, he took private lessons from engineer A. B. Lambert in mathematics, physics and chemistry. After two years in Sweden, he wrote to Branobel's managing director, J.G. Crusell, explaining his desire to return to Russia and take up his position again. ...

Ludvig Nobel invited Hagelin to St. Petersburg. Wilhelm was given a post in the technical laboratory where he experimented with chemical processes for production of light oil fractions. ... In 1891, he was first promoted to technical director and then office manager in Baku. ... In 1900, he was recalled to St. Petersburg to replace M. J. Belyamin as the company's chairman of the board ... In 1906, he was appointed Swedish consul general in St. Petersburg (1906-1911). ... In spring 1917, Hagelin travelled to Baku, continuing onboard the K.W. Hagelin motorboat to Astrakhan ... Wilhelm left Russia and spent a year abroad, but in July 1918 he was back for a shorter visit ... The remaining directors M. Belyamin, G. Nobel and A. Belonozhkin tried at numerous meetings to solve the burning issue of how the company's trading rights and authority could be protected. Hagelin's last attempt to enter Russia via Constantinople failed and on 3 July 1920 he was forced to return to Stockholm. ...

he, together with Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, joined the Aktiebolaget Cryptograph company under the management of Arvid Gerhard Damm (where Wilhelm's son, Boris Hagelin, also worked for a time)].

5.
K. K. ROMANOV in 1903 until 1915

[Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia, born 1858 in Strelna - d. 1915 in Pavlovsk, was a grandson of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia; a poet and playwright. He wrote under the pen name "K.R.", initials of his given name and family name, Konstantin Romanov.
Konstantin Romanov / Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich was the son of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich of Russia.

Konstantin Nikolaevich had a brothers:
1.
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, 1831 - 25 April 1891, as a Field Marshal he commanded the Russian army of the Danube in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878 [see General ARTUR Niepokojczycki].
2.
And Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia (25 October 1832 - 18 December 1909), served 20 years (1862- 1882) as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi, the town which most of his children remembered as the home of their childhood];

6.
in 1915, a merchant and philanthropist A. G. Kuznetsov

[Aleksandr Gennad'evich Kuznetsov / Kuznetsov Aleksandr Genadjevich or Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov

- "...in Mansurovsky Lane in the heart of Moscow, architect Alexander Kuznetsov built himself a mansion with an entrance gate {in 1915} ... The house owner received guests: the famous Russian modernist architect Fyodor Shekhtel, and constructivist architect Konstantin Melnikov. After the revolution, Kuznetsov was found building a factory on the outskirts of the Soviet Union, and was jailed ... Russian tea merchant, Alexander Kuznetsov and Co, Moscow, had a factory in Hankou, China {see CEYLON !}, the offices in MOSCOW and IRKUTSK.
Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov,
was the tea magnate of Imperial Russia, named and purchased the 239 foot steam yacht 'Foros' in Scotland on the 9th June 1891. Designed by the Glasgow yacht architect Thomas Lennox Watson, Foros took the name from the southernmost Crimean resort made popular by Kuznetsov through the development of his estate there. Guest on board the yacht was in 1896 Grand Duke George Alexandrovich

{GEORGE died in 1899 in Abastumani, Georgia - was the third son of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Marie of Russia. Grandson of Emperor Alexander II and his first wife Marie of Hesse - a daughter of Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Wilhelmine of Baden. Marie of Hesse was the granddaughter of Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse, the great-granddaughter of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt / Ludwig IX von Hessen-Darmstadt, 1719 in Darmstadt - 1790 in Pirmasens (compare JOHANN STARCK in 1781 back to Darmstadt)}.

We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow. In 1840 acc. to Cosroe Dusi: "... May 30. This morning began the portrait of Countess Josephine Kalinovskaya / Jozefina Kalinowska ... 1840, June, the 27. This morning the family Branicki leaves with Countess Kalinovsky. They ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin / Plautyn and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. And Olga Kalynovska / Kalinowska goes away from court, to his native Poland, where she get married; Alexander agrees to marry Mary Hesse-Darmstadt...".

Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia
{Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia (25 October 1832 - 18 December 1909), served 20 years (1862-1882) as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi};

in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus; Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years; served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel. In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg, acc. to Wikipedia. In 1888, he had an affair with Princess Walewski; later, with Countess Catherine Nikolaevna Ignatieva daughter of Minister of Interior, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev.
In 1900, moved to Keele Hall, in Staffordshire, close to Newcastle-under-Lyme;
visitor of North Berwick in Scotland {east to Edynburg}, and
in the south of France, Cannes where he met his sister Anastasia and in 1903 his father, also brother Alexander and his family;
he moved with his family to Hampstead in 1909 and every year Grand Duke Michael would visit Edward VII at Windsor Castle, Sandringham and Buckingham Palace

{Edward VII born in 1841, the son of Victoria b. 1819, was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - she was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn [the TEMPLARS], the fourth son of King George III / George William Frederick, b. 1738. GEORGE III was the grandson of King George II}.

In 1912, Grand Duke Michael was with a visit in Russia. 1914 as an agent for Russian loans in France.
On 31 October 1916 he "...wrote to Tsar Nicholas II warning him that British secret agents in Russia were expecting a revolution".

And (by Wikipedia) "General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort, stated that Russian communist elements working against the Tsar had betrayed Kitchener's travel plans to Germany. He stated that Kitchener was killed 'because of his ability', as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover...".

Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia after November 1917 moved to Regent's Park. In 1916 his youngest daughter, Nadejda (Nada) married Prince George of Battenberg, eldest son of Prince Louis by Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Anastasia (Zia), the eldest daughter, in 1917 married Sir Harold Wernher. Michael Mikhailovich and his wife returned to Cannes in 1923, and died in 1929.

Note:
Johann August Starck / Stark (1741 - 1816)
- Immanuel Kant and Johann Georg Hamann were among his acquaintances in Königsberg. In 1776 went to Mitau [Courland; at margin see Komorowski] and took place here as professor of philosophy until 1781 when he back to Darmstadt.

1767 or 1768 - J. A. von Stark / STARCK has established a new sect, which grew out of Clirici Ordinis Templariorum / Clerics of the Knights Templar;
he was in 1761 initiated into a French freemasonry lodge at Göttingen but
left for St. Petersburg in 1761, while teaching in St. Petersburg, Starck had met a Greek by the name of Pyotr Ivanovich Melissinos = Count Peter Melesino / Melissino, 1726-97, a lieutenant-general in the Russian Imperial Army, and whose order of freemasonry claimed the clerics of the Templar Knights

{"... Melissinos arrived in Russia during the reign of Peter the Great and ended his career as Vice-President of the Commerce Collegium in 1740-45.
During the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774, Pyotr Melissino was in charge of the Russian artillery.
... In 1783, he was appointed Director of the Artillery and Engineering Corps in St. Petersburg. ... Melissino was instrumental in promoting the career of one of Paul's favourites, Aleksey Arakcheyev. His son Aleksey Melissino, a Major General, was killed in the Battle of Dresden (1813). His brother, Ivan Melissino, was Dean of the Moscow University under Catherine the Great. Starck had met a Greek by the name of Count Peter Melesino (or 'Melissino'; 1726-97), a lieutenant-general};

then traveled to Paris in 1765 and obtained a position at the royal library;
back to Germany, in Wismar (1766-8). Starck promoted the clerical brand of Templarism.

Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin, wife of Wilhelm Bacheracht, ex-wife of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse- Darmstadt;
sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Mentioned above Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin / Hutten-Czapski Alexandra b. 1854 / 1853 - d. 1941, the 1st husband Kolemin; then entered into a morganatic marriage with the Grand Duke of Hesse Ludwig IV b. 1837;

Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and other Royal Houses of Europe. Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany; his mother was the granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia. Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse- Darmstadt, the first son of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine b. 1809, and Princess Elisabeth of Prussia; CHARLES was the second surviving son of Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse. LOUIS II was the son of Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse and the grandson of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt born 1719; the great-grandson of a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl in 1862, married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
The couple had seven children, among others Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia b. 1864, and Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of All the Russias b. 1872.
Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage in 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska / Aleksandra Czapski Hutten b. 1854 in Warsaw, d. on 8 May 1941, in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland; she was the former wife of Aleksander Kolemin, the Russian charge d'affaires in Darmstadt; now the Countess von Romrod.

Alexandrine Bacheracht / Alexandrine Countess von Hutten-Czapska died in Vevey / Switzerland, close to La Tour de Peilz; 8 km noerth-west of Montreux (see: Duflon, Konstantynowicz); 18 km south-east of Lutry; 6 km north-west of Clarens!
Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska, Grafin Romrod, was the daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski, and Countess Mariane Rzewuska / Marianne von Rzewuska Grocholska / Maria Anna Katarzyna Hutten-Czapska nee Rzewuska b. 1827.

We back to mentioned above Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov:

During the First World War, the yacht of Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov served as a hospital ship before eventually being scrapped in 1927.

"In 1840 Alexei Semenovich Gubkin established the first tea-selling company in Kungur. Up until then tea had arrived in Russia in the form of large solid bricks. Gubkin was the first business owner to sell tea already weighed out in handy quantities and wrapped in colourful attractive packaging. In 1882 the firm's head office moved to Moscow. After Gubkin's death his nephew Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov took over at the helm. He renamed the company The Successor to Alexei Gubkin, A. Kuznetsov & Co {Kuznicow}. Over a period of fifteen years the company sold 300 million roubles' worth of tea and sugar and had branches not only throughout Russia, but also in China, India, Ceylon and London. By the beginning of the 20th century the firm controlled one third of the entire tea market in the Russian empire."
Copyright by bibelotslondon.co.uk.

"The largest firms in the pre-revolutionary Russian tea trade, were: C. S. Popoff & Co., Alexis Gubkin & Co., and Wissotsky & Co. At first, the Popoff company had the lion's share of the business, but Wissotsky & Co., a much younger firm, finally took away much of Popoff's trade. Alexis Gubkin & Co. became A. Kusnezow & Co. after Mr. Gubkin's death, with its head office at Moscow. Later, this concern became the Trading Company, and later still, The Asiatic Trading Corporation, Ltd., under British registry".

Asiatic Trading Corporation, Ltd:
in LONDON, and Thrissur, Kerala, India importers of tea, coffee, and cotton. "The Russian Society for Tea Trade Gubkin-Kuznetsov and Co founded a tea-packing factory called the Moscow Branch of the Society Karavan. Its yield was 1600000 pounds a year. It quickly became one of the major manufacturers of Russian- style blends. In the 1920s Karavan was renamed Lenin Moscow Tea-Packing Factory, which became the flagship of the Soviet tea industry. Russian Caravan Tea: produced the Chinese tea, blend of China black tea, notably with Keemun tea, is called Caravan since it was carried by camel back from China to the West].


OSTASHEVO and SHIPOV:

For the processing of dairy products obtained from 200 cows of improved northern breeds kept in the estate, a cheese factory was commissioned and assigned to a specialist invited from Switzerland. At the same time, Shipov undertook to rebuild the estate.
Compare!
Arthur Eugene Leonard Frauchi / Artour Khristianovitch Frautschi / Arthur Hristianovich Artuzov Frautschi / Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov b. 1891, Tver region.

Family of Christian Frautschi, came from Switzerland to Russia in 1881 and settled in the estate of Popov landowner, Apashkovo, Tver province, where his older brother Paul / Peter Frautschi, arrived in this region 1879, next in Yurino estate, manor Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putjatino, the village Davydkovo / Davydovo, 17 km north-west of Kashin, and north-east of Tver.

Cheesemaker was working in the estate
Mykolaivka, and
Christian Frautschi married Augusta Didrikil, Didrikil family was of mixed origin, the Latvian and Estonian, her grandfather was a Scot; after the wedding, the young family settled in the estate at Kashin County, Tver province. Leonti V. Dubbelt / von Dubelt was owner of the factory Kuvshinovo, Tver region.

Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi was born in the family of Swiss origin, but Italian nationality. His father Christian Frautschi came to Russia, where he was engaged in reindeer cheese; cheesemaker, a citizen of the Swiss Federation.
Mother Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938, had the Latvian and Estonian roots, and one of her grandfathers was a Scot;
her father Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik,
her mother Bertha Sterling / Esterling / Stirling / EASTERLING born 1835 d. 1891 -
her parents:
Edward Sterling / Edward Esterling / EASTERLING and
Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland.

"Augusta grandfather was from Scotland. Edward Sterling / Edward Esterling was in Russia during the War of 1812. He studied at Dorpat, worked as notary, married Latvian woman. One of his many daughters married Estonian - Didrikilya / Didrikil. In this family was born Augusta Avgustovna".

Hereditary cheesemaker Christian Frautschi came to Russia in search of a good steady income; took a fancy to the north-western province (Estonia), for cattle, and it took two or three years; Here Christians Frauchi married to one of the four sisters of the Didrikil family, of the Estonian, Latvian, Russian, Scottish and even French blood.

One of the sisters, Olga Avgustovna, married exiled Bolshevik Mikhail Kedrov
(Olga Avgustovna Didrikil - daughter of gamekeeper August Ivanovich Didrikil who served for many years to the Suvorov family, in Prozorovskaya (?) county).

In 1903 the whole family Frauchi / Frautschi moved to Novgorod province, where, moving from one estate to another, Arthur's father, together with his assistants was doing cheese. Estates - Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putyanin, Petrovskoe, Davydkina.

Nikolaj Wasiljewicz Wierieszczagin, born 1839 near the village of Piertowka or Pietrowka in the Czerepowiec district, Nowogrod province; a Russian representative of agricultural sciences, he was the elder brother of painter Vasily Viereshagin. At the Tver lands meetings, he applied for loans to farmers for dairy cooperatives and cheese makers; spring 1865 - according to the advice of the younger brother - he and his wife Tatiana Ivanovna started a trip to Switzerland and other countries, Germany, Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden. In these countries he observed the organization of milk, butter and cheese in the Swiss town of Coppet, near Geneva. At the heart of Freiburg, under the supervision of the masters, he learned the technology of oily cheeses. 1866, the first cooperative cheese factory in Russia in Otrokowicze; a model milk cattle farm was opened in Edimonów.

We back to
Arthur Adamovich Niepokojczycki, died in St. Petersburg on November 11, 1881, was buried at Volkovsky Lutheran Cemetery.
He graduated from the General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg. In the Russian army 1832-1881, the pacification of the peoples of the Caucasus, 1841-1845; Chief of Staff of the Army Corps during the revolution in Hungary 1849;
Chief of Staff of the Army (general lieutenant) during the Crimean War of 1854-1855.
Member of the Council of State (general of arms) and general adjutant of the Emperor.

The Niepokojczycki family was Calvinists.
Under the Radziwills - 1600, Zabludów bought Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun; then his son Krzysztof II Radziwill. He founded in Zabludow and took care of the Calvinist congregation. Dominik Hieronim Radziwill, the owner of ZABLUDOW, m. in 1807 to Izabella Mniszchek, div. Izabella, 2nd voto Demblinska, in 1819 took Zabludów - until 1831.

Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki.
He acted in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce close to SLUCK

{in SLUCK was living Krzysztof Niepokojczycki, bef. 1880. Karol Niepokojczycki the son of Piotr Niepokojczycki and  Zofia, Lieutenant in  1824 - 1827. In 1697 in the Brzesc Litewski province was 12 noblemen with Niepokojczycki name. Kazimierz Zlotnicki, in 1723 married 2nd, ?, Zofia Leonowa Niepokojczycka, d. bef. 1723. Leopold Korewa / Koreywa, d. 1758, m. Katarzyna Niepokojczycka. Kosciszewski Michal the Wilkomierz official in 1699, m. Joanna Rzaczynska, then she was married Jan Niepokojczycki. KOSSAKOWSKI Andrzej, owned 1624 Brzeska Wola, and in 1686 r. Niepokosice / Niepokojczyce}.

Before Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki in BOLOCZYCE were: Aleksander Pociej, then Ludwik Rozwadowski, also here were Józef Twardowski, Jan Gieczewicz, Lady Plater married Aleksandrowicz; Ignacy Karp.


CONSPIRATORS in 1821 and 1833 [Walerian Pietkiewicz / PIETKIEWICZ Walerian Jan (1805-1843), born in Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district]:

Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846),
was the son of Leonard Pociej

(1727-1774; LEONARD POCIEJ was the brother of Anna Tyszkiewicz nee POCIEJ, 1720-1788, the wife of JOZEF TYSZKIEWICZ, b. 1716/1717, d. 1790. Jozef was the son of Benedykta Sapieha d. 1724, m. 1716 to Jerzy Tyszkiewicz died in 1735. Above Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1716/1717-1790, Józef Skumin Tyszkiewicz - the top official in Smoleńsk 1775-1790, Mścisław in 1761-1775; was the son of named above
Jerzy Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1695 in WILNO = d. 1735 in Tylża.
The grandson of Kazimierz Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1635 and died in 1701. The great-grandson of Jerzy Tyszkiewicz born ca 1598 and died ca 1686. The great-great-grandson of Dymitr Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1536, d. 1609),

and the grandson of
Aleksander Pociej 1698-1770 [Aleksander Pociej senior {died in 1770} married Teresa Brzostowska];
and the great-grandson of
Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej 1666-1728 - the son of Leonard Gabriel Pociej born 1632.

Aleksander Pociej senior, 1698 - 1770, was son of Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej. Above Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej 1666 - 1728, was son of Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina OGINSKA.

Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej was brother of Ludwik Konstanty Pociej.
Above Ludwik Konstanty Pociej b. 1664, d. 30 January 1730, in 1709 commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian army, his parents: Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina Oginska

[Ludwik Konstanty was father of Ludwika Marianna Pociej (b. ca 1715) who married to Franciszek Borzecki (ca 1693 - 1739) with daughter
Justyna KALINOWSKA Borzecka (m. Ignacy Kalinowski born ca 1720 died 1782).
Her son was count Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759].

The father of Ludwika Marianna Pociej was Ludwik Konstanty Pociej. Ludwik Konstanty Pociej, and Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej were sons of Leonard Gabriel Pociej b. 1632, died in 1695; Leonard Pociej was closest friend of Marcjan Aleksander Ogiński, son of wife's brother. Leonard Gabriel Pociej married to Regina Ogińska, primo voto Walter Korff of Troki. Above Regina Pociej nee Oginska, b. circa 1624, died ca 1700, was daughter of Samuel Leon Ogiński and Zofia Billewicz. REGINA was sister of Jan Ogiński; Szymon Karol Symeon Ogiński, and Helena Tyszkiewicz, inf. by Viktorija Janina Ruškuliene. Above Samuel Leon Ogiński b. ca 1593, d. 1657; inf. by Andrzej Hennel at geni.com.

Above named Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski was born 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760 with children:
1. Josef / Osip Kalinowski / JOZEF KALINOWSKI - general of Polish Army, b. ca after 1780, died 1825 - his wife Emilia Potocka born 1790,
2. Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 and
3. Justyna Kalinowska married Russocka b. 1790 d. 1876.

Above Ignacy Kalinowski, MP in 1830, 1784-1831, owner of Białokiernica, and Kurzany; m. ca 1830 to Hortensja KARSNICKA / Hortencja Karśnicka 1800-1881, 2nd voto Jablonowska, daughter of Antoni Karśnicki b. 1777 / 1779 in Hrechorów, died 1844 [writer, son of Walenty KARSNICKI, and Salomea; ANTONI was two times in Italy - Roma; Count] and Julia Głogowska b. 1780.

Hortensja Karsnicka had 3 husbands:
1st m. to Ignacy Franciszek Antoni Kalinowski b. 1784 / 1795 - died 1831 / before 1846; Ignacy Kalinowski, MP in 1830, was owner of Bialokiernica, and Kurzany; m. ca 1830 to Hortensja / Hortencja Karsnicka daughter of Antoni Karsnicki [writer, son of Walenty and Salomea (?) who was two times in Italy - Roma; Count] and Julia Glogowska b. 1780;

2nd m. Ludwik Jablonowski 1795 - 1846, son of Ludwik Stanislaw Jablonowski (1773-1825) and Lucja Glogowska,

3rd m. Józef Jakubowicz (1820 - 1883) owner of Zochatyn close to Sanok, Kurzany, Podwysokie, Wólka, Huciska, Demna, son of Dominik Jakubowicz (1784 - 1887).

Son of above Hortensja: Wladyslaw Kalinowski (1831 - 1893) m. Cecylia Szeliska b. ca 1835, daughter of Józef Kalasanty Szeliski and Emilia Pietruska / Postruska.

Hortensja Karsnicka 1800-1881 owner of Kurzany, daughter of Antoni Karsnicki, 1779/1780/1790-1844 owner of Bakowiec and Hrehorow, the son of Walenty Karsnicki and Elzbieta Paczynska, and mother of Hortensja: Julia Glogowska b. 1760?

Mchy was owned by Ludwik Karsnicki.
Marjanna Aniela Paulina, was the daughter of named Ludwik Karsnicki, the owner of Mchy, and of Helena Lasczewski.
Tloczynski, was an forest manager of the Ludwik Karsnicki estate in Mchy near Ksiaz.
Ludwik married Apolonia Sieminska, with children:
1.
Augustyn Joachim Mikolaj Karsnicki b. ca 1786, died in 1854 - Wroclaw / Breslau; buried in Gidle, in the Radomsko county - 14 km north-west to CIELETNIKI - see Bystrzanowski ! And 16 km north-west to ZYTNO.
2.
With the 2nd wife m. in 1789, Aniela Swierska - no inf.;
3.
With the 3rd wife - the son
Antoni Karsnicki b. ca 1779/1780/1790.

Ludwik Fundament-Karsnicki b. ca 1740, died in 1801, was the son of Konstanty Karsnicki and Teresa Rozwadowska. Konstanty was the official in Wielun; 1702-1764. Teresa Rozwadowska 1720-1766.

Faustyn SULIMIERSKI, major, died in Mchy in 1865, born in Kalisz in 1808, studied in Kalisz, an insurgent and the rebel in 1831, wounded in Ostroleka, emigrated, 1848 back to Krakow. Then lived in Mchy in Ludwik Karsnicki's home.

MCHY - 8 km south to KSIAZ Wielkopolski; 5 km west to Chwalkowo; north-west to Jarocin.

Faustyn SULIMIERSKI, major, died in Mchy in 1865, born in Kalisz in 1808, studied in Kalisz, an insurgent and the rebel in 1831, wounded in Ostroleka, emigrated, 1848 back to Krakow, then lived in Mchy in Ludwik Karsnicki's home.
FAUSTYN was the son of

Mateusz Tomasz SULIMIERSKI [born ca 1760 ?] died 1842, owner of Wilamow (12 km north of Uniejow) and Wola Pszczolecka, married to Justyna Sulimierska, [b. ca 1750 ?] d. 1842, daughter of Jadwiga Jaroszewska [b. ca 1710/1712 ?];
Mateusz's children:
a) Marianna SULIMIERSKI m. in 1826, to Jan Prawdzic Gowaszewski,
b) Antoni SULIMIERSKI 1800-53, exiled to Siberia,
c) Wincenty SULIMIERSKI 1803-71, clerk in Wola Dzierlinska.
d) Walenty SULIMIERSKI 1809-47, found guilty of high treason, and with the brothers considered civilly deceased (see Gabriel Kiedrzynski in Jan. 1833 or after) [Walerian Pietkiewicz / PIETKIEWICZ Walerian Jan (1805-1843), born in Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district, commander of the 1833 rebelion]!
e) Faustyn SULIMIERSKI, major, died in Mchy in 1865, born in Kalisz in 1808.

MATEUSZ was the son of
IGNACY SULIMIERSKI [born ca 1740 ?] owner of Wola Pszczólecka (in 1781) married to Marianna Wyszlawska, daughter of Mikolaj and Elzbieta Wierzchleyska - with children:
A. Róza;
B. Józef Sulimierski owner of Lubiec, Stryjów;
C. Mateusz Tomasz SULIMIERSKI [born ca 1760 ?] died 1842, owner of Wilamow (12 km north of Uniejow) and Wola Pszczolecka.

IGNACY was the brother of
JÓZEF SULIMIERSKI [b. ca 1730 ?] was the owner of Lubiec, and Kuznica [close to Wola Pszczolecka !].

Parents of above Jozef [JÓZEF SULIMIERSKI [b. ca 1730 ?] was the owner of Lubiec, and Kuznica]:

Michal Sulimierski [born ca 1705 ?] [son of Marianna Stokowska + SULIMIERSKI Sebastian {born ca 1675}] died ca 1780, and unknown wife

[Michal who died in ca 1780, bought Lubiec with Kuznica near Lubiec, south-east of Wola Pszczolecka in 1745, and also bought Wola Pszczolecka, m. to Elzbieta Miniszewska, 2nd to Katarzyna Szczepanska - Swiatkowska; 3rd - ? - to Jadwiga JAROSZEWSKA. Tomasz Psarski born ca 1730, had daughter Marianna Psarski born ca 1755 - the owner of Wola Dzierlinska, m. Mikolaj Sulimierski born ca 1730, the son of Michal Sulimierski born ca 1705, and Jadwiga Jaroszewska. Above Tomasz married to Dorota Kiedrzynska daughter of Andrzej Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowski, she was 1 voto Wawrzyniec Grabinski; Tomasz Psarski was 2nd voto Franciszka Rupniewska died 1826. Dorota m. 3rd to Kajetan Madalinski 1740-1784, with son Józef MADALINSKI, b. 1774, died after 1809, Captain in 1809].


SLUCK - BULHAK + Aldona Dzierzynska + Jozef PILSUDSKI; Walerian Pietkiewicz [PIETKIEWICZ Walerian Jan (1805-1843), born in Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district]; Niepokojczycki; and Jodko-Narkiewicz:

A.

Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce of NIEPOKOJCZYCKI,

close to Novobelichi and Prussy. 14 km south-west to NOWY DWOR of the BULHAK family and 18 km north-west to METYAVICHI / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy.
22 km south-west to SLUCK.
Close to
Mieciawice / Maciewicze in the SLUCK county [see CONSPIRACY in 1833 - Walerian Pietkiewicz / PIETKIEWICZ Walerian Jan (1805-1843), born in Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district], and here was living Bonifacy Krupski, born 1822; opponent of the military action in 1863; he was involved as a commissar of the IHUMEN area.

B.

Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak,
estates:
Ostrówek, Burdziewicze / BURDZEWICHY [14 km west to the MIR Castle],
Kozlowicze [8 km south-east to SLUCK = Kazlovichy or Казловічы],
Nowy Dwor close to Sluck [7 km south to SLUCK and 22 km north to Metyavichi / Мецявічы]!

His mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749;
grandfather:
Florian Stanislaw Bulhak.

Aldona Kojałłowicz Bułhak nee Dzierżyńska, 1870 - 1966, had son Antoni Bułhak b. 1898. His wife Wanda Bułhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and Maria Juchniewicz nee Piłsudska, b. 1873.
She was daughter of Józef Wincenty Piotr Piłsudski, b. 1833; and her brother was Józef Klemens Piłsudski b. 1867.

The second son of above Aldona: Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895.

Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce,

close to Novobelichi and Prussy [see - General Artur Niepokojczycki and his grandfather]. 14 km south-west to NOWY DWOR of the BULHAK family and 18 km north-west to METYAVICHI / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy [remember - Walerian Pietkiewicz and the 1833 rebelion]. 22 km south-west to SLUCK [Calvinist Confederation]. Bolotchitsy = Балотчыцы is situated 14 km south-west to Nowy Dwor [Novyy Dvor / Новы Двор] of BULHAK + Aldona Dzierzynska.

C.

Pukaŭ / Пукаў of JODKO-NARKIEWICZ.

Pukau = Pukowo / Пуков is situated south-east of Tatury / now Charitonowka [= Харитоновка or Харытонаўка is situated north-west to Pukau, ca 16 km],
and Kutschinka; 8 km east to Starica / STARYCA; Sloboda, Dumitshi;
22 km north-east to Kopyl.
32 km north-west to Sluck.

Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1864 in Słuck, d. 1924 in Warsaw, nickname A. Wroński, Jowisz, diplomat; his parents: Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1834 - d. 1898 (probably son of Onufry Jodko Narkiewicz) and Maria Sokołow - Skwarcew b. ca 1842.
His father was ophthalmologist.
Above Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, born on 23 Dec. 1834 in Puków in the Ihumen district, died 1898 - Bobownia; Onufry Jodko - Narkiewicz was living in Pukow. Pukau / Pukowo / Pukow, at present: Komsomolskaja.

Janina Wiktoria Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1869 in Warsaw / Warszawa, was the daughter of Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz from Puków.

The Polish well-off proprietors in the Ihumen (Cerven) district in the second half of 19th cent. was the Jodko family in landed properties Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo and Onufrowo / Anufri.

In Pukow is a church, in the 16th cent. to the Puk / Пук family; 17th cent. to Olelkovich / Олельковичь and Radzivill / Радзивилл family; at the beginning of the 18th century to the Neuburg / Нойбург family from German taken from Boguslaw Radziwill / Богуслав Радзивилл, because his daughter Людвика Каролина / Ludwika Karolina Radziwill married to Karl Filipp Neuburg / Karl III Philipp von der Pfalz / Carl Philipp, b. 1661 in Neuburg;
that is he married on August 10, 1688 in Berlin to Princess Ludwika Karolina Charlotte Radziwill of Birze, daughter of Bogusław Radziwill,
from this marriage four children were born: Leopoldine Eleonore Josephine, Maria Anna, Elisabeth Auguste Sophie m. Joseph Karl von Pfalz-Sulzbach.

At Пуково / Pukowo in 1731 wielded the earth Franciszek Drucki-Lubecki / Франтишек Друцкий- Любецкий. In 1744 again to the Radziwill family, but
at the beginning of the 19th cent. Dominik Radziwill / Доминик Радзивилл lost Pukowo, now Pukowo and Bobownia to the Narkiewicz - Jodko / Наркевич-Иодко;
in 1846 to Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz / Томаш Наркевич-Иодко, Catholic.
1857 new church; close to Пуково (now Komsomolskaja) is Кондратовичи and here in 1862 was the second church;
Ksawery JODKO NARKIEWICZ / Ксаверий was son of above named Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, and he bought from Wojnillowicz / Войниллович the Lopuchi estate / Лопухи, 3 km of Pukowo / Пуково;
a father of Edward Wojnillowicz / Эдвард Войниллович - Adam was proprietor of above Lopuchi.

Estate of "Оттоново" to Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Онуфри Наркевич-Иодко; Jakub Jodko-Narkiewicz / Якуб Наркевич-Иодко has the Nadnieman / Наднеман estate; Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Наркевич- Иодко has son Otton Jodko-Narkiewicz, in 1840 owner of 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm of Chaniczewo / Ханичево [Ханичево = Ханічава], and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina 1848.
Ханичево / Атонава / Калінаўка or Оттоново / Ханічава is located north-west of Pukowo, south of above Наднёман, near by Piasocznaje. Jodko-Narkiewicz owner of the 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina in 1848.

Наднёман was property of Jakob Jodko - Narkiewicz son of Otton Jodko - Narkiewicz, biologist, meteorologist, physicist and electrician, lived 1848-1905;
next owner Konrad Jodko - Narkiewicz, son of Jakob, in 1921 moved to Cracow;
next of kin Kristian Narkiewicz - Lein is living now in Chicago.

Наднёман is located north of Kopyl, near by Piasocznaje, south-west-south of Uzda, and north-west of Pukowo. Ханичево / Атонава / Калінаўка or Оттоново / Ханічава is located north-west of Pukowo, south of above
Наднёман - NADNIOMAN is situated 27 km north-west to PUKAU / Pukowo - near by Piasocznaje.

Above mentioned Jodko-Narkiewicz in Pukowo ca 80 km west of Osipovichi and north of Sluck.


Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859

[maybe the brother of Tomasz Bulhak, who back from exile to Siberie bef. 1857. Tomasz died in 1895; near to the Karp family. Tomasz Bulhak b. 1801 in Mickiewicze,
the son of JOZEF BULHAK, the owner of Mickiewicze, Olchówka, Kondratowicze

{the LOHOJSK county - Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in WOLOZYN / Valozyn, married Maria Anna Galimska - he was the son of Count Michal Jan Tyszkiewicz b. 1690, d. in LOHOJSK, in 1762},

Czaszniki / Czaśniki {the Vicebsk province, 30 km east to LEPEL - compare PIOTTUCH-KUBLICKI} and Nowy Dwór - close to SLUCK]

the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski

(the land of Bulhak in 1867-1913. Matseevichi - village in Biarezina district Minsk region of the Republic of Belarus. Macieviczy = Мацевічы, 14 km south to LUBUSZANY of Potocki - and 15 km south-west to MIEZONKA of Stanislaw Konstantynowicz.
Note: there are the Case of the redemption of the land at Мацевичи / Matsevichi of Bulhak in 1867- 1913, either Mateevichi, south of Ugodino, near by Kamienka / Kamionka; west of Talka, and south of Marina Gorka; or Macevichi or Macawiczy close to Sinialo, and Koroliszczewiczi - south-east; inf. of 2010. Marina Gorka / Mar'іna Hill, a center of Pukhavichy region. 1866-1913 Bulhak was guardian of Sventorzhetskaya);
the estate Bluza

(BLUZHA / Блужа / Bluza close to Poddiegtiarnia [Poddegtyarnya / Поддегтярня]; 8 km north-west to Talka / Tal'ka; ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family)

from hands of Sophia Prosor / Zofia Prozor - Swietorzecka / Sventorzhetski, owned in those places.
The Prozor family was near by to Malkiewicz - Horodecka Izabela. Aldona Dzierżyński, oldest sister of Feliks Dzierzynski, 1892 married to Gedymin Jerzy Bułhak (died 1908), lived in the Bobruisk district and Wilno; second husband Artur Kojałłowicz, and moved to Lodz / Łodz, to her daughter Maria Staszewski. Her next of kin Władysław Siła-Nowicki. Jadwiga Zawadzki was her cousin. Aldona BULHAK who was always supporter for Feliks Dzierzynski. Aldona, whose son was adjutant of Jozef Pilsudski! Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856 - his father Rudolf Jerzy Bulhak 1824-1894; grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789. Great-grandfather Jerzy Onufry Bulhak. Children of Jerzy Onufry Bulhak: Chryzostom Stanisław Bułhak, Beata Bułhak, Krystyna Bułhak, Ostroberta Bułhak and Julian Bułhak born ca 1795
[see above Julian BULHAK bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - 14 km south to LUBUSZANY].



Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce,

close to Novobelichi and Prussy. 18 km north-west to METYAVICHI / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy . 22 km south-west to SLUCK.
Close to
Mieciawice / Maciewicze in the SLUCK county, and here was living Bonifacy Krupski, born 1822; opponent of the military action in 1863; he was involved as a commissar of the IHUMEN area.
Soon he was arrested and imprisoned in Minsk. The sentence condemned him to 8 years of heavy work and confiscation of Novosiolki property. At exile stayed in Usol, after 5 years in Tobolsk, then in Tsarevo, then in Warsaw. 1874 rights restored. Died in 1903 in Maciewicze.

Józef Ignacy Kraszewski wrote on Maciewicze.
Close to Pohost, Starobin, by the Slucza river; near Sielco, Cisowo and Hawrylczyce. Starobin - south to SLUCK.

Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in Belarus; close to ZAZEVICY; SIALCO; TOMILOVA GORA; CHIZHEVICHI; east to DUBOCHKI; nort to SAKOVICHI / Sakovicy; 6 km north-east to SOLIGORSK [137 km south to MINSK - since 1958]; 6 km south-west to PAGOST / Pohost; close to the villages of Vishnevka, Pokrovka, Kovaleva Loza, Teslin, Peschanka.

The Nameless Association [Union of people without names / Association of an unnamed = innominate people / The Nameless Association / 'Zwiazek bezimienny' / 'Zwiazek Bezimiennych'].
Founder of the underground association -
Walerian Pietkiewicz / PIETKIEWICZ Walerian Jan (1805-1843), born in Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district;
Professor, MP, activist in exile; he, on the initiative of Lelewel, established the Association of an unnamed = innominate people.
Preparations were made to fight against Russia.
In 1832/1833, colonel Józef Zaliwski arrived from exile with a few companions and began preparations for the uprising in the Russian lands [see SULIMIERSKI in Lubiec close to Wola Pszczolecka]. The first attempts to create a conspiracy were made by Walerian Pietkiewicz - the emissary of Joachim Lelewel. The center was in Kolbuszowa (property of the Tyszkiewicz family) in Galicia, where after 1831 many of the November insurgents were held. Preparations were directed by the Union of people without names [Association of an unnamed = innominate people / The Nameless Association / Unknown Association].

Adam Mickiewicz already during a trip to Rome and to Florence in the summer of 1830, said, according to Odyniec, similar thoughts like the closest and most faithful followers of Towianski, Ferdynand Gutt who wrote to Walerian Pietkiewicz in 1836.

Walerian Pietkiewicz befriended with Gutt and he was the recipient of many of his letters sent from countries where Ferdinand traveled in those years. As Stanislaw Pigon Ferdinand wrote from Germany.
The year 1830 ended with a stronger accent, with the outbreak of the uprising in the Kingdom of Poland and the expansion of war activities to Lithuania soon. Walerian Pietkiewicz was a member of the Central Vilnius Committee and friend of Joachim Lelewel.

Valeryan Pietkiewicz knew well Towianski, like Gutt Ferdynand. He gives the testimony of honesty although in 1830 they did not take up arms; Gutt as a doctor served his knowledge on both sides. And he - at the request of General Paskevich - for the protection of Russian soldiers wounded in the Polish war of 1830-1831, was decorated on January 13, 1834 with the order of Saint Anna's third grade.
On January 24, 1836 from Mannheim, Gutt wrote to Pietkiewicz that his father was murdered on 1 November 1835 at home. Money was not taken; the tragic death of the pharmacist Jerzy Gutt was dominated by legends, as always, when the perpetrators could not be detected. One of the legends accused Mikolaj Malinowski, the son-in-law of Gutt. By Krasinski - Towianski persuaded Ferdinand Gutt to murder his father [the letter of Zygmunt Karasinski to Delfina Potocka on March 19, 1842].
Extensive fragments of letters from Gutt to Pietkiewicz, written in 1833-1837 from Germany, are quoted by Stanislaw Pigon in the book "From the Age of Mickiewicz - Studies and Sketches" (1922).

Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski wrote on Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district.

Parents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:
August Jacek Hieronim Broel-Plater / August Hiacynt 1745-1803 and Anna Beydo-Rzewuska 1761-1800. Józef Krzysztof Donat Broel Plater b. 1796 in Kraslaw, died 1852 in Wilno, m. Antonina Pereswit-Soltan (1800-1871) or
she married to Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater who was sentenced to settlement in Smolensk, where he lived with his family to 1846.
In Smolensk he has established a contact with named above Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski. After 1846 he returned to Kombula, in 1847 was elected assessor of the Criminal Chamber of the Novgorod province.
Writer under nick-name Joseph Plaskoziemski in 1846, gave his own theory of light, heat and electricity, but not supported by experiences in the mid-nineteenth century. He was also the author of the short history and geography of Livonia; died in 1852 in Vilnius, was buried in Kraslaw. He was married from 1819 to Antonina Pereswit-Soltan (1800-1871) and had 14 children.
I emphasizes once again on
Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852, writer, born 1796 - Kraslaw, died in 1852 - Wilno, married in 1819 to Antonina Soltan 1800-1871, daughter of Benedykt Soltan b. 1770 and Józefa Benislawska b. 1770.

We back to
Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, born ca 1740/1760, the Sluck official, was the legal guardian for Kajetan Kraszewski.

Kajetan Kraszewski b. 1827 in Dolhe, the Pruzany county, d. 1896 in Stary Kuplin, close to Pruzany; Polish writer, musician and astronomer, the father of Boguslaw Kraszewski.
Benislawska MANTEUFFEL-SZOEGE was closest friend to Kajetan.

Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, send named Kajetan to Nieswiez under Devil alias De Yille; Nieswiez was owned by Karol Radziwill, 'panie kochanku';
in Nieswiez often stayed then
Leon Borowski, Wolodkowicz, maiden Brzostowska; Morawski, Wendorf, Miternowski, Mackiewicz, Czyz, Mogiluicki;
Bartlomiej Niepokójczycki, of Boloczyce, the father of ADAM Niepokojczycki;
and Michal Domanski, who journeyed in 1769 - 1778, with KAROL Radziwill.

Karol Stanislaw Onufry Jan Nepomucen Radziwill 'Panie Kochanku' b. 1734 in Nieswiez; voivode of Wilno from 1762, general lieutenant from 1759, marshal of the Grand Court of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1755;
in 1764, he signed the manifesto, recognizing the convocial session in the presence of Russian troops as illegal.
KAROL Radziwill a great patriot and creator of the anti-Russian opposition fought against the Russians in June - the battle under Slonim, and was forced to go to Woloszczyzna. Then he moved to Dresden, where he found out the news that the Parliament was deprived of his office, and that his estates were seized and confiscated.
In 1768 he fought out a guarantee treaty, because Poland became a Russian protectorate, and he joined in exile to the leaders of the Bar Confederation. In 1770 he was a member and the founder of the Masonic Lodge Wandering Crew in PRESOV / Preszów.
For failing to swear the oaths to Catherine II, after the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the Russians confiscated KAROL Radziwill's Newel, Siebiez in the Polock Province / Governorate, and Kopys and Romanów in Mogilev Governorate.
He returned to Lithuania in 1777, settled in Nieswiez.

Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, lived and acted in Sluck, Nieswiez and in Boloczyce [Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. Bartlomiej was in Sluck in 1763 - 1795.
Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce].
Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI [b. ca 1730/1740] had a son Adam Niepokojczycki [born ca 1760/1780], the Sluck Marshal of nobility;
Adam's son was General ARTUR Niepokojczycki [8 Dec 1813 - d. 11 Nov 1881]!

See on MICHAL DOMANSKI -
KAROL RADZIWILL with Lady Morawska were abroad, with a few respected ladies, between whom there was a foster child, without father and mother, Miss Karolina Paszkowska, from the Lanckoronski clan.
Michal Domanski and Miss Karolina Paszkowska were together.


Paszkowski - Radziwill:

Sons of TOMASZ Paszkowski and REGINA: Michal Paszkowski 1st and Jan Paszkowski [born 1742; he was living in Mokrsko in 1742 - the father of General Franciszek Paszkowski and the grandfather of Maria Paszkowska ARMAND from Moscow - see Apolon Konstantynowicz].

Jan Paszkowski [1742-ca 1800] moved home to Ukraine [ca 1776 ?]. Maybe
his brother [cousin ?] was Piotr Paszkowski b. ca 1733 married Elzbieta nee Nietyks,
with son Paszkowski Michal 2nd (born 1761 in Brzesc Litewski - after 1819), Colonel in 1794 in Brzesc Litewski, an official in Oszmiany; studied 1775-1779. In 1789 he bought Zabludow in the Grodno county. The friend of Hieronim Radziwill and of Michal Zaleski, manager [1804] to Dominik Radziwill; Michal Paszkowski was closest to CONSPIRATOR, Karol Prozor in 1812. In 1808-1820 he taken from hands of Radziwill, Naliboki. After 1819 / 1820 no inf.
The Niepokojczycki family was Calvinists.
Under the Radziwills - 1600, Zabludów bought Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun; then his son Krzysztof II Radziwill. He founded in Zabludow and took care of the Calvinist congregation. Dominik Hieronim Radziwill, the owner of ZABLUDOW, m. in 1807 to Izabella Mniszchek, div. Izabella, 2nd voto Demblinska, in 1819 took Zabludów from hands of Michal Paszkowski 2nd - until 1831.

Michal Paszkowski 1st [b. ca 1725/1730] was an official in Malbork, moved in Volhynia, m. Monika Piotrowska of the Chelm area, daughter of Mikolaj and Katarzyna nee Plonski, Piotrowska, with a few children.

Above HIERONIM Radziwill:

Dominik Hieronim Radziwill b. 1786 in Biala Podlaska, d. Nov. 1813 in Lauterecken in Nadrenia-Palatynat; the son of Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill and Zofia Dorota Fryderyka Thurn-Taxis;
Dominik Radziwill was the Freemason.
Colonel Dominik was the owner of Nieswiez and Olyka, Birze, Dubinki, Sluck, Kopyl, Biala. Since 1786 Dominik was under care of Karol Radziwill, and then in 1790 under Adam Czartoryski. Dominik Radziwill inherited the uncle Karol Radziwill.

Above KAROL:
Karol Stanislaw Onufry Jan Nepomucen Radziwill 'Panie Kochanku', died in 1790 in Biala, General Lieutenant in 1759.

Above HIERONIM WINCENTY RADZIWILL:
Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill married Zofia Dorota Fryderyka Thurn-Taxis. Duke, died in 1786; owned Kleck. The son of Michal Kazimierz Radziwill 'Rybenko' and the father of named Dominik Hieronim Radziwill.

Niepokojczycki Ignacy, maybe was the brother of Adam Niepokojczycki. Inf. on IGNACY, 1780 - 1782.
Also of Niepokojczycki Tadeusz, inf. in 1767 - 1780

[Niepokojczycki Tadeusz, the Bialsk / Bielsk official, inf. in 1787 - 1794, BIALA PODLASKA west to Brzesc Litewski. Grabanów close to Biala Podlaska, 5 km north-east to Biala;
in 1818, Grabanów is already the court property of Adam Niepokojczycki [Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780], the father of GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki.
He had wooden residential building made of oak tree. 1822, Grabanow farm was bought from the Radziwills by Poplawski. Shortly thereafter, these estate passed on to the property of the Grabowski family. Kozula's mill in the Grabanów farm in 1781, belonged to the Radziwills, who had a hunting lodge here - near BIALA PODLASKA].

The father of ARTUR:
Niepokojczycki Adam, of SLUCK, was the secretary of Dominik Radziwill

[Prince Dominik Hieronim Radzivil (1786-1813) was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman. Compare:

Paszkowski Michal 2nd (born 1761 in Brzesc Litewski - after 1819), Colonel in 1794 in Brzesc Litewski, an official in Oszmiany; studied 1775-1779. In 1789 he bought Zabludow in the Grodno county.
The friend of Hieronim Radziwill and of Michal Zaleski, manager [1804] to above Dominik Radziwill;
Michal Paszkowski was closest to CONSPIRATOR, Karol Prozor in 1812.
In 1808-1820 he taken from hands of Radziwill, Naliboki. After 1819 / 1820 no inf.
The Niepokojczycki family was Calvinists.
Under the Radziwills - 1600, Zabludów bought Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun; then his son Krzysztof II Radziwill. He founded in Zabludow and took care of the Calvinist congregation. Dominik Hieronim Radziwill, the owner of ZABLUDOW, m. in 1807 to Izabella Mniszchek, div. Izabella, 2nd voto Demblinska, in 1819 took Zabludów from hands of Michal Paszkowski 2nd - until 1831].

Dominik Radziwill was the owner of Nesvizh and Olyka and owner of Birzai, Dubingiai, Sluck and Kapyl estates. He took part in Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812 and later died of wounds after the Battle of Hanau. Parents - Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill and Princess Sophie Friederike of Thurn and Taxis.
Prince Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill b. 1759 - died in 1786, was a Polish prince, diplomat, politician and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded in 1780. He was Count of Kleck, Great Cupbearer of Lithuania from 1779 and governor of Minsk.
Parents - Michal Kazimierz "Rybenko" Radziwill + Anna Luiza Mycielska.

Adam Niepokojczycki - inf. in 1805 - 1809.


ARTUR NIEPOKOJCZYCKI:

1841-47 fought in the Caucasus, and Dagestan. He participated in 1849 in Russian intervention in Hungary and the Crimean War of 1853-1856. In 1874 he became a tsar's adjutant. In the war 1877-78 he became the head of the staff of the Danube army.
During the stay of the Tsar on the front, ie until mid-December 1877, he belonged to five people who ruled Russia - but the head of government did not belong to this group.
1853-1856, at the end of this campaign he commanded a staff of naval and land forces in the Crimea. Originally, he was the son of ADAM Niepokojczycki, the County marshal of the gentry in Slutsk.
In 1878 deputies of Artur Niepokojczycki, who was to concentrate on strategic problems, were appointed:
General Kazimierz Lewicki (operational command) and
General Marcin Kuszewski

{maybe his brother was Aleksander Kuszewski b. ca 1830; wife Zofia Linowska, the granddaughter of Jan Antoni Linowski, the Wschowa official, 1736-1801; he comes from Jan Franciszek Linowski b. 1667, d. bef. 1725}.

Both had extensive experience from the Hungarian campaign and the Crimean war. The staff also included Artillery commander Gen. Mikolaj Massalski.

Note 1:
Kosciuszko travelled in 1796 / 1797 from Russia to Sweden with his secretary J. U. Niemcewicz and with cheerful officer, Libiszewski who often had to carry the General;

[Libiszowski / Libiszewski willingly performed this service. In Sweden, Kosciuszko was listening to Libiszewski playing the guitar at his bedside and to a concert organised in his honour by the best musicians; in Philadelphia was a musician in orchestra. He died - still young - of fever in Cuba. In 1892 the Sosnowski manor from Waleria Niepokójczycki, bought Alfons Libiszowski. In Libiszow is the Libiszowski manor, 'Rybakówka'; Libiszow is situated 5 km west of Sosnowica; east of Ostrow Lubelski].

Note 2:
The conspiracy created in May 1793 reached the roots to the Freemasonry organization and of the club of the "Society of Friends of the Constitution of May 3". A part of the Masons stood in a moderate, liberal position - the preservation of the monarchy with King Stanislaw August and the implementation of the Constitution of May 3. Among the moderate activists of the conspiracy found themselves:
Ignacy Dzialynski, Andrzej Kapostas, Michal Kochanowski,
Alexander Linowski,
Stanislaw Woyczynski, Ludwik Gutakowski, Antoni Bazyli Dzieduszycki, Kazimierz Nestor Sapiecha.

Note 3:

GENERAL Artur Niepokojczycki was the grandson of [Bartholomaus / Bartholomew / Bartholomäus von Unruh] Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI

{barons von Unruh changed their family name to Niepokojczycki, acc. to Edward Henry and Lewinski Corwin ed. New York in 1917}.

Originated from the old German clan von Upru = von UNRUH / Unrug

[von Unruh of Koblenz, (Unrug, Unruh, von Unruhe).
The barons von der Baysen changed their family name to Bazenski, the barons von Unruh to Niepokojczycki, the counts von Hutten to Czapski, the von Oppelins to Bronikowski and so along the line. Graf von Unruh: Unruh (Unrug) - came from the owner of Wagrody [Wendstadt], Baron von Unruh, near Baron von Schlichtung, owner Niechlowa [Nechlau].
Wagrody [Silesia] - west to GORA and south-west to LESZNO - see SULKOWSKI.

Hans Siegmund von Unruh (1644-1694) from the Wendtstadt-Linden line is regarded as the founder of the baronial line. His son Johann Wilhelm von Unruh (1668-1728) belonged to the manor Wagroda (Wendstadt, Guhrau) in the Bohemia-Silesia.

In 1641 in Gniezno, Christoph von Unruh

{Christoph von Unruh (1624-1689 in LESZNO !), the official in Gniezno / Gnesen and in Miedzychód - see MIELZYNSKI. The son of GEORG = JERZY Unruh, 1580-1652, the owner of Miedzychod.
He helped protestant religious refugees from Silesia in Miedzychod / Birnbaum, and from all over Germany, who wanted to escape the Thirty Years War. Christoph von Unruh established his seat in the already existing Manor = Gutsbezirk of Lindenstadt / LIPOWIEC at the gates of Birnbaum, but completely rebuilt it. He built a new castle and its own church.
Christoph's son:
Jan Krzysztof Unrug 1660-1687 = Johann Christoph von Unruh was born in 1660, to above Christopherus von Unruh born in 1624, in Birnbaum. Johann had 17 siblings: Jerzy b. 1652-1710; Bogislaw (Boguslaw) von Unruh / Unrug, Alexander von Unruh and 15 other siblings. The branch of Krzysztof von UNRUH moved to Mniszki [south-west to LECZYCA, near Leznica and Chodow], Tuczepy [south to SZYDLOW] and Milostowo [west to Pniewy, south-east to Miedzychod].
Mentioned
Christoph von Unruh traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh (the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705) with Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski.
Anna Zychlinska was the mother of
Christoph IV von Unruh, Count, the official in MIEDZYCHOD (died in 1763) and OBORNIKI, General;
Wladyslaw / Ladislaus von Unruh;
Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, of Miedzychod / Birnbaum (died in 1766; the father of Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh d. 1779);
Konstantin von Unruh, Count

(Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh born 1689, died 1763 - diplomat of Saxony. Konstantin von Unruh served as a Saxon resident in Gdansk (1738-1750) and the Polish General Commissioner there in 1736-1750. He had taken a wife from the Gdansk patriciate and settled there. His nephew Bogislaw / Boguslaw inherited the Birnbaum - Miedzychod estates in 1763, but in 1779 bequeathed to his son Stephan Peter UNRUH);

and Eleonore von Unruh.
But Christoph von Unruh fell ill and died there on January 29, 1689. His body was transferred to Miedzychód and buried there in the cemetery of the Protestant church}.

Baron Johann Wilhelm von Unruh, found himself in 1711 as a member of the Red Eagle Order. The estate Wagroda (Wendstadt, Kreis Guhrau) is situated in the county of Góra. His descendants settled in GORA and moved to the Great Poland in the early 19th century and became permanently polonized. Alfons Wladyslaw von Unruh, a merchant from Poznan, was awarded the title of Baron on 2 June 1902. Another branch came to East Prussia. Also in 1770 in Lehsewitz / Lasowice close to Lubin],

who moved to Poland in the village of Nepokoychitsa close to Brzesc.

Unrug family came to Poland very long ago, because in 1579 from Thuringia and settled in Silesia. Initially, they called themselves Unruh, they received from the Polish King Zygmunt II August the "right of homeland", that is citizenship of the country [in Poland in 1594]. CHRISTOPH VON UNRUH (1550-1622) bought MIEDZYCHOD.

This is a branch of Tadeusz Gustaw Unrug, born in 1834 - died in 1907, in the Sielec estate near Znin, Major General of the Prussian Guard. Tadeusz came from a Polish Calvinist family derived from count Jerzy Unrug / UNRUH, the official in Gniezno
{Christoph von Unruh was in Gniezno in 1641, and traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh. BOGUSLAW was the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705. Boguslaw married to Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski}
and JERZY was the founder of the city of Kargowa in 1641, then called "Unrugov".

Tadeusz UNRUH was the son of Henryk Kajetan Unrug

(Henryk Kajetan = Kajetan Unruh died 1884 - Henryk was the son of Fryderyk Sebastian Unrug 1734 - 1802 {Unruh sold Miedzychod in 1785 to Adam MIELECKI}; grandson of Aleksander Unrug / von Unruh, 1704 - 1773

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof who bought Trzciel and Wytomysl. Aleksander Unruh bought Kobylka in 1772 from hands of Duke August Sulkowski, who had this estate after August Poniatowski. Kobylka is situated close to Wolomin. Here was a mint};

the great-grandson of Georg Sebastian von Unruh = JERZY Unruh, ca 1666 - 1723

{JERZY bought Kargowa; Jerzy born ca 1666, had a brother Christian von Unruh = Christoph von Unruh, auf Pieske born 1666, d. 1723, the owner of Pieski / Pieske near Miedzychod, and Nowy Gorzyck = Nowe Gorzycko. Christoph was the father of Sophie Catharina von Unruh, and Urszula Marianna Brudzewska};

the great-great-grandson of Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689, the official in WALCZ and in GNIEZNO; Krzysztof had a son Jerzy 1652-1710, the official in POZNAN and WALCZ})

and his wife Anna Kurnatowski (died 1884). In the 1850s [or in 1849], Tadeusz and some of his siblings converted to Catholicism. In a marriage with the Saxon countess Izydora von Bunau (1851-1923) he had two sons, including Vice-Admiral Józef Unrug. Tadeusz after 1870 settled near Znin, died in 1907.

Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628, had a brother Krzysztof - the founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689.
The son of named Aleksander:
JERZY SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1666-1723);
the grandson
ALEKSANDER UNRUG (1704-1773);
the great-grandson
FRYDERYK SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1734-1802),
the great-great-grandson HENRYK KAJETAN MAURYCY UNRUG (1791-1849), the owner of Szolow, Dzieczyn and Skrzydlew, had 8 children.

Heinrich Kajetan von Unruh, passed in 1849 on Catholicism [his son Józef Bartlomiej Unrug / Józef Baltazar Unrug, b. 1825]. He also changed the spelling of his last name from Unruh to Unrug. Two of his sons died in the uprisings in April 1848 near Miloslaw in the Wrzesnia district. He fought against Prussia. Kazimierz, the second son, died in May 1863 in the January Uprising. He fought against the Russians.

Note:
A.
Kossak Wojciech (1856-1942), a painter artist, send a letter to General Stanislaw Puchalski in the case of Zygmunt Unrug vel Kajetan Niepokojczycki in Russian captivity, dated Cracow in 1916. Stanislaw Puchalski (1867-1931), was the then commander of the Polish Legions. Refers to Zygmunt Unrug (1857-1935), brother-in-law of the artist under the name Zygmunt Niepokojczycki in Russian captivity.
B.
Pawel Segneri (1624-1694), Italian Jesuit, and writer in Cologne, 1694; the Polish translation of Segneri by Krzysztof Niepokojczycki appeared in 1759 in Lviv.
C.
Kazimierz Zlotnicki, m. Zofia Leonowa Niepokojczycka, d. bef. 1723. That is Leon Niepokojczycki born ca 1640 ?

Niepokójczycki Mikolaj (born in 1883 - died after 1914), born in Minsk.

Liudvikas Abramavicius Niepokójczycki (1879-1939) was a Polish activist in Kharkiv. Ludwik Abramowicz- Niepokójczycki was editor of 'Przeglad Wilenski'.

General Nepokoichitskiy Artur Adamovich / Artur Adamovich Nepokoichitsky b. 8 Dec 1813, d. 11 Nov 1881. Burial at the Volkovskoye Lutheran Cemetery in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Note 4:
NIEPOKOJCZYCKI Benedykt Wilhelm (1796-1865), President of the Bank of Poland; b. in Szlowiany, in the Wilkomierz county, died in 1865 - Drezno. His mother Scholastyka Kuszelewska, born 1770, died in 1829 + Stanislaw Niepokojczycki, b. ca 1760

[Kazimiera Niepokojczycka and Franciszka Niepokojczycka were the daughters of Scholastyka Kuszelewska Niepokoyczycki / Niepokojczycka, and they had a court case in Wilno about a landed property in Stlowiany and Stefance, Elminiki and Putwiszki, belonged to the Radziwills, in the Wilkomierz county; the court case was after the death of Józef Kuszelewski, the Marshal of Wilkomirz; with Antoni Domeyko of the Kowno county in Gierkance].

Benedykt's brother was Wincenty Niepokojczycki b. ca 1800. They lived together in WILKOMIERZ in 1829 and in 1852.
Stanislaw Niepokojczycki, born ca 1765/1770, had a brother Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780.

Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, acted in Sluck, Nieswiez and in Boloczyce [Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. He acted in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce close to SLUCK].

Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI had a son Adam, the Sluck Marshal of nobility; Adam's son was General ARTUR Niepokojczycki!

Wincenty Niepokojczycki b. ca 1800, had a son born 1829, and grandaughter Józefa Niepokojczycka 1857-1925 + Tadeusz Chelminski 1852-1901. Tadeusz had a daughter Felicja Chelminska 1887-1943 + Marian Antoni Andrzej Chrapowicki 1864-1930. MARIAN Chrapowicki was the grandson of Eustachy Chrapowicki b. ca 1790; Amelia Gorska 1793-1866; and Dorota Szadurska b. 1810.
MARIAN Chrapowicki was the great-grandson of Józef Chrapowicki 1750-1812; Stanislaw August Gorski and of Franciszek Ksawery Szadurski b. 1764; Pss Magdalena Oginska; Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1767-1796 and of Franciszka Felkerzamb.
Anna Niemirowicz had a half-sister Dorota 1780-1813 + Mikolaj Siestrzanek-Karnicki and Dorota had a daughter Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka 1811-1883 + Konstanty Mikolaj Radziwill 1793-1869,
who was the
grandson of Leon Michal Radziwill 1722-1751 and the great-grandson of
Michal Antoni Radziwill (1687-1721). Michal Antoni + Marcjana had a daughter Izabela (1711-1761) / Izabella Katarzyna Radziwill married Tadeusz Franciszek Oginski.

Kazimierz Lewicki (1835-1891),
the Russian General, Pole. An educator of the cadet corps in Polock. 1855 served the Guard. Participated in Crimean War 1853-56. In 1859, he finished Academy and started serving the staff of the Guards and then in the Siberian District. 1870 professor; in 1874, the tsar's adjutant and chief of staff of the guard. In the war 1877-78, replaced Artur Niepokojczycki; after the war, he becomes an inspector of cavalry and 1885-88 commander a Cavalry Division.

Duke Mikolaj Massalski (1812-1880), the Russian General;
Pole. He graduated from the Military Academy in St. Petersburg. In the army from 1832 and fights at Caucasus. In 1839 in Persia, 1855 commander of the Finnish artillery, 1865-67 he is in the Polish Kingdom, later the commander of the Siberian District. In the war 1877-78 he became commander of the Danube army artillery. From 1879, a member of the State Council.

Walerian Derozynski (1826-1877), the Russian General; Pole.
In the army from 1845, then the end of Academy; Russian intervention in Hungary 1849 and Crimean War 1853-56. From 1857, the Division chief of staff; he fights in the war of 1877-78, at the Battle of Szypka together with
General Marcin Kuszewski, deputy Chief of Staff of the Danube army;
Colonel Aleksander Lipinski;
Colonel Bieniecki.

Artur Niepokojczycki during the Tsar's stay on the front, ie until mid-December 1877, he belonged to five people who were ruled of Russia.

9 Infantry Division - General Duke Swiatopolk Mirski / Swiatopelk.

11 Corps - Duke General Schachowskoi ie Aleksy Szachowski.


Interesing network:

Aleksander Pociej d. 1770 the owner of Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce close to SLUCK - BARTLOMIEJ Niepokojczycki [the grandfather of General ARTUR Niepokojczycki] - Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army, d. 1808 the owner of BEREZYNA and [with his wife] of LUBUSZANY [13 km to MIEZONKA of the Konstantynowiczs after 1842], with Ludwik's daughter - Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776-1867 [Anna Tyszkiewicz, the owner of BEREZYNO-Luboszany, maried to Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845].

Details:

Aleksander POCIEJ, the owner of Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce close to SLUCK before 1770; next to Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, who was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. Bartlomiej acted in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce close to SLUCK.
Then to Ludwik Aleksander Dawid Rozwadowski, 1858-1907, the son of Aleksander Adam Rozwadowski, Count, 1824 - 1899.

Note to above
Aleksander POCIEJ, the owner of Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce close to SLUCK before 1770, and Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952 [she was the owner of LUBUSZANY]! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN; the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA.

The genealogy of Anna Tyszkiewicz Potocka, born 1776 / 1779, died in 1867, the owner of Berezyna - Lubuszany:

Benedykta Sapieha d. 1724, m. 1716 to Jerzy Tyszkiewicz died in 1735,
with the son - Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1717-1790.
Jozef married twice:
1736 to Benedykta Oginska, the daughter of Marcin Michal Oginski 1672-1750;
2nd to Anna Pociej, 1720-1783, the daughter of mentioned Aleksander Pociej d. 1770,
with 2 sons:
Aleksander Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1775, and
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army [the owner of BEREZYNA - LUBUSZANY], d. 1808,
with daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776/1779-1867.

Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776/1779-1867 [see the PONIATOWSKI family], the owner of BEREZYNO-Luboszany + Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845

[Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was the son of the third Prime Minister of Poland, Count Stanislaw Kostka Potocki, the FREEMASON, and his wife Aleksandra Lubomirska. Stanislaw Kostka Potocki was the son of General Eustachy Potocki and Anna Katska, and was a brother of Ignacy Potocki].


The genealogy of
Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776 or in 1779-1867 [see the PONIATOWSKI family], the owner of BEREZYNO-Luboszany / Lubuszany and Berezyna. But we remember of SOLTAN - Piottuch-Kublicki - Konstantynowicz of MIEZONKA line.

Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan

[Freemason;

the son of Stanisław Sołtan b. 27.8.1756 - died in 1836 in Mitawa, General, secret acted in 1793, then in 1812, member of Parliament of 1782, 1788.
The grandson of Stanisław Pereświt Sołtan 1698 - 1758, owned Andrepna and Zielonpole close to Rezekne / Rzeczyce, and Lideksna with Sprykutow close to Ludsen / Lucyn.

The great-grandson of Samuel Sołtan b. 1654, killed in 1709, m. 1st to Wisiunianka / Wisimianka, and 2nd to Helena Ewa von Manteuffel 1-v. Jan von Berk.

Note 1:

Antonina Pereświt-Soltan (1800-1871) was daughter of Benedykt Soltan b. ca 1770 and Jozefa Benislawska

(Jozefa had also son Władysław Józef Sołtan 1795 - 1843 + Walentyna Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1800 with daughter Oktawia Sołtan 1830 - 1871 + Władysław Hieronim Samuel Sołtan 1824-1900);

Antonina was granddaughter of Piotr Sołtan + Przyborowska + Kopeć + Szostakowska;
the great-granddaughter of Jan who was son of Samuel Soltan;
Samuel was son of Jan Sołtan + Aleksandra Boreysza.

Note 2:

Józef Piottuch-Kublicki b. ca 1780 - official in Zawilie, b. 1780 - and Karolina Soltan b. ca 1780/1790 had children:
1.
Anna Benislawska
(born Piottuch-Kublicki in 1809, d. 1885 + Józef Benislawski, 1790-1852, with: Leon Benislawski 1846-1935, Jan 1847- 1899, Stanislaw, Konstanty, Adolf, Edward, Ludwik Benislawski, Helena Benislawska b. before 1852);
2. mentioned
Walentyna Soltan
(born Piottuch-Kublicka, b. ca 1800 / 1810 + Wladyslaw Józef Soltan b. 1795, died in 1843, son of Benedykt b. 1770 and Józefa Benislawska.
Walentyna's daughter was Oktawia Soltan, 1830 - 15.8.1871 in Kazan + in 1849 to Wladyslaw Hieronim Samuel Soltan, 1824 - 1900, the January Uprising 1863);

3. Stanislaw Piottuch-Kublicki born 1804;

4. above Oktawia Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1810 + Józef Szumski b. ca 1780 / 1800 + 2nd to Dominik Konstantynowicz the owner of MIEZONKA;

5. Emilia Piottuch-Kublicka b. 1803 + Wincenty Smokowski 1797 - 1876, son of Michal Smokowski and Konstancja Mickiewicz;

6. Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki + Ida Oginska b. ca 1820 / 1813 / 1810.
Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki born 1810 + Ida Oginska had the son Karol Piottuch Kublicki b. ca 1850 (+ Zofia Eysymont, 1840 / 1848 - died 1926, daughter of Oktawiusz EYSYMONT, and Helena Soltan).

Note 3:
Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan was the brother of Karolina SOLTAN Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1790 + Józef Piottuch- Kublicki b. ca 1780.

Above Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, husband of Idalia POCIEJ, b. 1801, daughter of Aleksander Michal Pociej;

Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 was father of Aleksander Stanislaw August Soltan and Maria Anna Sierakowska. Above Aleksander Stanislaw August Soltan 1821 - 1853, was father of Stefania Ludwika de Virion.

ADAM LEON SOLTAN was the son of Stanisław Sołtan b. 27.8.1756 - died in 1836 in Mitawa,
General, secret acted in 1793, then in 1812],

married Idalia Pociej b. 1790 / 1801 - 1839, the daughter of named above Aleksander Michal Pociej - CONSPIRATOR of 1821.

We have two families of Tyszkiewicz:
A.
Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz
(born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN; the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA; the great-granddaughter of Michal Tyszkiewicz Count, b. 1761 in BIRZAI / Birze;
the great-great-granddaughter of Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in Valozyn).

Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815, married Maria Anna Galimska - he was the son of Count Michał Jan Tyszkiewicz b. 1690, d. in LOHOJSK, 1762;
the grandson of Emanuel Władysław Tyszkiewicz, b. ca 1650, d. 1704;
the great-grandson of
Count Mikołaj Tyszkiewicz, 1619 - 1702;
the great-great-grandson of
Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1585 in Minsk, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, d. 1635 ? or in 1648,
who was the son of Marcin Tyszkiewicz b. 1547 in Brest, d. 1631;
and grandson of
Jerzy Tyszkiewicz Łohojski b. 1518, d. 1576, come from
Wasyl Tyszkiewicz or Bazyli Klenicki-Tyszkiewicz, 1492 - 1571 in Supraśl.

B.
Benedykta Sapieha d. 1724, married in 1716 to Jerzy Tyszkiewicz died in 1735, with the son - Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1716/1717-1790.

Jozef married twice:
1736 to Benedykta Oginska the daughter of Marcin Michal Oginski 1672-1750;
2nd to Anna Pociej, 1720-1783, the daughter of Aleksander Pociej d. 1770, with 2 sons:
Aleksander Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1775, and
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army, d. 1808
with daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776/1779-1867.

Above Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1716/1717-1790, Józef Skumin Tyszkiewicz - the top official in Smoleńsk 1775-1790, Mścisław in 1761-1775; was the son of named above
Jerzy Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1695 in WILNO = d. 1735 in Tylża.
The grandson of Kazimierz Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1635 and died in 1701.
The great-grandson of
Jerzy Tyszkiewicz born ca 1598 and died ca 1686.
The great-great-grandson of
Dymitr Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1536, d. 1609,
who was the son of
Skumin Jan Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1506, d. 1566. Come from
Lew Tyszkowicz, b. ca 1480, d. ca 1515.



See more on
the POLISH CONSPIRATORS of 1821,
and
ALAKSANDER POCIEJ, senior, died 1770:

Aleksander Oborski, Colonel, acted in underground independence movement of Wilno in 1821 together with Jozef Gruzewski and Stanislaw GRUZEWSKI, Romer, Biallozor,
Stanislaw SOLTAN and Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) - the Polish CONSPIRATOR.

Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, married Idalia Pociej b. 1790 / 1801 - 1839, the daughter of named above Aleksander Michal Pociej - CONSPIRATOR of 1821.
Leonard Pociej 1727 - 1774 - who was son of Aleksander Pociej senior {died in 1770} and Teresa Brzostowska - was the brother of
Anna Tyszkiewicz;
Karolina Radziwill and Ludwik Pociej.

Leonard Pociej had son - Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) - the CONSPIRATOR of 1821.
Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was the husband of Anna Korzeniowska; he was the father of Teodor Pociej and named Idalia Pociej 1790/1801 - 1839 married Soltan.
Above Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was son of Maria Aleksandra Radziwill POCIEJ, b. 1753; his grandfather was Wojciech Albrycht Radziwill 1717-1762.
Aleksander Pociej senior, 1698 - 1770, was son of Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej. Above Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej 1666 - 1728, was son of Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina.
Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej was brother of Ludwik Konstanty Pociej.
Above Ludwik Konstanty Pociej b. 1664, d. 30 January 1730, in 1709 commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian army, his parents: Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina Oginska.

Ludwik Konstanty was father of Ludwika Marianna Pociej (b. ca 1715) who married to Franciszek Borzecki (ca 1693 - 1739) with daughter
Justyna KALINOWSKA Borzecka (m. Ignacy Kalinowski born ca 1720 died 1782).
Her son was count Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.
Justyna nee Borzecka b. ca 1735 (1710 it's error). Above named
Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski was born 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760.



The ARMAND family from Moscow [+ General Franciszek Paszkowski] and the French roots of the Konstantynowicz family [Anna Armand Konstantynowicz and Inessa Armand - Lenin Uljanov] - Prometheism / PROMETHEISM of Poles in Russia, 1877/1878 - 1904:

Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia in 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow), the daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution.
Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica, b. 1767, the daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand in 1791. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably).
The 29 year-old General Paul Armand, in 1791 [Jean-Louis Armand in 1799], came from Paris to Russia in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay [see below].
He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine in 1791.
After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, in 1792/1793, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then, after 1815, the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.

Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demontet family ran in Moscow and in KAZAN a sales of these French wines.

When Paul Armand married [ca 1783 / 1785], he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand in MOSCOW, was trading house of DEMONSI / Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.

Mentioned above
Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage [ca 1806] to Elizabeth Osipovna (1786 / 1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny / EUGENIUSZ ARMAND, born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker [compare HACKER in the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company].

In 1811 in Moscow lived:

Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1786 / 1787,
and his son Louis-Jean ARMAND, b. 1807 / 1808, French nation;
his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787/1788 and
the daughter Elizabeth b. 1807.
Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived (again?) to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica, the daughter of Charles, was born 1767.

Louis-Jean ARMAND, b. 1807 / 1808.

Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia in 1799.

Yevgeny Armand born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow.

Paul was killed and Paul's son, Jean - Ivan [= Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1786 / 1787], started a wine-import business [in 1799 in Russia - but in Moscow in 1808].
But it was Ivan's son, the first
Eugene [= Yevgeny / EUGENIUSZ ARMAND, born in 1809], who founded the Armand fortunes.

Note to Marquis de Courtenay in Russia in 1791:

The last male member of the French Courtenays died in 1733 [the last male member of the French Courtenays committed suicide in 1727], but his niece married the Marquis de Bauffremont, and her descendants assumed the title of "Prince de Courtenay".
However the marquis de Beauffremont [Louis de Bauffremont (1712-1769)] was made in 1757 Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and this title was recognised in France.

Above LOUIS had a brother - Prince Joseph of Bauffremont (1714-1781) who married in 1762 to Princess Louise Benigne Marie Octavie Francoise Jacqueline Laurence of Bauffremont / Princesse de Bauffremont-Courtenay [b. ca 1745 ?] 1750-1803.

JOSEPH's son -
Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont-Courtenay, [maybe he was born before 1773 !] b. 1773, died in 1833, married in 1787 [in 1787, San Ildefonso, Province de Segovie, Castille et Leon, Espagne] to Marie-Antoinette Rosalie Pauline of Quelen de La Vauguyon (1771-1847), the daughter of Paul François of Quelen de Stuer de Caussade, second duke of La Vauguyon, prince of Carency, and Marie Antoinette Rosalie de Pons de Roquefort.

Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont - Courtenay (1773-1833), son of JOSEPH [not of Louis] served under the Bourbons.
He fled France during the French Revolution and emigrated in Koblenz, then Alexandre was in Russia in 1791, he entered the rank of a colonel in Spain, served in the campaigns of 1793 and 1794 as captain of the cavalry in the service of France.
He settled in the United States [in 1794 ?].
He later returned to France [compare General Tadeusz Kosciuszko] and was made a Count of the French Empire by Napoleon in 1810. Louis XVIII made him a peer of France in 1815 and in 1817, and duke in 1818.
Alexandre Emanuel Louis de Bauffremont, marquis de Listenois had 2 sons:
Alphonse (1792-1860), 2nd Duke of Bauffremont;
Theodore (1793-1852).

Brief note on Courtenay in England:

John Courtenay Throckmorton (1753/1754-1819), fifth baronet of Coughton, county Warwick (1791).
William Paston married Mary Courtenay, daughter of mentioned John Courtenay.
Above Sir John-Courtenay, 5th bart., was commemorated as being "a ban vivant", and he was baronet after Christopher Hewetson. John was the son of George Throckmorton SENIOR, and Anna Maria

[= Anne Maria Paston b. ca 1730, was the daughter of William Paston and Mary Courtenay. Mary Courtenay b. ca 1705, was the daughter of John Courtenay. John Courtenay b. ca 1670, lived at Molland, Devon, England
(Molland-Bottreaux; in 1703 of Molland-Champson. The Courtenay family in West Molland in 1467 - 1489 - 1733 - 1863)].

Husband of Maria Katherine Giffard. Brother of Sir George Throckmorton, 6th Baronet, JUNIOR; Sir Charles Throckmorton, 7th Baronet; William Throckmorton; Robert Throckmorton and Teresa Metcalf.
Sir George "6th Baronet Throckmorton of Coughton" Courtenay-Throckmorton, JUNIOR, formerly Throckmorton. Born on 25 Sep 1754 in Warwick, England.


Now on the Konstantynowiczs - HURKO and PROMETHEISM in 1877/1878:

Prometheism - in 1904 Jozef Pilsudski announced the division of Russia into component parts, and giving independence to countries that were strongly incorporated into Russian Empire.
The name Prometheism was described in the years 1924-1926 from the inspiration of Tadeusz Schaetzel and Tadeusz Holowko.

Georgians researcher from France and the state of Washington in the USA, Georges Mamoulia writes that the creator of the word Prometheism was HAJDAR Bammat - inf. 2009.
Wlodzimierz Baczkowski writes in 1984, on the name Prometheism is associated with the Prometheus League and followers of Józef Pilsudski.

Charaszkiewicz writes that the idea of Prometheism appeared in the Memorandum of Jozef Pilsudski to the government of Japan in 1904
[see Sieroszewski and Azbelev - the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - in JAPAN. Breguet and Nobel around the Konstantynowiczs].

Roman Knoll in Ankara in 1924-1925 devoted his efforts to implementing the idea of Prometheism.

In the definition of the Promethean movement, it should be specified that it is not synonymous with the term Promethean thought. It is the close cooperation of the representatives of enslaved nations with "Polish factors" aimed at bringing the independence of these countries.
On the other hand, the Promethean thought from 1877/1878 is a much broader concept, it is understood as the idea of dismembering the Russian Empire based on the unified movement of nations enslaved by Russia.

Already in the years 1877-1878, Polish officers in the headquarters led the Russian Army in the Balkans, and they met with the problems of Russian imperialism and the problems of small nations in Transcaucasia and the Balkans.
In 1877 in order to overcome the ridges of the Balkans, the General JOZEF HURKO / Josif Hurko (about 12000 soldiers) was appointed as commander.

General Jozef Hurko / Iosif Vladimirovich Hurko (Gurko) born in July 1828, in Veliky Novgorod or in the village of Burnejko in Mogilev Governorate; died 1901 in the village Sakharov in the Tver Governorate; Russian field marshal.
He came from a Polish-Belarusian noble family, the son of General Vladimir Iosifowicz Hurka (1795-1852) and Tatiana Aleksandrowna, baroness Korff;
the grandson of Polish nobleman Józef Hurko-Romejko, junior, died in 1811.

General Jozef Hurko born in 1828, was a student in 1846; participant of the Crimean War (1853-1856). Then a commander of the 2nd Division of the Guard.
In the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), he was commanding the Division from June 1877, he made a march - maneuver for the Balkans (commanded by Aleksandr Puzyriewski), for which he was promoted to general-adjutant.
Mentioned above
Józef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR died in 1811, the son of Jozef Hurko Romejko, senior, Polish nobleman and state activist of the Russian Empire, the first vice-governor of the Kurland Governorate after 1795/1796.
He came from a noble family from the Polish province of Vitebsk. He was born ca 1750/1760. He served the army as Petyhorski's lieutenant before 1796.
Recommended by the general-governor of Kurland, Peter Ludwig von Pahlen, on the newly created position of vice-governor of the Kurland Governorate. The nomination was issued by Tsarina Catherine II.
In addition to the estates in the Courland province, Jozef Hurko-Romejko, junior, also owned estates in the Mogilev Governorate, in the Orsza county.
That is
Krynki = Krotowsza or neighbouring Krotowsze / KROTOVSHE;
Wysokie Łuszajewo;
and
Pograbiówka.

He died in 1811.

Krynki was situated in the Wysoczany district; the ORSHA county in the Mohylew province.
Kratowsza, in 1849 belonged to the Mikulino Rudnia parish.
Wysokie Łuszajewo = Wysokie / Vysokoje - north to ORSHA; close to Obuchovo; Grishany; Jurcevo.

Burnejko in the Mohylew province.

General Jozef Hurko owned in 1901 Sacharowo in the TWER province [compare inf. in my domain].

KRYNKI, south-east to KOPTI; west to Bolszaja WYDREJA; south-east to VICEBSK; north to Vyshacany. See KOLPINO - west to OSIPOVO; close to LUCHOSA.

BABINOWICZE / Babinavichy - in the 17th and 18th cent. belonged to OGINSKI. 1772 to Russia. Babinowicze, the Orsza county; by the Werchita River. Бабінавічы / Babinowicze in the ORSHA county - Babinowicze - south to Liozno, of the Vitebsk region of Belarus. North to ORSHA.

Józef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR b. ca 1750/1760, was the son of SENIOR Jozef Hurko / JOZEF HURKO - ROMEJKO, born ca 1710 - in 1759-1780 the Vitebsk chamberlain.
Jozef Hurko / Gurko, senior, was maybe the son of JAN HURKO, born ca 1680 from KROTOWSZE-KRYNKI.

Christina Golynskaya (Krystyna Holynska) was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski. She gave her estate in will to her brother Kazimierz HOLYNSKI, and to her sister Frantiska.
In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of Jesuits.
Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms, born ca 1670 - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was the first husband of KRYSTYNA HOLYNSKA; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko born ca 1680 of Krotowsze-Krynki) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714.

Acc. to 'Secret Memoirs of the Court of Petersburg...' Zachary Konstantynowicz / Constantinowitz in 1796 was a valet (servant) of Yekaterina Alexeevna or Catherine II the Great, Empress of Russia.

Stephen (Stefan) Golynsky (Stefan Kazimierz Holynski born ca 1630/1640) was the third son of Davyd / Dawid Holynski, owned the estate Soin (Soino, Soino Wielkie, Woronowe Slobody).
In 1663 Golynsky / Holynski mentioned, Mayor Zhmudsky, served in the regiment of Ilya Surin (mother of Stepan Holynski was kind of Surin ancestry).

On January 31, 1664 a priest of the Mstislavl Church, Herman Konstantynowicz filed a complaint against Paul Moskevich and Stephen Golynsky / Stefan Holynski for armed mob to his house, for loot his grain bread and torturing her daughters
(a data extracted from the Vitebsk and Mogilev documentary province books, stored in a central repository in Vitebsk, and published under the editorship of M. Verevkin, T. 24, Vitebsk 1893, p. 455-457).

Christina Golynskaya
(Krystyna Holynska born ca 1680)
was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski / STEFAN HOLYNSKI born 1630/1640. She gave her estate in will to her brother Kazimierz and to her sister Frantiska. In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of Jesuits. Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was her first husband; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko born ca 1680) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714
(I think that the above error about the Rohoza nickname arose from confusion between this nickname and surname Rahoza; for example Michał Rahoza with the Szreniawa coat of arms from Kiev in 1579).

Józef HURKO JUNIOR, had 2 sons:
Leopold Hurko (1783-1860) the Russian Major General;
Włodzimierz Hurko (1795-1852) the Russian General; and the daughter
Ewelina (d. 1821 in ROMA) - the wife of Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the POLOCK official (1778-1840), the son of Justynian Niemirowicz.

Włodzimierz [1795-1852], had a son {the grandson of Józef HURKO [died in 1811]} the Russian Field Marshal and the Warsaw governor, Józef Władimirowicz Hurko / Romeiko-Gourko / Иосиф Владимирович Гурко (1828-1901).

Zenaida Lubomirska nee Hołyńska, b. 1820 in Rowne / Rivne, was daughter of Michał Hołyński and Elżbieta Tolstoj; wife of Kazimierz Anastazy Karol Lubomirski
with children:
Stanisław Michał Henryk Michał Henryk Lubomirski [1838-1918],
and Marie Lannes de Montebello.

Above Michał Hołyński / Михаил Иванович Голынский, b. 1784, was son of Jan (Ivan) Hołyński and Barbara KASZYC.

Above Jan (Ivan) Hołyński b. 1746, was son of Józef Antoni Tadeusz Hołyński and Petronela ZUKOWSKA.

Above Józef Antoni Hołyński / Juozas Antanas Holinskis of the MSCISLAU province of POLAND, born ca 1720/1730, was son of Kazimierz Hołyński b. ca 1670, and Teofila MOSKIEWICZ.

Kazimierz Hołyński b. ca 1670 - the son of Stefan Kazimierz Hołyński and Izabela Ostankiewicz.

KAZIMIERZ of the MSCISLAU province was brother of
Franciszka Holynska born ca 1665;
Teofila Wojna;
Jan Michał Hołyński;
Krystyna Romeyko-Hurko - Konstantynowicz born ca 1680;
Jakub Hołyński;
and Barbara Romeyko-Hurko.

Note to above mentioned KAZIMIERZ Holynski b. ca 1670:

Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz b. ca 1670/1680, near of kin with Holynski family from Soino (either Big Soino or Voronove Slobody near by a farm of Mielkovka = Mietkowka), and his siblings, and Hurko family also (from Krotowsza otherwise called Krynki or Krotovshe that belonged to Romejko - Hurko family in the Orsa district / JAN HURKO born ca 1670) were in trouble with Holynski

(Kazimierz Holynski born ca 1670, the son of Stefan Kazimierz Holynski from Chlyszczewo i.e. Chwostowo close by border between Belarus and Russia, from Soino and Uszpol, born ca 1630/1640)

family after 1714.

The above Soino is situated 18 km east away from Mscislau, at territory of Russia now i.e. 7 km from present border; it was the Grand duchy of Lithuania 1359 - 1772 and next in Russia: the Mstislavl district, Soino region = "volost" that is similar to county, in a parish of Mscislau (archbishopric of Mahileu, in the Mscislau - Klimavicy catholic area were three parishes: Lozovica, Mscislau and Smolensk in the 19th cent.);
one our leg lived in the territory of present Belarus, but the second one stood at the present land of Russia in borders after 1992.

A fortunes of Poles in this remote easterly territories of the former Both Nations Republic turned out differently than by Vistula, because not a few Poles had got to choose military service in the Russian Army since the end of the 18th cent. [see 1877/1878] or they worked as engineers in different corners of former Russia since second half of the 19th century.



George Washington and Thomas Jefferson closely connected with Bystrzanowski and Tadeusz Kosciuszko after 1776.

For the first time, by Polish, after about 240 years, I give one of the names, a person who accompanied Tadeusz Kosciuszko to Martynika in the summer of 1776.

We have two sources here by English, including one book from the first half of the 19th century.

The following layout, configuration is created:

Freemasonry and General George Washington / Jerzy Washington - Bystrzanowski Szafraniec or {B. Bystrzanowski / Bronislaw, acc. to me} Bystrzanowski / Br. Bystrzonowski {Br. = Brother ?}, a Polish soldier who came over to America, the US country, Freemason, together with Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Tadheus Kosciusko in the Summer of 1776

- the Bystrzanowski / Soltyk family from Sekursko - Trzebniow - Dabrowno {a line to Konarski and Kell - MI5 - more below !};

closely affiliated with the KIEDRZYNSKI family of KAMYK - Kiedrzyn near Czestochowa and Bleszynski of Wielgomlyny [in SEKURSKO of Bystrzanowski];

the Paszkowski family:
Jan Paszkowski [Dabrowno with Sebastian Bystrzanowski];

his sons: 1.
Wojciech Paszkowski

[Trzebniow belonged to Sebastian Bystrzanowski, and the estate was managed by Wojciech Paszkowski who was the friend to Artur Potocki - the bearer of the Templar degree of the Freemasonry +
General Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski in CRACOW in 1830/1832 + the Templars around General Franciszek Paszkowski in Cracow after 1840 - the line to Duke Kent in Scotland

- the line to Demonsi of KAZAN; Armand of Moscow {+ Maria Wilhelmina Paszkowska Armand + Anna Konstantynowicz / Lenin and Inessa Armand / Lenin};
Breguet {+ Kazan, St. Petersburg, Duflon, Venture de Paradise, Maleszewski - Poniatowski, Jozef Sulkowski};
Duflon {+ Drzewiecki + Martynov / Katenin / Orlov Denisov} + Konstantynowicz / Armand in Moscow, Swolna, Miezonka, Nomme-Tallinn];

2.
and next son General Franciszek Paszkowski + political relationships with General Stanislaw Fiszer + General Tadeusz Kosciuszko

[Kosciuszko - the friend of Thomas Jefferson - the ILLUMINATI - see Polish conspirators:
Szaniawski,
Horodyski,
Neyman,
Soltyk,
and MALESZEWSKI - 1789 in France and the ILLUMINATI - Breguet and KAZAN].

Tadeusz Kosciuszko, the hero of Poland and the United States, an honorary French citizen, happily saved from the maritime disaster, stayed in July 1776 at Martinique and moved to America to fight for the independence of the United States. Tadeusz Kosciuszko set off from France to America in July 1776. At the Martinique coast, the ship crashed on the reefs, but Kosciuszko and five other Poles survived - they flowed with him as volunteers to the American army. They spent a month in Martinique because no ships were traveling due to numerous storms. Unable to wait, they hired a small fishing boat and sailed to Miami [Spanish city].
Information about the catastrophe of the Kosciuszko ship was released only one year later in the 'Nowiny' newspaper. Kosciuszko was already a colonel of the American army. He was there for eight years, during which he fought for independence of the United States, he worked as an engineer.
Wanting to go to America, Kosciuszko probably came to a well-known French writer - Pierre Augustian de Beamarchais, who as a member of the French intelligence could help him on a trip to America. Probably in June 1776, he left the port of Le Havre.
The many dangers that he experienced during the cruise, the 'Nowiny' described on April 16, 1777.
During a voyage to America, a ship carrying Kosciuszko and five others, unknown Poles, turns off course during a storm and crashes near the island of Martinique.
One of the Poles was Bystrzanowski, maybe born ca 1745/1755.

We will venture to cite one other anecdote as indicative of the character of the american Masonic Lodges. It is, we believe, a well authenticated fact, that the presiding officer of the Lodge which held its meetings in that division of the army which was under the immediate command of General Washington, was a common soldier - an obscure Sergeant for his Worshipful Master, when he was as much the Dictator of his country as Caesar was of Rome!

St. John's Lodge in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, is the oldest Masonic lodge in New Hampshire; it was founded either in 1734 or in 1736; a title also claimed by Solomon's Lodge in Savannah, Georgia, which was founded in 1734.
Soon after, the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire was formed and was finalized on April 8, 1790. Until that time, St. John's was under the Massachusetts Grand Lodge.

Masonry in America:
1717 - the regulation of Grand Lodge of England.
1720 - the first Charters and Dispensations issued by the Grand Lodge at London.
1733 - Boston: a Warrant by the Lord Viscount Montage of London.
1779 - General Sulivan in New Hampshire; at Tioga Point, the first Lodge of the Army was opened.

George Washington met the nineteen-year-old Marquis de Lafayette on August 5, 1777; The Marquis was recruited to serve in the American cause by Silas Deane, who headed an American effort in Paris to enlist French Army officers in the cause. Instead, Deane believed that Lafayette would be valuable to the American cause because of his connections to the Court of Louis XVI.
The nineteen-year-old received his Major General's sash on July 31. Five days later, he met George Washington who travelled to Philadelphia.

While he was commander in chief of the American armies during the Revolutionary War, Washington frequently attended the meetings of military lodges. He presided over Masonic ceremonies initiating his officers and frequently attended the Communications of the Brethren (lodge meetings).
It shows U. S. President George Washington presiding over a meeting of the Lodge of the Alexandria, Virginia Masonic Lodge.

Washington, the presiding officer of a lodge in the Army of the Revolution - it originally belonged to [Bronislaw ?] Bystrzanowski, a Polish soldier, who came over to this country with Kosciuszko, and served in the American army under Gen. Washington. Being a Mason, Bystrzanowski was associated with Washington in one of the army lodges, having authority to confer the mark degree, and over which George Washington presided for a time as Master.

George Washington joined the Masonic Lodge in Fredericksburg, Virginia, at the age of twenty in 1752. During the War for Independence, General Washington attended Masonic celebrations and religious observances in several states. He also supported Masonic lodges that formed within army regiments.
At his first inauguration in 1791, President Washington took his oath of office on a Bible from St. John's Lodge in New York. During his two terms, he visited Masons in North and South Carolina, and presided over the ceremony at the U.S. Capitol in 1793. In retirement, Washington became charter Master of the newly chartered Alexandria Lodge 22; and in death, was buried with Masonic honors.
Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22:
the Grand Lodge of Virginia having been formed, October 13, 1778, the Lodge withdrew from Pennsylvania obedience and received a Virginia charter dated April 28, 1788 as Alexandria Lodge No. 22. George Washington (later inaugurated as President of the United States on April 4, 1789) with his personal consent, was named Worshipful Master in the Virginia charter.


B. Bystrzanowski [= Br. Bystrzanowski], he came to North America during the War of Independence, he served in the American army; he had a Masons degree - Mark Mason - with the right to give it to others; it's the military Lodge to which George Washington belonged.
See: ... Free and Accepted Masons 1928 - 1953, New York 1953, p. 38. And L. Hass, Wolnomularze polscy w losach Zachodu ..., Ars Regia, R. 7/8 (1998/1999), s. 131 - 230.


The Knights Templar - The Order of Mark Master Masons:

Thomas Dunckerley (1724 - 1795) was "appointed Provincial Grand Master [the first in 1767] of several provinces [the Provincial Grand Master for Essex in 1776, and in 1786 the Provincial Grand Master for the County of Dorset], promoting Royal Arch masonry, introducing Mark Masonry to England, and instituting a national body for Templar masonry".
The first evidence of Mark Masonry is in 1769, when Dunckerley, at a Royal Arch Chapter, made several brethren Mark Masons and Mark Masters [Br. Bystrzanowski = B. Bystrzanowski = Szafraniec-Bystrzonowski in France in 1776 was MARK MASON, either he was Mark Mason before 1776 in UK or after 1776 in America he was Mark Mason/Mark Master]. "It is possible that Dunckerley created the degree", by Wikipedia.

The earliest records of a Mark degree in England are those of Royal Arch Chapter No 257 at Portsmouth in 1769. It was introduced by Thomas Dunkerley. It is clear that the Mark Degrees were worked in CRAFT LODGES and in Royal Arch Chapters up until 1813.

In 1791, Dunckerley became the Grand Master of the English Masonic Knights Templar;
by the Duke of Kent almost a decade later.

"... The Order of Mark Master Masons is an appendant order of Freemasonry that exists in some Masonic jurisdictions, and confers the degrees of Mark Mason and Mark Master".

Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas speculate "that the construction of the Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland (1440 - 1490) provided the interface between the Knights Templar and Freemasonry. According to that analysis, the first degree and Mark Masonry was introduced by William Sinclair, whom they claim was the first Grand Master and founder of Freemasonry ... The United Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta of England and Wales and Its Provinces Overseas, better known as the Knights Templar, is a Masonic body founded in its current form in 1895. ...

The specific "Knights Templar" fraternal order connected to Freemasonry originated from Thomas Dunckerley toward the end of the 18th century ...
... In 1751 Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund und Altengrotkau began the Order of Strict Observance, which ritual he claimed to have received from the reconstituted Templar Order in 1743 in Paris. he was initiated, by Scottish knights, into the Order of the Knights Templar, and ... to have met two of the "unknown superiors" who directed all of masonry, one of whom was Prince Charles Edward Stuart. ... In 1779 the High Knights Templar of Ireland Lodge, Kilwinning, obtained a charter from Lodge Mother Kilwinning in Scotland..." - all above by Wikipedia and others webnet sources.



The Templar masonry in England and the Order of MALTA:

Thomas Dunckerley (1724 - 1795) was a Provincial Grand Master of several provinces, this was made possible by an annuity of Ł100, rising to Ł800, which he obtained in 1767 from King George III by claiming to be his illegitimate half brother - the Prince of Wales, later King George II, was Thomas' natural father.
At this time, in 1751 Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund und Altengrotkau began the Order of Strict Observance [with the superior, Prince Charles Edward Stuart], which came from the reconstituted Templar Order in 1743 in Paris.

Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (1720 - 1788), was the second Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland (as Charles III). In 1742, Lord Kilmarnock and other exiled Stuart participants received Karl Gotthelf, Baron Von Hund into the Order of the Temple in Paris showing the Jacobite Templar link still existed; and in 1745, Prince Charles Edward Stuart given a gala meeting for the Chivalry of the Order in Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh.

Jacobitism was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.

The next step was in 1779 when the High Knights Templar of Ireland Lodge, Kilwinning, obtained a charter from Lodge Mother Kilwinning in Scotland.
"This lodge now began to grant dispensations to other lodges to confer the Knights Templar Degree. Some time around 1790 the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland was formed, which began to warrant Templar Lodges, and evolved into the Supreme Grand Encampment in 1836". "The Templar degree had filtered into the lodges of the Antients from Ireland about 1780".

In 1791, Dunckerley became the Grand Master of the first national Grand Conclave of English Masonic Knights Templar; then followed, in 1805 by their Royal Patron, Duke of Kent, who became Grand Master himself. Kilwinning Abbey was a home to the Knights Templar and birthplace of the Freemasons.

In 1796 Alexander Deuchar becomes the Heritor to the Jacobite Templar legacy. Alexander Deuchar (1777 - 1844) stayed in Lyon, his family had been Jacobite; in 1807, Deuchar holds a meeting of Knights Templar in Edinburgh; the new Order started formally in 1805 "when a charter was issued to by the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland (previously the High Knight Templars of Ireland Lodge), under the title of the Edinburgh Encampment No 31" - it became the Grand Assembly of Knights Templar in Edinburgh; the charter was granted in 1811, for the Grand Conclave of Knights of the Holy Temple and Sepulcher, and of St. John of Jerusalem.
In 1813 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England, and in December 1813 - above Prince Edward became Grand Master of the Antient Grand Lodge of England.

Mentioned above the Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus, b. 1767, died in 1820, was the fifth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and the father of Queen Victoria! The Duke of Kent was appointed Field-Marshal of the Forces in 1805. His wife was Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld with daughter Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom. His mother - Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Martinism "as a mystical tradition, it was first transmitted through a masonic high-degree system established around 1740 in France by Martinez de Pasqually, and later propagated in different forms by his two students Louis Claude de Saint-Martin and Jean-Baptiste Willermoz". Or Martinism is a specific form of Christian mysticism, an esoteric Christianity; founded 1754 in Paris, by Martinez Paschalis, and
in 1775 by Louis Claude de Saint Martin, near to Illumine [Illuminate] - Jean Willermoz who voted the death of the King of France in 1782.

The Scottish Rectified Rite or Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cite-Sainte was originally a Masonic rite, a reformed variant of the Rite of Strict Observance,
which underlies both Martinism and the practices of the Elus-Cohens; was founded in the late 18th century by Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, who was a pupil of Martinez de Pasqually and a friend of Saint-Martin.

The Modern Martinist Order was established with three degrees in Paris.

Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick 1721 - 1792; Scottish Rite; he is the same Duke of Brunswick who was mentioned in Robison's secret Illuminati membership list, patron of the Asiatic Brethern, an Illuminati offshoot.

The Sabbatian Vienna Lodge of the Asiatic Brethren was founded by Jacob Frank's cousin, Moses Dobrushka, alias Von Schoenfeld.

Jonathan Eybeschütz born in Cracow in 1690, d. Altona, 1764, was a Talmudist, Rabbi of the "Three Communities": Altona, Hamburg and Wandsbek. According to Jacob Katz, Jonathan Eybeschütz's grandson was rumored to be Baron Thomas von Schoenfeld, an apostate Jew who inherited his grandfather's collection of Sabbatean kabbalistic works.
He eventually left the Sabbatean movement and founded a
Masonic lodge called the Asiatische Bruder, one of four Illuminati lodges in Vienna.
After his uncle's death in 1791, he was offered the leadership of the Frankist movement which he refused.

Above Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg b. 1721, Wolfenbüttel, was a German-Prussian field marshal (1758 - 1766) "known for his participation in the Seven Years' War. From 1757 to 1762 he led an Anglo-German army in Western Germany which successfully repelled French attempts to occupy Hanover...".

The vocation to live a few pseudo-secret organizations, very fast , with extremely strange names and rituals, names dating back to the deep Middle Ages, causes the astonishment and even awakens laughter. In the course of 50 years each of these organizations tried to take control of the other [1740-1790].

The United Kingdom, Russia and France sent out for supreme positions in these organizations, his trusted men, too. Only the United Kingdom has been successful taking over control of the Scottish mysterious structures, but it was in the years 1790-1800. A previously plan of mysterious brain was successful. From England broke away its colonies [without Canada] in the years around 1776-1785.

Blows from the inside hit in France and Poland [1780s] destroying the two countries; Poland disappeared from the map of the world for about 120 years, but France survived the chaos of the Jacobin revolution and Napoleonic wars.

It broke out a strange uprising in Russia, operettas and provoked, of the Decembrists, as if someone wanted to prove that Russia is not directed underground movements against Poland, Great Britain and France [and even earlier already against Bavaria; and later against the Papacy in Italy], and at the turn of the 19th and 20th century also against Turkey.

But it is Russia suffered the greatest benefits of the revolutionary turmoil in North America and France - but rather in the whole of central and Western Europe at the end of the 18th century.

Discussed below mysterious organization is nothing more than the 18-century intelligence agencies of a foreign power.

For Germany, England, France, and Poles and also for Baltic Germans, remained the hardest way - but also the way bringing the greatest benefits - take over the underground structures, when it takes on the momentum and becomes the might; best to immediately take over the head of structure - the supreme authority of underground networks and the supreme command of Russian intelligence.

It had to be, however, protect from the rear - creating from the ground up a modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia, by the Baltic Germans already infiltrated from Ireland and Scotland.

Objectives were clear - the overthrow of the Romanov dynasty and abridgment of Russia to the national core [1917-1922]. The whole plan should have been conducted in Europe now plunged into chaos of war - it is the First World War [1914-1918]. So plan for dismantling of the colonial powers: England and France, ended with a defeat - and the same multi-level underground structure has become a tool of western intelligence services.

In this ensemble, ready to act, entered Polish independence movement of Pilsudski, using additional family connections with the Baltic Germans, Irish and Scots. This was the largest triumph of Poles in the period 1618 -2015 [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland].
Pilsudski never could let - during his life - destroyed of this work [1926], as his successor Marshal Rydz Smigly [1939-1941].
Greatest defeat suffered Poles in the years 1937-1945, and to this day is difficult for them to get up.

Of course, already other countries took a leading role in this web network in the 20th century; only suggests - USA, Great Britain, Russia and Israel ...

Russia was the only country interested in depriving of England colonies in North America (1776), and in broken down of France from the core (1789); Russia, which began the race for colonies in the Central and North Asia (the way to India and China), and America (the 18th cent. - Alaska, Oregon, California);

Russia in the second half of the 18th century began conquer of the Central Europe, including the destruction of Poland (1795) and Turkey.

Secret societies were the Russian (Freemasonry, Illuminati, Templars) best tools in infiltrating opposition against the monarchs of England and France (and against the Catholic Church).

The Masonic conspiracy theories said the
"...Freemasonry overlaps with, or is controlled by, the Illuminati, especially in the higher degrees; Illuminati Freemasons secretly control many major aspects of society and government and are working to establish the New World Order. Some conspiracy theories involving the Freemasons and the Illuminati also include the Knights Templar and Jews as part of the supposed plan for universal control of society. This type of conspiracy theory was described as early as 1792 ... the Masons are either intimately connected to or (conversely) in conflict with the Illuminati regarding a plot to control several countries."

"The first President of the United States, George Washington believed that the Illuminati intended to separate the people from their government in his letters in the Library of Congress. The original manuscript is on the Library of Congress website...", acc. to Greg Scott:
"Mount Vernon, October 24, 1798. Revd Sir: I ... It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am. The idea that I meant to convey, was, that I did not believe that the Lodges of Free Masons in this Country had, as Societies, endeavoured to propagate the diabolical tenets of the first, or pernicious principles of the latter (if they are susceptible of seperation). That Individuals of them may have done it, or that the founder, or instrument employed to found, the Democratic Societies in the United States, may have had these objects; and actually had a seperation of the People from their Government in view, is too evident to be questioned".
Greg Scott:
"Essentially what he is saying is that he does not doubt that the doctrines of the Bavarian Illuminati, as created by Adam Weishaupt in 1776, (which was used to infiltrate Freemasonry) had spread in the United States in fact he says, 'On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am'...".
Matthew Dorry:
"This is a nonsense interpretation of the letter. George Washington's words, 'It was NOT my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had NOT spread in the United States', were a double-negative, and express that he was dubious of the spread of the Illuminati and the Jacobins. And when he says, 'On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am', he's affirming that he's glad that the Illuminati and Jacobin ideals hadn't spread. This is directly confirmed by the very next paragraph that YOU quote, in which G. W. refers to the Doctrines of the Illuminati as 'diabolical tenets', and Jacobinism as having 'pernicious principles'. On the whole, he's expressing that although it cannot be doubted that certain individuals had entered Freemasonry lodges with the intent of spreading those principles, he didn't think that whole lodges in America were spreading them. He's making a very clear distinction between the Bavarian Illuminati and Jacobins, and American Freemasonry. So much for people reading these things only once and misunderstanding the language of the letter."
Above text under copyright by http://consciouslifenews.com/.

Thomas Jefferson on the Illuminati - a letter on January 31, 1800:
"I have lately by accident got a sight of a single volume ... of the Abbe Barruel's Antisocial conspiracy, which gives me the first idea I have ever had of what is meant by the Illuminatism against which 'illuminate Morse' as he is now called, and his ecclesiastical and monarchical associates have been making such a hue and cry. Barruel's own parts of the book are perfectly the ravings of a Bedlamite. But he quotes largely from Wishaupt whom he considers as the founder of what he calls the order. As you may not have had an opportunity of forming a judgment of this cry of 'mad dog' which has been raised against his doctrines, I will give you the idea I have formed from only an hour's reading of Barruel's quotations from him, which you may be sure are not the most favorable. Wishaupt seems to be an enthusiastic Philanthropist. ... As Wishaupt lived under the tyranny of a despot and priests, he knew that caution was necessary even in spreading information, and the principles of pure morality. He proposed therefore to lead the Free masons to adopt this object and to make the objects of their institution the diffusion of science and virtue. He proposed to initiate new members into his body by gradations proportioned to his fears of the thunderbolts of tyranny. This has given an air of mystery to his views, was the foundation of his banishment, the subversion of the masonic order, and is the colour for the ravings against him of Robinson, Barruel and Morse, whose real fears are that the craft would be endangered by the spreading of information, reason, and natural morality among men. This subject being new to me, I have imagined that if it be so to you also, you may receive the same satisfaction in seeing, which I have had in forming the analysis of it: and I believe you will think with me that if Wishaupt had written here, where no secrecy is necessary in our endeavors to render men wise and virtuous, he would not have thought of any secret machinery for that purpose."

It was a global political network of the Russian intelligence infiltrated by the British, French and Germans, and by the Polish independence conspiracy:
Lenin and Inessa Armand, Duflon, nobility from Scotland, Italy, Ireland, France, Switzerland, the German noble families in Estonia.

On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.

Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.

The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities.

This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland].

Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state.