Berezyna and Lubuszany / Luboszany - the estate of Sapieha and Potocki / Krystyna Tyszkiewicz Potocka - the line to the Templars of Krzeszowice, General Franciszek Paszkowski and Poniatowski.

Дюфлон, Константинович и Ко. ДЕКА 
Dyuflon / Duflon / Dufflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.
Company of the Electromechanical Factories of Constructions

abbreviated as DEKA 1892 - 1918. History and genealogy of the noble Konstantynowicz family. Education and information - author Konstantynowicz Bogdan. Brief genealogy of the Konstantinovich / Constantinovits / Constantinowitz / Konstantynowicz ancestry from Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia and Poland.

History Of Secret Societies: Knights Templar and Illuminati. HISTORY OF SECRET SOCIETIES: Templars, Illuminati, and Freemasons. The Order of the Illuminati: Its Origins, Its Methods and Its Influence. Masonic Origins. FREEMASONRY SCOTTISH RITE CULT. Duke of Kent - history of the Masonry.



My research concerns many state intelligence networks created in the first half of the 18th century.

Initially it was a global political network of the Russian intelligence infiltrated by the British [1791], French [from the 40s of the 18th century] and Germans [1769/1776], and by the Polish independence conspiracy [was established 1792/1799] starting from a years 1870/1878.

Compare three dates:
1.
6 km to the south of the BRZEZIE was the palace in Wieniec founded in the early nineteenth century by the family of Miaczynski; in 1868 the property bought a Warsaw banker of Jewish origin and a great Polish patriot - Leopold Kronenberg.

2.
1870, Brown of London - takes over the Breguet company [below];

3.
and the letter of 1871 from Albert Pike to Mazzini.

Breguet cooperated also with Chambrier, V. Foy, the French government (dial telegraph in 1845), the Telegraph Company in 1863 (electric telegraph - Breguet System, late 19th century), in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s with Wood, Edward George b. in Clerkenwell, Islington, January 1812, d. 1896 from Cheapside, City of London, who was friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist (galvanic telegraph, Crossley's Telegraph in Halifax), d'Arlincourt (transmitter); Breguet patented a Telegraph Communicator - Breguet Alphabetical Type, circa 1870; manufactured the telephone transmitter (Boudet, Laborde, Breguet, Ader, Du Moncel, and others) and telephone receivers (Bell, Breguet, and others).

In 1877 telephones appears in Russia but in the Russian army experiments on telephone made in 1878.

L. Dyuflon and Dizeren in St. Petersburg established the Electrotechnical workshop on 1892, June 27. On 1896, December 14, L. Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and A. V. Konstantinovich [Apollon Konstantynowicz son of Wasyl Konstantynowicz] in St. Petersburg established The Factory of electromechanical structures when Tesla received a British patent on the design of the spark gap - rotating strap. 1898, K. F. Siemens, W. Siemens, A. V. Gvineria and A. Y. Rothstein in St. Petersburg established the Russian joint stock company of electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske'. 1899 were starting experiments on radio in Russian War Department. 1902 (1901), the Plant of electromechanical structures reorganized into a joint stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co', DECA.

Albert Pike [Albert Pike b. 1809, died 1891, was an attorney, soldier, writer, and Freemason, elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction in 1859, of thirty-two years] described in a letter wrote to Mazzini [Giuseppe Mazzini, 1805 - 1872, an Italian politician, journalist; "William R. Denslow lists Mazzini as a Mason, and even a Past Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy"], dated August 15, 1871, plans for three world wars necessary to bring the One World Order, and it is a "commonly believed fallacy that for a short time, the Pike letter to Mazzini was on display in the British Museum Library in London, and it was copied by William Guy Carr...".

It was the plan known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers, and within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was Rhodes with Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner who was added to the society by Stead.

Rhodes had been planning this event for more than seventeen years (before 1872).

See: the letter of Pike to Mazzini in 1871, and Edward Brown - Breguet Company in 1870.

Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. In modified form, it exists to this day.

Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) and Polish officers:

Army commandant in 1877:

Nikolaj Nikolajevic senior, Romanov; that is Mikolaj Mikolajewicz Romanow, b. 1831, d. 1891; Grand Duke, General Adjutant - 1856, General Field Marshal - 1878. Third son of Tsar Nicholas I and Tsarina Aleksandra Fedorovna, born as Charlotte / Charlotta Princess of Prussia. His older brothers were Tsar Alexander II and Grand Duke of Russia, Konstanty Mikolajewicz.

"... The Knights of the Order of the Garter are the leaders of the Illuminati hierarchy ...

[Queen Victoria, Alexandrina Victoria b. 1819 was daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent

(son of George III {his father Frederick, Prince of Wales and mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha} + Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1744 - 1818 {her father Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow, and mother Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen})

and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1786 - 1861

(1803 at Coburg, she married 1st to Charles, Prince of Leiningen; 2nd to Prince Edward, Duke of Kent {the TEMPLARS} and Strathearn, in 1818 at Amorbach. Victoria's father was Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and mother Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf daughter of Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg)]

... [mentioned above] Charlotte was the grandmother of Queen Victoria {Maltese Orders}, and whose son married the daughter of Frederick III of Hessen-Kassell {Frederick III of Hessen-Kassel / Friedrich III von Hessen- Kassel, born in 1747, the father of Auguste Wilhelmine Luise von Hessen-Kassel b. 1797 married Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the son, of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg- Strelitz}.

Charlotte's brother was Charles II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whose daughter married the heir of the Prussian crown, Frederick William III.

Frederick II of Prussia was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, who married Louise of Brunswick- Wolfenbuettel.
She was the sister of Frederick Duke of Brunswick, the Grand Master of the Strict Templar Observance, and who had convened the great Masonic convention at Wilhelmsbad in Hessen-Kassel.

Frederick Wilhelm II of Prussia was the father of Frederick William III, who became a member of the Order of the Garter.

Of Frederick William III and Louise' four children, three married the brothers and sisters of Csar Alexander I. Frederick William III's daughter, Charlotte of Prussia, married Paul's son, Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander I, and who also belonged to the Order of the Garter.
Frederick's son Wilhelm I married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the daughter of Nicholas' sister Maria Romanov.

A third child of Frederick, Friedrich Karl Alexander of Prussia, married Maria's Romanov other daughter, Marie Luisa Alexandrina von Saxe-Weimar.

The son of Csar Nicholas, Constantine Nicholaievitch Romanov, Grand Duke of Russia, fathered Olga Constantinovna Romanov, who married George I King of Greece. George was a member of the Order of the Garter, as was his father, Christian IX of Denmark. ...".

Mikolaj Mikolajewicz married his cousin Aleksandra Oldenburg

[see Oldenburg in St Petersburg and the Duflon & Konstantynowicz Company. She was the daughter of Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich Oldenburg (1812-1881).
Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg, 1812-1881, m. Therese Wilhelmine Friederike Isabella Charlotte von Nassau, 1815-1871, with children:
1. Alexandra Friederike Wilhelmine von Oldenburg, m. Nikolaj Nikolajewitsch of Russia, 1831-1891

[Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia / Nicholas Nicolaievich the Elder, 1831 - 1891, was the third son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Alexandra Feodorovna. Field Marshal and the commander of the Russian army of the Danube in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878]
with son: Peter Nikolajewitsch, 1864-1931;

2. Alexander Friedrich Konstantin von Oldenburg, 1844-1932, with son Peter Friedrich Georg von Oldenburg, 1868- 1924;

3.
Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg, 1850-1906 m. in 1882, Agrippina Djaparidse / Agrippina JAPARIDZE, 1855-1926,
with daughter Alexandra von Oldenburg, Gräfin von Zarnekau, 1883-1957.
The JAPARIDZES - see Armand - PASZKOWSKI - DEMONSI home in Moscow and Konstantynowicz line of Moscow- Swolna-Miezonka-Lida.

Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich von Holstein-Gottorp of Oldenburg was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I.
Above
Konstantin Friedrich Peter Oldenburg or Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg began a flirtation with Agrippina; Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel 'Daniel' Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command; Dadiani were a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty;

Agrippina was Tariel Dadiani's second wife but Agrippina in 1882 divorced Dadiani. 1882, Constantine entered into a morganatic marriage with Agrippina Japaridze; by the early 1890s, they were doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).
See the Armands and Konstantynowiczs in Moscow and Alexandrovsk.
Prince Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani, b. 1842, m. first to Princess Sopio Dadiani b. 1838 daughter of Prince Levanti Shervashidze of the Guria. On June 28, 1882, Agrippina divorced Dadiani.
His father:
Prince Aleksandri Manuchari Dadiani.
And his grandfather:
Major-General H. E. Prince Nichola Giorgi Dadiani / Nikolai Georgievitch Dadianov / Bolshoi Niko, Lord of Kurdzu, b. 1764 - Duke of Mingrelia, fourth son of Katsia II Dadiani, Duke of Mingrelia.

Prince Aleksandri Kviti Niko Dadiani, b. 1864, m. Princess Nino Dadiani (b. 1868), younger daughter of Prince Tarieli Taia Dadiani, by his second wife, Princess Agrafina Countess von Zarnekau, daughter of Prince Konstantini Japaridze.

Eugene's ARMAND of Moscow brother - Emil E. ARMAND was married to Zofia Hacker / Sophia nee Osipovna Hecke (Hakker, Hacker, Hekke) from Estonia.
They had six children:
LEW ARMAND / Leo (1880 - 1942) + Japaridze-Saparov [Saparova Tamara Arkadevna - Japaridze married 2nd to Leo Emilievich ARMAND.

Saparov Arkady (1854 - before 1921), was married to Varvara Maypariani with the daughter
Tamara Arkadevna SAPAROV married 1st to Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and
TAMARA SAPAROV - JAPARIDZE was 2nd married to Lev ARMAND / Lion Emilievich Armand (Inessa Armand relatives).

Ivan Iaparidze was the son of Constantine Japaridze / Constantin Japaridze (Ivan b. ca 1860; his father Konstantyn died in 1860 !) from the upper Racha region of Georgia. Ivan Japaridze b. ca 1860, had sister Agrippina, Countess von Zarnekau, b. 1855, nee Agrippina Constantines Japaridze, and Ivan Japaridze's parents were Constantine and Melania Japaridze; named father Constantine died 1860].

His {Mikolaj Mikolajewicz} brother was Michal Mikolajewicz Romanow b. 1832, d. December 1909; Grand Duke of Russia, field marshal, chairman of the Council of State (1881-1905). In 1862-1882 he was the general-governor of the Caucasus. He worked in Tbilisi.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France.
Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia [Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company], on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies.

Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) was the Freemason, and he called himself Philalethes.

Receiving education at home in Georgia, Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909; the funeral was in Russia; Field Marshal.
Mentioned
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska [see Trubecki, Konstantynowicz, Oginski and Wola Pszczolecka] but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Oginski by name and Romanov by gene.


My research concerns many state intelligence networks created in the first half of the 18th century by Russia. Let the example be an ominous figure of Jakob Johann von Sievers who has been active in the Russian intelligence since 1748.

His genealogy from Joachim Johann von Sievers, b. ca 1674 - d. 1753, SENIOR:
1.
His younger son Karl Eduard von Sievers, b. 1710 in Nybygard, Finnland, d. 1774 in St. Petersburg, the father of:
Elisabeth Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata [she was wife of Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808];
Johann Carl Sievers of Ropkoy b. Lais (Livl.) 1749 d. 1805 acc. to: Peter Trefilov;
Benedikte b. 1750;
Peter;
and Karl Gustaf Joachim of Waiwara b. 1758 in Petersburg.
2.
Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808,
the son of Joachim Johann von Sievers (b. 1699), JUNIOR;
the grandson of above Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753, SENIOR.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, the FREEMASON; Caunt in 1798, Extraordinary Ambassador to Poland. He was buried at the cementery in Wolmar in Livonia / Valmiera / Wolmar, is a town in northern Latvia, about 100 km north-east of Riga and 50 km from the border with Estonia. From 1749 to 1755 as a diplomat in London and Kopenhagen (links with the embassy of Prussia) in 1748

[in 1740 King Frederick II (Frederick the Great) came to the throne. In 1744 Frederick invaded Silesia again. He failed, but French pressure on Austria's ally Great Britain led to a series of treaties and compromises, culminating in the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that restored peace and left Prussia in possession of most of Silesia].

The Sievers family descended from Holstein.
The relative of Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers was Joachim Karl, born in Finland, a servant of Ernest Biron - the favorite of Empress Anna. In 1743, Karl took him to Saint Petersburg, then twelve-year-old boy.
He became a writer at the College of Foreign Affairs. The next level was reading the encrypted messages. Finally, in 1748 he was sent to the Russian diplomatic mission in Copenhagen. About ten months later, he was sent to London, where his uncle Karl had the friend - ambassador Piotr Czernyszew.
The stay in LONDON until 1755 was a real school for Sievers. He was a diplomat with the knowledge of foreign languages. During the Seven Years' War (1756-1763) he served Russian Army.
He took part in the siege of Kolobrzeg. In 1759-1760 he was the secretary of the Russian-Prussian commission appointed to exchange prisoners of war. He was promoted to general of the Guard. Catherine II appointed him governor of Novgorod in 1764, and in 1776 also Pskov and Tver, and thus the general-governor of these three provinces.
In 1767 he married his cousin Elzbieta Sievers Puciata, Lisinka, a childhood companion. As the administrator of the lands entrusted to him, he showed great energy. In May 1781 he wrote a request for resignation.
He moved back to Bauenhoff.
Platon Zubov send a letter of November 13, 1792 and he announced that the Empress's wish was to go to Poland as her extraordinary ambassador to the king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Aleksander Chrapowicki - Katarzyna's personal secretary - noted that Sievers' departure to Poland was being prepared by Zubow and Morkow, and Bezborodko.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, Count Jacob Sivers b. 1731, in Wesenberg / Rakvere, Estonia; died 1808, in Bauenhof, Governorate of Livonia, near WOLMAR = Valmiera; he was appointed general governor of Novgorod (1764-1776), Tver (1776 - 1781 as governor of Tver and Novgorod - Viceroy) and Pskov; son of Joachim Johann von Sievers, JUNIOR;
he was gifted with great possessions:
several villages near Minsk in Belarus
[Dec. 1792 in Grodno. He acted in Belarus in 1799-1803; the Minsk governorate was reorganized in 1795],
in Estonia (Heimar, Rasik and Kampen),
Livonia / LIVLAND (Bauenhof, Neuhall, Zarnau and Ostrominsky),
Ingria (Gadebusch, Lopatino, Selco / Seltso, and Muratovo),
the province of Polotsk (Kasian in 1781, and Dobra Rudnia),
in Finland (Sackala).

In Poland SIEVERS was in the company of
the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski,
King's sister,
Lady Zaluska,
Css Mniszech;
Bishop Michal Jerzy Poniatowski,
Lady Radziwill,
Count UNRUH / Aleksander Unrug, of the Great Poland
[director of the royal mint, previously in the army of Saxony and friend of Igelstrom, Stackelberg and Madalinski; Stanislaw August brought him to Warsaw as the leadership of the mint. He was jailed in Warsaw on 18 May 1794];
Kazimierz Poniatowski;
Lady Tyszkiewicz
[Maria Teresa Tyszkiewicz (1760 - 1834) - the sister of Duke Józef Poniatowski;
Maria Teresa Antonina Józefina Poniatowski married Tyszkiewicz, born in Austria, the Lady of the Maltese Order; the daughter of General Andrzej Poniatowski - the brother of the KING. She was taken under guardianship by her father's brother, King Stanislaw August Poniatowski.
She married Wincenty Tyszkiewicz (1757 - 1816) of LOHOJSK and SWISLOCZ.
He was the son of Antoni Kazimierz TYSZKIEWICZ, 1723-1778;
the grandson of Michal Jan TYSZKIEWICZ, 1692-1762];

and widowed Lady Grabowska the lover of the KING Poniatowski.

In 1794 Holowczyce [in 1793 in Russia] - the estate of Oskierka - was taken by Russians, then the estate belonged to General JAKOB Sievers;
and next of Stanislaw Horwatt in 1825 [then to his cousin Maurycy; and Maurycy's son - Stanislaw Horwatt].
Holowczyce is situated 14 km south-west to Narowla, close to Ukraine. Holowczyce in 1764 owned by Oskierko = Oskierka.

Ludwik Tyszkiewicz born 1748 in Vilnius, d. 1808, Field Lithuanian Commander in 1780 to 1791, Great Lithuanian Treasurer in 1791, Great Lithuanian Marshal from 1793. Stanislaw August Poniatowski had a niece Konstancja Poniatowska, the daughter of mentioned Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski, and Konstancja married in Warsaw on April 4, 1775 to Ludwik Tyszkiewicz. They took in 1793 Berezyna - Luboszany.
Their daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz married Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki.

During the Grodno Sejm, Ludwik Tyszkiewicz was chosen as a negotiator with the Russian ambassador Jacob Sievers, and so on 22 July 1793 he signed the treaty of the cession of lands to Russia, and then on 25 September to Prussia, as part of the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.

Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, married mentioned Elisabeth Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata SIEVERS, b. 1746 in St. Petersburg, Russia, died in 1818. Daughter of Karl Eduard von Sievers, of Lagena and Waiwara; the granddaughter of Joachim Johan von Sievers / Johann, b. 1677, d. 1753 in Rujen-Grosshof;
the great-granddaughter of
Joachim Sievers died March 1700 in Tallinn.
ELZBIETA was also wife of Nikolai Abramovich Putjatin. Above Nikolai Abramovich Putjatin b. 1749 in Kiev. He was the family of ARTEMIJ Vasilievich PUCIATA / Putjatin, the landowner in 1706 of RZEW.



I am presenting here below several Poles fighting in the Russian army during the war 1877-78:

Artur Niepokojczycki / Niepokójczycki (1813-1881)
- Russian general. Pole. After graduating for some time he served in the General Staff.
NIEPOKÓJCZYCKI Artur, born in 1813 in the Niepokójczyce estate close to ZABINKA, died in Petersburg.

Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky wasn't born in Slutsk.
His father ADAM NIEPOKÓJCZYCKI / Niepokojczycki was the district leader of the nobility - the Sluck marshal of nobility.
Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky was born when the war with Napoleon rattled. Originated from the old German clan von UNRUH [not von-Upru], who moved to Poland.
The Niepokojczyce chapel of the Helvetic congregation was operated under the auspices of the family Rayski
[Evangelische Kirche Helvetischen Bekenntnisses / Evangelische Kirche, is the Calvinist church of the reformed trend; Calvinism is the dominant confession in Scotland and in the many cantons of Switzerland].

Niepokojczyce, is situated near Jamna / Jamno / Yamno [east district in BRZESC], the Kobryn county, Polesie; rural commune of Zbirohi / ZBIROGI [18 km north-east to the center of BRZESC] by the Muchawiec river; near Zabianka.


Compare:
Rasna

- in the second half of the nineteenth century, RASNA was bought by Calvinist Count Jan Grabowski born in 1827.
Already from the beginning of the nineteenth century, a small Calvinist church in the village stood where the mausoleum of the Grabowski family was located. Count Adam Jan Pius Waclaw Goetzendorf-Grabowski b. in 1827 in Lukow close to Oborniki, as the oldest son of Józef Goetzendorf-Grabowski the owner of Lukow. Jozef Grabowski was Napoleon's officer, director of the Credit Bank in Poznan. Jozef GRABOWSKI married Klementyna Wyganowski. Jozef's father - Adam Mateusz Grabowski the owner of Welno and Parkow, the Royal Court official of August III.
Adam Jan Pius Waclaw Goetzendorf-Grabowski b. 1827, married 1853 to Jadwiga, the daughter of Duke Konstanty Lubomirski. His daughter Maria m. Duke Hieronim Drucki-Lubecki.
The Grabowskis came from Grabówki, in the Sieradz county: here Elzbieta the wife of Mikolaj Hanczel of Mokrsko, close to WIELUN - inf. in 1508;
Jan Grabowski, the zealous Calvin, moved to Lithuania, where he left a few sons, of whom Krystyan Grabowski, the official in Lithuanian Brest, and Marcin Grabowski, a Vitebsk official; they acted in the Kaunas county, and Jan signed the choice of the king Jan III. Stefan Antoni Grabowski, the official in Brzesc Litewski in 1696.

Albert GRABOWSKI, the Prussian Count in 1816, Major, died in 1819 [or in 1799 ?], married Wilhelmina von Winterfeld,
with the son Wilhelm Grabowski and the daughter Albertyna Grabowska ROSEN [b. 1784 or 1786 - Wartenburg, d. 1856 - Warszawa].
The great-grandparents of Albertyna / ALBERTINA ROSEN:
Stefan Grabowski 1680-1756; and Teodora Stryjenska.
Stefan Grabowski was the son of a Brzesc Litewski official.

Albertina Grabowska married to Aleksander Rosen, baron, b. ca 1780; Alexander Vladimirovich von Rosen 3rd, born in 1780 in Ostrogorsk, was the son of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen born in 1742;
the grandson of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, b. 1717 in Linden.

Albertina had children:
Woldemar von Rosen;
Alexei von Rosen;
Maria Ledochowski b. 1814 married PAWEL LEDOCHOWSKI / Paul count Ledochowski;
Elisabeth von Möller and
Grigori von Rosen.

Note:

David Dadiani of the House of Dadiani, was Prince of Mingrelia, in western Georgia, from 1846. David was sent to Tiflis to be educated under the guidance of the Russian generals Vasili Bebutov and Georg Andreas von Rosen.
Baron Rosen's son-in-law, Colonel Prince Alexander Dadiani.

Lydia Grigorievna Dadianov (von Rosen) b. 1817, married Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien, b. 1800
[Lydia Dadiani was the mother of Praskovya A. nee Dadiani married to FERDINAND Sayn-Wittgenstein- Berleburg. She was born 1846 or 1847 = Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian 1847-1919];

LYDIA von ROSEN DADIANI was the daughter of
Gregor (Grigori Vladimirovitch) von Rosen 2-nd
and granddaughter of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen, b. 1742 in Reval
[baron Vladimir I. Rosen, born 1742, died 1792, married Olympia Raevskaya / Olimpia / Olimpiada Rajewska born ca 1746];
and great-granddaughter of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, born in 1717 in Linden.

Above Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien b. 1800, was the son of Leon A. Dadiani and the grandson of Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753 and
Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd ] born 1753 died 1812.
The parents of above Alexander:
Peter G. Dadiani and Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja [1st] died March 19, 1780.

Parents of above Piotr / Peter:
George / Egor Levanovich Dadiani b. 1683 and
Sophia A. Imereti of Mukhrani b. 1691 died 1747.

Above mentioned Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, b. 1834, died 1888, married in 1868 to Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian, 1847-1919.
Praskovya A. nee Dadiani / Paraskewa Alexandrovna married to Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg; she was born 1846 or 1847; her father was Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800.

Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1834, the son of August Ludwig zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg; and Ferdinand was grandchild of Christian Heinrich Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, 1753-1800 (married 1775 Charlotte Friederike countess of Leiningen-Westerburg 1759-1831),
great-grandchild of Ludwig Ferdinand 1712-1773, and
great-great-grandchild of Casimir 1687-1741.
His father Ludwig Franz Sayn-Wittgenstein, 1660 - 1694.


Note on the Rosen family:

From Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791:

Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn and died 1884 in Reval,
her father -
Karl Johann von Gernet 1776 Lehhola / Lehola - 1857 in Lauenhof / Love, Podrala, Valdamaa, Estland;
and her grandfather -
Carl Gustav von Gernet 1747 - 1812,
and her great-grandfather -
Carl Gottlieb von Gernet b. on March 18, 1700 and died on May 4, 1791 in Lehhola.

Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn married
Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus / Woldemar von Rosen 1813 - 1892
and his father -
Hans Wilhelm Gustav von Rosen 1780 - 1862;
grandfather
Robert Friedrich von Rosen b. 1748 in SONORM, Estland;
great-grandfather was
Hans Christian von Rosen b. 1717 in LINDEN, Estland.

Above Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus von Rosen, b. 12 Jan 1813 at Resna, m. 1844 at Hapsal / Haapsalu to Hedwig Charlotte von Gernet b. at Reval,
the daughter of Johann von Gernet and his wife Hedwig Elisabeth von Patkul of Habbinem.

Sons of above named Hedwig:
1. Johann Wilhelm Fabian Richard von Rosen, b. at Neuenhof near Hapsal, m. at St. Petersburg to Sophie Valentine Schottländer d. 28 Sep 1912 at Reval,
2. Leo Felix Karl von Rosen, b. in St. Petersburg, m. 2ndly in 1927 at London to Magna Smith daughter of Nadeschda Kowalewskaja Smith / Kowalewski.

The palace of Herrenhaus Neuenhof that is Uuemoisa mois east part of Haapsalu at present.

The noble Schillings / Schilling family moved to Estonia / Estland from Courland (Kurland). Karl Gebhard von Schilling began his service in the Russian army, married to Helene Charlotte von Römer of Müüsleri / Seinigal and Orina / Orgena - 2 km north-east of Jarva-Jaani (Orina, Järva-Jaani vald).
Müüsleri (Seinigal by German) is a village in the rural community Kareda - ca 80 km east-south of Saku, close to Jarva-Jaani.

Pauline Amalie Sophie von Schilling b. 1806 in Reval / Tallinn, Estland / Eesti, her mother Anna Juliane von Rosen b. 1770.

Explanation to
Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753:
he married Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd] born 1753 died 1812.

Above named Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani born 1753, died in Moscow, February of 1812, married Alexander Petrovich Dadiani b. 1753/54, died in Moscow on 26 Jan. 1811.
Her father Levan Bagration-Gruzinsky, born Moscow 1739, or 1730 acc. to me!
He was in 1753 married to Alexandra Yakovlevna Sibirsky b. 1728.
Her grandfather Bakar I King of Kartli, born Kutaisi in 1700, married Anna Eristavi of Aragvi b. 1706.
Her great-grandfather Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675.

Brief to Georgian genealogy:

Alexander [son of Bakar] or Aleksandr Bakarovich Gruzinsky, born 1726 died 1791, was a Russian-born Georgian prince of the Mukhrani branch of the Bagrationi royal dynasty. Aleksandre was born ca 1724 / 1728, in Moscow. Alexander was married to Princess Daria Aleksandrovna nee Menshikov, d.1817.
Named
BAKAR, 1699 / 1700 - 1750, was the son of Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675 - died on March 26, 1737.

Vakhtang VI married in Imereti, in 1696, a princess Rusudan (died in Moscow, on December 30, 1740). They had children:
named above Prince Bakar (1699 / 1700 - 1750), ruler of Kartli;
Prince George (1712 - 1786), general of the Russian Empire;
Princess Tamar (1696) married, in 1712, Prince Teimuraz, the future king of Kakheti and Kartli;
Princess Anna (Anuka) (1698), married, in 1712, Prince Vakhushti Abashidze;
Princess Tuta (1699), married the Imeretian nobleman of the ducal family of Racha, Gedevan, Duke of the Lowlands.

We back to the Grabowskis:

Count Wilhelm GRABOWSKI, the son of Albert Grabowski, d. 1851, m. Zofia Zawisza, Count in Russia in 1840. He had 8 sons:
Count Karol Oktawian GRABOWSKI, d. 1893, the owner of Rasna, Szymonowicze and Eustaszyn, m. Zofia Horwat.
Zofia HORWAT GRABOWSKA had daughter Zofia m. Count Konstanty Broel - Plater,
and Zofia Horwat had a son Aleksander Grabowski, b. 1852, the owner of Tolkaczewicze, in the MINSK governorate, m. Maria Reytan, with a daughter
Magdalena Grabowska m. Antoni Kieniewicz.

The Calvinist chapel of the RASNA parish was in Niepokojczyce under the patronage of the Rayskis.
Here in RASNA / Rasna, 1765 Tadeusz Matuszewicz was born - Polish politician, Minister of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Poland and Minister of Treasury of the Warsaw Duchy

{Tadeusz Wiktoryn Matuszewicz - born 1765 in Rasnia, died 1819 in Bologna, Polish speaker, publicist, translator, poet and theater critic. Minister of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815-1817, member of the Provisional Government of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815. A member of the Central Military Government of the Galicia in 1809, a Freemason. He was the son of Marcin Matuszewicz, of Brest, and Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt, daughter of Józef, and Petronella Wolodkowicz}.

Niepokojczyce - in the Kobryn county, near Zabinka.


Grabanów close to Biala Podlaska;

in 1818, Grabanów is already the court property of Adam Niepokojczycki, the father of GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki

[Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780
{see also: 1.
Karol Niepokojczycki the son of Piotr Niepokojczycki and Zofia Wierczak; Karol Niepokojczycki was the Lieutenant of the Lithuanian regiment in 1827, born 1800, in 1839 widowed and married 2nd to Dorota Puzewicz, the daughter of Ludwik.
2. Benedykt Wilhelm Niepokojczycki, 1796 - 1865, the President of the Polish Bank}].

Adam Niepokojczycki had wooden residential building made of oak tree.
1822, Grabanow farm was bought from the Radziwills by Poplawski. Shortly thereafter, these estate passed on to the property of the Grabowski family.
Kozula's mill in the Grabanów farm in 1781, belonged to the Radziwills, who had a hunting lodge here - near BIALA PODLASKA.

GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki in 1841, was sent to the Caucasus under General Grabbe.
Artur A. Nepokojchitsky owned the estate Ostashevo. Until 1861 it was called Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo on the left bank of the Ruza Reservoir, 21 km from the Volokolamsk suburb near Moscow.
The Polish origin had the actual commander-in-chief of the 1877/1878 Army, the Chief of Staff, General Artur Niepokojczycki and his deputy, General Karol Lewicki, and two leaders of the Bulgarian uprising, dictator and commander-in-chief - Stanislaw StClair, and major Ludwik Wojtkiewicz.

Artur A. Nepokojchitsky was next of kin to the KRUPSKI family.
Krupski Bonifacy, the son of Urban Krupski and Katarzyna Antoniewicz, was born in 1822 in Ihnatow in the MINSK county in Belarus; he studied in SLUCK; then Bonifacy lived in the BOBRUJSK county in the Wittgenstein estate [see SZUMSKI]. 1856, his father Urban bought from Korsak the Mieciawicze estate in the Sluck county, and in 1861 from Ratyski bought Nowosióki in the IHUMEN county. Bonifacy Krupski in 1861 was married Stefanja widow, born ca 1830, the daughter of Florjan SWIDA, and Konstancja Niepokojczycki Swida, b. ca 1805.

{Erazm Swida-Polny, b. 1882 - Mieciawicze, d. 1928 - Malecz; a brother of his father was Wladyslaw Swida-Polny b. 1842, d. 1924 - Siechniewicze near Pruzany. Wladyslaw Swida was the son of Florian Jakub Swida-Polny and named Konstancja Niepokojczycka born ca 1805. Wladyslaw Swida-Polny 1842-1924 m. Jadwiga Rewkowska, 1850-1922}.
In Nowosiólki was a folk school, under Ligenza from Kiev.
B. Krupski fought in 1863 in the Ihumen county.

Niepokojczycki had the WAGA coat of arms - together with Abramowicz, Korzeniowski, Pociej.


Rózana and BEREZYNA-LUBOSZANY:

After the November Uprising in which Eustachy Kajetan Sapieha took part, Rózana was confiscated by the Tsarist authorities. Rózana was one of the main headquarters of the Rózana line of the Sapieha family. In 1644, Sapieha received King Wladyslaw IV in Rózana. Eustachy Kajetan Ostafi Sapieha was born in Werki [now in WILNO] in 1797, died in PARIS in 1860; Insurgent of 1831; the son of Franciszek Sapieha born in 1772

[Franciszek Sapieha was the son of Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA and Magdalena Lubomirski - Magdalena Agnieszka was the daughter of Antoni Benedykt Lubomirski. Magdalena Agnieszka Sapieha Lubomirska was the Polish mistress of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski; her son Michal Cichocki, and her daughter Konstancja Zwan Szwan, RUZYCKA PETERS CICHOCKA];

EUSTACHY SAPIEHA, due to the failure to give the oath to the Emperor Mikolaj I, was confiscated all the goods in the country. In exile, he was associated with the Lambert Hotel camp. Eustachy Sapieha was married to Róza Mostowski, daughter of Tadeusz Antoni Mostowski; father of Jan Pawel Aleksander and Eustachy Franciszek Sapieha (1836-1909) and Maria Aniela, wife of Wladyslaw Branicki.

The great-grandfather of named above Eustachy Kajetan Ostafi Sapieha was Kazimierz Leon Karol Sapieha, 1697 in Warsaw - 1738, General, in 1738 the BRZESC LITEWSKI governor, 1718/1719 took Dubrovna/Dabrowna or DUBROWNA situated 42 km south to BABINAVICHY of the Oginskis and south to KRYNKI of the Hurko family - it is a total distance around 73 km from Krynki to Dubrowna. In 1728-1731 intimate friends to Oginski. 1726 - the DRUJA owner; 1730 - IWIE in the Oszmiany county; Dyrwiany and Zogoty in LIVONIA; Niechniewicze of his wife; after death of his father took OSWIEJA / Oswieje until 1735; Balbierzyszki in the KOWNO county; CZEREJA in the Orsha / Orsza county from his uncle Michal Jozef Sapieha; KOCK, Wysokie and SIEMIATYCZE in the Brzesc Litewski province. Kazimierz Leon Karol Sapieha died in WSCHOWA were he met the King.

The ROZANA residence built in the early 18th century was almost completely destroyed during the Northern War. Another residence was built as a palace in 1784-1786 and it was one of the largest in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with its own picture gallery, theater and library.
The palace was after the November Uprising 1831 confiscated by the Tsarist authorities. Wonderful paintings, a rich library and the SAPIEHA archive of Rózana and Dereczna were taken by the Russians to St. Petersburg.

More on the SAPIEHA family:
Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski born in 1747, was the son of Stanislaw Lubomirski, born in 1704, d. 1793, married in 1740 to Ludwika Honorata Pociej. They owned Dubrowno in the Sienno (north-east of Miezonka) catholic area; the Orsha county, Moghilev government; at present in the Vicebsk oblast; 90 km to Vicebsk, 19 km north-east of Orsza / Orsha.
Dubrovno was owned by SAPIEHA to 1774.
Then by Count R. A. Potiemkin / G. A. Potemkin to 1791 (a watch factory!), close to Ksawery Lubomirski estate (and his daughter Klementyna girlfriend of Piotr Kroer); since 1791 Lubomirski taken Dubrovno - now this place is "capital" of the government;
then to Eugeniusz Lubomirski - 1809 new Orthodox church; Dubrovno was the Lubomirski family estate to 1917!

DUBROWNA is situated 42 km south to BABINAVICHY of the Oginskis and south to KRYNKI of the Hurko family - it is a total distance around 73 km from Krynki to Dubrowna.

And now about the Sulkowski - Sapieha line:

ALEXANDER JOSEPH SULKOWSKI, b. 1695 in Cracow, d. 1762 in Leszno [see MIELZYNSKI and ROKOSSOWSKI], a companion of August III, son of August II, and was his Minister of State in Saxony from 1733 to 1738; a Count of the Holy Roman Empire in 1733; Prince by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in 1752; bought the estates of Rydzyna and Leszno from the exiled ex-king of Poland Stanislaw Leszczynski, and estates of Bielsko in Cieszyn Silesia;
he married Baroness Maria Francis Stein zu Jettingen, and had
four sons and three daughters:
1. August Casimir (Kazimierz) SULKOWSKI, b. 1729, general of the royal army, Marshal of the Polish parliament 1775 - 1776, married Louise Mniszech in 1766;
2. Alexander Antoni Sulkowski, b. 1730, General of the royal army 1785, married Elenor Cetner in 1755;
3. FRANCIS (FRANCISZEK Sulkowski), b. 1733, d. 1812, the Bielsko estates,
4. ANTONI PAUL / Antoni Pawel Sulkowski, b. 1734, the RYDZYNA line;
5. Marianna, b. 1728, d. 1749, married Franciszek Jakub Szembek in 1747;
6. Joanna Sulkowska, b. 1736, d. 1800, married Prince PIOTR SAPIEHA / Peter Sapieha in 1750

{Piotr Pawel Sapieha b. 1701 in DRESDEN, the son of
Jan Kazimierz Sapieha died in 1730 in RAWICZ
and the grandson of Franciszek Stefan Sapieha ca 1647 - 1686/1688 in Lublin + Anna Krystyna Lubomirska, the daughter of JERZY SEBASTIAN LUBOMIRSKI;
the great-grandson of PAWEL JAN SAPIEHA 1609 - 1665,
the great-great-grandson of Jan Piotr Sapieha b. 1569};

7. Josepha Petronela / Jozefa Petronela Sulkowska, b. 1737, married Prince Ignacy Potocki in 1753.

The Potockis - CONSPIRATORS:

Leon Dembowski born on October 16, 1789 in Pulawy; the head of internal affairs, justice and war departments in the Provisional Government in the Kingdom of Poland in 1815; Minister of the Treasury of the National Government of the Kingdom of Poland during the November Uprising, 1831, a trusted collaborator of the prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski.
His parents were Józef Dembowski and Konstancja Narbutt - the owner of Harmaki and Haluzinka, the captain of the national cavalry.
Leon Dembowski organized National Guards and reserve divisions of the Lublin department in the war of 1812. During the November Uprising he was a member of the Administrative Council. In 1861-1867 he was a member of the Council of State of the Kingdom of Poland; the director of the Justice Commission. The owner of Bronice and Drzewica. Married Julia Kochanowski; 2nd to Seweryna Chledowski.
Leon Dembowski was a master of the Freemasonry 'Freedom Regained' in 1815.

Józef Lipinski, b. 1764 in Tetyjow in Ukraine; Polish activist, educator, novelist, poet, translator, literary and theater critic. Collaborator of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki; a Freemason. He approached I. Potocki. After the Third Partition of Poland, he settled in the countryside. During the time of the Warsaw Duchy, a member of the Civil and Administrative Chamber. 1821 general inspector of the schools of the Kingdom of Poland. 1805, a member of the Society of Friends of Sciences in Warsaw.

Mentioned Stanislaw Kostka Potocki / Un Polonais, born in November 1755 in Lublin;
Polish politician, count in the Congress Kingdom in 1820; member of the Warsaw Jewish Education Chamber in 1808; Member of the Patriotic Party in the Four-year-Parliament; freemason, president of the Council of State and the Council of Ministers of the Warsaw Principality, president of the Senate of the Kingdom of Poland in 1818-1821, memoirist, poet, playwright and translator.
He was the son of Eustachy Potocki, general of the Lithuanian artillery,
and Marianna Katska / Koncka or Kacka;
the brother of Ignacy Potocki.
In 1772-1775 he traveled a lot around Europe, visiting Italy, France, Switzerland and Germany; and in 1777, 1779-1780, 1783, 1785-1786 and 1796-1797.
Above
Roman Ignacy Franciszek Potocki / Jan K. Szabranski, born February 28, 1750 in Radzyn Podlaski, police minister in 1791, great Lithuanian marshal in 1791-1794; the Department of Foreign Interests of the Perpetual Council in 1779; member of the National Education Commission in 1773-1791;
in 1781-1784 Grand Master of the Polish National Grand Orient,
Polish politician and patriotic activist, publicist, playwright, poet, pedagogue, historian and translator.

The first on JAN Potocki:
in 1785, Jan Potocki in Warsaw married Julia (1767-1794), the daughter of Izabela Lubomirski and the cousin to Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (1770-1861). They moved home to Paris for 2 years. 1786, was born
Alfred (1786-1862).
Potocki make friends with Lady de Staėl. 1787, was born
Artur (1787-1832).
Potocki come to Spa, with Anna Teresa and Lady de Genlis [see below]. Potocki stayed in Antwerpia, then in England; back to Paris. 1788 - he met Stanislaw August the King. Moved to Ukraina; met Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki; he, in Lublin, met Seweryn Potocki. In Poznan and Sroda - he is elected a Great Poland deputy.

JAN Potocki corresponds with his brother-in-law, Ignacy Potocki; Jan inherited together with Seweryn Potocki the property of Józef Potocki and Wincenty Potocki in Ukraine. In November, a political club with 150 members was founded in Warsaw.

According to the accounts of the orientalist Wladyslaw Kotwicz, Jan Potocki goes to Berlin, where he approached to Frederick William I and his uncle, Prince Henry. It is likely that he was working in the libraries of Ewald Hertzberg (1725- 1795), the minister of the king, and geographer Anton Friedrich Büsching (1724-1793). In October he goes to France and then in Leipzig and Landau. In Paris, he met Baron de Staėl, the ambassador of Sweden.

Alexandra Feodorovna, born Princess Charlotte of Prussia (1798 - 1860), was Empress consort of Russia. She was the wife of Emperor Nicholas I, and mother of Emperor Alexander II. Charlotte was born the eldest surviving daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia, and Louise of Mecklenburg- Strelitz. In 1814, her marriage was arranged for political reason with Grand Duke Nicholas Pavlovich of Russia, the future Tsar Nicholas I.
Mentioned
Frederick William III / Friedrich Wilhelm III (1770 - 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. His parents: Frederick William II of Prussia + Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Above named Frederick William II / Friedrich Wilhelm II, b. 1744, was King of Prussia from 1786. His father Prince Augustus William of Prussia, August Wilhelm, b. 1722, was Prince of Prussia and a younger brother of Frederick II.
Augustus was the second surviving son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea.

Frederick II of Prussia was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, who married Louise of Brunswick- Wolfenbuettel. She was the sister of Frederick Duke of Brunswick, the Grand Master of the Strict Templar Observance, and who had convened the great Masonic convention at Wilhelmsbad in Hessen-Kassel.
Frederick Wilhelm II of Prussia was the father of Frederick William III, who became a member of the Order of the Garter.
Of Frederick William III and Louise' four children, three married the brothers and sisters of Csar Alexander I. Frederick William III's daughter, Charlotte of Prussia, married Paul's son, Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander I, and who also belonged to the Order of the Garter.
Frederick's son Wilhelm I married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the daughter of Nicholas' sister Maria Romanov. A third child of Frederick, Friedrich Karl Alexander of Prussia, married Maria's Romanov other daughter, Marie Luisa Alexandrina von Saxe-Weimar.

Baron Erik Magnus Staėl von Holstein, born in 1749 in Loddby, Sweden, died in 1802 in Poligny; Swedish ambassador in France. His daughter Hedvig Gustava Albertina, born 1798, died in Paris on September 28, 1838. She was married to Victor de Broglie in 1816. Her biological father could be Benjamin Constant.

Henri Benjamin Constant de Rebecque born 1767 in Lausanne, died in 1830 in Paris; French writer, philosopher and liberal politician of Swiss descent. In 1786 he came to Paris, where he met with politicians and thinkers preparing revolutions. There, he made an affair with Isabelle de Charriere. In 1796-1797 Constant published three brochures on the current French policy. Jacobin's terror has condemned them. In 1799, with the consent of Napoleon Bonaparte, he was appointed a member of the Tribunate.

Above Stephanie Felicite du Crest de Saint-Aubin, Comtesse de Genlis, born in 1746, died in 1830, was the French writer. Author of didactic-moral novels for young people and her memoirs.


We back to Artur Stanislaw Potocki.
ARTUR POTOCKI was the Count, the owner of the Krzeszowice and Lancut estates,
graduated of the Ernangen Protestant University, officer of the Polish army,
the adjutant of Prince Józef Poniatowski in 1812,
the adjutant of the emperor of France [fligiel- adjutant of Emperor Napoleon I] - Napoleon I - in 1815
[Napoleon Bonaparte I abdicated on 22 June 1815 in favour of his son Napoleon II. On 24 June the Provisional Government proclaimed the fact to the French nation and the world].

Wojciech Paszkowski [the half-brother of General Franciszek Paszkowski] was the manager of KRZESZOWICE owned by Artur Potocki.
Wojciech Paszkowski managed also Trzebniew / Trzebniow [not Trzebnica !] of BYSTRZANOWSKI.
CAPTAIN Wojciech Paszkowski, 1780 - 1856, the brother of famous General Franciszek Paszkowski [close to the TEMPLARS - in Cracow] who was the friend of General Tadeusz Kosciuszko [Kosciuszko was the friend of Thomas Jefferson b. 1743 - Illuminati].
Wojciech Paszkowski, 1780 - 1856, was the plenipotentiary [1821-1832] of Artur Potocki / Artur Stanislaw Potocki
(b. 1787 in Paris / Paryz, died in 1832 in Wien / Wieden - Artur Potocki, the Templar masonic degree, in 1830-1832 in CRACOW closely cooperated with GENERAL FRANCISZEK PASZKOWSKI in The Committee for the Reconstruction of the Krakow Castle in the Free City of Krakow and its District (1830 - 1836). The Committee, whose work was supervised by Maciej Rembowski, the first - only nominal president was Count Artur Potocki - followed by general Franciszek Paszkowski, was never formally resolved, his activity decreased in 1833, and from 1836 his last documents came),
Napoleonic officer.

Wojciech Paszkowski was Commissioner General to Artur Potocki.

ARTUR POTOCKI married to Zofia Countess Branicka, probably granddaughter of Empress Katarzyna II.
He bought a Palace in Cracow; and in Krzeszowice he built a summer residence
{the cousin of named General Franciszek Paszkowski - Paszkowski Franciszek (1818-1883), painter, landowner, deputy to the Galician parliament, economic activist. He was the son of Dominik Paszkowski and Anna Niemojewska (died 1872), the younger brother of Józef Edmund. He learned painting with Rafal Hadziewicz, and then with Wojciech K. Stattler in Cracow, where he lived with his uncles Franciszek PASZKOWSKI, general, and Wojciech PASZKOWSKI, junior, a member of the Galician government in 1809, the manager of the Trzebniow estate and Krzeszowice. Franciszek Paszkowski - painter - went to Düsseldorf (1838), Dresden and Rome for further studies. He painted religious paintings, and many portraits: his father, brother and uncle, General Franciszek PASZKOWSKI in 1814 [in Warsaw], Tytus Chalubinski, and Antonina Jachowicz}.

In 1818, Artur Potocki became an adept of the 33rd degree of the Scottish Masonic Lodge.


And now about SOLTYK - SAPIEHA line: Maciej Soltyk senior, died in 1780 - Krysk; he had sons:

1. Józef Soltyk - MP and the official in Zawichost (1786-1795), 1750-1803 + Józefa Urbanska;
2. Maciej Kajetan Soltyk junior, 1750-1804;

3.
Stanislaw Soltyk, MP in 1830-31, acted in 1791; born 1751/1752 - died in 1833 + Karolina Sapieha

{Karolina Sapieha 1759-1814, was the wife to TEODOR POTOCKI

(Teodor Potocki, 1730-1812, was the son of JAN POTOCKI = Jan Kanty Potocki, b. 1693; the grandson of Józef Stanislaw Potocki born ca 1645; the great-grandson of Pawel Potocki b. ca 1612, who was the son Stefan Potocki b. 1568, and grandson of Mikolaj Potocki)

and named STANISLAW SOLTYK.

KAROLINA Sapieha was half sister of Nil Sapieha; Konstancja ZWAN b. 1768, and Michal Cichocki / Mykolas Cichockis / Michal Mikolaj CICHOCKI born in 1770 in Warsaw.

KAROLINA Sapieha Soltyk was born in 1759, the daughter of
Aleksander Michal Sapieha b. 1730 in Wysokie / Vysokoje - died in 1793 in Warsaw, and

the granddaughter of Kazimierz Leon Karol Sapieha, b. 1697 in Warsaw; d. 1738 in WSCHOWA;

the great-granddaughter of Aleksander Pawel Sapieha born in Warsaw in 1672;

the great-great-granddaughter of Kazimierz Jan Sapieha b. 1637/1742, Duke in 1700, commanded the Lithuanian Army -

the son of Pawel Jan Sapieha

(1609-1665; the owner of RETOW, SZAWLE, Wolpin.

PAWEL JAN Sapieha was the father of
Kazimierz Jan;
Benedykt Pawel;
Franciszek Stefan;
Leon Bazyli SAPIEHA)

the enemy of the Radziwills,
the grandson of Jan Piotr Sapieha.

Named PAWEL JAN Sapieha passed on to his sons in 1665:

Kazimierz Jan Sapieha - the godfather was LEON SAPIEHA - took Szkudy, Kretynga, Szawel, Ikazn, Druja, Sapiezyn, Oswiej / Oswieja, Ormiej, BYCHOW, Wolpin.

Benedykt Pawel Sapieha took CZERCIA, LUBOSZANY + Berezyna; Wojskie, Siemiatycze, RETOW.

Franciszek Stefan Sapieha - Tronienice, BOCKI, LACHOWICZE.

Leon Bazyli SAPIEHA - ROZANA / Rozanna, Kossow / Kosow Poleski, Lewpun, Poniemun}

+ 2nd to Agnieszka Komorowska,
with the son -
Roman Soltyk 1790-1843.

Above Benedykt Pawel Sapieha d. 1707, took CZERCIA/ Czereja + Mieleszkowicze and Horodek in the Vicebsk province; Wysokie; Roslaw in the Smolensk prov.; RETOW in 1664 until 1700 - then his son Michal Sapieha; Korelicze; Siemiatycze and ROSNA after a brother Leon Bazyli Sapieha; DZISNA; and
LUBOSZANY in 1665 [near Miezonka] with Berezyno Ihumenskie by the Berezyna river. Ca 1693, Michal Siesicki back him Luboszany, the Witebsk / Vicebsk prov., and Benedykt Pawel Sapieha gave it to his son Michal Jozef Sapieha in 1699.
Benedykt Pawel Sapieha d. 1707 was living in ROZANA. Acted in Kobryn, Biala Podlaska, Wysokie, and Brzesc Litewski.

Michal Sapieha - Michal Józef Sapieha (1670 - 1738 in Chalons-sur-Marne), the governor of Podlasie, the son of mentioned Benedykt Pawel Sapieha + Izabella Tarlo. Supporter of Jakub Sobieski.
In 1699 - owner of Luboszany and Berezyno Ihumenskie / BEREZYNA.
In 1714 General Lieutenant. 1735 moved to France.

After 1738 until 1793:
Luboszany / Luboszany - years 1735-1750 were very difficult for the Sapiehas after death of Michal Józef Sapieha in 1738. Benedykt Pawel Sapieha d. 1707, took CZERCIA/ Czereja + Mieleszkowicze and Horodek in the Vicebsk province; Wysokie; Roslaw in the Smolensk prov.; RETOW in 1664 until 1700 - then his son Michal Sapieha; Korelicze; Siemiatycze and ROSNA after a brother Leon Bazyli Sapieha; DZISNA; and
LUBOSZANY in 1665 [near Miezonka] with Berezyno Ihumenskie by the Berezyna river. Ca 1693, tenant Michal Siesicki back him Luboszany, the Witebsk / Vicebsk prov., and Benedykt Pawel Sapieha gave it to his son Michal Jozef Sapieha in 1699.
Benedykt Pawel Sapieha d. 1707 was living in ROZANA. Acted in Kobryn, Biala Podlaska, Wysokie, and Brzesc Litewski.
Michal Jozef Sapieha owned Luboszany in 1699 but LUBOSZANY was taken by Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA, b. 1730 in Wysokie - died in 1793 in Warsaw.
Aleksander Michal Sapieha acted in Brzesc Litewski in 1696; he owned Luboszany - Berezyna in the Vicebsk province since 1697. Luboszany was officially handed over to Aleksander Michal Sapieha by his father on 30 July 1699, and Aleksander Michal Sapieha ceded it in 1710 to Antoni Nowosielski as a tenant.

Senator Antoni Karol Nowosielski b. 1675, died 1726, the son of Wawrzyniec Nowosielski + Helena Wrobek-Lettaw / von Lettow-Vorbeck; Antoni had a son Leon Nowosielski b. ca 1700/1706, and grandson Józef Nowosielski. Antoni was the Orsha official and in Nowogrodek in 1709-1725.
Leon NOWOSIELSKI married in 1726 to the daughter of Jerzy Stanislaw Sapieha 1668-1732, the granddaughter of Kazimierz Jan Pawel Sapieha b. ca 1642;
the great-granddaughter of Pawel Jan Sapieha born in 1609,
son of Jan Piotr Sapieha b. 1569, d. 1611 in MOSCOW.

Pawel Jan Sapieha (1609-1665), was the owner of Luboszany and Berezyna / Berezino.

Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA, b. 1730 in Wysokie - died in 1793 in Warsaw. After his death, in 1793 Berezyno and Luboszany was taken by Tyszkiewicz, then to POTOCKI.



Note to
TYSZKIEWICZ - POTOCKI of Luboszany / Lubuszany and Berezyna, with the POTOCKI [the TEMPLARS] - PASZKIEWICZ [+ Bystrzanowski] branch of Trzebniow-Cracow-Tonie:

Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Tyszkiewicz, I voto Potocka, II voto Dunin-Wasowicz (1779 - 1867 in Paris) - Polish diarist; she was the landowner of LUBOSZANY - BEREZYNO / BEREZYNA.


Remember - Aleksandra Potocka, with nick-name Aleksandryna

(1818-1892, born in St Petersburg, the daughter of Stanislaw Septym Potocki; the granddaughter of Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki 1751-1805;
the great-granddaughter of Franciszek Salezy Potocki, 1700-1772,
who was the son of Józef Potocki (died 1723),
and grandson of Feliks Kazimierz "Szczesny" Potocki (1630-1702),
the great-grandson of Stanislaw "Rewera" Potocki, 1589-1667),

married her cousin August Potocki

(= August Aleksander Potocki b. 1805; the son of Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778;
the grandson of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki b. 1755;
the great-grandson of Eustachy Potocki born in 1720; the great-great-grandson of Jerzy Potocki who was the son of Feliks Kazimierz Potocki 1630-1702, and grandson of Stanislaw Rewera Potocki).

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR [she died in 1892] to AUGUST POTOCKI, 1847-1905; then, in 1905, it belonged to widowed Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka Potocka, the widow after death of AUGUST POTOCKI. Eugenia Wojnicz-Sianozecka, 1870-1925. And ca 1908/1909, Eugenia sold the estate Zator to Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, of Krzeszowice
[I had explained incorrect inf. on Jerzy Dunin-Wasowicz of the 18th century].

Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold [? ca 1887/1890] Luboszany / LUBUSZANY [she died in 1892]
(K. Lipinski - the manager of Berezyna, Tepliki, Zwinogród),
to hands of Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz

(born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN; the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA; the great-granddaughter of Michal Tyszkiewicz Count, b. 1761 in BIRZAI / Birze;
the great-great-granddaughter of Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in Valozyn),

the wife of the Galicja governor -
Andrzej Potocki.



And here are very strange events in 1908-1911-1914.

Andrzej Potocki is murdered in 1908 while he fulfills the duties of the Governor of Galicia. The murderer uses the nationalist-Ukrainian ideology.
But the widow Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz, asks the Austrian authorities to exchange the death sentence for this offender, for a prison sentence.
And of course, the prisoner escapes in 1911 from the Stanislawow prison. Where? To Sweden! And here he lives peacefully until 1914 - with what passport? In 1914 he left for the USA and there he lives peacefully until death in the 70s of the 20th century! How did he get a visa if he was a criminal?

Krystyna Potocka in 1908 has around 40, and 9 children. Krystyna in 1946 left for Kenya, to the Tyszkiewiczs. The murderer Siczynski, on 12th of April, shot dead the governor of Galicya, Count Andrzej Potocki.
The murderer is Miroslaw Siczynski, Rusin, a university student. He shot four times. "Glos Warszawski" was realistically reported. Siczynski born in 1887. The bishops Bilczewski and Bandurski also came to the wounded, but Andrzej Potocki died.
Andrzej Potocki was born in 1861.
He attended the High School in Krakow and at the Jagiellonian University, graduated in 1884 with a PhD degree.
Ca 1885 he devoted himself to the diplomatic service and became attache at the Austrian-Hungarian embassy in Madrid. That is intelligence service.
In 1891 he was elected to the parliament, and in 1901 - a member of the House of Lords. In September 1900, Andrzej Potocki was the Marshal of the Galician Parliament.
Soon thereafter, in June 1901, Emperor Franz Joseph appointed him governor of Galicia.
Count Andrew was born in Krzeszowice. Three generations of the Potocki family have combined their biographies with this place.
During the funeral they were present:
the Archduke Karol Stefan from Zywiec; Zamojski with Branicki, Radziwill, from Vienna senior officials; Deputy Emperor Count Cholonewski, president of ministers Baron Beck, minister Bienerth, Korytowski and Abrahamowicz, Stanislaw Tarnowski, Member of the Council of State; cardinal Puzyna, archbishops Bilczewski and Teodorowicz, bishops Pelczar from Przemysl, priest Nowak from Krakow, and the representatives of all Polish territories came.

1908 - Jan Andrzej Miroslaw Siczynski shooting him several times, so Krystyna Potocka went to Vienna for the imperial audiences. Five of the oldest children accompanied her. They asked for the grace of mercy. The governor Michal Bobrzynski, changed the sentence to 20 years in prison. Shortly thereafter, he escaped to Sweden; on November 10, 1911, in Stanislawów / Iwano-Frankowsk, Siczynski escaped from the prison at 4 am. There was a wave of the first speculations, rumors, unbelievable darts about it.

The son of Governor Potocki - Andrzej - born in 1900 - was killed in the September 1939 campaign by Ukrainians in the village Wielkie Oczy.

Krystyna Tyszkiewicz Potocka died 85 years in 1952, in Miali - in Kenya or KONGO.

Miroslaw Siczynski - in 1914 he found himself in the USA, where he died in 1979.

Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz-Lohojska born 13 Jul 1866 in Riga, Latvia.
Daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz-Lohojski. Sister of Jan Tyszkiewicz-Lohojski. Wife of Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki - married 29 Oct 1889 in Vilnius, Lithuania.



Andrzej Potocki died in 1908 =
Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861, died in LWOW, the owner of Krzeszowice, the orderly officer of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria, Andrzej's wife KRYSTYNA Tyszkiewicz Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of ZATOR, ca 1908/1909, and ca 1887/1890 {?} of LUBOSZANY / Lubuszany - 13 km to MIEZONKA

[they had children: Maria Teresa Tyszkiewicz; Izabela Maria Krasinska; Kystyna Siemienska-Lewicka; Adam Wladyslaw Franciszek Potocki; Artur Antoni Bonawentura Hubert Maria Potocki born in 1899 in Krzeszowice close to CRACOW].

But the last owner of BEREZYNA
{Beata Terczynska inf. Maurycy Potocki was the owner of Berezyna in the 80's of 19th cent. ? - but we know Aleksandra Potocka / Aleksandryna Potocka sold ZATOR and Lubuszany [when ?], and named
Luboszany / LUBUSZANY took Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz, Potocka, of Krzeszowice, 1866-1952!
BEREZYNA belonged to Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880, and to his sons}

before 1916 until Dec. 1918 was Maurycy Stanislaw Potocki b. May 1894 in Jablonna, died in 1949
- the son of August Adam Potocki b. 1847, died in 1905 in Warsaw - the owner of BEREZYNA Ihumenska
{a widow after death of August in 1905 took ZATOR and maybe Berezyna [1905-1909]; she sold Zator in 1908; she sold Berezyna after 1909 to hands of her son - MAURYCY POTOCKI. August Potocki also was the owner of JABLONNA. Next owner of ZATOR in 1908 - Krystyna Potocka nee Tyszkiewicz of KRZESZOWICE, and her son Adam Potocki, 1896-1966};

the grandson of Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880, the landowner of BEREZYNA

{Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880 - was the owner of BEREZYNA!
In 1880 his son August Potocki took JABLONNA, Zator, and HALF of the BEREZYNA ESTATE.
The second half of named BEREZYNA took August's brother Eustachy Potocki / Eustachy Maurycy Aleksander 1859-1914.
August Potocki - the Austrian citizen - bought in 1890/1891 the second part of BEREZYNA belonged to named Eustachy with Baron Eugeniusz WULF, Klimkiewicz manager, Colonel KOZLOWSKI, and Zaglowski};

the great-grandson of Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778
{the husband of Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Dunin-Wasowicz [the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz b. 1748 in WILNO - Ludwik was the owner of Poloziny in the IHUMEN county and BEREZYNA - LUBOSZANY (Luboszany took his wife Konstancja nee Poniatowska) in 1793 after Sapieha] and Izabella Potocka MOSTOWSKA [her son Stanislaw Potocki Count, ca 1824 - 1887]. Partner of Aleksandra Stokowska};

the great-great-grandson of
Stanislaw Kostka Potocki 1755 - 1821, the FREEMASON.

Above
ANDRZEJ POTOCKI of Krzeszowice,
the son of Adam Józef Mateusz Potocki; died in Krzeszowice in 1872 - acted in STASZOW;
the grandson of Artur Potocki, 1787-1832, the Freemason-TEMPLAR and Zofia Branicka 1790- 1879.
The great-grandson of Jan Nepomucen Potocki 1761-1815, who was the son of Józef Potocki 1735-1802, and the grandson of Stanislaw Potocki 1698-1760 and Helena Zamoyska 1717-1760
and the great-grandson of
Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski - the Smolensk governor, 1679-1735 {see Wilkowo Polskie - Kiedrzynski - Pradzynski - Szoldrski};
Józef Stanislaw Potocki (1673-1751) = Józef Potocki in Cracow in 1748
- who was the son of Andrzej Potocki died in 1691 in Stanislawow;
and the grandson of Stanislaw Potocki Rewera b. 1589 in Podhajce, d. 1667.


Berezyna of Potocki; Luboszany of Potocki
[Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz, Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of LUBUSZANY / Luboshany. Maurycy Stanislaw Potocki (1894 - 1949) was the owner of BEREZYNA],
Kaluzyca of Wankowicz [WITOLD Wankowicz] and Miezonka of Konstantynowicz were the core of Polish underground movement in Belarus at the turn of the centuries, 19th on 20th.


Named Aleksandra Potocka, Aleksandryna (1818-1892), born in Petersburg, as a child of Stanislaw Septym POTOCKI + Katarzyna Branicki;
the granddaughter of Stanislaw Szczesny Potocki.

Stanislaw Potocki died in 1831; then Aleksandryna Potocka was living under care of Zofia, the wife of Artur Potocki - the Templar - in Biala Cerkiew, St Petersburg and Krzeszowice.
ARTUR married to Zofia Countess Branicka, probably granddaughter of Empress Katarzyna II.
He bought a Palace in Cracow; and in Krzeszowice he built a summer residence

{the cousin of General Franciszek Paszkowski - Paszkowski Franciszek (1818-1883), JUNIOR, painter, landowner, deputy to the Galician parliament, economic activist. He was the son of Dominik Paszkowski and Anna Niemojewska (died 1872), the younger brother of Józef Edmund. He learned painting with Rafal Hadziewicz, and then with Wojciech K. Stattler in Cracow, where
he lived with his uncles Franciszek PASZKOWSKI, general, and Wojciech PASZKOWSKI junior, a member of the Galician government in 1809, the manager of the Trzebnica estate and Krzeszowice.

Franciszek Paszkowski - painter - went to Düsseldorf (1838), Dresden and Rome for further studies. He painted religious paintings, and many portraits: his father, brother and uncle, General Franciszek PASZKOWSKI in 1814 [in Warsaw], Tytus Chalubinski, and Antonina Jachowicz.
Compare - MARIA WILHELMINA PASZKOWSKA ARMAND of MOSCOW}.

ARTUR POTOCKI in 1818, became an adept of the 33rd degree of the Scottish Masonic Lodge.

Aleksandryna Potocka became friends with her cousin, Eliza Branicka, the later Eliza was the wife of Zygmunt Krasinski, in 1835 until 1876. Miss Potocka formally remained under the care of Tsar Nicholas I. Around 1836, she became the lady of the imperial court. On her marriage with her cousin August Potocki from Wilanów recalled Jadwiga Dzialynski Zamoyska years later.



TRZEBNIOW of Sebastian Bystrzanowski - Krzeszowice of Artur Potocki:

Sebastian Bystrzanowski inf. in Bystrzanowice in 1783; in Dabrowno in 1783.
Dabrowno - the LELOW parish; near NIEGOWA.

Sebastian Bystrzanowski was the Checiny official (1774-1783), he was the owner of Bebelno / BEBELNO- KOLONIA - north-east to LELOW and 12 km south to WLOSZCZOWA; landlord in Cieletniki in 1792, the owner of Sekursko, south to ZYTNO - in 1761 bought from Józef Bystrzanowski; of Raczkowice and Nowa Wies (in the Kalisz prov.); b. ca 1730, d. 1795.
Cieletniki - 4 km west to SEKURSKO; and close to Zytno. In 1742 - 1761, Cieletniki was owned by Józef Bystrzanowski; then his nephew [the son of his brother] Sebastian Bystrzanowski.

ZYTNO - north-east to Cieletniki - ca 7 km; Zytno is situated north to LELOW.

SEBASTIAN Bystrzanowski - b. ca 1730, d. 1795 - married to Magdalena Soltyk b. ca 1750, the daughter of Maciej Soltyk 1720-1780 and Salomea Nakwaska 1728-1778.

Emilia maybe was the daughter of named Sebastian and Magdalena Bystrzanowski-Soltyk or of KAJETAN BYSTRZANOWSKI?
Emilia was born ca 1775/1780. Emilia Bystrzanowska married Wojciech Paszkowski b. 1780 - he was the half- brother of General Franciszek Paszkowski. Magdalena Bystrzanowska was the sister of
Józef Soltyk - MP and the official in Zawichost (1786-1795), 1750-1803,
who married twice:
1. Józefa Urbanska,
2. Justyna Kalinowska b. ca 1750.
Justyna's parents:
Ignacy Kalinowski b. ca 1710 + Justyna Borzecka b. ca 1720.
Justyna's sisters:
1. Agnieszka Kalinowska b. ca 1750,
2. Franciszka Kalinowska b. ca 1760/1765 + Olszewski / OLSZOWSKI.
3. Józefa Kalinowska b. ca 1750 + Jan Sadel Sadlo + 2nd time to Glogowski,
4. Antonina Kalinowska b. ca 1750 + Ludwik Walewski.
Justyna's brother:
Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759 + Elzbieta Bielska.

And again back to
Wojciech Paszkowski born in 1780, the son of Jan Paszkowski b. 1742, and Petronela Paszkowska born Kulikowska. Petronela was born ca 1755. Wojciech had 2 brothers [or more]: Dominik Paszkowski and General Franciszek. Wojciech married [ca 1805 ?] 1st Emilia Paszkowska born Bystrzonowska / Bystrzanowski. Emilia Bystrzanowska was born in Brody [here was born General Franciszek Paszkowski].


Note to TRZEBNIOW:

Nearby Gorzków Nowy owned by Bystrzanowski, ca 1730 - ca 1770; at half way from Trzebniow to Bystrzanowice-Dwor.
New Gorzkow-Trzebniow parish cover the area: Gorzków Nowy, Gorzków Stary, Góry Gorzkowskie, Ludwinów and Trzebniów. 1739 - 1763 Gorzków paid to the Bystrzanowski chapel in Lelow.

Ludwinow - 3 km north-east to TRZEBNIOW; west to Gorzkow Nowy. In Ludwinow, Ludwina Martyniewicz lived.
Bystrzanowice - 9 km north-west to LELOW:
1385-1833 in Bystrzanowice, the Bystrzanowski family had their headquarters. 1680 - Andrzej and Marcin Bystrzanowski; 1783 until 1791 - Sebastian Bystrzanowski, the official in Checiny; he bought Cieletniki, and moved home there. 1833-1852 owned by Wincenty Komornicki. Then to Wincenty Krasinski (1852-1878), and after him - Count Raczynski (1878-1945).

Bystrzanowice - Sebastian Bystrzonowski shared the village with Sulewski / Sulejowski. Sebastian Bystrzanowski b. ca 1730, d. 1795 - was the son of Karol Bystrzanowski the official in Checiny, 1710-1752 + Apolonia Misiowska.
SEBASTIAN Bystrzanowski married to Magdalena Soltyk b. ca 1750, the daughter of Maciej Soltyk 1720-1780 and Salomea Nakwaska 1728-1778


Luboszany / Libushany / LIBUSZANY is situated close to MIEZONKA [Libuszany is 13 km west- north-west to noble Miezonka locality, the gentry area; Miezonka village is 2 km yet further. Libushany - 12 km east to Kaplancy, and 6 km east to Milastava / MILOSTOW], Berezyna [south-east], Pohost [south-east] and Kozlowy Brzeg / Kozlowyj Bierieh [south-west to Kozlowy Brzeg] in BELARUS !

Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia Tyszkiewicz, I voto Potocka, II voto Dunin-Wasowicz, was the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, and Konstancja Poniatowski, the king's niece
[Konstancja Poniatowska Tyszkiewicz, 1759-1830; was the niece to
the King, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, who had a brother KAZIMIERZ Poniatowski born 1721].

Konstancja was the daughter of Apolonia Ustrzycka, 1736-1814, and Duke Kazimierz Poniatowski (1721-1800), General, the brother of named King, Stanislaw August Poniatowski.

The brother of mentioned Konstancja was Stanislaw Poniatowski (1754 - 1833); the sister - Katarzyna Poniatowska b. 1760.
Konstancja in 1775 married Ludwik Tyszkiewicz (1750-1808), MP, the Lithuanian Marshal in 1793.

Konstancja's daughter:
Anna Tyszkiewicz (1776-1867), m. Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki in 1805 in Wilno, with 3 children: Natalia Potocka, Maurycy Potocki and August Potocki.

Anna Tyszkiewicz (1776-1867), grew up in Bialystok under the care of a French governess at the court of her cousin, Izabela Branicka, the sister of King Stanislaw August PONIATOWSKI.

Anna Tyszkiewicz married Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki, the son of Stanislaw Kostka Potocki. Her second marriage with Dunin-Wasowicz, Adjutant of Emperor Napoleon I.

Above Stanisław Wąsowicz - Dunin b. in 1785 in Wołyn / Volhynia, died in 1864 in Paris, General in 1831, Count. In 1831 - moved out to ZATOR.

Above Count Ludwik Tyszkiewicz (1748 - 1808), took in 1793 Berezyna - Luboszany / Lubuszany, close to MIEZONKA.

Mentioned
Stanislaw Kostka Potocki b. 1755 in Lublin, Count in 1820, Senator in 1807, the Freemason, Prime Minister. The son of Eustachy Potocki.

Eustachy Potocki (1720 - 1768 in Radzyn Podlaski), Lithuanian General in 1759, Crown General- Lieutenant in 1752; the son of Jerzy Potocki;
the grandson of Feliks Kazimierz Potocki.
Named
Feliks Kazimierz Potocki (1630 - 1702), the Commander of the Lithuanian Army; the Cracow governor in 1683, in Kiev in 1682, Sieradz in 1669 [see below on his brother ANDRZEJ POTOCKI].

FELIKS Potocki was the son of Stanislaw Rewera Potocki;
Feliks Potocki was the brother of Andrzej Potocki.

Named Stanislaw Potocki Rewera (1589 in Podhajce - 1667 in Lwow), the Commander of the Polish Crown Army in 1654.


We back now to
CAPTAIN Wojciech Paszkowski, 1780 - 1856, the brother of famous General Franciszek Paszkowski [close to the TEMPLARS - in Cracow] who was the friend of General Tadeusz Kosciuszko [Kosciuszko was the friend of Thomas Jefferson b. 1743 - Illuminati].
Wojciech Paszkowski, 1780 - 1856, was the plenipotentiary [1821-1832] of Artur Potocki / Artur Stanislaw Potocki
(b. 1787 in Paris / Paryz, died in 1832 in Wien / Wieden - Artur Potocki, the Templar masonic degree, in 1830-1832 in CRACOW closely cooperated with GENERAL FRANCISZEK PASZKOWSKI in The Committee for the Reconstruction of the Krakow Castle in the Free City of Krakow and its District (1830 - 1836). The Committee, whose work was supervised by Maciej Rembowski, the first - only nominal president was Count Artur Potocki - followed by general Franciszek Paszkowski, was never formally resolved, his activity decreased in 1833, and from 1836 his last documents came),
Napoleonic officer.

In 1818, Artur Potocki became an adept of the 33rd degree of the Scottish Masonic Lodge.
Wojciech Paszkowski was Commissioner General to Artur Potocki.

ARTUR POTOCKI married to Zofia Countess Branicka, probably granddaughter of Empress Katarzyna II.

Artur Stanislaw Potocki (b. 1787) -
a Napoleonic officer, the son of the writer and traveler Jan Potocki, and Julia Potocka nee Lubomirski b. 1767 in PARIS

{JAN POTOCKI was the son of Józef Potocki b. 1735, d. 1802, Wien;
the grandson of Stanislaw Potocki 1698 - 1760;
the great-grandson of Józef Potocki 1673 - 1751;
the great-great-grandson of
Andrzej Potocki died in 1691 / 1692 in Stanislawow - see above on his brother FELIKS POTOCKI}.

{SKNILOW - close to LWOW. In 1744 belonged to Katarzyna Kossakowska nee POTOCKA

(KATARZYNA bought Stanislawów in 1771 from hands of Józef Potocki. She was born 1716 or 30 April 1722, d. March 21, 1803 in Krystynopol. The political activist of the second half of the eighteenth century, she was the daughter of
Jerzy Potocki d. 1747, and Konstancja Podbereska-Drucka, 1st voto Zamoyska.
On May 24, 1744, she married her cousin, Stanislaw Kossakowski 1721-1761.
She was the granddaughter of Feliks Kazimierz Potocki 1630-1702

[FELIKS's brother - Andrzej Potocki, junior, died in 1691/1692 in STANISLAWOW - see above !],

and Krystyna Lubomirska;
and great-granddaughter of Stanislaw Rewera Potocki 1589-1667;
great-great-granddaughter of Senior Andrzej Potocki, Lieutenant + ZOFIA PIASECKA)}.


Note to
Hieronim Florian Radziwill married:
1. Teresa Sapieha on September 9, 1740

[Teresa Potocka Sapieha Radziwill born in 1715, d. 1784,
the daughter of Józef Franciszek Sapieha died in Pratulin 25 km north-west to Brzesc Litewski; north-east to Biala Podlaska {the Pratulin estate included ROKITNO 17 km north-east to GRABANOW !}, was born ca 1670.
The granddaughter of Franciszek Stefan Sapieha born ca 1647;
the great-granddaughter of Pawel Jan Sapieha born in 1609
- the son of Jan Piotr Sapieha b. 1569 in BYCHOW.

Named PAWEL JAN Sapieha passed on to his sons in 1665:

Kazimierz Jan Sapieha - the godfather was LEON SAPIEHA - took Szkudy, Kretynga, Szawel, Ikazn, Druja, Sapiezyn, Oswiej / Oswieja, Ormiej, BYCHOW, Wolpin.

Benedykt Pawel Sapieha took CZERCIA, LUBOSZANY + Berezyna; Wojskie, Siemiatycze, RETOW.

Franciszek Stefan Sapieha - Tronienice, BOCKI, LACHOWICZE.
Leon Bazyli SAPIEHA - ROZANA / Rozanna, Kossow / Kosow Poleski, Lewpun, Poniemun];

2. Magdalena Czapska in October 1745 in Warsaw;
3. and Aniela Miaczynska on January 1, 1755.


In the 19th century Luboszany / Lubuszany - 13 km to Miezonka - belonged to the Potockis (in 1793 to Konstancja Tyszkiewicz nee Poniatowska, 1759-1830).
The map concern the dispute between Luboszany's estate belonging to Konstancja Poniatowski married Tyszkiewicz and Przyborka's estate belonging to Jerzy Massalski
(see - Jerzy Niepokojczycki in 1825. Duke Aleksander Ludgard Massalski, b. 1808 in Jewsjewicze in the Ilhumen county; the son of Teofil Jakub Massalski b. 1768, and Franciszka Zabiello b. 1770. Ludgard married Emilia RITZE. Ludgard had the brother - Jerzy Bernard Massalski born 1802. Compare - MIORY, 20 km to Druja - belonged to Massalski, and the Castle of Druja in the 19th century.

Jewsjewicze = Wiejsieje - at present in Lithuania, west to Lejpuny, 25 km east to SEJNY, 19 km south to Swietojeziory, south-east to LOZDZIEJE:
Massalski Michal Józef (bef. 1700-1768), the son of Jan Massalski + Joanna Wollowicz. The parents died in 1706 in Prussia. Jan was the owner of Wiejsieje, Olekszyce, Bulkowo and Narewka;
his grandmother was Marianna Anna Oginski;
in 1737, he was the governor of MSCISLAW.
His sons: Kazimierz Adrian died after 1777; Józef; Jan; Ignacy. His daughters: Teresa; Marianna; Katarzyna married Józef Niesiolowski of Nowogródek.
We back again to
Massalski Michal Józef (b. before 1700 or in 1697 - 1768), Commander of the Lithuanian army, he was the grandson of Marianna Anna nee Oginska.
His wife in 1724, was Franciszka nee Oginska, of Troki, died in 1750; she owned
Rawanicze [the BEREZYNA parish; see SLOTWINSKI - Ravanichy around 24 km north-west to BEREZYNA] and Drecheza,
part of Indura [south of Grodno], Swislocz [south to Indura], Hrayne,
Wiejsiejki [Wiejsieje - 21 km south-east to LAZDZIEJE], Strunne, Mohylno,
Kolpin [Kolpina is 30 km north-west to POLOCK],
Dukoza, Dryczyn [Dereczyn east-north to Indura] and Berzniki [east of SEJNY].
Franciszka nee Oginska, of Troki, married Massalska, in 1748 convey land possessions to sons.

JAN MASSALSKI was the owner of Wiejsieje, Olekszyce, Bulkowo and Narewka.
Jan Mikolaj Massalski 1728-1763 buried in WIEJSIEJE, was the son of Michal Józef Massalski 1697-1768 and Franciszka Oginska, 1690-1750.
In Wiejsieje the church was built in 1767 - 1817 by Massalski and Wiktoria Oginska Zyniew. Here Tadeusz Oginski (d. 1844) was buried. Zyniew transformed the town of Wejsieje into a village. Title Count of ZYNIEW in the Kingdom of Prussia in 1798 for Mateusz Zyniew and in Poland in 1817-1824 for Wiktoria Zyniew nee Oginska, his wife. Extinct 1830 at her death.
After the death of Zyniew, the DUMBEL estate passed into the hands of the Oginski in 1822 [WIKTORIA was the owner of Wiejsieje and next also of DUMBEL].
Earl Zyniew was married to Oginska, a princess, but when she was childless, the estate of WIEJSIEJE passed to Tadeusz Oginski of Kozielsk, a Prince, died in 1844 [his wife died 1897 - Maria Tekla von Rönne, Oginska].

Both above maps [Luboszany's estate belonging to Konstancja Poniatowski married Tyszkiewicz and Przyborka's estate belonging to Jerzy Massalski] were prepared on 30 July 1818.
There is a map of the properties of Poloziny / Palozhyna, located in the Ihumen county, belonging to Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, which in the 19th century became the property of the Potocki family. The map was made in 1778 by a sworn geographer, Józef Zochowski: Berezina, bridges and carriage on the Berezina River were marked. The map shows
Polozin / PALOZYNA / Palozhyna / POLOZHINO (4 km west to Berezyna and 25 km south-east to Rawanicze / Ravanichy; 23 km south to KALUZYCE),
situated between the river Berezina and the river Troscianka, bordering (?) the Luboszany estate, Niehonicze / NIAGONICHY (9 km south-west to Berezyna / Berazino), Lohi and the Borysów land.

In 1793 Berezyno / Berezyna / Berazino was taken by Tyszkiewicz, then to POTOCKI.

Princess Konstancja Poniatowska (1759-1830) was a niece of king Stanislaw August Poniatowski. Konstancja was the daughter of Kazimierz Poniatowski and Apolonia Ustrzycka, and married Ludwik Tyszkiewicz in 1775 in Warsaw. She was one of the closest friends of the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord was Napoleon's chief diplomat during the years of the French hegemony. Talleyrand attended the Estates-General of 1789, representing the clergy, the First Estate. During the French Revolution, Talleyrand strongly supported the anti-clericalism of the revolutionaries. He assisted Mirabeau in the appropriation of Church properties.
Mentioned
Apolonia Ustrzycka (1736 - 1814) was the sister-in-law of the King of Poland, Stanislaw August Poniatowski. She was the daughter of Bazyli Ustrzycki and Katarzyna Zielonka. She married Prince Antoni Lubomirski in 1749, and Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski in 1751. She became the mother of Stanislaw, Grand Treasurer of Lithuania, and above Konstancja Poniatowska.
Apolonia's second husband was one of the clients of Henrietta Lullier.

Henrietta Zofia Puszet Lullier (1716 - 1802, Warsaw), was a French fortune teller. She was the influential favorite of king Stanislaw August Poniatowski of Poland and his brother Kazimierz Poniatowski. In 1753, she was the mistress of Stanislaw August Poniatowski during his visit to Paris. In 1754, she married Augustus Louis Lullier, who was employed in the court of Augustus III of Poland, and settled with him in Poland. She resumed her contact with Poniatowski, who was elected king of Poland. In 1765, the king's brother bought her a house; she was also a diplomatic agent to the Russian diplomat Nicholas Repnin and the Prussian diplomat Gedeon Benoit.

Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski (1721 - 1800) was Lieutenant general of the Royal Polish forces. He was the eldest of the children of Princess Konstancja Czartoryska and of Count Stanislaw Poniatowski.
His siblings were:
Stanislaw Antoni Poniatowski (1732-1798), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1764-1795);
Andrzej Poniatowski (1734-1773), an Austrian Feldmarschall;
Michal Jerzy Poniatowski (1736–94), Primate of Poland [see MALESZEWSKI, Venture de Paradise; Breguet; Duflon and Konstantynowicz].

KAZIMIERZ Poniatowski was a great-grandson of the poet, Jan Andrzej Morsztyn and through his great- grandmother, Catherine Gordon, lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga, he was related to the House of Stuart [see TEMPLARS in France and Scotland].
1751, he married Apollonia Ustrzycka (1736 - 1814), by whom he had Princess Konstancja Poniatowska who in 1775 married Ludwik Tyszkiewicz (1748 - 1808), next they were owners of BEREZYNA and LUBOSZANY.

Above
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz born 1748 in Vilnius - d. 1808, was a Field Lithuanian Commander in 1780 to 1791, Great Lithuanian Treasurer from 1791, Great Lithuanian Marshal in 1793; he married Konstancja Poniatowska, the daughter of Prince Kazimierz Poniatowski, in Warsaw in 1775. Their daughter Anna married Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki.

Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was a Polish politician. He was the senator of the Polish Kingdom in 1824 and chamberlain of Napoleon I.
He married Anna Tyszkiewicz (with whom he had August; Maurycy [Maurycy Eustachy Ludwik Potocki b. 1812 - died in 1879 in Krzeszowice or in Paris in 1880, the landowner of BEREZYNA] and Natalia Potocka).
In 1823 he entered into a marriage with Izabella Mostowska, with whom he had Stanislaw Potocki junior. Count Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was involved in a romance with a widow, Aleksandra Stokowska.
In 1802 was made a Knight of Malta.

Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was the son of the third Prime Minister of Poland, Count Stanislaw Kostka Potocki, the FREEMASON, and his wife Aleksandra Lubomirska. Stanislaw Kostka Potocki was the son of General Eustachy Potocki and Anna Katska, and was a brother of Ignacy Potocki.
Eustachy Potocki b. 1720 and died in 1768 in Radzyn Podlaski.
EUSTACHY was a grandson of Feliks Kazimierz POTOCKI,
and the son of Jerzy Potocki (died in 1747).

Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki b. 1778

{the husband of Anna Maria Ewa Apolonia TYSZKIEWICZ, Dunin-Wasowicz [the daughter of Ludwik Tyszkiewicz b. 1748 in WILNO - the owner of Poloziny in the IHUMEN county and BEREZYNA - LUBOSZANY in 1793 after Sapieha] and Izabella Potocka MOSTOWSKA [her son Stanislaw Potocki Count, ca 1824 - 1887]. Partner of Aleksandra Stokowska}.

We back to
Krystyna Potocka of LUBUSZANY, ZATOR and Krzeszowice.
Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz, Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of LUBUSZANY / Luboshany. But Maurycy Stanislaw Potocki (1894 - 1949) was the owner of BEREZYNA. Krystyna was the wife of ANDRZEJ POTOCKI.
Her father was
Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN.

Below the branch of
Krystyna Tyszkiewicz-Lohojska of LUBUSZANY, 1866-1952, m. Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki, the Galicja governor - born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861.

Maciej Soltyk 1720-1780, Salomea Nakwaska 1728-1778, Aleksander Michal Pawel Sapieha 1730-1793, Agnieszka Magdalena Anna Lubomirska both were the grandparents of Konstancja Soltyk.
The parents of named Konstancja SOLTYK: Stanislaw Soltyk 1752-1833 and Karolina Sapieha, 1759-1814.

Konstancja Soltyk 1794-1836 m. Ludwik Anastazy Stanislaw Lempicki, senator, 1791-1871,
with
great-grandson:
Edward Cezar Marian Broel-Plater, 1871-1958 who married in 1900, Waka, to Janina Tyszkiewicz-Lohojska, 1877-1928, the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz, 1831-1892 + Iza Hortensja Adelajda Tyszkiewicz.

Above JANINA:
parents - Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz 1831-1892 Iza Hortensja Adelajda Tyszkiewicz, 1836-1907.
Mentioned
Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz
had also the oldest daughter
Krystyna Tyszkiewicz the owner of LUBUSZANY, 1866-1952, m. Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki, the Galicja governor. Andrzej Potocki / Andrzej Kazimierz Potocki born in KRZESZOWICE in 1861, died in LWOW, the owner of Krzeszowice, the orderly officer of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria. Andrzej's wife KRYSTYNA Tyszkiewicz Potocka, 1866-1952, was the owner of ZATOR, ca 1908/1909, and ca 1887/1890 {?} of LUBOSZANY / Lubuszany - 13 km to MIEZONKA - ANDRZEJ was the grandson of Artur Potocki 1787-1832, the TEMPLAR; the great-grandson of Jan Nepomucen Potocki.
Andrzej's daughter was
Katarzyna Iza Maria Potocka 1890-1977, married Leon Aleksander Adam Sapieha, 1883-1944,
the son of
Wladyslaw Leon Adam Sapieha 1853-1920,
the great-grandson of
Leon Sapieha, 1802-1878,
who was the great-grandson of
Ignacy Józef Piotr Sapieha 1702-1758; Józef Aleksander Jablonowski 1711-1777; Michal Zdzislaw Saryusz Zamoyski 1679-1735; Stanislaw Kostka Czartoryski 1700-1766; Anna Krasicka, 1707-1758; Karolina Teresa Pia Radziwill 1707-1765; Anna Teresa Dzialynska; Anna Józefa Rybinska.

Above IGNACY SAPIEHA:
Ignacy Józef Piotr Sapieha 1702-1758
the son of
Wladyslaw Jozafat Sapieha b. 1652 in Kossow / Kosow Poleski, d. 1733, the Brzesc Litewski governor and of MINSK;
the grandson of
Krzysztof Franciszek Sapieha b. 1623,
was the great-grandson of
Fryderyk Sapieha b. bef. 1599, the MSCISLAV governor;
The great-great-grandson of
Mikolaj Michajlowicz Sapieha b. ca 1560, MP. The great-grandson of Bohdan Sapieha, b. ca 1470; Bohdan Semenowicz Sapieha was the brother of Iwan.
Semen b. ca 1440. Semen Sopiha came from Sunigajlo.


Aleksander Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1775, was the great-grandson of Jerzy Stanislaw Sapieha, 1668-1732

[the Mscislaw governor in 1732, with the son Antoni Kazimierz Sapieha, 1689 - 1739 in Dereczyn, in 1734 jailed by Russians. And the daughter of named Jerzy Stanislaw:
Benedykta Sapieha d. 1724, m. 1716 to Jerzy Tyszkiewicz died in 1735,
with the son - Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1717-1790.
Jozef married twice:
1736 to Benedykta Oginska the daughter of Marcin Michal Oginski 1672-1750;
2nd to Anna Pociej, 1720-1783, the daughter of Aleksander Pociej d. 1770,
with 2 sons:
Aleksander Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1775, and
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army, d. 1808
with daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776-1867 {see below !}],

who was the son of Kazimierz Jan Pawel Sapieha + Krystyna Hlebowicz,
and was grandson of Pawel Jan Sapieha (1609-1665), the owner of Luboszany and Berezyna / Berezino.

Aleksander's brother was Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1808 {see above !}, who married Dss Konstancja Poniatowska, the owner of BEREZYNO-LUBOSZANY, 1759-1830, the daughter of Kazimierz Jakub Poniatowski 1721-1800; with daughter
Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1779-1867, the owner of BEREZYNO-Luboszany + Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845 [Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was the son of the third Prime Minister of Poland, Count Stanislaw Kostka Potocki, the FREEMASON, and his wife Aleksandra Lubomirska. Stanislaw Kostka Potocki was the son of General Eustachy Potocki and Anna Katska, and was a brother of Ignacy Potocki],
with the son August Aleksander Potocki, 1805-1867 + Aleksandra Julia Potocka, 1818-1892.


In 1784, the King Stanislaw August Poniatowski, who left Grodno, with Bishop Adam Naruszewicz, arrived at Sapieha's Rózana

{ROZANA was owned by Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA - compare above on SOLTYK - b. 1730 in Wysokie - died in 1793 in Warsaw. A protegee of Józef Stanislaw Sapieha [Józef Stanislaw Sapieha - the son of Aleksander Pawel SAPIEHA, and Maria Krystyna de Bethune, daughter of Franciszek Gaston de Bethune, niece of queen Maria Kazimiera. The brother of Kazimierz Leon Sapieha and Michal Antoni Sapieha], b. 1708 in Gdansk [Stanislaw Leszczynski was the godfather of Józef Stanislaw Sapieha]

[Józef Stanislaw Sapieha taken care on Aleksander Michal SAPIEHA in 1738/1740; Bishop Jozef Stanislaw Sapieha send Aleksander Michal Sapieha to LUBARTOW to school. In 1754 under care of uncle Michal Antoni Sapieha. Aleksander supported Adam Chmara / Adam Michal Chmara born in 1720, the governor of MINSK, in 1784 until 1793.

Aleksander MICHAL Sapieha owned in 1740-1754 Punsk; Mscibow in 1759; Olsztyn close to LELOW ca 1773; Wysokie close to Brzesc Litewski; Druja in the BRASLAW county; Wiazyn in Volhynia; ZELWA close to Wolkowysk, and a part of Dubrovna in the Orsha county until 1781/1783; since 1766 after the brother MICHAL Sapieha, took the estates of Michal Antoni Sapieha d. 1760 - Stary Bychow, Nowy Bychow + Bakalabowce, DOBOSNA in the Rzeczyca county; Dereczyn and Ostrow in the Slonim county; HOLYNKA in the Orsha county, Czerlona, Lawno and Lunne Wola in the Grodno county; ROZANA in the Slonim county; with his wife he had also Mniszew in the Czersk district; and the palace in Warsaw; Sielec ?].

BEREZYNA - ca 1550 belonged to the Sapieha family, in the Ihumen county. In 1633/1641 the Duke Kazimierz Leon Sapieha b. 1609 in BRZESC LITEWSKI, d. 1656, built a wooden Catholic Church [Kazimierz Leon Sapieha in Bereza Kartuska founded the convent in 1648]. Kazimierz Leon Sapieha was the son of Lew Sapieha [see below !]. Kazimierz was studied abroad. LEW Sapieha in 1617 met Polish King Wladyslaw Waza in ROZANA.

Kazimierz's brother was Krzysztof Mikolaj Sapieha b. 1607; and the half-brother was Jan Stanislaw Sapieha b. 1589. Berezyno in 1793 incorporated into Russia. Berezyna belonged to the LUBOSZANY / Libushany estate.

By Wikipedia: "Sapieha owned the town until partition took place in 1793, and Berezino was granted by Empress Ekaterina II to Count Ludwik Tyszkiewicz. From him, the Berezino estate went to his daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz (married 1st time Potocka, 2nd time Wasowicz.) Anna Tyszkiewicz-Potocka-Wasowicz ... built the Palace well before 1850. She was starting a carpet factory in Horenichi village, but the investment didn't survive for long. The town was under French/Polish command in 1812. ... The town was in Potocki ... family possession well until June 1920... Last owner of Berezino was Count Antoni Ludwik Potocki."

Brief note on Lew Sapieha, b. 1557 in Ostrowna, the Great Secretary of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1580, Great Clerk of the Grand Duchy in 1581, Court Chancellor in 1585, Grand Chancellor from 1589 until 1623. LEW died in 1633 in Wilno. His children: Katarzyna Sapieha, Krzysztof Sapieha, Jan Stanislaw Sapieha, Andrzej Sapieha; Anna Sapieha, Krzysztof Michal Sapieha, Kazimierz Leon Sapieha. LEW was the son of Iwan Sapieha died ca 1580 + Bohdana Drucka Konopka [IWAN had also a son HREHORY. Iwan junior was the son of Iwan Sapieha SENIOR, b. 1486, d. ca 1546 + Teodora Drucka Babicz d. 1519 - see below !].

Named above Pawel Jan Sapieha (1609-1665), was the son Jan Piotr Sapieha (1569 in BYCHOW - 1611 in MOSCOW), the grandson of Pawel Sapieha (the KIEV governor; b. 1546 - died in 1580), and the great-grandson of IWAN SAPIEHA + HANNA SANGUSZKO [Iwan Bohdanowicz Sapieha SENIOR, b. 1486, d. ca 1546, had 2 sons: PAWEL and IWAN junior - see above !].

Aleksander's daughter - ANNA SANGUSZKO; but you remember on Anna Katarzyna Sanguszko Radziwill, b. 1676, the daughter of Hieronim Sanguszko and Konstancja Sapieha Sanguszko.

Hanna Teofila Potocka-Sanguszko-Kowelska Sapieha b. 1758 the daughter of Duke Aleksander Michal Pawel Sapieha b. 1730. Hanna = Anna SAPIEHA b. 1758. d. 1813 - was the wife of Seweryn Potocki, and Duke Hieronim Janusz Sanguszko, with children: Julia Caboga; Leon Potocki, and Paulina Lubienska. Hanna / Anna was the sister of Kazimierz Michal Sapieha; Karolina Soltyk; Maria Katarzyna Sapieha; Amelia Emilia Jelska; Adam Romuald Sapieha. Hanna = Anna SAPIEHA b. 1758. d. 1813 was the half sister of Nil Sapieha, Konstancja ZWAN and Michal Cichocki, General, 1770 - 1828. Michal Mikolaj Cichocki was a member of the Masonic lodge, the Slavic Unity.

Aleksander Sapieha became the governor of Plock in 1753; the son of Kazimierz Leon Sapieha and Karolina Teresa PIA Radziwill. He married Magdalena Agnieszka Sapieha in 1756. She was known as the mistress of king Stanislaw August Poniatowski and had the son with him, Michal Cichocki, in 1770. Magdalena Agnieszka Lubomirska Sapieha also was lover of the son of Henryk Brühl - Alojzy BRUHL.

Kazimierz Leon Karol Sapieha, b. 1697 in Warsaw; d. 1738 in WSCHOWA, the son of Aleksander Pawel Sapieha born in Warsaw in 1672, the grandson of Kazimierz Jan Sapieha b. 1637/1742, Duke in 1700, commanded the Lithuanian Army},

greeted by
Paradowski,
Lady Bystrzyna [Bystrzanowska ?]

{Ms Bystrzanowska ? - b. ca 1730/1740. Note on Bystrzanowski:
Karol Bystrzanowski Szafraniec, the Checiny official; born ca 1692 or ca 1700/1710-1752 and Apolonia Misiowska.
KAROL's children:
1. Kajetan Bystrzanowski the official of Podole (1760 - compare on Brody in Podole - Paszkowski), in Radom (1765); MP, Count in 1801, the Busk official (1785-1786), in Malogoszcz (1786-1795), in Piotrków (1761) and Radom (1784); 1730-1807 + Marianna Marcjanna Mlodzianowska; 2nd to Katarzyna Grodzicka.
2. Sebastian Bystrzanowski, of the Checiny (1774-1783) official; again in Checiny (1757 and 1765); 1730-1795 + Magdalena Soltyk [note - Kiedrzynski and Paszkowski].
3. Kamilia Bystrzanowski or Domicela Szafraniec-Bystrzonowska born ca 1730 / 1735; m. Michal Czarnocki; 2nd married to Feliks de Valois Skorupka. Her granddaughter [great-granddaughter ?] Anna / Antonila or Antonilia Czarnocka 2nd, died in Paris 1899 and she writes his wealth on the foundations of the Hotel Lambert in Paris.
4. Klemens Bystrzonowski, the Checiny official (1764), b. 1730 - 1774 + Antonila Czarnocka 1st, b. ca 1735 {maybe his unknown son after 1774 / 1776 in France and in August 1776 in USA ??}.
5. Michal Bystrzonowski at the Royal court (1761); b. 1740/1742-1798 + Katarzyna Borzyslawska b. ca 1730/1740 - with the son:
Kazimierz Szafraniec-Bystrzanowski, 1764-1840 [Freemason of the Lodge 'Przesad Zwyciezony'] married ca 1795/1796, Anna Russocka 1775/1780-1844 with:
Ludwik Tadeusz Bystrzanowski, 1797-1878 [Freemason of the Lodge 'Przesad Zwyciezony' (in 1818 ?)]; Liberata Bystrzanowska b. 1800; Kamila Szafraniec-Bystrzanowska b. ca 1800.

Karol Szafraniec-Bystrzanowski of Checiny, born ca 1692 or ca 1710-1752, + Apolonia Misiowska {Bystrzanowice - Sebastian Bystrzonowski shared the village with Sulewski / Sulejowski. Sebastian Bystrzanowski b. ca 1730, d. 1795 - was the son of Karol Bystrzanowski the official in Checiny, 1692/1710-1752 + Apolonia Misiowska} b. ca 1712.
Karol Bystrzanowski Szafraniec, the Checiny official; born ca 1692 or b. ca 1700/1710-1752, the owner of BEBELNO, and Wegleszyn. He had a brothers:
Antoni Bystrzanowski, and Jozef died 1717.
Named Antoni Bystrzanowski was born ca 1691; the Checiny official in 1736-1746; died 1754, the owner of Wegleszyn, Rembiechow, Debiny; married Katarzyna Kochowska, with children:
Pawel Bystrzanowski b. ca 1725; Jan Bystrzanowski b. ca 1730/1740 [we know on Jan Bystrzanowski, the Mscislaw official ca 1790]; Mikolaj Bystrzanowski born ca 1740; Katarzyna Rozycka; Anna Gawlikowska.

Above Karol Bystrzanowski, Jozef Bystrzanowski, and Antoni Bystrzanowski were the sons of JAN Bystrzanowski, b. ca 1660. Jan Bystrzanowski married Helena Grabkowska. They owned Ostrow close to Checiny. Since 1703 they were owners of Wegleszyn [until 1861 to Bystrzanowski] close to Checiny. Jan Bystrzanowski, junior, come from Jan Bystrzanowski senior, born ca 1600/1620, m. Zofia Maj.
Jan Bystrzanowski b. ca 1660, had a brother Aleksander Bystrzanowski b. ca 1640.
Aleksander Bystrzanowski senior had a son Aleksander Bystrzanowski junior, b. ca 1680, m. Barbara Opocka, with the son: Pawel Bystrzanowski b. 1720 - d. 1783.
Pawel Bystrzanowski was the Czernichow official and he owned Dzbany, and Przyborowice / Przeborowice - south-west to Opatow. Pawel's brothers:
Wojciech Bystrzanowski; Jozef Bystrzanowski, Lieutenant Jan Bystrzanowski - inf. in 1782 in Radom, m. Mlodzianowska.
Pawel's [+ Agnieszka Grzymala] sons:
1. Franciszek Bystrzanowski b. 1750, d. 1815 in Sedziszow; 2. Stefan Bystrzanowski b. ca 1752, d. 1808; 3. Stanislaw Bystrzanowski b. ca 1754, the official in WISLICA in 1792 + Wiktoria LUBANSKA.
Above Franciszek Bystrzanowski:
owner of Lowina / Lownia [Lowina], and the official in Checiny in 1769 until 1810; m. Joanna Laskowska in 1775 in Zlotniki, with 3 or 4 daughters:
Katarzyna Fink, Komornicka; Anna Starowieyska, Witkowska; Joanna; Aleksandra Zrebicka;
and above Franciszek's sons:
1. Izydor Bystrzanowski b. after 1777, the owner of Lownia [Lowina / Lowinia, close to Jedrzejow and south to Naglowice; and north-east to Sedziszow - east to Szczekociny and Lelow] since 1807 + Ludwika LINOWSKA with a daughter Xawera / Ksawera Bystrzanowska, born 1808;
2. Maksymilian Bystrzanowski in WEGRZYNOW [13 km north to Strawczyn, and north-west to Kielce] - inf. in 1837 in the Polish Kingdom + Magdalena KONARSKA [Maksymilian Bystrzonowski and Magdalena Konarska, in Kraków; they came from the Lowina estate close to Sedziszów]}

with her son in low, Niepokojczycki;
also with Chmara [Aleksander Michal Sapieha supported ADAM CHMARA for the offices. Below more of different Chmara],
and Grabowski, the head of the Lithuanian Guard;
Lady Puzyna; Ms Slizien;
Polubinska, of Slonim;
Koscina; and Bychowiec;
inviting to the palace by
Ladies Ober; Niepokojczycka; Grabowska, Wolkowa.

Rózana 28 km north-west to Kosow Poleski; and
Mereczowszczyzna - 3 km north-west to KOSOW POLESKI / Kossow!
25 km to Rozana !
Named
Adam Michal Chmara
born in 1720, died 1805, the governor of Minsk (1784-1793), in 1779, the member of the Perpetual Council, marshal of the Grand Court of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, member of the Targowica Confederation, in 1792.

Mentioned above
Regiment of the Horse Guards of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania:
Stanislaw Ignacy Radziwill, general lieutenant, chamberlain (1759-1764);
Major General Michal Grabowski (1765-1786);
General Major Mikolaj Radziwill (1786-1790).

Above Niepokojczycka, the wife of foreman.

Bystrzynski came from Poznan. In KOBYLIN, 7 km south-east to CZELUSCIN, south-east to Gostyn; west to Krotoszyn at way to RAWICZ: Stanislaw Bystrzynski b. ca 1850, the son of Antoni Bystrzynski and Elzbieta.


The Grabowski - Kosciuszko branch:

Elzbieta Grabowska b. 1748 or 1749, d. 1810 in Warsaw, the daughter of Teodor Kajetan Szydlowski the official in PLOCK, and Teresa Witkowska.
Elzbieta married Jan Jerzy Grabowski (d. 1789) with:
Michal Grabowski, Aleksandra Grabowska, Kazimierz Grabowski.

Elzbieta married 2nd Stanislaw August Poniatowski, with:
Kazimierz Grabowski,
Stanislaw Grabowski [see below],
Izabela Grabowska.
Elzbieta Grabowska nee Szydlowska m. Jan Jerzy Grabowski (b. ca 1730, died in 1789 or in 1784) and had children:
1.
Stanislaw Grabowski, b. 1780, Warszawa, d. 1845, Warszawa, Secretary of the Council of State and Ministers Council of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, married Cecylia Dembowska, the daughter of
Józef Dembowski + Julia Zabiello.
2.
Izabela Grabowska b. ca 1770 - 1856, m. Walenty Faustyn Sobolewski;
3.
Konstancja Grabowska, m. Wincenty Doria-Dernalowicz;
4.
Michal Grabowski, 1773 - 1812.

Jan Jerzy Grabowski born ca 1730 at Lithuania, died 1789, Lieutenant General of the Crown Army, general inspector of Lithuania;
Calvinist (Reformed Evangelist), in 1767 he became the marshal of the dissident SLUCK confederation under the patronage of Russia
[compare Jerzy Wilhelm von Goltz (vel Golcz) b. in Golczewo, d. 1767, the General Lieutenant in 1760, General major in 1750, the Torun marshal of Protestant confederation in 1767, the official in Tuchola].
In 1769, Jan Jerzy Grabowski married Elzbieta Szydlowska. Most of the children from this relationship were really children of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski and they were brought up to Catholics. One of them was Stanislaw Grabowski.
Jan Jerzy was the son of Stefan Grabowski, b. ca 1680/1700, died in 1756 and Teodora STRYJENSKA Grabowska.
The grandson of
Krystian Krzysztof Jerzy Grabowski b. ca 1640, d. in 1711 [see below], the official in BRZESC LITEWSKI in 1693, married to Katarzyna OBORSKA.
The great-grandson of
Jan Grabowski - Calvinist - b. ca 1620, d. ?

Compare:
Wiktoria Grabowska + Faustyn Benedykt "Siechnowicki" Kosciuszko, the official in Brzesc Litewski in 1746, born ca 1670 ? His father -
Aleksander Jan Kosciuszko (the great-grandfather of General Tadeusz Kosciuszko) the first Catholic in the family. Aleksander Jan Kosciuszko (1629-1711) was the judge in the Brzesc Litewski province.

Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko Siechnowiecki 1667 - ca 1720/1723, was the son of named Aleksander Jan Kosciuszko Siechnowiecki. Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko - the owner of Siechnowicze and the judge of the Brzesc Litewski province; Ambrozy's uncle - Chryzostom Kosciuszko, who in 1669 managed of Kobryn. Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko - the grandfather of Tadeusz - had 3 brothers.
Ludwik Tadeusz Kosciuszko (1700-1758), was the son of named Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko. Ludwik took Mereczowszczyzna close to Kosow Poleski.
Ludwik Kosciuszko had the son Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kosciuszko.

Wiktoria Grabowska b. ca 1690, was the daughter of
Krystian Jerzy Grabowski d. 1711 + Katarzyna Oborska. Krystian Krzysztof Jerzy Grabowski b. ca 1640, d. in 1711, the official in BRZESC LITEWSKI in 1693. Krystyan Grabowski was the son of Jan Grabowski.
Wiktoria's brother was Stefan Grabowski, b. ca 1680/1700, died in 1756, m. Teodora STRYJENSKA. Jan Jerzy was the son of Stefan Grabowski.
Wiktoria had a second brother Józef Grabowski who had
great-great-granddaughter Teodozja Grabowska + Aleksander Oskierka.

Wiktoria's Grabowska Kosciuszko son - Jan Nepomucen Kosciuszko Siechnowiecki born 1720.


Brief note:
1. Sniadecki knew Benedykt Niepokójczycki well.
2.
SOSNOWICA:
close to PIESZOWOLA, Wytyczno, LIBISZOW, and Parczew.

In the first half of the 19th century, the lands near Sosnowica belonged to the large landowners and the clergy. In 1822, it belonged to Józef Sosnowski. They come from Kruszewo near Choroszcz, west to Bialystok

[Wlodzimierz Karol Józef Sosnowski, 1822-1888, had a son Wlodzimierz married Amelia Maria Romana Dembinska the great-granddaughter of Ignacy Dembinski 1753-1799; Ignacy Aleksy Jakub Dembinski 1766-1829; and
Duke Antoni Pawel Sulkowski, 1785-1836 who was born in 1785 - Leszno, died in 1836 - Rydzyna. Duke Antoni was the grandson of Duke Aleksander Józef Sulkowski, 1695-1762 in RYDZYNA
- he bought LESZNO in 1738, and in 1752 also BIELSK in Silesia].

Józef Sylwester Sosnowski d. 1783, was the owner of SOSNOWICA, after his father MARCIN; Rokitno and Przegaliny in the Brzesc Litewski province.
Near to Marcin Radziwill of KLECK and to Bartlomiej Stecki, Maltese bachelor, in 1765 of Stwolowicze [1737 Jozef was in Wschowa; acted with the Poniatowskis of Wolczyn].
JOZEF married in 1741 in DAUKSZE to Tekla Zenowicz / Despot Zenowicz, with the daughters,
Katarzyna PLATER
and Ludwika + JOZEF LUBOMIRSKI.
Ludwika - Tadeusz Kosciuszko fell in love with her, unsuccessfully because of her father's opposition, in 1774.

Józef Sosnowski bought Sosnowica in 1802 from his cousin of the same name and surname as he.

Józef Sylwester Sosnowski born 1729, had 2 daughters: Katarzyna Sosnowski Plater; and Ludwika Sosnowski.

Józef Sosnowski died 1823 and Sosnowica was acquired by his children: Tekla b. 1801, Joanna born 1804, and Stanislaw Stefan Sosnowski b. 1805.
In 1824 Tekla Sosnowska sells her part, to her future husband, Jan Niepokójczycki [b. ca 1790/1800], maybe the family of Adam Niepokojczycki [Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780 - Niepokojczycki Adam, of the Wilno government; the member of 'Orzel Bialy' Masonic Lodge. Compare also: Niepokojczycki Michal the SLUCK judge, the 'Szczesliwe Oswobodzenie' Lodge; and Niepokojczycki Wincenty the member of 'Swiatynia Izis'].

In 1827, Pieszowola was bought by Wojciech Weglinski. 1832 -
the division of the property between Jan Niepokójczycki [b. ca 1790/1800], Joanna Sosnowski Skarszewska and Stanislaw Sosnowski. As a result, Sosnowica's land estates, took the last one.
1871, Stanislaw Sosnowski died and Sosnowica was inherited by daughters of Tekla NIEPOKOJCZYCKA: Waleria and Sabina Niepokójczycki.
1892, they sold Sosnowica to Alfons Libiszowski.
Waleria was living in the Sosnowica manor.
1894 - Teodor Libiszowski, son of Alfons.
Sosnowica village and Turno, in 1832 took Jan Niepokójczycki. Then to Antoni Zembrzuski husband of named Sabina Niepokójczycki.
1888 Turno belonged to Ksawery Bielski.
Jan Niepokójczycki was a brother of ADAM ?

Note to Tadeusz Kosciuszko in Sosnowica:

"I see him OFTEN, ... He is as pure a son of liberty, as I have ever known, ... and of that liberty which is to go to all, and not to the few or rich alone. Thus did Thomas Jefferson describe his new-found friend General Kosciuszko in 1798. Kosciuszko had left his native Poland in 1776 to join the American patriots ... Jefferson had scarcely known him then, but when he returned to his adopted fatherland for a second time in 1797 the two men became close friends and saw each other, for a time, almost daily.

Kosciuszko travelled in 1796 / 1797 from Russia to Sweden with his secretary J. U. Niemcewicz and with cheerful officer, Libiszewski who often had to carry the General

[Libiszowski / Libiszewski willingly performed this service. In Sweden, Kosciuszko was listening to Libiszewski playing the guitar at his bedside and to a concert organised in his honour by the best musicians; in Philadelphia was a musician in orchestra. He died - still young - of fever in Cuba. In 1892 the Sosnowski manor from Waleria Niepokójczycki, bought Alfons Libiszowski. In Libiszow is the Libiszowski manor, 'Rybakówka'; Libiszow is situated 5 km west of Sosnowica; east of Ostrow Lubelski].

The American newspapers followed with interest his triumphal fourney through Sweden and England. At Gothenburg, the principal inhabitants turned out to greet the Polish hero ... In London, the leaders, including Fox, Wilberforce, and Sheridan, waited on him. The members of the Whig Club had their president, General Banastre Tarleton, the former dashing cavalry commander who almost captured Jefferson during the American Revolution, present a sword worth 200 guineas to Kosciuszko as a public testimony of their sense of his exalted virtues and of his gallant, generous, and exemplary efforts to defend and save his country. Rufus King, the American Minister to Britain, arranged his passage to the United States. At Bristol, where the citizens presented him with a magnificent mahogany case of silver plate weighing more than 216 ounces, each piece inscribed "The Friends of Liberty in Bristol to the Gallant Kosciuszko", the General stayed in the home of the American Consul. ... Kosciuszko arrived at Philadelphia in August, 1797. ...

Niepokojczyce by the Muchawiec river - Rayski Edward; close to JAMNO and Zabinka, near Brzesc.
Zygmunt Rayski b. 1917, of Niepokojczyce.


Ostashevo (until 1861 - Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo)
is a fragmentary preserved estate on the left bank of the Ruza reservoir, 21 km from the Volokolamsk suburb near Moscow.
Ostashevo, a small village, 140 kilometers to Moscow.

The grandson of Nicholas I, Konstantin Romanov, received this estate in 1903.
The previous owner, Nikolai Shipov, was one of the greatest agricultural innovators of his era. In 1854 he bought 200 cows, hired a specialist from Switzerland and established a cheese factory at Ostashevo [FRAUCHI ?].

The Ostashevo estate was owned by

1.
an energetic entrepreneur A. V. URUSOV [N. D. Urusov in KOTOVKA];

2.
MURAVIEV

[in the early 1820s young Prince Valentin Shakhovskoy, a pupil at the famous cavalry school in Moscow run by Nikolai Muraviev of nearby Ostashevo, became involved in the DECEMBRISTS movement. A sister of named WALENTY SZACHOWSKI married the leading Decembrist, Alexander Muraviev of Ostashevo];

3.
Artur A. Nepokojchitsky / Artur Niepokojczycki owned the estate Ostashevo [ca 1840 - 1854]. Until 1861 it was called Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo; Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky was born in Slutsk [or in Niepokojczyce close to Zabianka and to Brzesc] in the family of Adam Niepokojczycki [von Unruh], the district leader of the nobility, on December 8, 1813, when the war with Napoleon rattled.

4.
N. P. Shipov since 1854 or before

[Nikolai P. Shipov, to 1903 {b. ca 1830 ?}. Nikolai Shipov, JUNIOR, the son of PAVEL SHIPOV, junior, was one of the greatest agricultural innovators. Nikolai Smirnov, P., and Nikolai Shipov traveled together. PAVEL junior b. ca 1795/1800 had a brother,
Sergei Shipov b. 1790.

In 1813 until 1844, the serf entrepreneur Nikolai Shipov SENIOR roamed the Russian Empire. Aleksey Feofilaktovich Pisemsky b. 1821, a Russian novelist and dramatist, was born at his father's Ramenye estate in the Chukhloma province of Kostroma. His parents were retired colonel Feofilakt Gavrilovich Pisemsky and his wife Yevdokiya Shipov.

Nikolai's junior brother was Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919) was an Imperial Russian Politician. Ivan Pavlovich Shipov after graduating from the Imperial Alexander Lyceum, entered the Ministry of Finance. He rose to the position of Assistant Director of the Special Credit Office, and was eventually Director of the General Office (Ministerial Chancellery).
In addition, Ivan Pavlovich Shipov served on the Board of the State Bank in 1902-1905. In 1905, he was appointed Minister of Finance during the Witte government. In 1906, he left that position when Witte resigned, due in part to his long association with Witte. He was executed by the Bolsheviks in 1919.
Compare:
Nikolai Shipov junior had a son Dmitry Shipov, b. 1851.
DMITRY was the founder of the All-Zemstvo Organization, which was banned shortly after it was founded in 1896. He was elected chairman in the first Zemstvo Assembly from 6-9 November 1904 during the Zemstvo Congress. Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Sviatopolk-Mirsky gave permission for their assembly. Alexander Guchkov and Dmitry Shipov refused to work with the reactionary. "... Witte was in October 1905, charged with the task of assembling the nation's first cabinet government, and he offered the liberals several portfolios (Ministry of Agriculture to Shipov; Ministry of Trade and Industry to Guchkov; Ministry of Justice to Koni; Ministry of Education to Trubetskoy; Milyukov and Lvov were also offered ministerial posts). None of these liberals agreed to join the government...".

Most remarkable of the Shipovs was Sergei Pavlovich Shipov (1790-1876), that is SERGEI the son of PAVEL senior born ca 1760.
PAVEL junior b. ca 1795/1800 had a brother, Sergei Shipov b. 1790.

Nikolai's junior [b. ca 1830] brother was Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919).

Sergei Shipov, b. in 1790, was descended from a well-to-do gentry family in Kostroma province. In 1832 he served Ministry of War. 1841 - 1846 the governor of KAZAN - compare DEMONSI and Wasyl Konstantynowicz + Breguet in KAZAN + V. A. KOKOREV in KAZAN ca 1843 {1844 tax reform note on farms; near LIKHACHEV before 1844; 1843-1844 he had two farms close to Kazan}.

SERGEI born 1790, had youngers brothers
[the textile manufacturing - see also ARMAND:
DMITRII P. Shipov - a governor;
and Pavel born ca 1795/1800;
and maybe the serf entrepreneur Nikolai Shipov SENIOR roamed the Russian Empire in 1813 until 1844].

Nikolai P. Shipov owned to 1903 the Ostashevo estate (his son Dmitry Nikolaevich Shipov b. on 14 May 1851 - d. 14 January 1920). His brother Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919) was an Imperial Russian Politician.
Mentioned Dmitry Nikolaevich Shipov (14 May 1851 - 14 January 1920) was a Russian liberal Slavophile politician of the 19th and 20th century. Shipov acted as a political mentor of Georgy Lvov, Russia's future first Prime Minister.
see:
Karl Wilhelm also known as Karl Vasilievitj Hagelin was born in St. Petersburg in 1860. His parents Wilhelm Hagelin (1828-1901) and Anna Lovisa Eriksdotter (1818–1870) ... In 1861, the family moved to the Volga where his father worked for a period as a second engineer on passenger boats and towboats. ... In autumn 1870, he started at the Givochini boarding school in Nizhny Novgorod ...
In 1875, thanks to a recommendation from family friend A. I. Sandström, he was accepted into the design workshop at the shipbuilding factory belonging to D. P. Shipov in Kostroma. He received his first real assignment working on the designs for a motorboat, ... and two smaller steamers
... he was employed as a mechanic at the Kaukaz & Mercury shipping company in Astrakhan, where he worked on preparing boats ... he met two Swedes, N. Qvarnström and master mechanic Westvall, with whose recommendation he was able to secure employment as a mechanic in the instrument workshop at the Nobel paraffin factory in Baku. Hagelin’s first working day at Robert Nobel's factory was on 4 April 1879. ... During his initial period in Baku (1879- 1883), Wilhelm ... assisted chemist E. Tell ... When engineer Alfred Törnqvist returned from his trip to the USA and started setting up a new paraffin factory, Hagelin was given a job as a draughtsman. ... he decided to apply to the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. In order to pass the entrance exams, he took private lessons from engineer A. B. Lambert in mathematics, physics and chemistry. After two years in Sweden, he wrote to Branobel's managing director, J.G. Crusell, explaining his desire to return to Russia and take up his position again. ...

Ludvig Nobel invited Hagelin to St. Petersburg. Wilhelm was given a post in the technical laboratory where he experimented with chemical processes for production of light oil fractions. ... In 1891, he was first promoted to technical director and then office manager in Baku. ... In 1900, he was recalled to St. Petersburg to replace M. J. Belyamin as the company's chairman of the board ... In 1906, he was appointed Swedish consul general in St. Petersburg (1906-1911). ... In spring 1917, Hagelin travelled to Baku, continuing onboard the K.W. Hagelin motorboat to Astrakhan ... Wilhelm left Russia and spent a year abroad, but in July 1918 he was back for a shorter visit ... The remaining directors M. Belyamin, G. Nobel and A. Belonozhkin tried at numerous meetings to solve the burning issue of how the company's trading rights and authority could be protected. Hagelin's last attempt to enter Russia via Constantinople failed and on 3 July 1920 he was forced to return to Stockholm. ...

he, together with Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, joined the Aktiebolaget Cryptograph company under the management of Arvid Gerhard Damm (where Wilhelm's son, Boris Hagelin, also worked for a time)].

5.
K. K. ROMANOV in 1903 until 1915

[Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia, born 1858 in Strelna - d. 1915 in Pavlovsk, was a grandson of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia; a poet and playwright. He wrote under the pen name "K.R.", initials of his given name and family name, Konstantin Romanov.
Konstantin Romanov / Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich was the son of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich of Russia.

Konstantin Nikolaevich had a brothers:
1.
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, 1831 - 25 April 1891, as a Field Marshal he commanded the Russian army of the Danube in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878 [see General ARTUR Niepokojczycki].
2.
And Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia (25 October 1832 - 18 December 1909), served 20 years (1862- 1882) as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi, the town which most of his children remembered as the home of their childhood];

6.
in 1915, a merchant and philanthropist A. G. Kuznetsov

[Aleksandr Gennad'evich Kuznetsov / Kuznetsov Aleksandr Genadjevich or Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov

- "...in Mansurovsky Lane in the heart of Moscow, architect Alexander Kuznetsov built himself a mansion with an entrance gate {in 1915} ... The house owner received guests: the famous Russian modernist architect Fyodor Shekhtel, and constructivist architect Konstantin Melnikov. After the revolution, Kuznetsov was found building a factory on the outskirts of the Soviet Union, and was jailed ... Russian tea merchant, Alexander Kuznetsov and Co, Moscow, had a factory in Hankou, China {see CEYLON !}, the offices in MOSCOW and IRKUTSK.
Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov,
was the tea magnate of Imperial Russia, named and purchased the 239 foot steam yacht 'Foros' in Scotland on the 9th June 1891. Designed by the Glasgow yacht architect Thomas Lennox Watson, Foros took the name from the southernmost Crimean resort made popular by Kuznetsov through the development of his estate there. Guest on board the yacht was in 1896 Grand Duke George Alexandrovich

{GEORGE died in 1899 in Abastumani, Georgia - was the third son of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Marie of Russia. Grandson of Emperor Alexander II and his first wife Marie of Hesse - a daughter of Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Wilhelmine of Baden. Marie of Hesse was the granddaughter of Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse, the great-granddaughter of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt / Ludwig IX von Hessen-Darmstadt, 1719 in Darmstadt - 1790 in Pirmasens (compare JOHANN STARCK in 1781 back to Darmstadt)}.

We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow. In 1840 acc. to Cosroe Dusi: "... May 30. This morning began the portrait of Countess Josephine Kalinovskaya / Jozefina Kalinowska ... 1840, June, the 27. This morning the family Branicki leaves with Countess Kalinovsky. They ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin / Plautyn and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. And Olga Kalynovska / Kalinowska goes away from court, to his native Poland, where she get married; Alexander agrees to marry Mary Hesse-Darmstadt...".

Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia
{Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia (25 October 1832 - 18 December 1909), served 20 years (1862-1882) as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi};

in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus; Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years; served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel. In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg, acc. to Wikipedia. In 1888, he had an affair with Princess Walewski; later, with Countess Catherine Nikolaevna Ignatieva daughter of Minister of Interior, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev.
In 1900, moved to Keele Hall, in Staffordshire, close to Newcastle-under-Lyme;
visitor of North Berwick in Scotland {east to Edynburg}, and
in the south of France, Cannes where he met his sister Anastasia and in 1903 his father, also brother Alexander and his family;
he moved with his family to Hampstead in 1909 and every year Grand Duke Michael would visit Edward VII at Windsor Castle, Sandringham and Buckingham Palace

{Edward VII born in 1841, the son of Victoria b. 1819, was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - she was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn [the TEMPLARS], the fourth son of King George III / George William Frederick, b. 1738. GEORGE III was the grandson of King George II}.

In 1912, Grand Duke Michael was with a visit in Russia. 1914 as an agent for Russian loans in France.
On 31 October 1916 he "...wrote to Tsar Nicholas II warning him that British secret agents in Russia were expecting a revolution".

And (by Wikipedia) "General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort, stated that Russian communist elements working against the Tsar had betrayed Kitchener's travel plans to Germany. He stated that Kitchener was killed 'because of his ability', as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover...".

Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia after November 1917 moved to Regent's Park. In 1916 his youngest daughter, Nadejda (Nada) married Prince George of Battenberg, eldest son of Prince Louis by Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Anastasia (Zia), the eldest daughter, in 1917 married Sir Harold Wernher. Michael Mikhailovich and his wife returned to Cannes in 1923, and died in 1929.

Note:
Johann August Starck / Stark (1741 - 1816)
- Immanuel Kant and Johann Georg Hamann were among his acquaintances in Königsberg. In 1776 went to Mitau [Courland; at margin see Komorowski] and took place here as professor of philosophy until 1781 when he back to Darmstadt.

1767 or 1768 - J. A. von Stark / STARCK has established a new sect, which grew out of Clirici Ordinis Templariorum / Clerics of the Knights Templar;
he was in 1761 initiated into a French freemasonry lodge at Göttingen but
left for St. Petersburg in 1761, while teaching in St. Petersburg, Starck had met a Greek by the name of Pyotr Ivanovich Melissinos = Count Peter Melesino / Melissino, 1726-97, a lieutenant-general in the Russian Imperial Army, and whose order of freemasonry claimed the clerics of the Templar Knights

{"... Melissinos arrived in Russia during the reign of Peter the Great and ended his career as Vice-President of the Commerce Collegium in 1740-45.
During the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774, Pyotr Melissino was in charge of the Russian artillery.
... In 1783, he was appointed Director of the Artillery and Engineering Corps in St. Petersburg. ... Melissino was instrumental in promoting the career of one of Paul's favourites, Aleksey Arakcheyev. His son Aleksey Melissino, a Major General, was killed in the Battle of Dresden (1813). His brother, Ivan Melissino, was Dean of the Moscow University under Catherine the Great. Starck had met a Greek by the name of Count Peter Melesino (or 'Melissino'; 1726-97), a lieutenant-general};

then traveled to Paris in 1765 and obtained a position at the royal library;
back to Germany, in Wismar (1766-8). Starck promoted the clerical brand of Templarism.

Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin, wife of Wilhelm Bacheracht, ex-wife of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse- Darmstadt;
sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Mentioned above Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin / Hutten-Czapski Alexandra b. 1854 / 1853 - d. 1941, the 1st husband Kolemin; then entered into a morganatic marriage with the Grand Duke of Hesse Ludwig IV b. 1837;

Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and other Royal Houses of Europe. Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany; his mother was the granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia. Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse- Darmstadt, the first son of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine b. 1809, and Princess Elisabeth of Prussia; CHARLES was the second surviving son of Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse. LOUIS II was the son of Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse and the grandson of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt born 1719; the great-grandson of a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl in 1862, married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
The couple had seven children, among others Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia b. 1864, and Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of All the Russias b. 1872.
Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage in 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska / Aleksandra Czapski Hutten b. 1854 in Warsaw, d. on 8 May 1941, in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland; she was the former wife of Aleksander Kolemin, the Russian charge d'affaires in Darmstadt; now the Countess von Romrod.

Alexandrine Bacheracht / Alexandrine Countess von Hutten-Czapska died in Vevey / Switzerland, close to La Tour de Peilz; 8 km noerth-west of Montreux (see: Duflon, Konstantynowicz); 18 km south-east of Lutry; 6 km north-west of Clarens!
Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska, Grafin Romrod, was the daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski, and Countess Mariane Rzewuska / Marianne von Rzewuska Grocholska / Maria Anna Katarzyna Hutten-Czapska nee Rzewuska b. 1827.

We back to mentioned above Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov:

During the First World War, the yacht of Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov served as a hospital ship before eventually being scrapped in 1927.

"In 1840 Alexei Semenovich Gubkin established the first tea-selling company in Kungur. Up until then tea had arrived in Russia in the form of large solid bricks. Gubkin was the first business owner to sell tea already weighed out in handy quantities and wrapped in colourful attractive packaging. In 1882 the firm's head office moved to Moscow. After Gubkin's death his nephew Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov took over at the helm. He renamed the company The Successor to Alexei Gubkin, A. Kuznetsov & Co {Kuznicow}. Over a period of fifteen years the company sold 300 million roubles' worth of tea and sugar and had branches not only throughout Russia, but also in China, India, Ceylon and London. By the beginning of the 20th century the firm controlled one third of the entire tea market in the Russian empire."
Copyright by bibelotslondon.co.uk.

"The largest firms in the pre-revolutionary Russian tea trade, were: C. S. Popoff & Co., Alexis Gubkin & Co., and Wissotsky & Co. At first, the Popoff company had the lion's share of the business, but Wissotsky & Co., a much younger firm, finally took away much of Popoff's trade. Alexis Gubkin & Co. became A. Kusnezow & Co. after Mr. Gubkin's death, with its head office at Moscow. Later, this concern became the Trading Company, and later still, The Asiatic Trading Corporation, Ltd., under British registry".

Asiatic Trading Corporation, Ltd:
in LONDON, and Thrissur, Kerala, India importers of tea, coffee, and cotton. "The Russian Society for Tea Trade Gubkin-Kuznetsov and Co founded a tea-packing factory called the Moscow Branch of the Society Karavan. Its yield was 1600000 pounds a year. It quickly became one of the major manufacturers of Russian- style blends. In the 1920s Karavan was renamed Lenin Moscow Tea-Packing Factory, which became the flagship of the Soviet tea industry. Russian Caravan Tea: produced the Chinese tea, blend of China black tea, notably with Keemun tea, is called Caravan since it was carried by camel back from China to the West].


OSTASHEVO and SHIPOV:

For the processing of dairy products obtained from 200 cows of improved northern breeds kept in the estate, a cheese factory was commissioned and assigned to a specialist invited from Switzerland. At the same time, Shipov undertook to rebuild the estate.
Compare!
Arthur Eugene Leonard Frauchi / Artour Khristianovitch Frautschi / Arthur Hristianovich Artuzov Frautschi / Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov b. 1891, Tver region.

Family of Christian Frautschi, came from Switzerland to Russia in 1881 and settled in the estate of Popov landowner, Apashkovo, Tver province, where his older brother Paul / Peter Frautschi, arrived in this region 1879, next in Yurino estate, manor Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putjatino, the village Davydkovo / Davydovo, 17 km north-west of Kashin, and north-east of Tver.

Cheesemaker was working in the estate
Mykolaivka, and
Christian Frautschi married Augusta Didrikil, Didrikil family was of mixed origin, the Latvian and Estonian, her grandfather was a Scot; after the wedding, the young family settled in the estate at Kashin County, Tver province. Leonti V. Dubbelt / von Dubelt was owner of the factory Kuvshinovo, Tver region.

Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi was born in the family of Swiss origin, but Italian nationality. His father Christian Frautschi came to Russia, where he was engaged in reindeer cheese; cheesemaker, a citizen of the Swiss Federation.
Mother Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938, had the Latvian and Estonian roots, and one of her grandfathers was a Scot;
her father Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik,
her mother Bertha Sterling / Esterling / Stirling / EASTERLING born 1835 d. 1891 -
her parents:
Edward Sterling / Edward Esterling / EASTERLING and
Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland.

"Augusta grandfather was from Scotland. Edward Sterling / Edward Esterling was in Russia during the War of 1812. He studied at Dorpat, worked as notary, married Latvian woman. One of his many daughters married Estonian - Didrikilya / Didrikil. In this family was born Augusta Avgustovna".

Hereditary cheesemaker Christian Frautschi came to Russia in search of a good steady income; took a fancy to the north-western province (Estonia), for cattle, and it took two or three years; Here Christians Frauchi married to one of the four sisters of the Didrikil family, of the Estonian, Latvian, Russian, Scottish and even French blood.

One of the sisters, Olga Avgustovna, married exiled Bolshevik Mikhail Kedrov
(Olga Avgustovna Didrikil - daughter of gamekeeper August Ivanovich Didrikil who served for many years to the Suvorov family, in Prozorovskaya (?) county).

In 1903 the whole family Frauchi / Frautschi moved to Novgorod province, where, moving from one estate to another, Arthur's father, together with his assistants was doing cheese. Estates - Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putyanin, Petrovskoe, Davydkina.

Nikolaj Wasiljewicz Wierieszczagin, born 1839 near the village of Piertowka or Pietrowka in the Czerepowiec district, Nowogrod province; a Russian representative of agricultural sciences, he was the elder brother of painter Vasily Viereshagin. At the Tver lands meetings, he applied for loans to farmers for dairy cooperatives and cheese makers; spring 1865 - according to the advice of the younger brother - he and his wife Tatiana Ivanovna started a trip to Switzerland and other countries, Germany, Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden. In these countries he observed the organization of milk, butter and cheese in the Swiss town of Coppet, near Geneva. At the heart of Freiburg, under the supervision of the masters, he learned the technology of oily cheeses. 1866, the first cooperative cheese factory in Russia in Otrokowicze; a model milk cattle farm was opened in Edimonów.

We back to
Arthur Adamovich Niepokojczycki, died in St. Petersburg on November 11, 1881, was buried at Volkovsky Lutheran Cemetery.
He graduated from the General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg. In the Russian army 1832-1881, the pacification of the peoples of the Caucasus, 1841-1845; Chief of Staff of the Army Corps during the revolution in Hungary 1849;
Chief of Staff of the Army (general lieutenant) during the Crimean War of 1854-1855.
Member of the Council of State (general of arms) and general adjutant of the Emperor.

The Niepokojczycki family was Calvinists.
Under the Radziwills - 1600, Zabludów bought Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun; then his son Krzysztof II Radziwill. He founded in Zabludow and took care of the Calvinist congregation. Dominik Hieronim Radziwill, the owner of ZABLUDOW, m. in 1807 to Izabella Mniszchek, div. Izabella, 2nd voto Demblinska, in 1819 took Zabludów - until 1831.

Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki.
He acted in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce close to SLUCK

{in SLUCK was living Krzysztof Niepokojczycki, bef. 1880. Karol Niepokojczycki the son of Piotr Niepokojczycki and  Zofia, Lieutenant in  1824 - 1827. In 1697 in the Brzesc Litewski province was 12 noblemen with Niepokojczycki name. Kazimierz Zlotnicki, in 1723 married 2nd, ?, Zofia Leonowa Niepokojczycka, d. bef. 1723. Leopold Korewa / Koreywa, d. 1758, m. Katarzyna Niepokojczycka. Kosciszewski Michal the Wilkomierz official in 1699, m. Joanna Rzaczynska, then she was married Jan Niepokojczycki. KOSSAKOWSKI Andrzej, owned 1624 Brzeska Wola, and in 1686 r. Niepokosice / Niepokojczyce}.

Before Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki in BOLOCZYCE were: Aleksander Pociej, then Ludwik Rozwadowski, also here were Józef Twardowski, Jan Gieczewicz, Lady Plater married Aleksandrowicz; Ignacy Karp.


Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce,

close to Novobelichi and Prussy. 18 km north-west to METYAVICHI / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy . 22 km south-west to SLUCK.
Close to
Mieciawice / Maciewicze in the SLUCK county, and here was living Bonifacy Krupski, born 1822; opponent of the military action in 1863; he was involved as a commissar of the IHUMEN area.
Soon he was arrested and imprisoned in Minsk. The sentence condemned him to 8 years of heavy work and confiscation of Novosiolki property. At exile stayed in Usol, after 5 years in Tobolsk, then in Tsarevo, then in Warsaw. 1874 rights restored. Died in 1903 in Maciewicze.

Józef Ignacy Kraszewski wrote on Maciewicze.
Close to Pohost, Starobin, by the Slucza river; near Sielco, Cisowo and Hawrylczyce. Starobin - south to SLUCK.

Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in Belarus; close to ZAZEVICY; SIALCO; TOMILOVA GORA; CHIZHEVICHI; east to DUBOCHKI; nort to SAKOVICHI / Sakovicy; 6 km north-east to SOLIGORSK [137 km south to MINSK - since 1958]; 6 km south-west to PAGOST / Pohost; close to the villages of Vishnevka, Pokrovka, Kovaleva Loza, Teslin, Peschanka.

The Nameless Association [Union of people without names / Association of an unnamed = innominate people / The Nameless Association / 'Zwiazek bezimienny' / 'Zwiazek Bezimiennych'].
Founder of the underground association -
Walerian Pietkiewicz / PIETKIEWICZ Walerian Jan (1805-1843), born in Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district;
Professor, MP, activist in exile; he, on the initiative of Lelewel, established the Association of an unnamed = innominate people.
Preparations were made to fight against Russia.
In 1832/1833, colonel Józef Zaliwski arrived from exile with a few companions and began preparations for the uprising in the Russian lands [see SULIMIERSKI in Lubiec close to Wola Pszczolecka]. The first attempts to create a conspiracy were made by Walerian Pietkiewicz - the emissary of Joachim Lelewel. The center was in Kolbuszowa (property of the Tyszkiewicz family) in Galicia, where after 1831 many of the November insurgents were held. Preparations were directed by the Union of people without names [Association of an unnamed = innominate people / The Nameless Association / Unknown Association].

Adam Mickiewicz already during a trip to Rome and to Florence in the summer of 1830, said, according to Odyniec, similar thoughts like the closest and most faithful followers of Towianski, Ferdynand Gutt who wrote to Walerian Pietkiewicz in 1836.

Walerian Pietkiewicz befriended with Gutt and he was the recipient of many of his letters sent from countries where Ferdinand traveled in those years. As Stanislaw Pigon Ferdinand wrote from Germany.
The year 1830 ended with a stronger accent, with the outbreak of the uprising in the Kingdom of Poland and the expansion of war activities to Lithuania soon. Walerian Pietkiewicz was a member of the Central Vilnius Committee and friend of Joachim Lelewel.

Valeryan Pietkiewicz knew well Towianski, like Gutt Ferdynand. He gives the testimony of honesty although in 1830 they did not take up arms; Gutt as a doctor served his knowledge on both sides. And he - at the request of General Paskevich - for the protection of Russian soldiers wounded in the Polish war of 1830-1831, was decorated on January 13, 1834 with the order of Saint Anna's third grade.
On January 24, 1836 from Mannheim, Gutt wrote to Pietkiewicz that his father was murdered on 1 November 1835 at home. Money was not taken; the tragic death of the pharmacist Jerzy Gutt was dominated by legends, as always, when the perpetrators could not be detected. One of the legends accused Mikolaj Malinowski, the son-in-law of Gutt. By Krasinski - Towianski persuaded Ferdinand Gutt to murder his father [the letter of Zygmunt Karasinski to Delfina Potocka on March 19, 1842].
Extensive fragments of letters from Gutt to Pietkiewicz, written in 1833-1837 from Germany, are quoted by Stanislaw Pigon in the book "From the Age of Mickiewicz - Studies and Sketches" (1922).

Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski wrote on Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district.

Parents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:
August Jacek Hieronim Broel-Plater / August Hiacynt 1745-1803 and Anna Beydo-Rzewuska 1761-1800. Józef Krzysztof Donat Broel Plater b. 1796 in Kraslaw, died 1852 in Wilno, m. Antonina Pereswit-Soltan (1800-1871) or
she married to Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater who was sentenced to settlement in Smolensk, where he lived with his family to 1846.
In Smolensk he has established a contact with named above Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski. After 1846 he returned to Kombula, in 1847 was elected assessor of the Criminal Chamber of the Novgorod province.
Writer under nick-name Joseph Plaskoziemski in 1846, gave his own theory of light, heat and electricity, but not supported by experiences in the mid-nineteenth century. He was also the author of the short history and geography of Livonia; died in 1852 in Vilnius, was buried in Kraslaw. He was married from 1819 to Antonina Pereswit-Soltan (1800-1871) and had 14 children.
I emphasizes once again on
Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852, writer, born 1796 - Kraslaw, died in 1852 - Wilno, married in 1819 to Antonina Soltan 1800-1871, daughter of Benedykt Soltan b. 1770 and Józefa Benislawska b. 1770.

We back to
Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, born ca 1740/1760, the Sluck official, was the legal guardian for Kajetan Kraszewski.

Kajetan Kraszewski b. 1827 in Dolhe, the Pruzany county, d. 1896 in Stary Kuplin, close to Pruzany; Polish writer, musician and astronomer, the father of Boguslaw Kraszewski.
Benislawska MANTEUFFEL-SZOEGE was closest friend to Kajetan.

Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, send named Kajetan to Nieswiez under Devil alias De Yille; Nieswiez was owned by Karol Radziwill, 'panie kochanku';
in Nieswiez often stayed then
Leon Borowski, Wolodkowicz, maiden Brzostowska; Morawski, Wendorf, Miternowski, Mackiewicz, Czyz, Mogiluicki;
Bartlomiej Niepokójczycki, of Boloczyce, the father of ADAM Niepokojczycki;
and Michal Domanski, who journeyed in 1769 - 1778, with KAROL Radziwill.

Karol Stanislaw Onufry Jan Nepomucen Radziwill 'Panie Kochanku' b. 1734 in Nieswiez; voivode of Wilno from 1762, general lieutenant from 1759, marshal of the Grand Court of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1755;
in 1764, he signed the manifesto, recognizing the convocial session in the presence of Russian troops as illegal.
KAROL Radziwill a great patriot and creator of the anti-Russian opposition fought against the Russians in June - the battle under Slonim, and was forced to go to Woloszczyzna. Then he moved to Dresden, where he found out the news that the Parliament was deprived of his office, and that his estates were seized and confiscated.
In 1768 he fought out a guarantee treaty, because Poland became a Russian protectorate, and he joined in exile to the leaders of the Bar Confederation. In 1770 he was a member and the founder of the Masonic Lodge Wandering Crew in PRESOV / Preszów.
For failing to swear the oaths to Catherine II, after the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the Russians confiscated KAROL Radziwill's Newel, Siebiez in the Polock Province / Governorate, and Kopys and Romanów in Mogilev Governorate.
He returned to Lithuania in 1777, settled in Nieswiez.

Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, lived and acted in Sluck, Nieswiez and in Boloczyce [Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. Bartlomiej was in Sluck in 1763 - 1795.
Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce].
Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI [b. ca 1730/1740] had a son Adam Niepokojczycki [born ca 1760/1780], the Sluck Marshal of nobility;
Adam's son was General ARTUR Niepokojczycki [8 Dec 1813 - d. 11 Nov 1881]!

See on MICHAL DOMANSKI -
KAROL RADZIWILL with Lady Morawska were abroad, with a few respected ladies, between whom there was a foster child, without father and mother, Miss Karolina Paszkowska, from the Lanckoronski clan.
Michal Domanski and Miss Karolina Paszkowska were together.


Paszkowski - Radziwill:

Sons of TOMASZ Paszkowski and REGINA: Michal Paszkowski 1st and Jan Paszkowski [born 1742; he was living in Mokrsko in 1742 - the father of General Franciszek Paszkowski and the grandfather of Maria Paszkowska ARMAND from Moscow - see Apolon Konstantynowicz].

Jan Paszkowski [1742-ca 1800] moved home to Ukraine [ca 1776 ?]. Maybe
his brother [cousin ?] was Piotr Paszkowski b. ca 1733 married Elzbieta nee Nietyks,
with son Paszkowski Michal 2nd (born 1761 in Brzesc Litewski - after 1819), Colonel in 1794 in Brzesc Litewski, an official in Oszmiany; studied 1775-1779. In 1789 he bought Zabludow in the Grodno county. The friend of Hieronim Radziwill and of Michal Zaleski, manager [1804] to Dominik Radziwill; Michal Paszkowski was closest to CONSPIRATOR, Karol Prozor in 1812. In 1808-1820 he taken from hands of Radziwill, Naliboki. After 1819 / 1820 no inf.
The Niepokojczycki family was Calvinists.
Under the Radziwills - 1600, Zabludów bought Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun; then his son Krzysztof II Radziwill. He founded in Zabludow and took care of the Calvinist congregation. Dominik Hieronim Radziwill, the owner of ZABLUDOW, m. in 1807 to Izabella Mniszchek, div. Izabella, 2nd voto Demblinska, in 1819 took Zabludów from hands of Michal Paszkowski 2nd - until 1831.

Michal Paszkowski 1st [b. ca 1725/1730] was an official in Malbork, moved in Volhynia, m. Monika Piotrowska of the Chelm area, daughter of Mikolaj and Katarzyna nee Plonski, Piotrowska, with a few children.

Above HIERONIM Radziwill:

Dominik Hieronim Radziwill b. 1786 in Biala Podlaska, d. Nov. 1813 in Lauterecken in Nadrenia-Palatynat; the son of Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill and Zofia Dorota Fryderyka Thurn-Taxis;
Dominik Radziwill was the Freemason.
Colonel Dominik was the owner of Nieswiez and Olyka, Birze, Dubinki, Sluck, Kopyl, Biala. Since 1786 Dominik was under care of Karol Radziwill, and then in 1790 under Adam Czartoryski. Dominik Radziwill inherited the uncle Karol Radziwill.

Above KAROL:
Karol Stanislaw Onufry Jan Nepomucen Radziwill 'Panie Kochanku', died in 1790 in Biala, General Lieutenant in 1759.

Above HIERONIM WINCENTY RADZIWILL:
Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill married Zofia Dorota Fryderyka Thurn-Taxis. Duke, died in 1786; owned Kleck. The son of Michal Kazimierz Radziwill 'Rybenko' and the father of named Dominik Hieronim Radziwill.

Niepokojczycki Ignacy, maybe was the brother of Adam Niepokojczycki. Inf. on IGNACY, 1780 - 1782.
Also of Niepokojczycki Tadeusz, inf. in 1767 - 1780

[Niepokojczycki Tadeusz, the Bialsk / Bielsk official, inf. in 1787 - 1794, BIALA PODLASKA west to Brzesc Litewski. Grabanów close to Biala Podlaska, 5 km north-east to Biala;
in 1818, Grabanów is already the court property of Adam Niepokojczycki [Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780], the father of GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki.
He had wooden residential building made of oak tree. 1822, Grabanow farm was bought from the Radziwills by Poplawski. Shortly thereafter, these estate passed on to the property of the Grabowski family. Kozula's mill in the Grabanów farm in 1781, belonged to the Radziwills, who had a hunting lodge here - near BIALA PODLASKA].

The father of ARTUR:
Niepokojczycki Adam, of SLUCK, was the secretary of Dominik Radziwill

[Prince Dominik Hieronim Radzivil (1786-1813) was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman. Compare:

Paszkowski Michal 2nd (born 1761 in Brzesc Litewski - after 1819), Colonel in 1794 in Brzesc Litewski, an official in Oszmiany; studied 1775-1779. In 1789 he bought Zabludow in the Grodno county.
The friend of Hieronim Radziwill and of Michal Zaleski, manager [1804] to above Dominik Radziwill;
Michal Paszkowski was closest to CONSPIRATOR, Karol Prozor in 1812.
In 1808-1820 he taken from hands of Radziwill, Naliboki. After 1819 / 1820 no inf.
The Niepokojczycki family was Calvinists.
Under the Radziwills - 1600, Zabludów bought Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun; then his son Krzysztof II Radziwill. He founded in Zabludow and took care of the Calvinist congregation. Dominik Hieronim Radziwill, the owner of ZABLUDOW, m. in 1807 to Izabella Mniszchek, div. Izabella, 2nd voto Demblinska, in 1819 took Zabludów from hands of Michal Paszkowski 2nd - until 1831].

Dominik Radziwill was the owner of Nesvizh and Olyka and owner of Birzai, Dubingiai, Sluck and Kapyl estates. He took part in Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812 and later died of wounds after the Battle of Hanau. Parents - Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill and Princess Sophie Friederike of Thurn and Taxis.
Prince Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill b. 1759 - died in 1786, was a Polish prince, diplomat, politician and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded in 1780. He was Count of Kleck, Great Cupbearer of Lithuania from 1779 and governor of Minsk.
Parents - Michal Kazimierz "Rybenko" Radziwill + Anna Luiza Mycielska.

Adam Niepokojczycki - inf. in 1805 - 1809.


ARTUR NIEPOKOJCZYCKI:

1841-47 fought in the Caucasus, and Dagestan. He participated in 1849 in Russian intervention in Hungary and the Crimean War of 1853-1856. In 1874 he became a tsar's adjutant. In the war 1877-78 he became the head of the staff of the Danube army.
During the stay of the Tsar on the front, ie until mid-December 1877, he belonged to five people who ruled Russia - but the head of government did not belong to this group.
1853-1856, at the end of this campaign he commanded a staff of naval and land forces in the Crimea. Originally, he was the son of ADAM Niepokojczycki, the County marshal of the gentry in Slutsk.
In 1878 deputies of Artur Niepokojczycki, who was to concentrate on strategic problems, were appointed:
General Kazimierz Lewicki (operational command) and
General Marcin Kuszewski

{maybe his brother was Aleksander Kuszewski b. ca 1830; wife Zofia Linowska, the granddaughter of Jan Antoni Linowski, the Wschowa official, 1736-1801; he comes from Jan Franciszek Linowski b. 1667, d. bef. 1725}.

Both had extensive experience from the Hungarian campaign and the Crimean war. The staff also included Artillery commander Gen. Mikolaj Massalski.

Note 1:
Kosciuszko travelled in 1796 / 1797 from Russia to Sweden with his secretary J. U. Niemcewicz and with cheerful officer, Libiszewski who often had to carry the General;

[Libiszowski / Libiszewski willingly performed this service. In Sweden, Kosciuszko was listening to Libiszewski playing the guitar at his bedside and to a concert organised in his honour by the best musicians; in Philadelphia was a musician in orchestra. He died - still young - of fever in Cuba. In 1892 the Sosnowski manor from Waleria Niepokójczycki, bought Alfons Libiszowski. In Libiszow is the Libiszowski manor, 'Rybakówka'; Libiszow is situated 5 km west of Sosnowica; east of Ostrow Lubelski].

Note 2:
The conspiracy created in May 1793 reached the roots to the Freemasonry organization and of the club of the "Society of Friends of the Constitution of May 3". A part of the Masons stood in a moderate, liberal position - the preservation of the monarchy with King Stanislaw August and the implementation of the Constitution of May 3. Among the moderate activists of the conspiracy found themselves:
Ignacy Dzialynski, Andrzej Kapostas, Michal Kochanowski,
Alexander Linowski,
Stanislaw Woyczynski, Ludwik Gutakowski, Antoni Bazyli Dzieduszycki, Kazimierz Nestor Sapiecha.

Note 3:

GENERAL Artur Niepokojczycki was the grandson of [Bartholomaus / Bartholomew / Bartholomäus von Unruh] Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI

{barons von Unruh changed their family name to Niepokojczycki, acc. to Edward Henry and Lewinski Corwin ed. New York in 1917}.

Originated from the old German clan von Upru = von UNRUH / Unrug

[von Unruh of Koblenz, (Unrug, Unruh, von Unruhe).
The barons von der Baysen changed their family name to Bazenski, the barons von Unruh to Niepokojczycki, the counts von Hutten to Czapski, the von Oppelins to Bronikowski and so along the line. Graf von Unruh: Unruh (Unrug) - came from the owner of Wagrody [Wendstadt], Baron von Unruh, near Baron von Schlichtung, owner Niechlowa [Nechlau].
Wagrody [Silesia] - west to GORA and south-west to LESZNO - see SULKOWSKI.

Hans Siegmund von Unruh (1644-1694) from the Wendtstadt-Linden line is regarded as the founder of the baronial line. His son Johann Wilhelm von Unruh (1668-1728) belonged to the manor Wagroda (Wendstadt, Guhrau) in the Bohemia-Silesia.

In 1641 in Gniezno, Christoph von Unruh

{Christoph von Unruh (1624-1689 in LESZNO !), the official in Gniezno / Gnesen and in Miedzychód - see MIELZYNSKI. The son of GEORG = JERZY Unruh, 1580-1652, the owner of Miedzychod.
He helped protestant religious refugees from Silesia in Miedzychod / Birnbaum, and from all over Germany, who wanted to escape the Thirty Years War. Christoph von Unruh established his seat in the already existing Manor = Gutsbezirk of Lindenstadt / LIPOWIEC at the gates of Birnbaum, but completely rebuilt it. He built a new castle and its own church.
Christoph's son:
Jan Krzysztof Unrug 1660-1687 = Johann Christoph von Unruh was born in 1660, to above Christopherus von Unruh born in 1624, in Birnbaum. Johann had 17 siblings: Jerzy b. 1652-1710; Bogislaw (Boguslaw) von Unruh / Unrug, Alexander von Unruh and 15 other siblings. The branch of Krzysztof von UNRUH moved to Mniszki [south-west to LECZYCA, near Leznica and Chodow], Tuczepy [south to SZYDLOW] and Milostowo [west to Pniewy, south-east to Miedzychod].
Mentioned
Christoph von Unruh traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh (the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705) with Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski.
Anna Zychlinska was the mother of
Christoph IV von Unruh, Count, the official in MIEDZYCHOD (died in 1763) and OBORNIKI, General;
Wladyslaw / Ladislaus von Unruh;
Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, of Miedzychod / Birnbaum (died in 1766; the father of Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh d. 1779);
Konstantin von Unruh, Count

(Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh born 1689, died 1763 - diplomat of Saxony. Konstantin von Unruh served as a Saxon resident in Gdansk (1738-1750) and the Polish General Commissioner there in 1736-1750. He had taken a wife from the Gdansk patriciate and settled there. His nephew Bogislaw / Boguslaw inherited the Birnbaum - Miedzychod estates in 1763, but in 1779 bequeathed to his son Stephan Peter UNRUH);

and Eleonore von Unruh.
But Christoph von Unruh fell ill and died there on January 29, 1689. His body was transferred to Miedzychód and buried there in the cemetery of the Protestant church}.

Baron Johann Wilhelm von Unruh, found himself in 1711 as a member of the Red Eagle Order. The estate Wagroda (Wendstadt, Kreis Guhrau) is situated in the county of Góra. His descendants settled in GORA and moved to the Great Poland in the early 19th century and became permanently polonized. Alfons Wladyslaw von Unruh, a merchant from Poznan, was awarded the title of Baron on 2 June 1902. Another branch came to East Prussia. Also in 1770 in Lehsewitz / Lasowice close to Lubin],

who moved to Poland in the village of Nepokoychitsa close to Brzesc.

Unrug family came to Poland very long ago, because in 1579 from Thuringia and settled in Silesia. Initially, they called themselves Unruh, they received from the Polish King Zygmunt II August the "right of homeland", that is citizenship of the country [in Poland in 1594]. CHRISTOPH VON UNRUH (1550-1622) bought MIEDZYCHOD.

This is a branch of Tadeusz Gustaw Unrug, born in 1834 - died in 1907, in the Sielec estate near Znin, Major General of the Prussian Guard. Tadeusz came from a Polish Calvinist family derived from count Jerzy Unrug / UNRUH, the official in Gniezno
{Christoph von Unruh was in Gniezno in 1641, and traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh. BOGUSLAW was the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705. Boguslaw married to Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski}
and JERZY was the founder of the city of Kargowa in 1641, then called "Unrugov".

Tadeusz UNRUH was the son of Henryk Kajetan Unrug

(Henryk Kajetan = Kajetan Unruh died 1884 - Henryk was the son of Fryderyk Sebastian Unrug 1734 - 1802 {Unruh sold Miedzychod in 1785 to Adam MIELECKI}; grandson of Aleksander Unrug / von Unruh, 1704 - 1773

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof who bought Trzciel and Wytomysl. Aleksander Unruh bought Kobylka in 1772 from hands of Duke August Sulkowski, who had this estate after August Poniatowski. Kobylka is situated close to Wolomin. Here was a mint};

the great-grandson of Georg Sebastian von Unruh = JERZY Unruh, ca 1666 - 1723

{JERZY bought Kargowa; Jerzy born ca 1666, had a brother Christian von Unruh = Christoph von Unruh, auf Pieske born 1666, d. 1723, the owner of Pieski / Pieske near Miedzychod, and Nowy Gorzyck = Nowe Gorzycko. Christoph was the father of Sophie Catharina von Unruh, and Urszula Marianna Brudzewska};

the great-great-grandson of Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689, the official in WALCZ and in GNIEZNO; Krzysztof had a son Jerzy 1652-1710, the official in POZNAN and WALCZ})

and his wife Anna Kurnatowski (died 1884). In the 1850s [or in 1849], Tadeusz and some of his siblings converted to Catholicism. In a marriage with the Saxon countess Izydora von Bunau (1851-1923) he had two sons, including Vice-Admiral Józef Unrug. Tadeusz after 1870 settled near Znin, died in 1907.

Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628, had a brother Krzysztof - the founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689.
The son of named Aleksander:
JERZY SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1666-1723);
the grandson
ALEKSANDER UNRUG (1704-1773);
the great-grandson
FRYDERYK SEBASTIAN UNRUG (1734-1802),
the great-great-grandson HENRYK KAJETAN MAURYCY UNRUG (1791-1849), the owner of Szolow, Dzieczyn and Skrzydlew, had 8 children.

Heinrich Kajetan von Unruh, passed in 1849 on Catholicism [his son Józef Bartlomiej Unrug / Józef Baltazar Unrug, b. 1825]. He also changed the spelling of his last name from Unruh to Unrug. Two of his sons died in the uprisings in April 1848 near Miloslaw in the Wrzesnia district. He fought against Prussia. Kazimierz, the second son, died in May 1863 in the January Uprising. He fought against the Russians.

Note:
A.
Kossak Wojciech (1856-1942), a painter artist, send a letter to General Stanislaw Puchalski in the case of Zygmunt Unrug vel Kajetan Niepokojczycki in Russian captivity, dated Cracow in 1916. Stanislaw Puchalski (1867-1931), was the then commander of the Polish Legions. Refers to Zygmunt Unrug (1857-1935), brother-in-law of the artist under the name Zygmunt Niepokojczycki in Russian captivity.
B.
Pawel Segneri (1624-1694), Italian Jesuit, and writer in Cologne, 1694; the Polish translation of Segneri by Krzysztof Niepokojczycki appeared in 1759 in Lviv.
C.
Kazimierz Zlotnicki, m. Zofia Leonowa Niepokojczycka, d. bef. 1723. That is Leon Niepokojczycki born ca 1640 ?

Niepokójczycki Mikolaj (born in 1883 - died after 1914), born in Minsk.

Liudvikas Abramavicius Niepokójczycki (1879-1939) was a Polish activist in Kharkiv. Ludwik Abramowicz- Niepokójczycki was editor of 'Przeglad Wilenski'.

General Nepokoichitskiy Artur Adamovich / Artur Adamovich Nepokoichitsky b. 8 Dec 1813, d. 11 Nov 1881. Burial at the Volkovskoye Lutheran Cemetery in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Note 4:
NIEPOKOJCZYCKI Benedykt Wilhelm (1796-1865), President of the Bank of Poland; b. in Szlowiany, in the Wilkomierz county, died in 1865 - Drezno. His mother Scholastyka Kuszelewska, born 1770, died in 1829 + Stanislaw Niepokojczycki, b. ca 1760

[Kazimiera Niepokojczycka and Franciszka Niepokojczycka were the daughters of Scholastyka Kuszelewska Niepokoyczycki / Niepokojczycka, and they had a court case in Wilno about a landed property in Stlowiany and Stefance, Elminiki and Putwiszki, belonged to the Radziwills, in the Wilkomierz county; the court case was after the death of Józef Kuszelewski, the Marshal of Wilkomirz; with Antoni Domeyko of the Kowno county in Gierkance].

Benedykt's brother was Wincenty Niepokojczycki b. ca 1800. They lived together in WILKOMIERZ in 1829 and in 1852.
Stanislaw Niepokojczycki, born ca 1765/1770, had a brother Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780.

Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, acted in Sluck, Nieswiez and in Boloczyce [Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. He acted in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce close to SLUCK].

Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI had a son Adam, the Sluck Marshal of nobility; Adam's son was General ARTUR Niepokojczycki!

Wincenty Niepokojczycki b. ca 1800, had a son born 1829, and grandaughter Józefa Niepokojczycka 1857-1925 + Tadeusz Chelminski 1852-1901. Tadeusz had a daughter Felicja Chelminska 1887-1943 + Marian Antoni Andrzej Chrapowicki 1864-1930. MARIAN Chrapowicki was the grandson of Eustachy Chrapowicki b. ca 1790; Amelia Gorska 1793-1866; and Dorota Szadurska b. 1810.
MARIAN Chrapowicki was the great-grandson of Józef Chrapowicki 1750-1812; Stanislaw August Gorski and of Franciszek Ksawery Szadurski b. 1764; Pss Magdalena Oginska; Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1767-1796 and of Franciszka Felkerzamb.
Anna Niemirowicz had a half-sister Dorota 1780-1813 + Mikolaj Siestrzanek-Karnicki and Dorota had a daughter Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka 1811-1883 + Konstanty Mikolaj Radziwill 1793-1869,
who was the
grandson of Leon Michal Radziwill 1722-1751 and the great-grandson of
Michal Antoni Radziwill (1687-1721). Michal Antoni + Marcjana had a daughter Izabela (1711-1761) / Izabella Katarzyna Radziwill married Tadeusz Franciszek Oginski.

Kazimierz Lewicki (1835-1891),
the Russian General, Pole. An educator of the cadet corps in Polock. 1855 served the Guard. Participated in Crimean War 1853-56. In 1859, he finished Academy and started serving the staff of the Guards and then in the Siberian District. 1870 professor; in 1874, the tsar's adjutant and chief of staff of the guard. In the war 1877-78, replaced Artur Niepokojczycki; after the war, he becomes an inspector of cavalry and 1885-88 commander a Cavalry Division.

Duke Mikolaj Massalski (1812-1880), the Russian General;
Pole. He graduated from the Military Academy in St. Petersburg. In the army from 1832 and fights at Caucasus. In 1839 in Persia, 1855 commander of the Finnish artillery, 1865-67 he is in the Polish Kingdom, later the commander of the Siberian District. In the war 1877-78 he became commander of the Danube army artillery. From 1879, a member of the State Council.

Walerian Derozynski (1826-1877), the Russian General; Pole.
In the army from 1845, then the end of Academy; Russian intervention in Hungary 1849 and Crimean War 1853-56. From 1857, the Division chief of staff; he fights in the war of 1877-78, at the Battle of Szypka together with
General Marcin Kuszewski, deputy Chief of Staff of the Danube army;
Colonel Aleksander Lipinski;
Colonel Bieniecki.

Artur Niepokojczycki during the Tsar's stay on the front, ie until mid-December 1877, he belonged to five people who were ruled of Russia.

9 Infantry Division - General Duke Swiatopolk Mirski / Swiatopelk.

11 Corps - Duke General Schachowskoi ie Aleksy Szachowski.


Interesing network:

Aleksander Pociej d. 1770 the owner of Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce close to SLUCK - BARTLOMIEJ Niepokojczycki [the grandfather of General ARTUR Niepokojczycki] - Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army, d. 1808 the owner of BEREZYNA and [with his wife] of LUBUSZANY [13 km to MIEZONKA of the Konstantynowiczs after 1842], with Ludwik's daughter - Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776-1867 [Anna Tyszkiewicz, the owner of BEREZYNO-Luboszany, maried to Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845].

Details:

Aleksander POCIEJ, the owner of Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce close to SLUCK before 1770; next to Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, who was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. Bartlomiej acted in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce close to SLUCK.
Then to Ludwik Aleksander Dawid Rozwadowski, 1858-1907, the son of Aleksander Adam Rozwadowski, Count, 1824 - 1899.

Note to above
Aleksander POCIEJ, the owner of Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce close to SLUCK before 1770, and Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952 [she was the owner of LUBUSZANY]! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN; the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA.

The genealogy of Anna Tyszkiewicz Potocka, born 1776 / 1779, died in 1867, the owner of Berezyna - Lubuszany:

Benedykta Sapieha d. 1724, m. 1716 to Jerzy Tyszkiewicz died in 1735,
with the son - Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1717-1790.
Jozef married twice:
1736 to Benedykta Oginska, the daughter of Marcin Michal Oginski 1672-1750;
2nd to Anna Pociej, 1720-1783, the daughter of mentioned Aleksander Pociej d. 1770,
with 2 sons:
Aleksander Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1775, and
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army [the owner of BEREZYNA - LUBUSZANY], d. 1808,
with daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776/1779-1867.

Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776/1779-1867 [see the PONIATOWSKI family], the owner of BEREZYNO-Luboszany + Aleksander Stanislaw Ludwik Potocki, 1778-1845

[Aleksander Stanislaw Potocki (1778-1845) was the son of the third Prime Minister of Poland, Count Stanislaw Kostka Potocki, the FREEMASON, and his wife Aleksandra Lubomirska. Stanislaw Kostka Potocki was the son of General Eustachy Potocki and Anna Katska, and was a brother of Ignacy Potocki].


The genealogy of
Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776 or in 1779-1867 [see the PONIATOWSKI family], the owner of BEREZYNO-Luboszany / Lubuszany and Berezyna. But we remember of SOLTAN - Piottuch-Kublicki - Konstantynowicz of MIEZONKA line.

Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan

[Freemason;

the son of Stanisław Sołtan b. 27.8.1756 - died in 1836 in Mitawa, General, secret acted in 1793, then in 1812, member of Parliament of 1782, 1788.
The grandson of Stanisław Pereświt Sołtan 1698 - 1758, owned Andrepna and Zielonpole close to Rezekne / Rzeczyce, and Lideksna with Sprykutow close to Ludsen / Lucyn.

The great-grandson of Samuel Sołtan b. 1654, killed in 1709, m. 1st to Wisiunianka / Wisimianka, and 2nd to Helena Ewa von Manteuffel 1-v. Jan von Berk.

Note 1:

Antonina Pereświt-Soltan (1800-1871) was daughter of Benedykt Soltan b. ca 1770 and Jozefa Benislawska

(Jozefa had also son Władysław Józef Sołtan 1795 - 1843 + Walentyna Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1800 with daughter Oktawia Sołtan 1830 - 1871 + Władysław Hieronim Samuel Sołtan 1824-1900);

Antonina was granddaughter of Piotr Sołtan + Przyborowska + Kopeć + Szostakowska;
the great-granddaughter of Jan who was son of Samuel Soltan;
Samuel was son of Jan Sołtan + Aleksandra Boreysza.

Note 2:

Józef Piottuch-Kublicki b. ca 1780 - official in Zawilie, b. 1780 - and Karolina Soltan b. ca 1780/1790 had children:
1.
Anna Benislawska
(born Piottuch-Kublicki in 1809, d. 1885 + Józef Benislawski, 1790-1852, with: Leon Benislawski 1846-1935, Jan 1847- 1899, Stanislaw, Konstanty, Adolf, Edward, Ludwik Benislawski, Helena Benislawska b. before 1852);
2. mentioned
Walentyna Soltan
(born Piottuch-Kublicka, b. ca 1800 / 1810 + Wladyslaw Józef Soltan b. 1795, died in 1843, son of Benedykt b. 1770 and Józefa Benislawska.
Walentyna's daughter was Oktawia Soltan, 1830 - 15.8.1871 in Kazan + in 1849 to Wladyslaw Hieronim Samuel Soltan, 1824 - 1900, the January Uprising 1863);

3. Stanislaw Piottuch-Kublicki born 1804;

4. above Oktawia Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1810 + Józef Szumski b. ca 1780 / 1800 + 2nd to Dominik Konstantynowicz the owner of MIEZONKA;

5. Emilia Piottuch-Kublicka b. 1803 + Wincenty Smokowski 1797 - 1876, son of Michal Smokowski and Konstancja Mickiewicz;

6. Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki + Ida Oginska b. ca 1820 / 1813 / 1810.
Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki born 1810 + Ida Oginska had the son Karol Piottuch Kublicki b. ca 1850 (+ Zofia Eysymont, 1840 / 1848 - died 1926, daughter of Oktawiusz EYSYMONT, and Helena Soltan).

Note 3:
Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan was the brother of Karolina SOLTAN Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1790 + Józef Piottuch- Kublicki b. ca 1780.

Above Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, husband of Idalia POCIEJ, b. 1801, daughter of Aleksander Michal Pociej;

Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 was father of Aleksander Stanislaw August Soltan and Maria Anna Sierakowska. Above Aleksander Stanislaw August Soltan 1821 - 1853, was father of Stefania Ludwika de Virion.

ADAM LEON SOLTAN was the son of Stanisław Sołtan b. 27.8.1756 - died in 1836 in Mitawa,
General, secret acted in 1793, then in 1812],

married Idalia Pociej b. 1790 / 1801 - 1839, the daughter of named above Aleksander Michal Pociej - CONSPIRATOR of 1821.

We have two families of Tyszkiewicz:
A.
Krystyna nee Tyszkiewicz
(born in RIGA in 1866; died in 1952! - the daughter of Jan Witold Emanuel Tyszkiewicz b. 1831 in WOLOZYN; the granddaughter of Jozef Tyszkiewicz b. 1805 in PALANGA; the great-granddaughter of Michal Tyszkiewicz Count, b. 1761 in BIRZAI / Birze;
the great-great-granddaughter of Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815 in Valozyn).

Józef Ignacy Tyszkiewicz b. 1724, d. 1815, married Maria Anna Galimska - he was the son of Count Michał Jan Tyszkiewicz b. 1690, d. in LOHOJSK, 1762;
the grandson of Emanuel Władysław Tyszkiewicz, b. ca 1650, d. 1704;
the great-grandson of
Count Mikołaj Tyszkiewicz, 1619 - 1702;
the great-great-grandson of
Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1585 in Minsk, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, d. 1635 ? or in 1648,
who was the son of Marcin Tyszkiewicz b. 1547 in Brest, d. 1631;
and grandson of
Jerzy Tyszkiewicz Łohojski b. 1518, d. 1576, come from
Wasyl Tyszkiewicz or Bazyli Klenicki-Tyszkiewicz, 1492 - 1571 in Supraśl.

B.
Benedykta Sapieha d. 1724, married in 1716 to Jerzy Tyszkiewicz died in 1735, with the son - Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1716/1717-1790.

Jozef married twice:
1736 to Benedykta Oginska the daughter of Marcin Michal Oginski 1672-1750;
2nd to Anna Pociej, 1720-1783, the daughter of Aleksander Pociej d. 1770, with 2 sons:
Aleksander Tyszkiewicz, 1748-1775, and
Ludwik Tyszkiewicz, deputy commander of the Lithuanian Army, d. 1808
with daughter Anna Tyszkiewicz, 1776/1779-1867.

Above Józef Tyszkiewicz, 1716/1717-1790, Józef Skumin Tyszkiewicz - the top official in Smoleńsk 1775-1790, Mścisław in 1761-1775; was the son of named above
Jerzy Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1695 in WILNO = d. 1735 in Tylża.
The grandson of Kazimierz Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1635 and died in 1701.
The great-grandson of
Jerzy Tyszkiewicz born ca 1598 and died ca 1686.
The great-great-grandson of
Dymitr Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1536, d. 1609,
who was the son of
Skumin Jan Tyszkiewicz b. ca 1506, d. 1566. Come from
Lew Tyszkowicz, b. ca 1480, d. ca 1515.



See more on
the POLISH CONSPIRATORS of 1821,
and
ALAKSANDER POCIEJ, senior, died 1770:

Aleksander Oborski, Colonel, acted in underground independence movement of Wilno in 1821 together with Jozef Gruzewski and Stanislaw GRUZEWSKI, Romer, Biallozor,
Stanislaw SOLTAN and Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) - the Polish CONSPIRATOR.

Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, married Idalia Pociej b. 1790 / 1801 - 1839, the daughter of named above Aleksander Michal Pociej - CONSPIRATOR of 1821.
Leonard Pociej 1727 - 1774 - who was son of Aleksander Pociej senior {died in 1770} and Teresa Brzostowska - was the brother of
Anna Tyszkiewicz;
Karolina Radziwill and Ludwik Pociej.

Leonard Pociej had son - Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) - the CONSPIRATOR of 1821.
Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was the husband of Anna Korzeniowska; he was the father of Teodor Pociej and named Idalia Pociej 1790/1801 - 1839 married Soltan.
Above Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was son of Maria Aleksandra Radziwill POCIEJ, b. 1753; his grandfather was Wojciech Albrycht Radziwill 1717-1762.
Aleksander Pociej senior, 1698 - 1770, was son of Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej. Above Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej 1666 - 1728, was son of Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina.
Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej was brother of Ludwik Konstanty Pociej.
Above Ludwik Konstanty Pociej b. 1664, d. 30 January 1730, in 1709 commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian army, his parents: Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina Oginska.

Ludwik Konstanty was father of Ludwika Marianna Pociej (b. ca 1715) who married to Franciszek Borzecki (ca 1693 - 1739) with daughter
Justyna KALINOWSKA Borzecka (m. Ignacy Kalinowski born ca 1720 died 1782).
Her son was count Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.
Justyna nee Borzecka b. ca 1735 (1710 it's error). Above named
Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski was born 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760.



The ARMAND family from Moscow [+ General Franciszek Paszkowski] and the French roots of the Konstantynowicz family [Anna Armand Konstantynowicz and Inessa Armand - Lenin Uljanov] - Prometheism / PROMETHEISM of Poles in Russia, 1877/1878 - 1904:

Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia in 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow), the daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution.
Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica, b. 1767, the daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand in 1791. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably).
The 29 year-old General Paul Armand, in 1791 [Jean-Louis Armand in 1799], came from Paris to Russia in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay [see below].
He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine in 1791.
After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, in 1792/1793, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then, after 1815, the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.

Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demontet family ran in Moscow and in KAZAN a sales of these French wines.

When Paul Armand married [ca 1783 / 1785], he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand in MOSCOW, was trading house of DEMONSI / Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.

Mentioned above
Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage [ca 1806] to Elizabeth Osipovna (1786 / 1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny / EUGENIUSZ ARMAND, born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker [compare HACKER in the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company].

In 1811 in Moscow lived:

Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1786 / 1787,
and his son Louis-Jean ARMAND, b. 1807 / 1808, French nation;
his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787/1788 and
the daughter Elizabeth b. 1807.
Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived (again?) to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica, the daughter of Charles, was born 1767.

Louis-Jean ARMAND, b. 1807 / 1808.

Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia in 1799.

Yevgeny Armand born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow.

Paul was killed and Paul's son, Jean - Ivan [= Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1786 / 1787], started a wine-import business [in 1799 in Russia - but in Moscow in 1808].
But it was Ivan's son, the first
Eugene [= Yevgeny / EUGENIUSZ ARMAND, born in 1809], who founded the Armand fortunes.

Note to Marquis de Courtenay in Russia in 1791:

The last male member of the French Courtenays died in 1733 [the last male member of the French Courtenays committed suicide in 1727], but his niece married the Marquis de Bauffremont, and her descendants assumed the title of "Prince de Courtenay".
However the marquis de Beauffremont [Louis de Bauffremont (1712-1769)] was made in 1757 Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and this title was recognised in France.

Above LOUIS had a brother - Prince Joseph of Bauffremont (1714-1781) who married in 1762 to Princess Louise Benigne Marie Octavie Francoise Jacqueline Laurence of Bauffremont / Princesse de Bauffremont-Courtenay [b. ca 1745 ?] 1750-1803.

JOSEPH's son -
Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont-Courtenay, [maybe he was born before 1773 !] b. 1773, died in 1833, married in 1787 [in 1787, San Ildefonso, Province de Segovie, Castille et Leon, Espagne] to Marie-Antoinette Rosalie Pauline of Quelen de La Vauguyon (1771-1847), the daughter of Paul Franēois of Quelen de Stuer de Caussade, second duke of La Vauguyon, prince of Carency, and Marie Antoinette Rosalie de Pons de Roquefort.

Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont - Courtenay (1773-1833), son of JOSEPH [not of Louis] served under the Bourbons.
He fled France during the French Revolution and emigrated in Koblenz, then Alexandre was in Russia in 1791, he entered the rank of a colonel in Spain, served in the campaigns of 1793 and 1794 as captain of the cavalry in the service of France.
He settled in the United States [in 1794 ?].
He later returned to France [compare General Tadeusz Kosciuszko] and was made a Count of the French Empire by Napoleon in 1810. Louis XVIII made him a peer of France in 1815 and in 1817, and duke in 1818.
Alexandre Emanuel Louis de Bauffremont, marquis de Listenois had 2 sons:
Alphonse (1792-1860), 2nd Duke of Bauffremont;
Theodore (1793-1852).

Brief note on Courtenay in England:

John Courtenay Throckmorton (1753/1754-1819), fifth baronet of Coughton, county Warwick (1791).
William Paston married Mary Courtenay, daughter of mentioned John Courtenay.
Above Sir John-Courtenay, 5th bart., was commemorated as being "a ban vivant", and he was baronet after Christopher Hewetson. John was the son of George Throckmorton SENIOR, and Anna Maria

[= Anne Maria Paston b. ca 1730, was the daughter of William Paston and Mary Courtenay. Mary Courtenay b. ca 1705, was the daughter of John Courtenay. John Courtenay b. ca 1670, lived at Molland, Devon, England
(Molland-Bottreaux; in 1703 of Molland-Champson. The Courtenay family in West Molland in 1467 - 1489 - 1733 - 1863)].

Husband of Maria Katherine Giffard. Brother of Sir George Throckmorton, 6th Baronet, JUNIOR; Sir Charles Throckmorton, 7th Baronet; William Throckmorton; Robert Throckmorton and Teresa Metcalf.
Sir George "6th Baronet Throckmorton of Coughton" Courtenay-Throckmorton, JUNIOR, formerly Throckmorton. Born on 25 Sep 1754 in Warwick, England.


Now on the Konstantynowiczs - HURKO and PROMETHEISM in 1877/1878:

Prometheism - in 1904 Jozef Pilsudski announced the division of Russia into component parts, and giving independence to countries that were strongly incorporated into Russian Empire.
The name Prometheism was described in the years 1924-1926 from the inspiration of Tadeusz Schaetzel and Tadeusz Holowko.

Georgians researcher from France and the state of Washington in the USA, Georges Mamoulia writes that the creator of the word Prometheism was HAJDAR Bammat - inf. 2009.
Wlodzimierz Baczkowski writes in 1984, on the name Prometheism is associated with the Prometheus League and followers of Józef Pilsudski.

Charaszkiewicz writes that the idea of Prometheism appeared in the Memorandum of Jozef Pilsudski to the government of Japan in 1904
[see Sieroszewski and Azbelev - the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - in JAPAN. Breguet and Nobel around the Konstantynowiczs].

Roman Knoll in Ankara in 1924-1925 devoted his efforts to implementing the idea of Prometheism.

In the definition of the Promethean movement, it should be specified that it is not synonymous with the term Promethean thought. It is the close cooperation of the representatives of enslaved nations with "Polish factors" aimed at bringing the independence of these countries.
On the other hand, the Promethean thought from 1877/1878 is a much broader concept, it is understood as the idea of dismembering the Russian Empire based on the unified movement of nations enslaved by Russia.

Already in the years 1877-1878, Polish officers in the headquarters led the Russian Army in the Balkans, and they met with the problems of Russian imperialism and the problems of small nations in Transcaucasia and the Balkans.
In 1877 in order to overcome the ridges of the Balkans, the General JOZEF HURKO / Josif Hurko (about 12000 soldiers) was appointed as commander.

General Jozef Hurko / Iosif Vladimirovich Hurko (Gurko) born in July 1828, in Veliky Novgorod or in the village of Burnejko in Mogilev Governorate; died 1901 in the village Sakharov in the Tver Governorate; Russian field marshal.
He came from a Polish-Belarusian noble family, the son of General Vladimir Iosifowicz Hurka (1795-1852) and Tatiana Aleksandrowna, baroness Korff;
the grandson of Polish nobleman Józef Hurko-Romejko, junior, died in 1811.

General Jozef Hurko born in 1828, was a student in 1846; participant of the Crimean War (1853-1856). Then a commander of the 2nd Division of the Guard.
In the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), he was commanding the Division from June 1877, he made a march - maneuver for the Balkans (commanded by Aleksandr Puzyriewski), for which he was promoted to general-adjutant.
Mentioned above
Józef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR died in 1811, the son of Jozef Hurko Romejko, senior, Polish nobleman and state activist of the Russian Empire, the first vice-governor of the Kurland Governorate after 1795/1796.
He came from a noble family from the Polish province of Vitebsk. He was born ca 1750/1760. He served the army as Petyhorski's lieutenant before 1796.
Recommended by the general-governor of Kurland, Peter Ludwig von Pahlen, on the newly created position of vice-governor of the Kurland Governorate. The nomination was issued by Tsarina Catherine II.
In addition to the estates in the Courland province, Jozef Hurko-Romejko, junior, also owned estates in the Mogilev Governorate, in the Orsza county.
That is
Krynki = Krotowsza or neighbouring Krotowsze / KROTOVSHE;
Wysokie Łuszajewo;
and
Pograbiówka.

He died in 1811.

Krynki was situated in the Wysoczany district; the ORSHA county in the Mohylew province.
Kratowsza, in 1849 belonged to the Mikulino Rudnia parish.
Wysokie Łuszajewo = Wysokie / Vysokoje - north to ORSHA; close to Obuchovo; Grishany; Jurcevo.

Burnejko in the Mohylew province.

General Jozef Hurko owned in 1901 Sacharowo in the TWER province [compare inf. in my domain].

KRYNKI, south-east to KOPTI; west to Bolszaja WYDREJA; south-east to VICEBSK; north to Vyshacany. See KOLPINO - west to OSIPOVO; close to LUCHOSA.

BABINOWICZE / Babinavichy - in the 17th and 18th cent. belonged to OGINSKI. 1772 to Russia. Babinowicze, the Orsza county; by the Werchita River. Бабінавічы / Babinowicze in the ORSHA county - Babinowicze - south to Liozno, of the Vitebsk region of Belarus. North to ORSHA.

Józef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR b. ca 1750/1760, was the son of SENIOR Jozef Hurko / JOZEF HURKO - ROMEJKO, born ca 1710 - in 1759-1780 the Vitebsk chamberlain.
Jozef Hurko / Gurko, senior, was maybe the son of JAN HURKO, born ca 1680 from KROTOWSZE-KRYNKI.

Christina Golynskaya (Krystyna Holynska) was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski. She gave her estate in will to her brother Kazimierz HOLYNSKI, and to her sister Frantiska.
In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of Jesuits.
Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms, born ca 1670 - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was the first husband of KRYSTYNA HOLYNSKA; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko born ca 1680 of Krotowsze-Krynki) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714.

Acc. to 'Secret Memoirs of the Court of Petersburg...' Zachary Konstantynowicz / Constantinowitz in 1796 was a valet (servant) of Yekaterina Alexeevna or Catherine II the Great, Empress of Russia.

Stephen (Stefan) Golynsky (Stefan Kazimierz Holynski born ca 1630/1640) was the third son of Davyd / Dawid Holynski, owned the estate Soin (Soino, Soino Wielkie, Woronowe Slobody).
In 1663 Golynsky / Holynski mentioned, Mayor Zhmudsky, served in the regiment of Ilya Surin (mother of Stepan Holynski was kind of Surin ancestry).

On January 31, 1664 a priest of the Mstislavl Church, Herman Konstantynowicz filed a complaint against Paul Moskevich and Stephen Golynsky / Stefan Holynski for armed mob to his house, for loot his grain bread and torturing her daughters
(a data extracted from the Vitebsk and Mogilev documentary province books, stored in a central repository in Vitebsk, and published under the editorship of M. Verevkin, T. 24, Vitebsk 1893, p. 455-457).

Christina Golynskaya
(Krystyna Holynska born ca 1680)
was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski / STEFAN HOLYNSKI born 1630/1640. She gave her estate in will to her brother Kazimierz and to her sister Frantiska. In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of Jesuits. Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was her first husband; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko born ca 1680) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714
(I think that the above error about the Rohoza nickname arose from confusion between this nickname and surname Rahoza; for example Michał Rahoza with the Szreniawa coat of arms from Kiev in 1579).

Józef HURKO JUNIOR, had 2 sons:
Leopold Hurko (1783-1860) the Russian Major General;
Włodzimierz Hurko (1795-1852) the Russian General; and the daughter
Ewelina (d. 1821 in ROMA) - the wife of Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the POLOCK official (1778-1840), the son of Justynian Niemirowicz.

Włodzimierz [1795-1852], had a son {the grandson of Józef HURKO [died in 1811]} the Russian Field Marshal and the Warsaw governor, Józef Władimirowicz Hurko / Romeiko-Gourko / Иосиф Владимирович Гурко (1828-1901).

Zenaida Lubomirska nee Hołyńska, b. 1820 in Rowne / Rivne, was daughter of Michał Hołyński and Elżbieta Tolstoj; wife of Kazimierz Anastazy Karol Lubomirski
with children:
Stanisław Michał Henryk Michał Henryk Lubomirski [1838-1918],
and Marie Lannes de Montebello.

Above Michał Hołyński / Михаил Иванович Голынский, b. 1784, was son of Jan (Ivan) Hołyński and Barbara KASZYC.

Above Jan (Ivan) Hołyński b. 1746, was son of Józef Antoni Tadeusz Hołyński and Petronela ZUKOWSKA.

Above Józef Antoni Hołyński / Juozas Antanas Holinskis of the MSCISLAU province of POLAND, born ca 1720/1730, was son of Kazimierz Hołyński b. ca 1670, and Teofila MOSKIEWICZ.

Kazimierz Hołyński b. ca 1670 - the son of Stefan Kazimierz Hołyński and Izabela Ostankiewicz.

KAZIMIERZ of the MSCISLAU province was brother of
Franciszka Holynska born ca 1665;
Teofila Wojna;
Jan Michał Hołyński;
Krystyna Romeyko-Hurko - Konstantynowicz born ca 1680;
Jakub Hołyński;
and Barbara Romeyko-Hurko.

Note to above mentioned KAZIMIERZ Holynski b. ca 1670:

Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz b. ca 1670/1680, near of kin with Holynski family from Soino (either Big Soino or Voronove Slobody near by a farm of Mielkovka = Mietkowka), and his siblings, and Hurko family also (from Krotowsza otherwise called Krynki or Krotovshe that belonged to Romejko - Hurko family in the Orsa district / JAN HURKO born ca 1670) were in trouble with Holynski

(Kazimierz Holynski born ca 1670, the son of Stefan Kazimierz Holynski from Chlyszczewo i.e. Chwostowo close by border between Belarus and Russia, from Soino and Uszpol, born ca 1630/1640)

family after 1714.

The above Soino is situated 18 km east away from Mscislau, at territory of Russia now i.e. 7 km from present border; it was the Grand duchy of Lithuania 1359 - 1772 and next in Russia: the Mstislavl district, Soino region = "volost" that is similar to county, in a parish of Mscislau (archbishopric of Mahileu, in the Mscislau - Klimavicy catholic area were three parishes: Lozovica, Mscislau and Smolensk in the 19th cent.);
one our leg lived in the territory of present Belarus, but the second one stood at the present land of Russia in borders after 1992.

A fortunes of Poles in this remote easterly territories of the former Both Nations Republic turned out differently than by Vistula, because not a few Poles had got to choose military service in the Russian Army since the end of the 18th cent. [see 1877/1878] or they worked as engineers in different corners of former Russia since second half of the 19th century.



George Washington and Thomas Jefferson closely connected with Bystrzanowski and Tadeusz Kosciuszko after 1776.

For the first time, by Polish, after about 240 years, I give one of the names, a person who accompanied Tadeusz Kosciuszko to Martynika in the summer of 1776.

We have two sources here by English, including one book from the first half of the 19th century.

The following layout, configuration is created:

Freemasonry and General George Washington / Jerzy Washington - Bystrzanowski Szafraniec or {B. Bystrzanowski / Bronislaw, acc. to me} Bystrzanowski / Br. Bystrzonowski {Br. = Brother ?}, a Polish soldier who came over to America, the US country, Freemason, together with Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Tadheus Kosciusko in the Summer of 1776

- the Bystrzanowski / Soltyk family from Sekursko - Trzebniow - Dabrowno {a line to Konarski and Kell - MI5 - more below !};

closely affiliated with the KIEDRZYNSKI family of KAMYK - Kiedrzyn near Czestochowa and Bleszynski of Wielgomlyny [in SEKURSKO of Bystrzanowski];

the Paszkowski family:
Jan Paszkowski [Dabrowno with Sebastian Bystrzanowski];

his sons: 1.
Wojciech Paszkowski

[Trzebniow belonged to Sebastian Bystrzanowski, and the estate was managed by Wojciech Paszkowski who was the friend to Artur Potocki - the bearer of the Templar degree of the Freemasonry +
General Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski in CRACOW in 1830/1832 + the Templars around General Franciszek Paszkowski in Cracow after 1840 - the line to Duke Kent in Scotland

- the line to Demonsi of KAZAN; Armand of Moscow {+ Maria Wilhelmina Paszkowska Armand + Anna Konstantynowicz / Lenin and Inessa Armand / Lenin};
Breguet {+ Kazan, St. Petersburg, Duflon, Venture de Paradise, Maleszewski - Poniatowski, Jozef Sulkowski};
Duflon {+ Drzewiecki + Martynov / Katenin / Orlov Denisov} + Konstantynowicz / Armand in Moscow, Swolna, Miezonka, Nomme-Tallinn];

2.
and next son General Franciszek Paszkowski + political relationships with General Stanislaw Fiszer + General Tadeusz Kosciuszko

[Kosciuszko - the friend of Thomas Jefferson - the ILLUMINATI - see Polish conspirators:
Szaniawski,
Horodyski,
Neyman,
Soltyk,
and MALESZEWSKI - 1789 in France and the ILLUMINATI - Breguet and KAZAN].

Tadeusz Kosciuszko, the hero of Poland and the United States, an honorary French citizen, happily saved from the maritime disaster, stayed in July 1776 at Martinique and moved to America to fight for the independence of the United States. Tadeusz Kosciuszko set off from France to America in July 1776. At the Martinique coast, the ship crashed on the reefs, but Kosciuszko and five other Poles survived - they flowed with him as volunteers to the American army. They spent a month in Martinique because no ships were traveling due to numerous storms. Unable to wait, they hired a small fishing boat and sailed to Miami [Spanish city].
Information about the catastrophe of the Kosciuszko ship was released only one year later in the 'Nowiny' newspaper. Kosciuszko was already a colonel of the American army. He was there for eight years, during which he fought for independence of the United States, he worked as an engineer.
Wanting to go to America, Kosciuszko probably came to a well-known French writer - Pierre Augustian de Beamarchais, who as a member of the French intelligence could help him on a trip to America. Probably in June 1776, he left the port of Le Havre.
The many dangers that he experienced during the cruise, the 'Nowiny' described on April 16, 1777.
During a voyage to America, a ship carrying Kosciuszko and five others, unknown Poles, turns off course during a storm and crashes near the island of Martinique.
One of the Poles was Bystrzanowski, maybe born ca 1745/1755.

We will venture to cite one other anecdote as indicative of the character of the american Masonic Lodges. It is, we believe, a well authenticated fact, that the presiding officer of the Lodge which held its meetings in that division of the army which was under the immediate command of General Washington, was a common soldier - an obscure Sergeant for his Worshipful Master, when he was as much the Dictator of his country as Caesar was of Rome!

St. John's Lodge in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, is the oldest Masonic lodge in New Hampshire; it was founded either in 1734 or in 1736; a title also claimed by Solomon's Lodge in Savannah, Georgia, which was founded in 1734.
Soon after, the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire was formed and was finalized on April 8, 1790. Until that time, St. John's was under the Massachusetts Grand Lodge.

Masonry in America:
1717 - the regulation of Grand Lodge of England.
1720 - the first Charters and Dispensations issued by the Grand Lodge at London.
1733 - Boston: a Warrant by the Lord Viscount Montage of London.
1779 - General Sulivan in New Hampshire; at Tioga Point, the first Lodge of the Army was opened.

George Washington met the nineteen-year-old Marquis de Lafayette on August 5, 1777; The Marquis was recruited to serve in the American cause by Silas Deane, who headed an American effort in Paris to enlist French Army officers in the cause. Instead, Deane believed that Lafayette would be valuable to the American cause because of his connections to the Court of Louis XVI.
The nineteen-year-old received his Major General's sash on July 31. Five days later, he met George Washington who travelled to Philadelphia.

While he was commander in chief of the American armies during the Revolutionary War, Washington frequently attended the meetings of military lodges. He presided over Masonic ceremonies initiating his officers and frequently attended the Communications of the Brethren (lodge meetings).
It shows U. S. President George Washington presiding over a meeting of the Lodge of the Alexandria, Virginia Masonic Lodge.

Washington, the presiding officer of a lodge in the Army of the Revolution - it originally belonged to [Bronislaw ?] Bystrzanowski, a Polish soldier, who came over to this country with Kosciuszko, and served in the American army under Gen. Washington. Being a Mason, Bystrzanowski was associated with Washington in one of the army lodges, having authority to confer the mark degree, and over which George Washington presided for a time as Master.

George Washington joined the Masonic Lodge in Fredericksburg, Virginia, at the age of twenty in 1752. During the War for Independence, General Washington attended Masonic celebrations and religious observances in several states. He also supported Masonic lodges that formed within army regiments.
At his first inauguration in 1791, President Washington took his oath of office on a Bible from St. John's Lodge in New York. During his two terms, he visited Masons in North and South Carolina, and presided over the ceremony at the U.S. Capitol in 1793. In retirement, Washington became charter Master of the newly chartered Alexandria Lodge 22; and in death, was buried with Masonic honors.
Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22:
the Grand Lodge of Virginia having been formed, October 13, 1778, the Lodge withdrew from Pennsylvania obedience and received a Virginia charter dated April 28, 1788 as Alexandria Lodge No. 22. George Washington (later inaugurated as President of the United States on April 4, 1789) with his personal consent, was named Worshipful Master in the Virginia charter.


B. Bystrzanowski [= Br. Bystrzanowski], he came to North America during the War of Independence, he served in the American army; he had a Masons degree - Mark Mason - with the right to give it to others; it's the military Lodge to which George Washington belonged.
See: ... Free and Accepted Masons 1928 - 1953, New York 1953, p. 38. And L. Hass, Wolnomularze polscy w losach Zachodu ..., Ars Regia, R. 7/8 (1998/1999), s. 131 - 230.


The Knights Templar - The Order of Mark Master Masons:

Thomas Dunckerley (1724 - 1795) was "appointed Provincial Grand Master [the first in 1767] of several provinces [the Provincial Grand Master for Essex in 1776, and in 1786 the Provincial Grand Master for the County of Dorset], promoting Royal Arch masonry, introducing Mark Masonry to England, and instituting a national body for Templar masonry".
The first evidence of Mark Masonry is in 1769, when Dunckerley, at a Royal Arch Chapter, made several brethren Mark Masons and Mark Masters [Br. Bystrzanowski = B. Bystrzanowski = Szafraniec-Bystrzonowski in France in 1776 was MARK MASON, either he was Mark Mason before 1776 in UK or after 1776 in America he was Mark Mason/Mark Master]. "It is possible that Dunckerley created the degree", by Wikipedia.

The earliest records of a Mark degree in England are those of Royal Arch Chapter No 257 at Portsmouth in 1769. It was introduced by Thomas Dunkerley. It is clear that the Mark Degrees were worked in CRAFT LODGES and in Royal Arch Chapters up until 1813.

In 1791, Dunckerley became the Grand Master of the English Masonic Knights Templar;
by the Duke of Kent almost a decade later.

"... The Order of Mark Master Masons is an appendant order of Freemasonry that exists in some Masonic jurisdictions, and confers the degrees of Mark Mason and Mark Master".

Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas speculate "that the construction of the Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland (1440 - 1490) provided the interface between the Knights Templar and Freemasonry. According to that analysis, the first degree and Mark Masonry was introduced by William Sinclair, whom they claim was the first Grand Master and founder of Freemasonry ... The United Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta of England and Wales and Its Provinces Overseas, better known as the Knights Templar, is a Masonic body founded in its current form in 1895. ...

The specific "Knights Templar" fraternal order connected to Freemasonry originated from Thomas Dunckerley toward the end of the 18th century ...
... In 1751 Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund und Altengrotkau began the Order of Strict Observance, which ritual he claimed to have received from the reconstituted Templar Order in 1743 in Paris. he was initiated, by Scottish knights, into the Order of the Knights Templar, and ... to have met two of the "unknown superiors" who directed all of masonry, one of whom was Prince Charles Edward Stuart. ... In 1779 the High Knights Templar of Ireland Lodge, Kilwinning, obtained a charter from Lodge Mother Kilwinning in Scotland..." - all above by Wikipedia and others webnet sources.



The Templar masonry in England and the Order of MALTA:

Thomas Dunckerley (1724 - 1795) was a Provincial Grand Master of several provinces, this was made possible by an annuity of £100, rising to £800, which he obtained in 1767 from King George III by claiming to be his illegitimate half brother - the Prince of Wales, later King George II, was Thomas' natural father.
At this time, in 1751 Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund und Altengrotkau began the Order of Strict Observance [with the superior, Prince Charles Edward Stuart], which came from the reconstituted Templar Order in 1743 in Paris.

Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (1720 - 1788), was the second Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland (as Charles III). In 1742, Lord Kilmarnock and other exiled Stuart participants received Karl Gotthelf, Baron Von Hund into the Order of the Temple in Paris showing the Jacobite Templar link still existed; and in 1745, Prince Charles Edward Stuart given a gala meeting for the Chivalry of the Order in Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh.

Jacobitism was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.

The next step was in 1779 when the High Knights Templar of Ireland Lodge, Kilwinning, obtained a charter from Lodge Mother Kilwinning in Scotland.
"This lodge now began to grant dispensations to other lodges to confer the Knights Templar Degree. Some time around 1790 the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland was formed, which began to warrant Templar Lodges, and evolved into the Supreme Grand Encampment in 1836". "The Templar degree had filtered into the lodges of the Antients from Ireland about 1780".

In 1791, Dunckerley became the Grand Master of the first national Grand Conclave of English Masonic Knights Templar; then followed, in 1805 by their Royal Patron, Duke of Kent, who became Grand Master himself. Kilwinning Abbey was a home to the Knights Templar and birthplace of the Freemasons.

In 1796 Alexander Deuchar becomes the Heritor to the Jacobite Templar legacy. Alexander Deuchar (1777 - 1844) stayed in Lyon, his family had been Jacobite; in 1807, Deuchar holds a meeting of Knights Templar in Edinburgh; the new Order started formally in 1805 "when a charter was issued to by the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland (previously the High Knight Templars of Ireland Lodge), under the title of the Edinburgh Encampment No 31" - it became the Grand Assembly of Knights Templar in Edinburgh; the charter was granted in 1811, for the Grand Conclave of Knights of the Holy Temple and Sepulcher, and of St. John of Jerusalem.
In 1813 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England, and in December 1813 - above Prince Edward became Grand Master of the Antient Grand Lodge of England.

Mentioned above the Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus, b. 1767, died in 1820, was the fifth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and the father of Queen Victoria! The Duke of Kent was appointed Field-Marshal of the Forces in 1805. His wife was Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld with daughter Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom. His mother - Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Martinism "as a mystical tradition, it was first transmitted through a masonic high-degree system established around 1740 in France by Martinez de Pasqually, and later propagated in different forms by his two students Louis Claude de Saint-Martin and Jean-Baptiste Willermoz". Or Martinism is a specific form of Christian mysticism, an esoteric Christianity; founded 1754 in Paris, by Martinez Paschalis, and
in 1775 by Louis Claude de Saint Martin, near to Illumine [Illuminate] - Jean Willermoz who voted the death of the King of France in 1782.

The Scottish Rectified Rite or Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cite-Sainte was originally a Masonic rite, a reformed variant of the Rite of Strict Observance,
which underlies both Martinism and the practices of the Elus-Cohens; was founded in the late 18th century by Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, who was a pupil of Martinez de Pasqually and a friend of Saint-Martin.

The Modern Martinist Order was established with three degrees in Paris.

Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick 1721 - 1792; Scottish Rite; he is the same Duke of Brunswick who was mentioned in Robison's secret Illuminati membership list, patron of the Asiatic Brethern, an Illuminati offshoot.

The Sabbatian Vienna Lodge of the Asiatic Brethren was founded by Jacob Frank's cousin, Moses Dobrushka, alias Von Schoenfeld.

Jonathan Eybeschütz born in Cracow in 1690, d. Altona, 1764, was a Talmudist, Rabbi of the "Three Communities": Altona, Hamburg and Wandsbek. According to Jacob Katz, Jonathan Eybeschütz's grandson was rumored to be Baron Thomas von Schoenfeld, an apostate Jew who inherited his grandfather's collection of Sabbatean kabbalistic works.
He eventually left the Sabbatean movement and founded a
Masonic lodge called the Asiatische Bruder, one of four Illuminati lodges in Vienna.
After his uncle's death in 1791, he was offered the leadership of the Frankist movement which he refused.

Above Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg b. 1721, Wolfenbüttel, was a German-Prussian field marshal (1758 - 1766) "known for his participation in the Seven Years' War. From 1757 to 1762 he led an Anglo-German army in Western Germany which successfully repelled French attempts to occupy Hanover...".

The vocation to live a few pseudo-secret organizations, very fast , with extremely strange names and rituals, names dating back to the deep Middle Ages, causes the astonishment and even awakens laughter. In the course of 50 years each of these organizations tried to take control of the other [1740-1790].

The United Kingdom, Russia and France sent out for supreme positions in these organizations, his trusted men, too. Only the United Kingdom has been successful taking over control of the Scottish mysterious structures, but it was in the years 1790-1800. A previously plan of mysterious brain was successful. From England broke away its colonies [without Canada] in the years around 1776-1785.

Blows from the inside hit in France and Poland [1780s] destroying the two countries; Poland disappeared from the map of the world for about 120 years, but France survived the chaos of the Jacobin revolution and Napoleonic wars.

It broke out a strange uprising in Russia, operettas and provoked, of the Decembrists, as if someone wanted to prove that Russia is not directed underground movements against Poland, Great Britain and France [and even earlier already against Bavaria; and later against the Papacy in Italy], and at the turn of the 19th and 20th century also against Turkey.

But it is Russia suffered the greatest benefits of the revolutionary turmoil in North America and France - but rather in the whole of central and Western Europe at the end of the 18th century.

Discussed below mysterious organization is nothing more than the 18-century intelligence agencies of a foreign power.

For Germany, England, France, and Poles and also for Baltic Germans, remained the hardest way - but also the way bringing the greatest benefits - take over the underground structures, when it takes on the momentum and becomes the might; best to immediately take over the head of structure - the supreme authority of underground networks and the supreme command of Russian intelligence.

It had to be, however, protect from the rear - creating from the ground up a modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia, by the Baltic Germans already infiltrated from Ireland and Scotland.

Objectives were clear - the overthrow of the Romanov dynasty and abridgment of Russia to the national core [1917-1922]. The whole plan should have been conducted in Europe now plunged into chaos of war - it is the First World War [1914-1918]. So plan for dismantling of the colonial powers: England and France, ended with a defeat - and the same multi-level underground structure has become a tool of western intelligence services.

In this ensemble, ready to act, entered Polish independence movement of Pilsudski, using additional family connections with the Baltic Germans, Irish and Scots. This was the largest triumph of Poles in the period 1618 -2015 [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland].
Pilsudski never could let - during his life - destroyed of this work [1926], as his successor Marshal Rydz Smigly [1939-1941].
Greatest defeat suffered Poles in the years 1937-1945, and to this day is difficult for them to get up.

Of course, already other countries took a leading role in this web network in the 20th century; only suggests - USA, Great Britain, Russia and Israel ...

Russia was the only country interested in depriving of England colonies in North America (1776), and in broken down of France from the core (1789); Russia, which began the race for colonies in the Central and North Asia (the way to India and China), and America (the 18th cent. - Alaska, Oregon, California);

Russia in the second half of the 18th century began conquer of the Central Europe, including the destruction of Poland (1795) and Turkey.

Secret societies were the Russian (Freemasonry, Illuminati, Templars) best tools in infiltrating opposition against the monarchs of England and France (and against the Catholic Church).

The Masonic conspiracy theories said the
"...Freemasonry overlaps with, or is controlled by, the Illuminati, especially in the higher degrees; Illuminati Freemasons secretly control many major aspects of society and government and are working to establish the New World Order. Some conspiracy theories involving the Freemasons and the Illuminati also include the Knights Templar and Jews as part of the supposed plan for universal control of society. This type of conspiracy theory was described as early as 1792 ... the Masons are either intimately connected to or (conversely) in conflict with the Illuminati regarding a plot to control several countries."

"The first President of the United States, George Washington believed that the Illuminati intended to separate the people from their government in his letters in the Library of Congress. The original manuscript is on the Library of Congress website...", acc. to Greg Scott:
"Mount Vernon, October 24, 1798. Revd Sir: I ... It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am. The idea that I meant to convey, was, that I did not believe that the Lodges of Free Masons in this Country had, as Societies, endeavoured to propagate the diabolical tenets of the first, or pernicious principles of the latter (if they are susceptible of seperation). That Individuals of them may have done it, or that the founder, or instrument employed to found, the Democratic Societies in the United States, may have had these objects; and actually had a seperation of the People from their Government in view, is too evident to be questioned".
Greg Scott:
"Essentially what he is saying is that he does not doubt that the doctrines of the Bavarian Illuminati, as created by Adam Weishaupt in 1776, (which was used to infiltrate Freemasonry) had spread in the United States in fact he says, 'On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am'...".
Matthew Dorry:
"This is a nonsense interpretation of the letter. George Washington's words, 'It was NOT my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had NOT spread in the United States', were a double-negative, and express that he was dubious of the spread of the Illuminati and the Jacobins. And when he says, 'On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am', he's affirming that he's glad that the Illuminati and Jacobin ideals hadn't spread. This is directly confirmed by the very next paragraph that YOU quote, in which G. W. refers to the Doctrines of the Illuminati as 'diabolical tenets', and Jacobinism as having 'pernicious principles'. On the whole, he's expressing that although it cannot be doubted that certain individuals had entered Freemasonry lodges with the intent of spreading those principles, he didn't think that whole lodges in America were spreading them. He's making a very clear distinction between the Bavarian Illuminati and Jacobins, and American Freemasonry. So much for people reading these things only once and misunderstanding the language of the letter."
Above text under copyright by http://consciouslifenews.com/.

Thomas Jefferson on the Illuminati - a letter on January 31, 1800:
"I have lately by accident got a sight of a single volume ... of the Abbe Barruel's Antisocial conspiracy, which gives me the first idea I have ever had of what is meant by the Illuminatism against which 'illuminate Morse' as he is now called, and his ecclesiastical and monarchical associates have been making such a hue and cry. Barruel's own parts of the book are perfectly the ravings of a Bedlamite. But he quotes largely from Wishaupt whom he considers as the founder of what he calls the order. As you may not have had an opportunity of forming a judgment of this cry of 'mad dog' which has been raised against his doctrines, I will give you the idea I have formed from only an hour's reading of Barruel's quotations from him, which you may be sure are not the most favorable. Wishaupt seems to be an enthusiastic Philanthropist. ... As Wishaupt lived under the tyranny of a despot and priests, he knew that caution was necessary even in spreading information, and the principles of pure morality. He proposed therefore to lead the Free masons to adopt this object and to make the objects of their institution the diffusion of science and virtue. He proposed to initiate new members into his body by gradations proportioned to his fears of the thunderbolts of tyranny. This has given an air of mystery to his views, was the foundation of his banishment, the subversion of the masonic order, and is the colour for the ravings against him of Robinson, Barruel and Morse, whose real fears are that the craft would be endangered by the spreading of information, reason, and natural morality among men. This subject being new to me, I have imagined that if it be so to you also, you may receive the same satisfaction in seeing, which I have had in forming the analysis of it: and I believe you will think with me that if Wishaupt had written here, where no secrecy is necessary in our endeavors to render men wise and virtuous, he would not have thought of any secret machinery for that purpose."

It was a global political network of the Russian intelligence infiltrated by the British, French and Germans, and by the Polish independence conspiracy:
Lenin and Inessa Armand, Duflon, nobility from Scotland, Italy, Ireland, France, Switzerland, the German noble families in Estonia.

On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.

Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.

The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities.

This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland].

Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state.

Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed. Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.

This military - political intelligence network has a different appearance depending on, which side you watch from. It's like the external universe, which expands. It has a chaotic structure, but only to the viewers. For top executives of the network, it is extremely bright and clear. It works like clockwork.

Time passes, and this network is expanding, as the universe, at that time some stars turning pale, faded and disappeared.

The underground structure has clearly defined objectives at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries:

1. call up the chaos in Europe;
2. to bring the continental war;
3. overthrow of the Romanovs in Russia;
4. lead to anarchy in Russia;
5. starting the war between the invaders, who take away the Polish independence [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland];
6. pulling the western countries into the war, and in due time also America.

The network in the 18th to 21st cent.
Overarching objectives are at the beginning of the 20th cent.:
1. Polish independence [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland],
2. The independence of the Baltic States;
3. The creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.

Tools to achieve these goals are:
1. The money from the Scottish, Jewish and American banks; revenue from the Mediterranean trade - Marseille, Greece, Naples, Crimea; and plantations in Ceylon and from the Asian trade - Ceylon, India, Japan;
2. the use of secret non-goverment organisations (NGOs) in Europe and America;
3. The creation of favorable underground structures inside the intelligence networks of Western Europe and American countries.

Below we have the details of the movements of underground in Europe in the period 1740-1790, which also reached North America.

Robert Welch in 1956 used some of his money to fund various extreme right-wing causes. This included supporting the work of Joseph McCarthy and in 1958 he established the John Birch Society (JBS). In 1956 Welch wrote that top government officials such as John Foster Dulles and Allan W. Dulles were "communist tools". Welch made it clear he wanted a "secret, monolithic organization" that would "operate under completely autoritative control at all levels". British historian John Simkin adds important detail to the story of Ben Bradlee and CIA Counterintelligence Chief James Angleton after the assassination of President Kennedy.
At http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/ we read:
Dan Smoot, the author of The Invisible Government, wrote: "Somewhere at the top of the pyramid in the invisible government are a few sinister people who know exactly what they are doing: they want America to become part of a worldwide socialist dictatorship, under the control of the Kremlin".

Another important supporter of the JBS was William F. Buckley. In April 1961 Major General Edwin Walker, commander of the 24th Infantry Division in Europe and stationed in Augsburg, Germany was accused of indoctrinating his troops with right-wing literature from the John Birch Society.
On 10th April, 1963, Edwin Walker was victim of an assassination attempt while he sat at a desk in his Dallas home. It was later claimed that Lee Harvey Oswald had taken the shot at Walker. Marina Oswald reported that she "asked him what happened, and he said that he just tried to shoot General Walker...".
Haley also suggested that Johnson might have been responsible for the death of John F. Kennedy. Robert W. Welch died on 6th January, 1965 and Lawrence P. McDonald replaced him as chairman of the John Birch Society. "...Interestingly, McDonald was on board the Korean Air Flight KAL-007 when it was shot down by Soviet fighters on 1st September, 1983. He therefore became the first and only congressman ever killed by the Soviets during the Cold War. Some people, including Jesse Helms and Jerry Falwell, believe that McDonald was targeted by the Soviets".

The Illuminati was first seen in the 15th century by occultists proclaiming to have wisdom from a higher source. The secret society became strong in 18th century Germany. It adopted many different grades of Freemasonry. Conspiracies were spun about the forces of order, bureaucracy, and repression. People soon realized that espionage was their main focus, then the French Revolution arrived and changed the country.
The only people who mention the Illuminati anymore is the John Birch Society. Read more: http://www.meta-religion.com/Secret_societies/
The John Birch Society (JBS) is a conservative advocacy group supporting anti-communism; Robert W. Welch, Jr. (1899 - 1985) developed an organizational infrastructure in 1958 of chapters nationwide. Presidents: Robert W. Welch, Jr. (1958 - 1983), Larry McDonald (1983), a U.S. Representative who was killed in the KAL-007 shootdown incident; Robert W. Welch, Jr. (1983 - 1985). Korean Air Lines Flight 007 (also known as KAL007 and KE007) was a scheduled Korean Air Lines flight from New York City to Seoul via Anchorage. On September 1, 1983, the airliner serving the flight was shot down by a Soviet Su-15 interceptor, near Moneron Island west of Sakhalin in the Sea of Japan. All were killed, including Larry McDonald, a Representative from Georgia in the United States House of Representatives.
Arthur R. "Art" Thompson (born 1938 in Seattle) is the CEO of the John Birch Society, and took office in 2005. Thompson believes that Russian communism remains a serious threat to the USA, and is responsible for much global terrorism; Art resides in Appleton, Wisconsin.

The years 1740 - 1790, it's the beginning of the secret Masonic organizations in Germany, Ireland, France and Scotland, as well as in Russia, Poland, Austria.

Jean-Baptiste Willermoz (1730 - 1824) was a "French Freemason and Martinist who played an important role in the establishment of various systems of Masonic high-degrees in his time in both France and Germany". In Lyon he became Grand Master in 1761, also organized "Sovereign Chapter of Knights of the Black Eagle Rose-Cross", was admitted to first grade in the Order of the Elus Cohens at Versailles in 1767 by Martinez de Pasqually; in the 1770s, he came into contact with Baron von Hund and the German Order of the Order of Strict Observance which he joined in 1773; Willermoz introduced also at the Convention of Lyon the Regime Ecossais Rectifie (Rectified Scottish Rite), which combined Templar Freemasonry with the religious ceremonial of the Elect Coens; he defended the place of Martinist currents in the rite; "... he resumed his Masonic activities with a resurgence of the CBCS [the Beneficent Knights of the Holy City; in Lyon in 1778, constituted the Beneficent Knights of the Holy City] in 1804, and dedicated himself to this end until his death ... 1824".

The Rectified Scottish Rite, "also known as Order of Knights Beneficent of the Holy City is a Christian Masonic rite founded in Lyon (France) in 1778". It is derived from the Rite of Strict Observance erected in 1754, the foundation of which was attributed to Baron von Hund; it propounded a theory that freemasonry was developed directly from the Crusading Templars; the Rite was mainly elaborated by Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, including some items coming from the Elect Cohen Order and denying the Templar legacy.

The Elect Cohens, or the Ordre des Chevelier Macons Elus Cohen de L'Univers / Order of Knight-Masons Elect Priests of the Universe / The Martinist Order of the Elect-Cohens, which issued from the Traditional Martinist Order i.e. of the Elus Cohen of Martinez de Pasqually, and of the Order of the Rose-Croix of the Orient; the Elect Cohens, were a society of Cabbalists, organised on 'Scottish' Masonic lines, who were influenced by the Spanish Alumbrados / Sufi; "...they were the first group to be called the Illumines, or Illuminati, though their relatively conservative views were diametrically opposite to the Bavarian Illuminati ... founded in 1765 by the Freemason Jacques de Livron Joachim de la Tour de la Casa Martinez de Pasqually, of Grenoble, France, the Order was initially only open to Master Masons, but later became more open".

"The system of the Strict Observance grew out of what is known as Templarism. Templar Masonry commenced to grow up in France soon after true Freemasonry was introduced. This was about 1725. However, no Grand Lodge was established till 1752. ... The Hospitallers, known officially as Knights of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, was founded at Jerusalem during the first Crusade. ... Some of the Knights went to Russia and elected the Emperor Paul I Grand Master ... In England the Order was never formally suppressed, and in 1888 Queen Victoria granted it a charter. In 1889 King Edward VII, then Prince of Wales was made Grand Prior. ... The Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, or, as it is otherwise called, Knights Templar, was founded in Palestine in the 12th century by the Crusaders. ... The Rite of the Strict Observance is based on Templar Masonry. Its founders claimed that all Templars were Masons ... The truth is that all Templar Masonry is descended from a Kadosh degree invented in Lyons, France, in 1743.

... Nevertheless, about 1740, various Rites, or degrees, of Scots Masonry, did spring into existence, followed shortly afterwards by Scots Mother-Lodges controlling systems of subordinate Scots Lodges. ... In 1743 the Masons of Lyons invented the Kadosh degree, comprising the vengeance of the Templars, and thus laid the foundation for all the Templar Rites. It was at first called Junior Elect

... The Rite of Strict Observance was carried from France to Germany as early as 1749. Von Bieberstein, as Provincial Grand Master, was succeeded at his death, about 1750, by Karl Gotheif, Baron Von Hund, and Alten-Grotkau. He was made a Mason in 1742. A year or so afterwards he met at Paris Lord, Kilmarnock, who interested him in Templarism, and he was initiated into the Order of the Temple. He was given a patent and directed to report to the Prov. Grand Master, Von Bieberstein, of the 7th Province in Germany. ...

We can trace its beginnings back to Lord Kilmarnock, Grand Master of Scotland, in 1742 - 43. Kilmarnock in Scotland was made a barony ... In 1751 Von Hund began to give particular attention to the restoration of the Order of the Temple and evidently considered it his life work.
... In 1763 a fellow named Leucht, going under the name of Johnson, who had got hold of some Masonic papers relating to Masonry proper, as well as the high degrees, appeared at Jena where there was a Clermont Chapter practicing the Templar degrees in the Strict Observance system, and stated that he had a commission from the Sovereign Chapter in Scotland to reform the German Lodges and impart the true secrets of Masonry ...

An Order called the Clerics turned up and it was supposed for a time that the lost secrets were with it. ... This convention took place at Brunswick and was in session from May 23 to July 6, 1775. ... Baron Von Gugumos was at the Brunswick convention and told different members of it that they were all on the wrong track; that the Strict Observance was an imitation, or rather, only a branch of the true Order, and possessed none of the real secrets; ...

The Convention of Wiesbaden ... on Aug. 15, 1776, with the consent the Prince of Nassau-Usingen, but without that of the Duke of Brunswick. Among those present was the sovereign, the Duke of Nassau; also the Duke of Gotha, the Landgraves Ludwig and George, and many other nobles of lesser note. At one time there was not less than twelve reigning sovereign Princes of Germany members of the Rite of the Strict Observance ... Baron Von Hund died on Oct. 28, 1776 ... In 1782 the Rite of Strict Observance was reorganized by Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, who was elected Grand Master General. The next year, however, the Lodge of the Three Globes of Berlin, with all of its subordinate lodges and the Hamburg Lodges, withdrew from the Strict Observance ...",
acc. to http://blog.templarhistory.com/ by Burton E. Bennett [born 1863 in North Brookfield, New York; 1887, United States, Attorney for Alaska].



Br. Bystrzanowski, Thomas Dunckerley and Ebenezer Sibly - Illuminati and the Templars in UK, France and America - Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin and Alexander Hamilton:

Thomas Dunckerley, acted in the Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, held at the Castle-Inn, Marlborough (1769) - at half way from Bristol to Reading.
William Wonnacott suggests Sibly may have first become acquainted with his future masonic patron Thomas Dunckerley (1720 - 1795) in Portsmouth.
Thomas Dunckerley known in 1766 and 1767 Chesterfield; also he known Sir Edward Walpole - early in the construction on his new identity - to support Dunckerley's attempt to be recognized as GEORGE II's son.

Ebenezer Sibly was deeply involved in occult, but his brother Manoah SIBLY was the member of the Swedenborgian Theosophical Society; and was living in London like Swedenborgian minister.

Manoah SIBLY thus provided a tangible connection between Ebenezer SIBLY / Ebenezer Sibley, and the Swedenborgian enthusiasts Philippe de LOUTHERBOURG, Peter Lambert de LINTOT and Charles RAINSFORD - and in ca 1776 to CAGLIOSTRO.
Above acc. to Susan Mitchell Sommers.

"... Likewise, we have given up presenting even less well-known but not uninteresting Masonic Brothers like Peter Lambert of Lintot, Ebenezer Sibley or Charles Rainsford because of a somewhat marginal aspect of their activity ('fringe masonry')...".

Thomas Dunckerley, a natural son of George II, was initiated into Masonry, in January 1754.

Acc. to 'HISTORY OF THE GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND - 1723-60':
"... The first meeting of this Lodge, of which a record is preserved, took place, December 28, 1732. Present, the Master and Wardens, and seven 'members'.
No other titles are used. Among the 'members' were George Rainsford and Johnson Robinson, the former of whom is described as Master, and the latter as Pass'd Master, in the minutes of May 18, 1733. It is possible, to put it no higher, that these distinctive terms were employed because some of the members had graduated under the Grand Lodge system, whilst others had been admitted or passed to their degrees, according to the more homely usage which preceded it. The degree seems, however, to have become fairly well established by 1738, as the Constitutions of that year inform us that there were then eleven Masters' Lodges in the metropolis".

"... It is not clear where or how Cagliostro and Sibly crossed paths, but they did, and one result was that Ebenezer Sibly paid 300 guineas to copy the manuscript, called the Rotalo, which Cagliostro claimed to have used to hit the jackpot in the 1776 British lottery".

RAINSFORD, CHARLES (1728 - 1809), general, born at West Ham, was the only son of Francis Rainsford (d. 1770), by his wife Isabella, daughter of William Bale of Foston, Derbyshire. He was educated at Great Clacton, Essex, by a clerical friend of his father.
Acc. to P. Ashley, History of the Royal Cumberland Lodge, No. 41, 1873:
"...The distinction here drawn between the two sets of Masters, it is by no means easy to explain, but it appears to point to an epoch of confusion, when the old names had not yet been succeeded by the new, at least in the country Lodges. The first meeting of this Lodge, of which a record is preserved, took place, ... 1732 ...
Present, the Master and Wardens and seven members. No other titles are used. Among the members were George Rainsford and Johnson Robinson, the former of whom is described as Master, the latter as Pass'd Master, in the Minutes of May 18, 1733. ...
(Hughan, Origin of the English Rite, p. 25).
The Degree seems, however, to have become fairly well established by 1738, as the Constitutions of that year inform us that there were then eleven Masters' Lodges in the metropolis. One of these is described by Anderson as, "Black Posts in Maiden Lane, where there is also a Masters' Lodge." This was No. 163 on the General List, constituted Sept. 21, 1737. ...".

"... In November 1786 Admiral Sir Peter Parker was appointed to the office of Deputy Grand Master, which had become vacant by the death of Rowland Holt. ...
and it was resolved unanimously that the Rank of a Past Senior Grand Warden (with the Right of taking Place immediately next to the present Senior Grand Warden) be granted to Thomas Dunckerley, Esq., Provincial Grand Master for Dorset, Essex, Gloucester, Somerset and Southampton, with the City and County of Bristol and the Isle of Wight, in grateful Testimony of the high Sense the Grand Lodge entertains of his zealous and indefatigable Exertions, for many years, to promote the Honour and Interest of the Society.
The story of Dunckerley's life is not an easy one to relate. According to one set of biographers, his mother was the daughter of a physician (Freemasons' Magazine, vol. i, 1793, p. 378, vol. iv, 1796, p. 96) ... and, according to another,
she was a servant girl in the family of Sir Robert Walpole (Gentleman's Magazine, 1795 ...). By the former he is said to have been a natural son of King George II; whilst by the latter he is alleged to have availed himself of the remarkable likeness he bore to the Royal Family, to get it represented to George III that the previous king was in truth his father. These accounts of his parentage are irreconcilable and some other difficulties present themselves when the two biographies are collated. Certain facts, however, are free from dispute. Born October 23, 1724, he was apprenticed to a barber...
His mother's apartments at Somerset House ...
On May 7, 1767, a pension of £100 a year was assigned to him by the king ...
Dunckerley was told of his close relation to George II in 1760, by a Mrs. Pinkney, for many years his mother's neighbour in Somerset House, to whom the secret had been confided by the latter. He was then on leave of absence from H.M.S. Vanguard, which had just arrived from Quebec ...
sailed for the Mediterranean. According to his own account, he was appointed gunner of the Vanguard by Admiral Boscawen and to the same position in the Prince by Lord Anson. The dates he gives as to these appointments are a little confusing ...
and it is almost certain that some others of the latter character had accompanied the expedition under General Wolfe (1759).
Dunckerley, whilst on the North American station, indeed throughout the whole period of his service afloat - after his admission into the Craft - was doubtless an occasional visitor at Army Lodges. Most of these were under the Grand Lodge of Ireland, which issued no fewer than fifty-one military warrants ... and 1762 inclusive.
The profound knowledge, therefore, of Royal Arch Masonry, which has been traditionally ascribed to Thomas Dunckerley, may have been acquired in Irish Lodges ...
He was initiated into Masonry in January 1754 ...
On April 18, 1792, the Lodges were again ordered to be renumbered and, in the following May, at the Grand Feast, the Prince of Wales was installed Grand Master in the presence of the Duke of York, Lord Rawdon and a numerous company of Brethren. ...
The Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Ireland was invaded by Mother Kilwinning in 1779, whose Grand Master, the Earl of Eglinton, granted a Warrant in that year to 'the High Knights' Templars of Ireland, Kilwinning Lodge', Dublin.
The members of this Scottish Lodge fully considered that they were justified in working the Knight Templar Degree by virtue of their Charter and actually did so as early as December 27, 1779.
Other Degrees were also wrought by the same body, such as the Royal Arch in 1781 and the Prince Rose Croix in 1782, whilst the Chair, the Excellent and the Super Excellent Degrees came in for a share of their attention.
From this Lodge arose the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland, which chartered over fifty Encampments - some having been for Scotland and England - whilst the present Kilwinning Preceptory, Dublin, is an offshoot of the year 1780.
When the rights of this Knight Templar Organization were disputed or questioned, their Sublime Commander (John Fowler) maintained that their Warrant was 'holden from the Royal Mother Lodge of Kilwinning of Scotland, the true source from which any legal authority could be obtained' and it was declared that 'the documents to support this statement are in the archives of the Chapter, ready for the inspection of such Knights Templar as choose to examine them'.
... The erection of this daughter Lodge encouraged, however, the belief
in Kilwinning, being a centre of the Higher Degrees.
In 1813 application was made to the Mother Lodge to authorize the transfer of a Black Warrant from Knights of the Temple and of Malta, in the Westmeath Militia, to Brethren in the same Degree serving in the Shropshire Militia.
...
Scotch Lodges owed their acquaintance with Knight Templarism. This order, then known as Black Masonry, was propagated, to a large extent, through Charters issued by the High Knights Templar of Ireland, Kilwinning Lodge - a body of Freemasons in Dublin, who were constituted by Mother Kilwinning in 1779, for the practice of the Craft Degrees.
... In 1834 scarcely eight Lodges met in Dublin. There was a great deal of Masonic enthusiasm in Ireland during the closing years of the eighteenth century. ...".

No Englishman or Scot was a member of the Illuminati, although General Rainsford was affiliated with them.

"... General Charles Rainsford was a remarkable man in many ways. A professional soldier, diplomat, politician and inveterate traveller, he was also a well-connected man of the enlightenment interested in many aspects of science. Fortunately Rainsford left behind a huge archive ...".
General Charles Rainsford (1728 - 1809) was a British Army officer. His uncle, also Charles Rainsford (died 1778), was deputy lieutenant of the Tower of London and used his influence to get him made second cornet in General Bland's 3rd dragoons in March 1744 ...
With his new unit he returned to England to face the Jacobite rising, rising to major of brigade and colonel's aide-de-camp. He then served as private secretary to Tyrawley, governor of Gibraltar (1756 - 1757) before returning to England again in 1760.
The following year he was given a company to command under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick in Germany

{"... An even greater coup came from Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, and freemasonry's Grand Master of the Order of Strict Observance, who had joined the Illuminati after he had convened the most important Congress of the 18th Century. He was to realise his mistake over ten years later in that he had unwittingly unleashed a pathogen within the ranks of freemasonry. In 1794 he expressed his shock and sadness at being duped by instigators of the French Revolution and the need to 'cut out to the roots the abuse and error' which he had allowed to infect the Order. ... In 1789 the journalist and essayist Marquis Jean-Pierre de Luchet published his Essai sur la secte des Illuminés, denouncing the leaders of the Bavarian Illuminati, their control of freemasonry in Europe and in particular his native home of France. ..." (copyright by M. K. Styllinski)}.

He was also elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1779. He was also a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, a Rosicrucian, a freemason and a dabbler in alchemy.
In summer 1783 Rainsford and William Bousie, an Anglo-French merchant, began corresponding with the Parisian lodge of the Philalethes, preparatory to the Philalethes convention in Paris in April 1785 to review the rites of many para-Masonic and esoteric societies.
Rainsford provided information on Emanuel Swedenborg, Baal Shem of London and the Kabbalistic symbolism of higher degrees. He was then sent to be Robert Boyd's second-in-command at Gibraltar ...

Benedict Chastanier (1739 - ca 1816)
"was a French surgeon. In 1767 he founded a lodge of Illumines Theosophes, based on the anonymous writings of Emanuel Swedenborg.
In 1774 he migrated to England. In 1775 Chastanier and the Marquis de Thorn joined the Philalethes, a Masonic society founded by Savalette de Langes in Paris. In 1776 he founded Universal Society in London to disseminate Swedenborg's writing.
In 1782 Chastanier and Charles Rainsford reached out to kindred Illuminist groups in Berlin and Paris by publishing a brochure in French about degrees of the Universal Society.
Chastanier was in contact with the Illumines of Avignon".

William Wonnacott suggests Sibly may have first become acquainted with his future masonic patron Thomas Dunckerley in Portsmouth.

Ebenezer Sibly (1751 - ca 1799) was an English physician, astrologer and writer on the occult. He was the son of a mechanic, born in Bristol, and brother of Manoah Sibly. He studied surgery in London.
In 1794 he was living in Portsmouth, and became a Freemason there. In 1785 he was working as an astrologer in Bristol [see CASTLE-INN];
and by about 1788 had moved to London. In 1790 he was temporarily in Ipswich, supporting at the general election Sir John Hadley D'Oyly, the Whig member.
1792 he graduated at King's College, Aberdeen. ...
he became interested in the theories on animal magnetism of Anton Mesmer ...

It has been said that experts of the time would have seen that Sibly was not very discriminating about the sources he chose, and drew on unpublished translations that he had borrowed.
He knew the Book of Enoch via Charles Rainsford.

Emanuel Swedenborg born Emanuel Swedberg in 1688, was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher, and mystic who inspired Swedenborgianism.

General Rainsford was affiliated with the Illuminati through the lodge of Amis Reunis at Paris, which corresponded with the Bavarian Masons.
Whether the Illuminati affair had a role in the history of the Order of Knights Templar in England is difficult to determine,
but by 1791 the latter had decided to end their quasi-separate status and put themselves under the direction of a leading figure within the Grand Lodge. This was Thomas Dunckerley, the provincial grand Master.
Records of the Mark Degree date back to 1st September 1769 when the Provincial Grand Master Thomas Dunckerley made six Brethren of The Royal Arch Chapter of Friendship (originally No. 3 now No. 257) Mark Masons.
They were taught how to make their marks and were then made "Mark Masons and Mark Masters".
The Masonic Province of Hampshire came into being on February 28th 1767 with the appointment of Thomas Dunckerley.
The idea of holding an annual Provincial Grand Lodge seems to have been introduced by Thomas Dunckerley, who between 1767 and his death in 1795 was Provincial Grand Master for eight Provinces. He took his duties seriously, regularly visiting his charges to hold Provincial Grand Lodge meetings.
The Chapter of Friendship continued to work the Mark Degree until 1855. Mark Grand Lodge was formed in June 1856.

Although Crusader themes in Freemasonry were earlier initiated by the Jacobite, Andrew Michael Ramsay and continue to have some legacy in Scottish Rite freemasonry, the specific "Knights Templar" fraternal order connected to Freemasonry was originated from Thomas Dunckerley toward the end of the 18th century.

Bystrzonowski in France in 1776 was Mark Mason - with the right to give it to others. Br. Bystrzanowski was the friend of Tadeusz Kosciuszko [1776 - they sailed on the same ship to Martinique] and George Washington [Bystrzanowski / Bystrzonowski was a master of the Masonic Lodge, of which Washington was simple Brother]. Thomas Jefferson and Tadeusz Kosciuszko [see: General Fiszer and General Franciszek Paszkowski] were very close political collaborators.

Jefferson was sent by the Congress of the Confederation to join Benjamin Franklin and John Adams as ministers in Europe for negotiation of trade agreements with England, Spain, and France. During his five years in Paris Jefferson played a leading role in shaping the foreign policy of the United States.
He departed in July 1784, arriving in Paris the next month.
While in France, Jefferson became a regular companion of the Marquis de Lafayette, and Jefferson allowed his Paris residence, the Hotel de Langeac, to be used for meetings by Lafayette and other republicans. He was in Paris during the storming of the Bastille and consulted with Lafayette while the latter drafted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Jefferson left Paris for America in September 1789, intending to return soon; however, President George Washington appointed him the country's first Secretary of State.

Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette,
military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
A close friend of George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson, Lafayette was a key figure in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830.
Lafayette returned to France, and
in 1787 was appointed to the Assembly of Notables, which was convened in response to the fiscal crisis. He was elected a member of the Estates-General of 1789.

He helped write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, with Thomas Jefferson's assistance; inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence.

Lafayette left Boston for France on 18 December 1781.
On 11 July 1789, Lafayette presented a draft of the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen" to the Assembly, written by himself in consultation with Jefferson. Camille Desmoulins led an armed mob. The king had the royal army under the duc de Broglie surround Paris. On 14 July, the fortress known as the Bastille was stormed by the mob. On 15 July, Lafayette was acclaimed commander-in-chief of the National Guard of France, an armed force established to maintain order, and under the control of the Assembly.
On 19 October 1824, he was at Yorktown for the anniversary of Cornwallis's surrender, then journeyed to Monticello to meet with his old friend Jefferson - and Jefferson's successor, James Madison.
Lafayette had dined with the other living former president, 89-year-old John Adams.
One historiographical perspective suggests that the marquis was disposed to hate the British for killing his father.
Another notes that the marquis had recently become a Freemason, and talk of the rebellion "fired his chivalric - and now Masonic - imagination with descriptions of Americans as 'people fighting for liberty'."

Benjamin Franklin -
when Franklin went to France as America's first ambassador, there were two superpowers in Europe: England and France.
Franklin arrived in Paris in December, 1776.
"Benjamin Franklin contributed to the Mikveh Israel Jewish congregation in Philadelphia. But Franklin did not practice Judaism. He did practice the occult, and things that would be weird to Christians. He became
the head of the very occultic Grand Orient Freemasons when he was in France".

"... The possible connection between the American founding fathers, the Rothschild family and the Illuminati would be incomplete without taking into account a key figure: Benjamin Franklin.
He was also deeply involved in a variety of secret societies, not only in America, but also in Britain and France. Actually, he was a member of secret societies in the three countries involved in the American Revolution: England, France and the US.

Benjamin FRANKLIN was a member of the Hellfire Club in England ...
The Hellfire Club was created and presided by Sir Francis Dashwood; a member of the British Parliament and personal advisor to King George III. British Historian Richard Deacon affirms that the Hellfire club was a centre for English espionage, and claims that Franklin was a covert agent for the British government and for other secret powers based in Europe that worked towards the secret plan of all secret societies.
...
In 1776, year when the order of the Illuminati was created, Franklin visited King Louis XVI of France to seek funding for the American revolution, while at the same time
he was getting involved in the plot for the French revolution to overthrow the French monarchy. This took place inside the Paris lodge The Nine Sisters; which was part of the Grand Orient of France - connected to the Illuminati - of which Franklin was the Venerable Masters. This lodge was casually the exact place were the French revolution took off.
While in France, Franklin also initiated Voltaire into Freemasonry, whose writings would later inspire the French Revolution.
... My conclusion on the connection between the Rothschilds and the American Revolution: it did exist through Alexander Hamilton (who could only push the agenda for the first 20 years of independence), and also quite possibly through Solomon and Franklin; though it made no difference at the end.
It is true that the American Freemasons shared the same ideology that emerged from Jewish intellectuals in Germany and spread throughout secret societies;
but I'm having a hard time relating the founding fathers directly to the Rothschilds, with the exception of Franklin, who obviously had his hands in far too many pies to count as a confirmed agent for any side...".

Alexander Hamilton
- Hamilton has also become a favorite for conspiracy theorists who think
he was a tool for the New World Order, the Illuminati, and / or the Rothschild family, because of his support for a National Bank.
Hamilton, along with Benjamin Franklin, is one of the very few non-presidents to be portrayed on American money.
Alexander Hamilton married into the Rothschild family December 14, 1780.
Alexander Hamilton was born Alexander Levine, of Jewish lineage, in St. Croix, the West Indies. After changing his name ... he married Elizabeth Schuyler ...
John Paul Mitchell insist that Hamilton married into the Rothschild family.
Here's what we actually know about Hamilton's in-laws:
the father, Philip Schuyler, was a General during the Revolutionary War, while the mother Catherine instituted a scorched earth policy to deprive the British of food.

Philip John Schuyler was a general of the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. Come from the third generation of the Dutch family in America.
His daughter Elizabeth married Alexander Hamilton who was the first Secretary of the Treasury to the United States under George Washington.


Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton says the United States should pay its debts at par value, even though many speculators would profit by this. "Alexander Hamilton married into the Rothschild family December 14, 1780 [?]".

Alexander Hamilton was born Alexander Levine, of Jewish lineage, the son of a Jewish Merchant, in St. Croix, the West Indies. After changing his name and his geographical situs, he married Elizabeth Schuyler, the second daughter of Phillip Schuyler, at the bride's home in Albany, New York.

The bride's mother was Catherine Van Rensselaer,
daughter of Colonel John R. Van Rensselaer, who was the son of
Hendrik Van Rensselaer,
the grandson of Killiaen Van Rensselaer, the first partroon.
"... there are documents in the British museum that prove Alexander Hamilton received payment from the Rothschild's for his dastardly deeds. Could this payment have been for his involvement in the establishment of a foreign bank in this country, and for convincing Congress to assume the States debts,
which would have created a debt obligation binding the United States government and the States to the international bankers?"

Named Kiliaen van Rensselaer (born ca 1585 - died in 1643) -
a Dutch merchant, involved in the trade of colonial America. Initially, with diamond and pearl trade, then he became one of the founders and co-owner of the Dutch East India Company, a company founded in 1621. In 1629, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer purchased landed property in New Holland, then an American colony.
Rensselaerwyck was managed by his cousin Arent Van Curler.
Kiliaen Van Rensselear was one of the first founders of the Dutch east India Company. Before 1584 a state army of the Duke of Upper Saxony came to Hesseld. It's leader was Captain Johan Van Rensselaer who was from the town of Mijkerk. His twin brother, Hendrick was also in the Army. Hendrick married Maria Pafraet from Hesseld. Her father was Johan Pafraet. Johan and his brother Albert were printers.
Hendrick and Maria were Killiaen's parents.
Killean was born in 1586 [ca 1585] and baptized at St. Stephanuskerk.
Kiliaen also lived with his uncle, Wolfert Van Bijler (Byler) Wijnandsz, who had lived in London as a jeweler and with a capitol of 100000 guilders, moved to Amsterdam to join the South Netherlands diamond and pearl trade.

Kiliaen was the firm's agent to Royal Courts, traveling throughout Europe.
Kiliaen van Rensselaer was married twice:
Hillegonda van Byler (1598-1626);
and in 1626 he married Anna van Wely (1601-1670). The Van Wely's were jewelers to the Royal Court Prince Mauritius.

"In November 1658 the exiled king Charles II was visited by a young man from Amsterdam by the name of Nicolaes Van Rensselaer, who had some good news to tell him: within a year and a half the king would be restored to his father's throne, his restoration being requested by the English people. Furthermore, Van Rensselaer also prophesied that Charles Stuart's, or his son's, reign would be so glorious that under it the conversion of the Jews would take place".
"An interesting report of Nicolaes van Rensselaer and his visit to Brussels, which took place in November 1658, is given in a letter by his younger brother Richard, written on 30 November 1658 to Jeremias van Rensselaer in Rensselaerswyck.
Richard van Rensselaer informed his brother that Nicolaes van Rensselaer had gone to Brussels 'to see the king of Scotland, who granted him an audience'. Nicolaes van Rensselaer had delivered his letters and writings, which the king had examined.
As to his prophecy:
'many of those [present] believed it and others doubted it'.
As Jeremias van Rensselaer might wonder what business their brother had to see the king about, Richard would tell him. During his apprenticeship to Brughman Nicolaes had said all the time that he wished to go to England".

Nicholas van Rensselaer born in Amsterdam in September 1636; died in Albany, New York, in November 1678.
"He was the fourth son of Kiliaen van Rensselaer (1586-1643) and his second wife, Anna van Wely (1601-1670). His father was a Dutch diamond and pearl merchant from Amsterdam who was one of the founders and directors of the Dutch West India Company ... His eldest sibling, and the only child to live to adulthood from his father's first marriage to Hillegonda van Bijler, was Johan van Rensselaer (1625-1663), his half-brother. Together, his parents had eight children, including Jan Baptist van Rensselaer (1629-1678), and Jeremias van Rensselaer (1632-1674)".
In Brussels, Nicholas van Rensselaer met Charles II of England.
He subsequently went to England as chaplain to the Dutch embassy, and the king, recognizing him and recollecting his prediction, gave him a gold snuff box with his likeness in the lid.
"In 1674, after the end of the Third Anglo-Dutch War when Edmund Andros was commissioned governor of the New Netherland, Van Rensselaer accompanied him to North America, bearing a letter of recommendation from the Duke of York, son of Charles II who later became James II of England, in which he requested that Van Rensselaer be placed in charge of one of the Dutch churches in New York or Albany when there should be a vacancy".

Van Rensselaer's son, Jeremias Van Rensselaer [Jeremias van Rensselaer (1632-1674)], came to the New World and settled in Rensselaerwyck, giving birth to a prominent New York family.
The Manor of Rensselaerswyck, owned by the van Rensselaer family that was located in what is now mainly the Capital District of New York in the United States. The estate was originally deeded by the Dutch West India Company in 1630 to Kiliaen van Rensselaer, a Dutch merchant.

The estate was inherited by Kiliaen van Rensselaer's eldest son Jan Baptist [Jan Baptist van Rensselaer (1629- 1678)], who acquired the title of patroon. He died in 1658 or in 1678, and his younger brother Jeremias van Rensselaer became patroon.
Jeremias van Rensselaer took the oath of allegiance to the King of England.
Manor House, or Fort Crailo - Jeremias van Rensselaer died in 1674 and the estate was passed on to his oldest son, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, junior, the grandson to the first patroon. Kiliaen van Rensselaer died in 1719 and the patroonship passed on to his oldest son Jeremias van Rensselaer junior.

Jeremias van Rensselaer junior died in 1745 and the estate passed to his brother Stephen van Rensselaer - who died two years later in 1747.

The estate was passed on to his son, Stephen van Rensselaer II. Stephen II was active in the Albany County Militia.

Stephen van Rensselaer III: Stephen II van Rensselaer died in 1769; the Manor passed on to his eldest son Stephen van Rensselaer III.
Stephen van Rensselaer III, in 1825, was elected Grand Master of the New York State Grand Masonic Lodge.
He was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1789.


Francis Dashwood, 11th Baron le Despencer (1708 - 1781) was an English Chancellor of the Exchequer (1762 - 1763) and founder of the Hellfire Club.
He was the only son of Sir Francis Dashwood, first baronet (d. 1724), and his wife Mary, the daughter of Vere Fane, baron Le Despencer and fourth earl of Westmorland.

Sir Francis Dashwood, first baronet [born ca 1658, a British merchant - family derived their wealth from trading silks in the Levant], was the son of Francis Dashwood, SENIOR [b. ca 1620 ?], a Turkey merchant and alderman of London [Francis Dashwood, Saddler and Turkey merchant, alderman of London in 1658 - a merchant trading with a Turkey], and brother of Sir Samuel Dashwood, lord mayor of London in 1702.
Sir Francis Dashwood, first baronet (d. 1724), was four times married, and by his third wife, Mary, daughter of Major King, was father of Sir John Dashwood-King (1716 - 1793), who succeeded his half-brother Lord Le Despencer as third baronet. He was a member of the Hellfire Club which his brother had founded.

Francis Dashwood, 11th Baron le Despencer -
in 1733 - between the visits to Italy - Dashwood accompanied George, Lord Forbes, envoy-extraordinary, to St Petersburg, stopping on the way at Copenhagen. Dashwood spent his early adulthood abroad travelling around Europe. He impersonated Charles XII while in Russia, in hopes of making Czarina Anne fall in love with him, and attempted to seduce Anna Ivanovna, the empress of Russia,
and was later expelled from the Papal states.
The member of The Monks of Medmenham Abbey / the Hellfire Club; during the 1750s and early 1760s, they met at the estate of Sir Francis Dashwood; Dashwood was travelling to France and Italy, but also to Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
"... On his Grand Tour in 1740, Dashwood was signing letters to his friends as 'St. Francis',
... He had travelled with Boyne on a tour to Italy in 1730-1731, and it is possible that this was a reference to their earlier revelries on the continent. ... The first certain evidence of the Monks of Medmenham Abbey meeting comes from a letter from Richard Grenville, Earl Temple to Dashwood from October 1754. He ... celebrated ... and sat together at a 'table of the Saints'. ...".
In Russia he masqueraded as Charles XII when he visited St. Petersburg in 1733.

Anna, in full Anna Ivanovna, born 1693, empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. Anna was married to Frederick William, ruler of the Courland. Her favourites engaged Russia in the War of the Polish Succession (1733 - 1735), which placed a pro-Russian king on the Polish throne. In the former, Russia worked with Austria to support Augustus II's son Augustus against the candidacy of Stanislaw Leszczynski who was dependent on the French and amiable with Sweden and Ottoman.

Rachel Fanny Antonina Dashwood was the illegitimate daughter of Sir Francis Dashwood / Francis Dashwood, 11th Baron le Despencer. The eccentric woman, married ca 1794 to Matthew Allen Lee, Esq., separated in 1795.
Rachael Fanny Antonina Lee was living at her house in Bolton-row, Piccadilly.
She ran away with Matthew Allen Lee, Esq. and was married to him at Haddington, in Scotland.
She was later reported to be 'deplorably ignorant of English life and life universally'.
She was also the author of anticlerical tracts.
The papers of Mrs Racheal Frances Antonia Lee, the self-styled Baroness le Despenser, were "wrote under the nom-de-plume of 'Philopatria' (ca 1774 - 1829)"; 'Pedigree of Francis Baron le Despenser', 13th to early 19th centuries; 'Royal Descents of Francis late Baron le Despenser', from Edward I to late 18th century.

Rachel Fanny Antonina Lee or Rachel Fanny Antonina Dashwood, as Rachel Fanny Antonina Le Despencer - "Antonina apparently spent much of her adult life in an unsuccessful pursuit of the title Baroness Le Despencer".
In 1807 she moved back to London. Over the next few years she learnt Hebrew and she continued to publish her views.
She died in 1829. Lee wrote the following:
1.
The translation of the Hebrew epistle of Antonia Despenser, entitled, Hamzigeret ha-kmcolel Hamzel ha- Aynivrmcim; in 1821.
2.
An Investigation into the conduct of Lady Anne Dashwood and of Mr Delmar with respect to Antonina the Baroness Le Despenser about her sister-in-law's alleged covetousness of her possessions, in 1823.


Acc. to 'History and Antiquities of the Jews in England', by D'Blossiers Tovey:
in 1685 was enacted the Petition of Jewelry / Jeveral Merchants of London - and it was subscribed by Sir Samuel DASHWOOD, junior

[b. ca 1643, 1st son of Francis Dashwood, merchant, of London by 1st wife Alice.
Above Francis Dashwood, born in 1603 in London, England, d. 1683, was the son of Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden, b. 1574, senior.
Samuel Dashwood's {junior} grandfather was a Somerset yeoman {named above Samuel, senior - yeoman as "a commoner who cultivates his own land"}.
"His father Francis {Francis Dashwood, born in 1603 in London, England, d. 1683} established himself in business in London, and with Dashwood's uncle (the father of Sir Robert Dashwood) formed a syndicate to farm the excise in 1677. Dashwood himself {SAMUEL, b. ca 1643} was elected Tory sheriff of London in June 1683. ... Dashwood {Samuel, junior} was elected for London in 1685, and became a moderately active Member of James II's Parliament. He was appointed to six committees ... for the general naturalization of Huguenot refugees (1 July). ..."].

Compare:
Sir James Dashwood, 2nd Baronet (1715 - 1779) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1740 to 1768. He was the son of Robert Dashwood {born in 1687}, and his grandfather from whom he inherited the baronetcy was Sir Robert Dashwood, 1st Baronet.
He {James} inherited large estates in Oxfordshire, being on a Grand Tour when he came into them in 1734, and built an imposing house at Kirtlington.
In national politics was a Jacobite, and someone prepared to work against Catholic disabilities.
"... He {James} moved swiftly to call for the repeal of the Jewish Naturalization Act 1753 in October of the year of its passing (he had not previously made a speech on the House, and had not prepared the ground for this one)...".

Mentioned Robert Dashwood, b. 1687 in Kirtlington, Oxfordshire, England; the son of Sir Robert Dashwood, MP, 1st Baronet of Kirtlington Park and Penelope.
Above
Robert Dashwood, MP, 1st Baronet of Kirtlington Park, b. 1662 in Westminster, London. Robert was the son of George Dashwood and Margaret Perry.
Above
George Dashwood b. 1617 in London, England; George was the of Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden {mentioned above Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden, b. 1574, senior} and Elizabeth Sweeting.
Above
Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden, born in 1574 in Stogumber, Somerset, England. Son of Robert Dashwood and Philis. Father of Elizabeth Knight; Robert Dashwood {acc. to me not Robert. We know on George Dashwood b. 1617 in London}; Francis Dashwood [b. 1603 - see below !]; John Dashwood; Lewis Dashwood.

Now of famous Francis Dashwood, 2nd Bt, 15th Baron Le Despencer = Francis Dashwood, 11th Baron le Despencer = Francis Dashwood, 14th Baron le Despencer, PC, born Dec 1708

(1708 - 1781; Francis Dashwood, 11th Baron le Despencer succeeded as 15th Baron le Despencer in 1763. He was an English Chancellor of the Exchequer, in 1762 - 1763, and he was the founder of the Hellfire Club. On the death of the 14th Baron le Despencer in 1781 the barony fell into abeyance between his sister, Rachel, Lady Austin, and the descendants of his aunt, Lady Catherine Paul. On the death of his sister in 1788 the barony was called out of abeyance in favour of his first cousin twice removed, Thomas Stapleton, 15th Baron le Despencer born 10 Nov 1766.

Francis Dashwood, 2nd Bt, was in St Petersburg - 10 June until 30 June 1733; back to Gdansk and Bornholm.
Lord Forbes {Irish peerage} accompanied him on the way to Russia. Lord Forbes served in St. Petersburg for almost one year, from June of 1733 until May of 1734. The result of his efforts was the Anglo-Russian Commercial Treaty of 1734, recognized as the foundation of all subsequent eighteenth-century trade agreements between the two signatories.
He was George, Lord Forbes, who, in the same year that he obtained the chart, became the Third Earl of Granard.
"... Lord Forbes acquired this plan in St Petersburg, where he lived for a year as Great Britain's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the court of the Empress Anna Ivanovna, ruled 1730- 1740. Lord Forbes was closely connected with the 2nd Duke of Argyll, to whom he owed his military career and whom he followed politically. ... In 1733 Lord Forbes went to St. Petersburg to conclude a trade treaty, making such a good impression on the Empress Anna that she later offered him the command of the Russian navy, which Lord Forbes rejected. ... In 1738, now Lord Granard, he refused the governorship of New York..."),
the son of
Francis Dashwood, MP, 1st Baronet of West Wycombe, b. ca 1658 in West Wycombe, Buckinghamshire; 1st Baronet Dashwood of West Wycombe was MP for Winchelsea

[Sir Francis Dashwood, 1st Baronet, died in 1724, younger, was a British merchant.
"...Francis Dashwood was the third son of Francis Dashwood, {older} a merchant trading with a Turkey, and an Alderman of London. His brother, Sir Samuel Dashwood, was Lord Mayor of London in 1702. Dashwood and his brother Samuel joined their father's business early and became leading silk importers, they were also members of the British East India Company and the Worshipful Company of Vintners. They prospered despite the disruption in trade caused by the Anglo-Dutch Wars, and sent a frigate to trade in China in 1700. ... In 1698, Sir Samuel and Francis bought the estate of West Wycombe from their brother-in-law Thomas Lewis; Francis eventually buying out his brothers' share. Francis was knighted in 1702, but a cooling of the relationship between the brothers had occurred, and they had ceased their joint business in 1704. ... His fourth and final wife was Lady Elizabeth Windsor (d. 1736), daughter of Thomas Hickman-Windsor, 1st Earl of Plymouth {he served as Governor of Jamaica}, whom he married on 21 July 1720"].
His father was Francis Dashwood, older, born in 1603 in London, England, d. 1683;
who was son of Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden b. 1574, and Elizabeth Sweeting [see above !! - George Dashwood b. 1617 in London, England; was also the son of Samuel Dashwood, of Rowden and Elizabeth Sweeting].



The imposition of taxes and new stamp fees on the American colonists was the biggest provocation of a structures of the Illuminati - exactly and accurately structures and people who will soon become the Illuminati Order.

Compare:

'NEW ENGLAND AND THE BAVARIAN ILLUMINATI', ed. by THE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS; LONGMANS, GREEN & CO., in I9I8 by VERNON STAUFFER.

The London Parliament passed the Revenue Act of 1762 in an attempt to halt bribery as routinely practiced by colonists circumventing the Molasses Act. In 1762, Elizabeta dies and Russia switches alliance, joining Prussia.

The Treaty of Paris, in 1763, settled the terms of the peace - King George III made peace with France without informing King Frederick II, 1740 - 1786, of Prussia, leaving them to fight France alone.

In 1764 "Samuel Adams, a native of Boston, was a major propagandist, opposing British officials and policies, as well as British taxation in the colonies. In 1773, he participated in the planning of the Boston Tea Party. Adams also signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776. He served as delegate to the Continental Congress until 1781, eventually becoming governor of Massachusetts from 1794 to 1797.
He was a confirmed member of the Masons and Illuminati ["... and Samuel Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and Thomas Paine - were not Masons", by David Morgan]".

Samuel Adams born in 1722, was a second cousin to fellow Founding Father, President John Adams.
Samuel was also a brewer with a family brewing tradition.
Samuel Adams wrote 'Instructions to Boston's Representatives', May 28, 1764 -
"... This letter of Instructions to Boston's Representatives to the Massachusetts Colonial Legislature from the Boston Town Meeting (a ruling council of local citizens) marks the first time a political body in the colonies declared that Parliament had no constitutional right to tax the colonists. The letter was written by Samuel Adams, who was appointed by the council to draft a letter of the councilmembers' concerns to be sent to their legislative representatives. Samuel Adams became a rising star in the protests against Great Britain, partly due to this letter.
The letter addresses the council's concerns about new taxes levied in the Sugar Act, as well as other issues such as upholding public morality reducing government spending".
Samuel's 1768 Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers, eventually resulting in the Boston Massacre of 1770.

"The Stamp Act in 1765 galvanized colonial society and engendered widespread resistance. ... David Ramsay, a patriot and historian from South Carolina, wrote of this phenomenon shortly after the American Revolution:
'It was fortunate for the liberties of America, that newspapers were the subject of a heavy stamp duty. Printers, when influenced by government, have genereally arranged themselves on the side of liberty, nor are they less remarkable for attention to the profits of their profession. A stamp duty, which openly invaded the first, and threatened a great diminution of the last, provoked their united zealous opposition'."

"...The United States fought the American Revolution primarily over King George III's Currency act, which forced the colonists to conduct their business only using printed bank notes borrowed from the Bank of England at interest. After the revolution, the new United States adopted a radically different economic system in which the government issued its own value-based money ...
'The refusal of King George 3rd to allow the colonies to operate an honest money system, which freed the ordinary man from the clutches of the money manipulators, was probably the prime cause of the revolution' - Benjamin Franklin, U.S. Founding Father.

But bankers are nothing if not dedicated to their schemes to acquire your wealth, and know full well how easy it is to corrupt a nation's leaders. Just one year after Mayer Amschel Rothschild had uttered his infamous 'Let me issue and control a nation's money and I care not who makes the laws', the bankers succeeded in setting up a new Private Central Bank called the First Bank of the United States, largely through the efforts of the Rothschild's chief US supporter, Alexander Hamilton. Founded in 1791, by the end of its twenty year charter the First Bank of the United States had almost ruined the nation's economy ...

This resulted in a threat from Nathan Mayer Rothschild against the US Government ...
Congress still refused to renew the charter for the First Bank of the United States, whereupon Nathan Mayer Rothschild railed, 'Teach those impudent Americans a lesson! Bring them back to colonial status!'
Financed by the Rothschild controlled Bank of England, Britain then launched the war of 1812 to recolonize the United States and force them back into the slavery of the Bank of England ...",
copyright by LORDLANGERZ.


The Great provocation in 1765 - the Stamp Act:

George III had mild bouts of illness early in his reign, but his health significantly deteriorated from the 1780s.
Modern medicine may help us to discover the real reasons behind King George III's erratic behaviour, writes historian Lucy Worsley - copyright by: bbc.co.uk/news/ -
" ... George III is well known in children's history books for being the "mad king who lost America". These are features that can be seen today in the writing and speech of patients experiencing the manic phase of psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar disorder. ... Mania, or harmful euphoria, is at one end of a spectrum of mood disorders, with sadness, or depression, at the other. George's being in a manic state would also match contemporary descriptions of his illness by witnesses...".

It was enough to use it.

The Sugar Act announced further legislative steps against the colonies. Less than a year later, in March 1765, King George III signed the Stamp Act, which was a novelty on American soil. The then prime minister, Lord Grenville, said that Americans in exchange for security are obliged to pay debts incurred during the Anglo-French conflict

{George Grenville, born 1712, London, d. 1770; British politician who in 1763-1765 was the prime minister of Great Britain. He was in 1763 the First Lord of the Treasury and the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
GEORGE's brother was Richard Grenville - Temple, 2nd Earl Temple, b. 1711.

Richard Grenville, "Lord Temple was a great intriguer, and is said to have been the author of several anonymous libels, and the inspirer of many more. Macaulay's well-known comparison of him with a mole working below 'in some foul, crooked labyrinth whenever a heap of dirt was flung up', which perpetuates the spleen of Horace Walpole, perhaps exceeds the justice of the case; but his character was rated very low by his contemporaries".

George Grenville b. 1712:
"his best known policy is the Stamp Act, a common tax in Great Britain onto the colonies in America, which instigated widespread opposition in Britain's American colonies and was later repealed. It was met with general outrage and resulted in public acts of disobedience and rioting throughout the colonies in America. ... During his administration Britain's international isolation increased, as Britain failed to secure alliances with other major European powers, a situation that subsequent governments were unable to reverse leading to Britain fighting several countries during the American War of Independence without a major ally. ...
Grenville had increasingly strained relations with his colleagues and the King, and in 1765 he was dismissed by George III and replaced by Lord Rockingham.
For the last five years of his life Grenville led a group of his supporters in opposition and staged a public reconciliation with Pitt..."}.

Already at that time, some theoretical considerations about the future of the relationship between American colonies and England were made. Lord Camden, a member of the British Parliament, made prophetic visions of the collapse of the empire. In numerous conversations with Benjamin Franklin who was in London at the time, he admitted that the tense situation prevailing at that time would ultimately lead to the escalation of the conflict.

In 1761 a popular lawyer from Boston, James Otis, made a speech in which he declared that "taxation without representation is tyranny". He was tied with John Adams.

Patrick Henry made a historic speech in which he condemned the actions of the English king and demanded full independence for Virginia. The speech made a great impression on the future author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson.

Mentioned LORD CAMDEN, that is Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, b. 1714, died in 1794, an English lawyer, he was a leading proponent of civil liberties. He was a confidant of Pitt the Elder, supporting Pitt in the controversies over John Wilkes and American independence.
Pratt became involved in the group that met at the Leicester House home of George Prince of Wales;
named Leicester House itself was an imposing residence, at now Leicester Square. Both George II, when prince of Wales, and his son Frederick were obstructed and frustrated by their respective fathers' refusal to increase their incomes or allow them any responsibility in running the country. During the 'Whig Schism' of 1717-20, the then prince of Wales (the future George II) actively welcomed both Tories and discontented Whigs to his Leicester House court. George II's son Frederick proved a much more active politician. In 1737 Frederick set himself up in opposition, initially over his father's refusal to increase his income. Above named Frederick, Prince of Wales, b. 1707, the son of King George II and Caroline.

As Attorney-General, Pratt prosecuted Florence Hensey, an Irishman who had spied for France. On 17 July 1765, Pratt was created Baron Camden, becoming a member of the House of Lords. "Camden insisted that taxation was predicated on consent and that consent needed representation. However, when he came to support the government over the Act's repeal, he rather unconvincingly purported to base his opinion on the actual hardship caused by the Act rather than its constitutional basis".

Mentioned
George III / George William Frederick, b. 1738, died in 1820, was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death; Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg / Hanover, becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814.

Above Benjamin FRANKLIN in 1757, "was sent to England by the Pennsylvania Assembly as a colonial agent to protest against the political influence of the Penn family, the proprietors of the colony. He remained there for five years. In London, Franklin opposed the 1765 Stamp Act. Unable to prevent its passage, he made another political miscalculation and recommended a friend to the post of stamp distributor for Pennsylvania". With this,
Franklin suddenly emerged as the leading spokesman for American interests in England.
"During his stays there, he developed a close friendship with his landlady, Margaret Stevenson, and her circle of friends ... house, which he used on various lengthy missions from 1757 to 1775 ... He belonged to a gentleman's club, which included members such as Richard Price, the minister of Newington Green Unitarian Church who ignited the Revolution Controversy, and Andrew Kippis.
In Scotland, in November 1771, Benjamin Franklin spent five days with Lord Kames near Stirling [!] at Blair-Drummond, by then the property of Lord and Lady Kames, and stayed for three weeks with David Hume in Edinburgh. In 1759, he visited Edinburgh with his son.

David Hume / David Home, b. 1711.

Lord Kames near Stirling - Henry Home, Lord Kames; 1696 - 1782, a Scottish judge and writer;
"... a central figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, a founder member of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, and active in the Select Society, his proteges included David Hume, Adam Smith, and James Boswell.

Patrick Henry (1736-1799), "... a lawyer, orator, and statesman ... an early critic of British authority and leader in the movement toward independence, ... a member of the House of Burgesses (1765-1774)...".
The Virginia House of Burgesses, was the first legislative assembly of elected representatives in North America. The House was established by the Virginia Company.

Named above STIRLING in SCOTLAND:

1.
David Carnegie Jr b. 1813 and died in 1890 in Stirling, Scotland; son of James Carnegie and Margaret Gillespie;
above James Carnegie b. 1773 and died 1851 was son of George Carnegie and Susan Scott; husband of Margaret Gillespie; father of mentioned above David Carnegie Jr.
Susan Mary Ann Carnegie 1819 - died 1859, daughter of above named David Carnegie Senior and Anna Christina Beckman; wife of above David Carnegie Jr.
Above David Carnegie Senior born in 1772 in Charleton, Fife, Scotland; died 1837 in Göteborg;
son of George Carnegie and Susan Scott;
husband of Anna Christina Beckman; father of Susan Mary Ann Carnegie; George Carnegie; David Carnegie and Maria Mathilda Carnegie; brother of James Carnegie and John Carnegie.

See: Fife, Scotland at my domain:
Andrew Carnegie b. 1835, a Scottish-American industrialist. Born in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland; he built Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901; starting in 1853, Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company employed Carnegie as a secretary / telegraph operator;

Thomas Alexander Scott b. 1823, an American businessman, railroad executive, was appointed in 1861 by President Abraham Lincoln as the U.S. Assistant Secretary of War during the American Civil War; Scott's protege Andrew Carnegie later challenged the Rockefeller monopoly in petroleum from his dominance of the steel industry.

More on Fife [south of Perth, and north of Edinburgh; east of Stirling!] and Stirling
[RUTHERFORD; John Robison (1739 - 1805); Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry; Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan; Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh],
Scotland at my
http://konstantynowicz.info/Bogdan_Konstantynowicz_encyklopedia_Polski_Niepodleglej/index.html.

2.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and of Whitehill

{Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh [see ROSSLYN]};

Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. in 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.

3.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of the Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.

4.
Laurence Oliphant b. 1829, d. 1888, was a British diplomat; was Member of Parliament for Stirling Burghs.
His father Anthony Oliphant (1793 - 1859) was Chief Justice of Ceylon and Attorney General in the Cape Colony; grew up at Condie House / Newton of Condie in Forgandenny, Perthshire.
His eldest brother, Laurence Oliphant, 8th of Condie was Member of the House of Commons for Perth, whose son was General Sir Laurence Oliphant 9th of Condie.
Another brothers:
Col. James Oliphant was Chairman of the Honourable East India Company,
a third brother was the artist.

Mentioned Newton of Condie is situated in the parish of Forgandenny and the county of Perthshire. FORGANDENNY, a parish in the district of Eastern Perth, county Perth, and county Kinross, Scotland, 7 km or 4 miles S.S.W. of Perth. Freeland is the seat of Lord Ruthven, Rossie - 6 km south of above FORGANDENNY - that of the Oliphants, and Condie of the Oliphants, which families are here the principal proprietors. Anthony lived in Maha Nuge Gardens in Colpetty - Colombo [see tea].

5.
Famous Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, b. 1871, was a New Zealand-born British physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester; was the son of James Rutherford, who had emigrated to New Zealand from Perth - 53 km north-east of Stirling, Scotland.

The Rutherford family comes from an area of the Scottish Borders called Roxburghshire [see Rosslyn also]; south from Jedburgh, - ca 130 km south-east of Stirling, because all Scottish Rutherfords share roots in Roxburghshire. To 1706 / 1707, the Rutherfords moved into other areas of Scotland, such as, Ayrshire and Perth - 48 km north-east of Stirling, and south into Northumberland, to Sweden, France and the Netherlands.

6.
Edward Sterling (1773 - 1847) - a British journalist. He went from Ireland {he comes from William Sterling of Munster province in Ireland, who was brother of
ROBERT STERLING, Colonel, from STIRLING of KEIR}.


In Scotland in 1771, Benjamin Franklin spent five days with Lord Kames near Stirling [!] in Blair Drummond, and stayed for three weeks with David Hume in Edinburgh. In 1759, he visited Edinburgh with his son. And in 1759, on the return journey to England the Franklins stayed with Lord and Lady Kames at Kames in Berwickshire.

Note on Kames in Berwickshire:
1.
Edward Sterling (1773 - 1847), traced descent from William, younger brother of Sir Robert Sterling, who had served under Gustavus Adolphus, and, subsequently attaching himself to James Butler, first duke of Ormonde, was knighted in 1649.
Edward, born at Waterford on 27 Feb. 1773; educated in Dublin; he migrated to Kames Castle and then to Llanblethian, near Cowbridge, Glamorganshire.
1814 - 1815 he was at Paris, and on his return to England he became a regular member of the 'Times' staff.

2.
Hester Coningham, married to EDWARD Sterling on 5th April 1804; Hester was only daughter of John Coningham, merchant in Derry, and Elizabeth Campbell, of the Campbells of Sunderlaud in Isle.
Hester's 3 sons:
Anthony [b. 1805],
John Sterling (m. Susannah Barton with three sons: Edward 1831, Charles b. 1839, John 1840) d. 1844, and
Edward [Edward Sterling / Esterling (b. ca 1807/1809) m. Elena Shtaal / Elena Staal from Riga and Livland],
and a one daughter!

Waterford - here above Sterling was born on 27th February, 1773; this family resided in the Deanery House, kinsmen the Beresfords generally, whose grand house of Curraghmore, near by Waterford; Curraghmore - 5 km north-west of Portlaw; 20 km north-west of Waterford; east of Clonmel, southern Ireland.

See:
the MacSwiney family of Macroom; and the Lucas family, the Konarskis and Taaffe; the Nugent family and Sidney Reilly who was son of George and Pauline Reilly of the Irish town of Clonmel.

We back now to Edward Sterling (1773 - 1847) who was a British journalist. He went from Ireland

{he came from William Sterling of Munster province in Ireland, who was brother of ROBERT STERLING, Colonel, from STIRLING of KEIR. We know on John STIRLING 6th of Kippendavie, b. 1742 in Kippendavie, close to Dunblane, the Perth county, in Scotland, died in 1816 in Kippenross, Dunblane, Perth; John succeeded his brother Patrick in the lands in 1775; he acquired the estate of Kippenross from William Pearson in 1778, and the superiority of Kippendavie, Lanrick, Auchinbie, Shanraw, and Woodland from James Stirling of Keir in 1813. His parents: Patrick STIRLING 4th of Kippendavie b. 1704 in Kippendavie, Dunblane, Perth, and Margaret DOUGLAS b. 1708 in Of Aberdeen, Scotland; John m. Mary GRAHAM}

to Scotland and took to farming at Kames Castle. In 1804 he married Hester Coningham.
"...One of her uncles had made a fortune through the sugar plantations of St Vincent, and his money, based on slave labour, supported the Sterlings". In 1810 the family removed to Llanblethian in the Vale of Glamorgan; contributed a number of letters to The Times, which were reprinted in 1812, and a second series in 1814, when he moved to Paris, but on the escape of Napoleon from Elba in 1815 took up residence in London.
See more: http://konstantynowicz.info/encyklopedia_internetowa_Polski_Niepodleglej_czesc_2_1772- 1989/index.html
"John Sterling was his second son [see above], the elder being Colonel Sir Anthony Coningham Sterling (1805 - 1871), who besides serving in the Crimea and as military secretary to Lord Clyde during the Indian Mutiny, was the author of The Highland Brigade in the Crimea and other books".

Above John Sterling (1806 - 1844), was a Scottish author, born at Kames Castle on the Isle of Bute, the son of Edward Sterling; at the University of Glasgow; in 1824 entered Trinity College, Cambridge; in London, employing himself actively in literature; marriage to Susannah, daughter of Lieutenant-General Charles Barton (1760 - 1819) and his wife Susannah. In 1841 Sterling moved to Falmouth.

His son, Major-General John Barton Sterling (1840 - 1926), after entering the navy, went into the army in 1861. Above colonel Sir Anthony Coningham Sterling 1805 - 1871, was a British Army officer and historian, author of The Highland Brigade in the Crimea; eldest son of Captain Edward Sterling, by Hester, daughter of John Coningham of Derry, was born at Dundalk in 1805.

John Sterling was a younger brother; the Crimean campaign of 1854 - 1855, as assistant adjutant- general to the Highland division.

3.

Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938

[Augusta's grandfather was from Scotland. He was in Russia during the War of 1812. He studied at Dorpat, worked as notary, married Latvian woman. One of his many daughters married Estonian - Didrikilya / Didrikil. In this family was born Augusta Avgustovna.
Her sisters and brother:

1. Olga Avgustovna Didrikil next of kin to Sverdlov; Olga Avgustovna, married exiled Bolshevik Mikhail Kedrov. Olga Avgustovna Didrikil - daughter of gamekeeper August Ivanovich Didrikil (Bertha Didrikil nee Sterling / Esterling, married to Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik / Август Иванович Дидрикиль / Didrikil) who served for many years to the Suvorov family, in Prozorovskaya (?) county. Mikhail Kedrov b. 1878, Moscow – killed 1941, secret policeman and one of the builders of the Cheka; on December 20, 1917 was formed Russian Extraordinary Commission headed by F. Dzerzhinsky. Shortly before the First World War Kedrov graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Lausanne. Kedrov was reportedly extremely cruel and barbaric, even by the standards of the Red Terror. Kedrov and his son Igor had complained repeatedly to Joseph Stalin about Lavrenti Beria, who increasingly came to control the Soviet secret police in the 1930s. Kedrov in 1912 emigrated to Switzerland. Maintained contacts with Lenin, and lectured medicine at the universities of Bern and Lausanne. In 1916, on the instructions of the Central Committee returned to Russia, on the Caucasian front.

2. Maria Avgustovna remained an old maid but she known the renowned journalist, the future chairman of the OGPU Vyacheslav R. Menzhinsky / Vyacheslav Menzhinsky. Menzhinsky - deputy and successor of the first chairman of the Cheka - Dzerzhinsky.

3. Nina Avgustovna / Anthonine Catherine / Antonina Avgustovna Didrikil / DIDRIKIL Avgustovna Nina b. 1882 - d. 1953 - married to an exile Nicholas Podvoisky / Podvoisky Ivan Ilyich / Podwojski. Podvoisky become one of the founders of the Red Army.

4. Edward Avgustovich Didrikil],

had the Latvian and Estonian roots, and one of her grandfathers was a Scot;

her father Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik,
her mother Bertha Sterling / E'sterling / Stirling / EASTERLING born 1835, d. 1891 -
her parents:
Edward Sterling from Scotland / Esterling / EASTERLING and Elena Shtaal / Staal / Shtaal from Riga and Livland.

Edward Sterling / Esterling (b. ca 1807/1809) and Elena Shtaal / Elena Staal from Riga and Livland had daughters:
1. Odile Sterling / Esterling b. 1830 (Latvia?) at farmhouse in Yucca / Iukka, and
2. Bertha Didrikil born in Riga in 1835 died in 1891, also
3. Charlotte Sterling / Esterling and
4. Alvina Sterling / Esterling.

Lord Kames - the owner of Blair Drummond,
a small rural community, 5 miles north-west of the city of Stirling in the Stirling district of Scotland;
it is within the Perthshire.
Close to Kippen; Doune; Nyadd; Deanston; Thornhill.

The Carse of Stirling
- 1766, Agatha Drummond inherited the ancestral estate of Blair Drummond on the north side of the Carse (about five miles from Stirling). Agatha was married to the eccentric, Henry Home, Lord Kames, a judge of the Court of Session.

Compare on BERWICKSHIRE / the Scottish Borders called Roxburghshire:

1.
Famous Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, b. 1871, was a New Zealand-born British physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester; was the son of James Rutherford, who had emigrated to New Zealand from Perth - 53 km north-east of Stirling, Scotland.

The Rutherford family comes from an area of the Scottish Borders called Roxburghshire [see Rosslyn also]; south from Jedburgh, - ca 130 km south-east of Stirling, because all Scottish Rutherfords share roots in Roxburghshire. To 1706 / 1707, the Rutherfords moved into other areas of Scotland, such as, Ayrshire and Perth - 48 km north-east of Stirling, and south into Northumberland, to Sweden, France and the Netherlands.

2.
Andrew Alexander Bonar b. 1810 in Edinburgh, d. 1892 in Glasgow, son of James Bonar, Solicitor of Excise for Scotland; was a minister at Collace, Perthshire, 1838 - 1856 of the Church of Scotland, the Free Church of Scotland in 1843, and of Finnieston Free Church in Glasgow, 1856;
his brother on mission work at St. John's parish in Leith and settled at Kelso.

Kelso is a parish in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland.

The Collace Parish, Scotland, is situated 17 north-east of Perth.

Andrew Alexander Bonar and Robert Murray McCheyne, with Dr. Alexander Black and Dr. Alexander Keith, were sent to Palestine in 1839 on a mission of inquiry to the condition of the Jews; they traveled through France, Greece, Egypt to Gaza, back home through Syria, the Austrian Empire and German; they sought Jewish communities, to inquire about their preparedness to return to Israel; Keith in 1844 revisited Palestine with his son, Dr George Skene Keith (b. 1819), who was the first person to photograph the land.

Alexander Keith b. 1791 in the Keith-hall and Kinkell parish, was a Church of Scotland minister; was son of George Skene Keith of Keith-hall and Kinkell (1752 - 1823); 1816 to 1840 he was minister of the parish of St. Cyrus, Scotland.

George Skene Keith of Keith-hall and Kinkell wrote to Thomas Jefferson in 1801; he was a minister of the Church of Scotland for the parishes of Keith Hall and Kinkell in Aberdeenshire. He also wrote to George Washington copies of his writings. Keith Hall - close to Inverurie, 28 km north-west of Aberdeen in Scotland; Kinkell, a parish in Aberdeenshire, Scotland; KEITH-HALL and KINKELL, a parish, in the district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, one mile from Inverury. Garioch in Aberdeenshire, Scotland with center of Inverurie, ca 30 km north-west of Aberdeen.

George S. Keith b. 1819, writer and amateur photographer, took daguerreotypes on a journey to Palestine in 1844, although none are known to survive. In later editions these daguerreotypes were used as the basis for printed illustrations of Syria and Palestine, Ashkelon and Tyre.

3.
At the Colonial and Indian Exhibition held in London in 1886, Tillyrie was awarded. This was followed by a certificate awarded in 1889 by the United States of America. Kelani Valley Plantations ca 70 km east of Colombo (Luccommbe & Rutherford). Tillyrie Estate Dickoya / Dickoya is 24 km east of above named Kelani, south of Kandy, capital of The Central Province of Sri Lanka. J. H. Rutherford Lee in Kohowalla, manager 1912 in the Pillagoda Valley 1927-1928.

Rutherford Henry was a tea planter in Sri Lanka and was involved in importing it to England; was born as Henry Kerr Rutherford b. 1886 in London, UK in family of
Henry Kerr Rutherford senior, b. 1846, d. 1943, (Ceylon Tea Planter's Note-Book by H. K. Rutherford, 'Times of Ceylon', Colombo, 1931) who was son of Peter Rutherford and Eliza nee Kerr.

Peter was brother of Mary Aitken; Robert Ruecastle, Elizabeth Ruecastle Davies; Janet Roberts and Peter.

Peter Rutherford was tea planter in Sri Lanka, but Peter Rutherford was born in 1794 in Kelso, at Scottish Borders, in Scotland, died 1856, was son of Robert Rutherford and Elizabeth Ruecastle daughter of Walter Ruecastle who died in Hawick, Scottish Borders.

Mentioned Robert Rutherford b. 1769 in Jedburgh, Scottish Borders, was son of Patrick Rutherford and Isobel Common. Jedburgh located in the Scottish Borders and historically in Roxburghshire, south-east of Edinburgh.

I said Henry Kerr Rutherford (b. 1886) heard about waterproof plywood that was being made in Estonia, it might be suitable for packing tea; he sent his son, also Henry, from Ceylon to Tallinn.

Henry Kerr Rutherford / Henry Rutherford was working for Venesta since 1908 and in 1912 as managing director of Venesta, partner of the A. M. Luther AG. Next the chairman 1944; born 1886, d. 1972 in Banstead, Surrey.

4.
We back to KELL - Konarski:

Georgina Augusta Konarska was born in 1855 at Brussels, Belgium. She was the daughter of Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski [see below !] and Harriet Fraser Lucas.
She married, firstly, Major Waldegrave C. F. Kell, son of Robert J. Kell and Amelia Fearn, in 1873 at St. George Hanover Square, London, England.
She and Major Waldegrave C. F. Kell were divorced in 1892. She married, secondly, James Allcard in 1893 at St. Pancras, London, England.

The son of Georgina Augusta Konarska and Major Waldegrave C. F. Kell was above Maj.-Gen. Sir Vernon George Waldegrave Kell, b. 1873, d. 27th March 1942.

Konarski Samuel Phillip Lucas / Samuel P. L. Kouasaki / Samuel Konarski - Major, 25th Regiment, King's Own Scottish Borderers
(b. 1843, died at Torquay in 1887; the only son of
Count Alexander Konarski / KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel b. 1802 in Cracow or in SEPTEMBER 1803 in Praszka),
m. Emma Cecilia Konarski / Emily L. Kouasaki / Emma Cecilia nee Walker, b. ca 1844 in Paddington, living in 1881 at Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire.
In 1909 descendant of Samuel Konarski b. 1802/1803 founded the groundwork of modern English MI5 counterintelligence.

5.
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich b. 1861 and in 1891 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie of Merenberg (relatives of the Pushkin family / Puskin/ Alexander S. Puszkin - family was near by military counterintelligence headquarters),
was the brother of
Grand Duke George Mikhailovich, and
Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) b. 1866 - freemason, and near by military intelligence headquarters.

Above named Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia; in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus; Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years; served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel. In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg, acc. to Wikipedia.
In 1888, he had an affair with Princess Walewski; later, with Countess Catherine Nikolaevna Ignatieva daughter of Minister of Interior, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev.
In 1900, moved to Keele Hall, in Staffordshire, close to Newcastle-under-Lyme;
visitor of North Berwick in Scotland,
and in the south of France, Cannes where he met his sister Anastasia and in 1903 his father, also brother Alexander and his family; he moved with his family to Hampstead in 1909 and every year Grand Duke Michael would visit Edward VII at Windsor Castle, Sandringham and Buckingham Palace. 1912, Grand Duke Michael was with a visit in Russia. 1914 as an agent for Russian loans in France.
On 31 October 1916 he "...wrote to Tsar Nicholas II warning him that British secret agents in Russia were expecting a revolution".


Here is the important information about the links between the Scottish structure - Benjamin Franklin - and Russia and Russian Freemasonry - to Palestina.

PRE-ILLUMINATI ?

William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland [= Sir William Keith, 8th Earl Marischal], who b. ca 1664, a Jacobite politician of Scotland.
WILLIAM's parents were the army officer George Keith, 8th Earl Marischal (born ca 1614, d. 1694 = 7th Lord Keith, 7th Earl Marischal, Privy Counsellor) [= George Keith, 7th Earl Marischal] and the courtier Lady Mary Hay, the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Kinnoull - 2 km east of Perth.

James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, in 1728 set out for service in Russia, where he spent nearly twenty years, in 1747 Keith joined the army of Frederick the Great of Prussia.
He was also one of the first Freemasons active in Russia. In the Russo-Swedish War 1741 - 1743, Keith was Vice-Roy of Finland.

The second son of above William Keith, b. 1664. His father, was the 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland, was a Knight of the Order of the Thistle, and a member of the Privy Council of James Francis Edward Stuart.
His mother, Mary Drummond, was daughter of James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth (1648-1716), and his first wife, Lady Jane Douglas (d. 1678), the fourth daughter of William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Douglas. His parents, committed Jacobites, named him after the Great Pretender.

James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth (1648-1716) was the eldest son of James Drummond, 3rd Earl of Perth b. ca 1615, by his spouse Lady Anne, daughter of George Gordon, 2nd Marquess of Huntly.
The grandson of John Drummond; the great-grandson of Patrick Drummond, 3rd Lord Drummond b. 1550, from David Drummond, 2nd Lord Drummond b. 1515.

Mary Drummond / MARIE DRUMMOND, born ca 1670 in PERTH, d. 1729 was the wife of William Keith, 8th Earl Marischal.

Mary Drummond / MARIE DRUMMOND, born ca 1670 in PERTH, d. 1729, had the brother
James Drummond, 2nd Duke of Perth born 1673, in DRUMMOND [d. 1720 in PARIS].

They were children of George Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond b. 1638 - but not from James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth (1648-1716) - see below !

George Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond b. 1638 was the son of George Drummond, 4th Laird of Blair and
grandson of George Drummond, 2nd Laird of Blair and
the great-grandson of George Drummond, 1st Laird of Blair who came from
George Drummond, 3rd of Ledcrieff.

Agatha Drummond, 1711 - 1795, was the daughter of James Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond born in 1673, died in 1739.
Wife of famous Henry Home, Lord Kames.

Compare BENJAMIN FRANKLIN in 1759 in Scotland.

James Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond born in 1673, died in 1739 the son of George Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond b. 1638!
The grandson of George Drummond, 4th Laird of Blair!

Compare -
Andrew Alexander Bonar and Robert Murray McCheyne, with Dr. Alexander Black and Dr. Alexander Keith, were sent to Palestine in 1839 on a mission of inquiry to the condition of the Jews;
they traveled through France, Greece, Egypt to Gaza, back home through Syria, the Austrian Empire and German; they sought Jewish communities, to inquire about their preparedness to return to Israel; Keith in 1844 revisited Palestine with
his son, Dr George Skene Keith (b. 1819), who was the first person to photograph the land.

Alexander Keith b. 1791 / 1792 in the Keith-hall and Kinkell parish, was a Church of Scotland minister;
was son of George Skene Keith of Keith-hall and Kinkell (1752 in MAR - 1823);
1816 to 1840 he was minister of the parish of St. Cyrus, Scotland.

George KEITH, b. 1752 - the eldest son of James Keith, he was born in the Old House of Aquhorsk in Marr, near Aberdeen.
Maybe Capt. James W Keith b. 1734 in Virginia. James was the son of Field Marshall James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696 - came from Sir William Keith, 8th Earl Marischal; from George Keith, 7th Earl Marischal; William Keith, 5th Earl Marischal b. ca 1585 + ERSKINE; George Keith, 4th Earl Marischal; Sir William Keith, Lord of Keith b. 1527; William Keith b. 1506; Robert Keith, Master of Keith b. ca 1483; William Keith, 2nd Lord Keith, 2nd Earl Marischal b. ca 1450 [he had also the son Alexander Keith b. 1491]; William Keith, 1st Earl Marischal b. ca 1425!

The Keiths of Aquhorsk descended from Alexander Keith b. 1491

[his son John Keith b. 1514; grandson William Keith of Pittendrum b. 1556; with Alexander Keith, of Pittendrum b. 1582
{with the son Alexander Keith, of Cowton b. 1608; grandson Alexander Keith, of Cowtown and Uras b. 1633; the great-grandson James Keith b. ca 1670},
and William Keith, of Camculter and Rathen b. ca 1584],

third son of William Keith, 2nd Earl Marischal, b. ca 1450.

We know on the letter to Thomas Jefferson from George Skene Keith, on 22 June 1801 in KEITH.HALL. And the letter to George Washington from George Skene Keith, on 1 July 1791.



Lord Kames - the owner of Blair Drummond,

a small rural community, 5 miles north-west of the city of Stirling in the Stirling district of Scotland; it is within the Perthshire.
Close to Kippen;
Doune;
Nyadd;
Deanston;
Thornhill.

The Carse of Stirling
- 1766, Agatha Drummond inherited the ancestral estate of Blair Drummond on the north side of the Carse (about five miles from Stirling). Agatha was married to the eccentric, Henry Home, Lord Kames, a judge of the Court of Session.
"... He was over 70 when he and his wife took up residence at Blair Drummond. They found that over 1500 acres of the soaking moss lay within the inherited estate and he turned his undoubted intellect towards the problem of draining it. In 1768, the first tenant was settled on the Low Moss, nearest to Blair Drummond, and by 1774 another eleven were established".
The resident of Blairdrummond House was enlightenment thinker Lord Kames whose wife inherited the house in 1766. "... Lord Kames began the transformation of the carse area of Blair Drummond; turning it from an often water-laden moss into productive agricultural land...".
Blair Drummond House was entirely rebuilt in 1868-72 by James Campbell Walker (under instruction from George Stirling Home Drummond).

We back now to
Edward Sterling (1773 - 1847) who was a British journalist. He went from Ireland to Scotland and took to farming at Kames Castle [BUTE Island, west to Glasgow].
In 1804 he married Hester Coningham. In 1810 the family removed to Llanblethian in the Vale of Glamorgan;
contributed a number of letters to The Times, which were reprinted in 1812, and a second series in 1814, when he moved to Paris, but on the escape of Napoleon from Elba in 1815 took up residence in London.
"John Sterling was his second son, the elder being Colonel Sir Anthony Coningham Sterling (1805 - 1871), who besides serving in the Crimea and as military secretary to Lord Clyde during the Indian Mutiny, was the author of The Highland Brigade in the Crimea and other books".

Above John Sterling (1806 - 1844), was a Scottish author, born at Kames Castle on the Isle of Bute, the son of Edward Sterling; at the University of Glasgow; in 1824 entered Trinity College, Cambridge; in London, employing himself actively in literature; marriage to Susannah, daughter of Lieutenant-General Charles Barton (1760 - 1819) and his wife Susannah. In 1841 Sterling moved to Falmouth.

Edward Sterling (1773 - 1847), traced descent from William, younger brother of Sir Robert Sterling, who had served under Gustavus Adolphus, and, subsequently attaching himself to James Butler, first duke of Ormonde, was knighted in 1649. Edward, born at Waterford on 27 Feb. 1773; educated in Dublin; he migrated to Kames Castle and then to Llanblethian, near Cowbridge, Glamorganshire. 1814 - 1815 he was at Paris, and on his return to England he became a regular member of the 'Times' staff. He had become connected with General Torrijos and other Spanish refugees who were planning an expedition to Spain to overthrow the tyranny of Ferdinand VII. It was at his suggestion that an Irish cousin, Lieutenant Boyd, formerly of the East India service, found funds, a ship, and arms. He settled at Bayswater.
His arrival in Bordeaux, in the autumn of 1836, his return in 1837.
1837 in Sterling,
again driven abroad to Madeira. 1838 / 1839 spent at Rome, 1839 he took a house at Clifton.

John Sterling was born at Kaimes Castle = KAMES, a baronial residence in the Isle of Bute, 1806. Both his parents were Irish by birth, Scotch by extraction.
Edward Sterling was living at the Bute farm, flights to Dublin, to London, next in Kames / Kaimes Castle, and village of Llanblethian close by Cowbridge in Glamorganshire; John Sterling spent his next five years in this locality.

Very interesting research of Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire, 'Dictionnaire de la Franc-maconnerie', Paris, Armand Colin, 2014, p. 307-314: the conspiracy theory, a whole section of contemporary American literature to have become a topic of academic research among Americanists; revolutions from the eighteenth century.

But the first was
John Robison (1739 - 1805), a Scottish physicist and mathematician. He was a professor of philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. A member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, the first General Secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1783 - 1798).

See Becu in 1803 in Scotland (Dzierzynski, Becu, Pilar-Pilchau, Bulhak, Pilsudski).

Robison also worked with James Watt on an early steam car. Following the French Revolution, Robison became disenchanted with elements of the Enlightenment.

John Robison authored Proofs of a Conspiracy in 1797, a polemic accusing Freemasonry of being infiltrated by Weishaupt's Order of the Illuminati.

John Robison was born in Boghall, Baldernock, Stirlingshire, close to Thornhill, north-west of Stirling; west of Drummond, south-west of the Doune castle.

See:
Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD;

the Douglas family from Bothwell - 15 km south-east of Glasgow, Kincardineshire, 30 km south of Aberdeen, and from Fordoune, Scotland - 14 km north-west of Stirling;
see:
Douglas from Italy, Napoli.

James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, a Scottish soldier, was born at Inverugie Castle near Peterhead - north of Aberdeen in eastern Scotland, the second son of William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland who b. ca 1664, and was also a Jacobite politician of Scotland.

Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill.
Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling!

Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta;
Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta.

Back to John Robison:

"...In 1770 he travelled to Saint Petersburg as the Secretary of Admiral Charles Knowles, where he taught mathematics to the cadets at the Naval Academy at Cronstadt, obtaining a double salary and the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.
... Robison returned to Scotland in 1773 and took up the post of Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He lectured on mechanics, hydrostatics, astronomy, optics, electricity and magnetism (see Gernet, Duflon, Breguet, Konstantynowicz).

Towards the end of his life, he became an enthusiastic conspiracy theorist, publishing Proofs of a Conspiracy, ... in 1797, alleging clandestine intrigue by the Illuminati and Freemasons ... carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies.
The secret agent monk, Alexander Horn provided much of the material for Robison's allegations.
... In 1798, the Reverend G. W. Snyder sent Robison's book to George Washington for his thoughts on the subject in which he replied to him in a letter.
... Modern conspiracy theorists, such as Nesta Webster and William Guy Carr, believe the methods of the Illuminati as described in Proofs of a Conspiracy were copied by radical groups throughout the 19th and 20th centuries in their subversion of benign organizations...".

Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland;
his father was John RUTHERFORD

(his parents:
David RUTHERFORD

[his father David RUTHERFORD, b. 1764 in the parish of Kilmadock - 13 km north-west of Stirling, Perth, Scotland, who was son of James RUTHERFORD b. 1720 in Kilmadock, Perth, Scotland]

b. 1764 in Kilmadock, Perth, and mother Margaret FULTON from Of Kilmadock, Perth)

b. 1800 in Kilmadock, Perth, Scotland.

Douglas family from Bothwell - 15 km south-east of Glasgow, Kincardineshire 30 km south of Aberdeen,
and from Fordoune, Scotland - 14 km north-west of Srirling.

But we know also on Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland;
his father was John RUTHERFORD.
See:
Catherine Arbuthnot come from Alexander Arbuthnot, of Knox M. P., b. 1654 and mother Jean Scott; relatives to Margaret Douglas d. 1754: her parents Sylvester Douglas, of Whiteriggs d. 1729 and Margaret Keith.


Royal Stirling Castle, located in Stirling, is one of the largest and most important castles in Scotland.

John Erskine, 1st Earl of Mar, began building his residence on becoming keeper of Stirling Castle.
James, Duke of Albany, later King James VII of Scotland and II of England, visited the castle in 1681.
At the accession of King George I in 1714, John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar was deprived of the governorship, as well as the post of Scottish Secretary. In response, he raised the standard of James Stuart, the "Old Pretender", in the Jacobite rising of 1715.
John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar

[he was the 23rd Earl of Mar in the first creation of the earldom. He was also the sixth earl in the seventh creation (of 1565). Other sources count him as 22nd earl, still others number him 11th earl]:
John Erskine, Earl of Mar,
(born in 1675 in Alloa, Clackmannanshire, SCOTLAND [Alloa is south of the Ochil Hills, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) east of Stirling and 7.9 miles (12.7 km) north of Falkirk] - died in May 1732 at Free City Aix-la-Chapelle [in 1729 he went to Aix-la- Chapelle, then France, but now Aachen, near Koln], now Aachen / Akwizgran, North Rhine-Westphalia in GERMANY. Mar intrigued against James, and by 1725 he was no longer welcome at James’s court in exile),
Scottish Jacobite, was the eldest son of Charles, Earl of Mar (who died in 1689), from whom he inherited estates.

The Jacobite rising of 1745 saw Charles Edward Stuart lead his army of Highlanders past Stirling on the way to Edinburgh. Following the Jacobites' retreat from England, they returned to Stirling in January 1746.
"... The city's port supported foreign trade, historically doing significant trade in the Low Countries, particularly with Bruges in Belgium and Veere in the Netherlands. In the 16th century there were so many Scots in Danzig, ... there is an account which states there were about 30,000 Scots families living in Poland ... Trade with the Baltic also took place such as a timber trade with Norway...".
From 1800 the Stirling Castle was owned by the War Office and run as a barracks.


"... In the year 1769, Mayer Amschel Rothschild had become an agent for the court of

[William I, Elector of Hesse / Wilhelm I, von Hessen, b. 1743, d. 1821, was the son of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) and Princess Mary of Great Britain, the daughter of George II. His father, landgrave Frederick II died in 1785.
Upon the death of his father in 1785, he became William IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel.
"...He hired Mayer Amschel Rothschild as 'Hoffaktor' in 1769, to supervise the operation of his properties and tax-gathering. ... the men had a strong relationship;
... Although they had been acquainted since 1775, William IX did not formally designate Rothschild as his overseer until 1801.
The early fortunes of the Rothschild family were made through a conjunction of financial intelligence and the wealth of Prince William. During the Napoleonic Wars, William used the Frankfurt Rothschilds to hide his fortune from Napoleon. This money then saw its way through to Nathan Mayer, in London, where it helped fund the British movements through Portugal and Spain. ...
It was not long before their riches outweighed those of their benefactor, William of Hesse-Kassel...".
In 1803, Landgrave William was created His Royal and Serene Highness The Prince-Elector of Hesse]

Prince William IX of Hesse - Kassel (Prince William was the grandson of George II, and also a cousin to George III, who was a nephew to the King of Denmark and also a brother in law to the King of Sweden). Prince William handed his wealth to be managed by the Rothschilds.
Emerging conditions were soon to allow the Rothschilds to devise a plan that would assure them the complete control of European finances, with ambitions to control the world. Rothschilds also managed to have complete control of the British economy, after setting up a new Bank of England, which Nathan Rothschild controlled. In 1818 the Rothschild Family purchased enormous French government bonds and ultimately procured control of France...",
commentary by Dr. Ursula A. Falk.

This provocation - the Stamp Act in 1765 - was aimed at King George III and England, and its purpose was to provoke an anti-British revolution.

With the help of Baron Adolph von Knigge, on May 1, 1776, Weishaupt formed the Order of Perfectibilists, which was later known as the Illuminati. A convenient starting point is Ingolstadt, Bavaria on May 1, 1776. It is on this date that the former Jesuit Adam Weishaupt is recorded as having founded a New World Order - The Illuminati.

"... In 1770, he was chosen by Mayer Amschel Rothschild to develop an organization that Rothschild could use. In 1772, Weishaupt was made Professor of Civil Law. In 1773, he was made Professor of Canon Law, a post which had been held by the Jesuits for 90 years. They had founded most of the Universities, and kept strict control of them in order to eliminate Protestant influence. ... The Order of the Illuminati was officially founded in the old Jesuit stronghold of Bavaria. The Company would now use the ... House of Rothschild to finance the French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon the Freemason with his Jesuit-trained advisor, Abbe Sieyes. In spite of the historical writings of the Jesuit Abbe Barruel, who blamed the Rothschild's and Freemasonry for the Revolution [1789 in France], it was the Society of Jesus that used these very tools to carry out the Revolution ...
Adam Weishaupt, a famous Mason, had developed the Illuminati, a secret society within a secret society. One Masonic historian himself has stated that the goals include 'found[ing] a new Hierarchy, to overturn all authority, and to press down all the Social Order under the level of Equality'.
Another Masonic historian stated 'the express aim of the Order was to abolish Christianity, and overturn all civil government'.
In Weishaupt's own words, the Illuminati 'will by degrees, and in silence, possess themselves of the government of the States, and make use of those means for this purpose ...'. ...
The Illuminati declared its mission to be the development of morality and virtue and the creation of an association of good men to oppose the progress of evil. The actual character of the society was determined by an elaborate network of spies and counter-spies created to ensure virtue. Weishaupt was initiated into Freemasonry Lodge 'Theodor zum guten Rath', at Munich in 1777. He began working towards incorporating his system of Illuminism into that of Masonry ...
1784, Weishaupt lost his position at the University of Ingolstadt and fled Bavaria. He received the assistance of Duke Ernest of Gotha, and lived in Gotha writing a series of works on Illuminism, including A Complete History of the Persecutions of the Illuminati in Bavaria (1785) ...
The Illuminati formed a committee entitled the Biblical Destruction Group. This committee disbanded fifty years later".

The Stamp Act of 1765 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.

George III (George William Frederick, born in 1738, d. 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland, crowned in 1760, and in 1801, he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
He was concurrently Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover in 1814.
He was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe- Gotha.

"... The American revolution was about to start against George III, King of Great Britain. It's obvious that the American colonies had legitimate reasons to demand independence, but what's odd about this uprising, is the fact that a large number of those promoting the revolt were actually members of secret societies (mainly Freemasonry)...".

"... Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel was the great-grandson of Elizabeth Charlotte, the sister of Frederick V of the Palatinate. Elizabeth Charlotte was also the grandmother to Frederick I King of Prussia. Frederick II of Hessen- Kassel was a direct descendant of 'Maurice the Learned' of Hesse-Kassel, uncle to Frederick IV of the Palatine. Maurice had procured the services of prominent Rosicrucians and alchemists, like Michael Maier, while the town of Kassel itself, according to Francis Yates, was where the Rosicrucian Manifestos were first published.
Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel married Maria Princess of Hanover, cousin of Frederick II the Great King of Prussia, and the daughter of [mentioned above] George II King of England. ...

In December 1745, Frederick [Frederick of Hesse] landed in Scotland with 6000 Hessian troops to support his father-in-law, [named above] George II of Great Britain, in dealing with the Jacobite rising, although he supported the 'Protestant succession' in Great Britain on this occasion, Frederick later converted from Calvinism to Catholicism. In February 1749, Frederick and his father visited the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne, Clemens August of Bavaria, who received Frederick into the Catholic Church".
In 1714, 6000 Hessians were rented to Sweden for its war with Russia whilst 12000 Hessians were hired by George I of Great Britain in 1715 to combat the Jacobite Rebellion.

"Rothschild's wealth was largely achieved through his association with the family of Hesse-Kassel.
Rothschild served a three year apprenticeship in Hanover at the Bank of Oppenheim, at the service to Lt. Gen. Baron von Estorff, who was the principal adviser to Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel. Frederick II was a member of the Order of the Garter,
as well as the wealthiest man in Europe, much of it inherited from his father, Wilhelm VIII, brother of the King of Sweden".


Emmerich Otto August von Estorff, 1722-1796,
comes from the Lüneburg family of Estorff.
His parents were Ludolf Otto von Estorff (1696-1759) and his wife Eleonore de Farcy de St. Laurent (1701- 1784), the only daughter of the electoral Brunswick - Lüneburg lieutenant general of the cavalry Amaury de Farcy de Saint - Laurent (1652 - 1729).
In 1741, Emmerich Otto August von Estorff became an officer and in 1753 a captain at the Leibgarde.
Mentioned above Ludolf Otto von Estorff (d. 1759) that is Ludolph Otto II von Estorff (1696 - 1759).

Emmerich Otto August von Estorff (1722-1796), the Electoral Brunswick-Lüneburg General Lieutenant, Baron von Estorff, advised the Landgrave of Hesse / HESSEN.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild became involved with Baron Von Estorff (the principal advisor to Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse). Landgrave was the wealthiest man in Europe. Mayer Amschel Rothschild, in 1755, lost his parents. Baron von Estorff, was also an intimate friend of William IX - Landgrave of Hesse.
"During his apprenticeship at Oppenheim's Mayer Amschel had more than once come into contact with Lieutenant-General Baron von Estorff, an intimate friend of William IX, Landgrave of Hesse, and had won his good opinion and esteem. When years later Baron Estorff, who, from his own knowledge and Oppenheim's accounts, was able to form an estimate of Rothschild's worth, bad an opportunity of advancing his fortunes, he did not hesitate to recommend him to the Landgrave as a person well qualified to act as his financial agent. Seeing that the Landgrave had a private fortune of thirty-six million thalors, it was indeed a most lucrative post to obtain. Rothschild received a summons to wait upon the Landgrave. When he was ushered into the room, he discovered his Highness deep in a game of chess with Baron Estorff, who seemed to be getting the best of the struggle".
The result of the interview was that Mayer Amschel Rothschild was appointed Court-Banker to the Landgrave of Hesse, with support of Emmerich Otto August von Estorff (1722-1796) / Lieutenant-General Baron von Estorff, an intimate friend of William IX, Landgrave of Hesse.

In HANOVER, Mayer Amschel Rothschild b. 1743, was working 3 years with OPPENHEIM, and made the acquaintance of Lieutenant-General baron von Estorff, the man nearest to Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse Cassel (1760 - 1785). In 1770 Mayer Amschel Rothschild returned to Frankfurt am Main. Ca 1770/1771 ESTORFF introduced AMSCHEL to the Landgrave FREDERICK II.
Emmerich Otto August von Estorff d. 1796 in Northeim; was an Electoral Brunswick-Lüneburg Lieutenant General.
After the entry of the Electorate of Hanover in the Seven Years' War as a coalition partner of Prussia and Britain, he moved in 1757 as Brigadier Major of the cavalry in the General Staff. He belonged to this,
first under the supreme command of Duke August Wilhelm of Cumberland,
then the Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick.

Estorff was sent with the victory message to London, where he was promoted to lieutenant colonel by King George II. On December 8, 1761 he was colonel and on December 9, 1762 Quartermaster General of the Hanoverian Army.
This position, he held until his death. In 1764 the colonel was one of the founding members of the Celler Agricultural Society. Estorff had his headquarters first in Grohnde on the Weser, then in the city of Northeim. On 9 September 1777 he was appointed lieutenant general and in 1781 he was made inspector general of the entire Hanoverian cavalry. He was married twice. His first wife Helene von der Schulenburg; 2nd time in 1777 in Moringen to Luise Albertine of Munchausen.


1759 in Scotland and England:

Emmerich Otto August von Estorff, d. 1796 in Northeim; was an Electoral Brunswick-Lüneburg Lieutenant General. Emmerich Otto August von Estorff took part in the Battle of Minden on 1 August 1759. Estorff was sent with the victory message to London in AUGUST 1759 [Wilhelmshaven 04th August ?; London on 08th August 1759 ? - in the 18th century journeys of ships from London took approximately 100-150 miles per day on average - or about 100 to 140 miles per day], where he was promoted to lieutenant colonel on August 10, 1759 by King George II.

In Scotland, in November 1771, Benjamin Franklin spent five days with Lord Kames near Stirling [!] in Blair-Drummond, by then the property of Lord and Lady Kames, and stayed for three weeks with David Hume in Edinburgh. In 1759, he visited Edinburgh with his son.

'Benjamin Franklin in Scotland', by The Hon. Lord Mackenzie-Stuart:

"... In February of 1759, the University of St Andrews conferred upon Franklin the degree of Doctor of Laws and the University Minute designs him solely as "famous for his writings on Electricity". ...
Franklin made two visits to Scotland

{Benjamin Franklin came to Scotland twice, in 1759 and 1771. He met in 1771 Christian David Hume; in 1771, he made second visit in Edinburgh; in October 1771 met also Robertson, Principle of the University; on 6 November 1771, Marchant and Franklin set out for Blair-Drummond, by then the property of Lord and Lady Kames. There is mention of passing en route the Forth and Clyde Canal then under construction; Franklin and Marchant stayed at Blair-Drummond, in part held up by bad weather, until 16 November. At Glasgow, the travellers again visited the University; back to Edinburgh on 17 November. Dr Franklin dined with Lord Kames and with Adam Ferguson, leaving Edinburgh on Thursday 21st, taking two full days to reach Carlisle; visit to Sir Alexander Dick; In 1775 he returned to America to participate in the events leading to the Declaration of Independence. In 1778 he was accredited to the Court of Versailles as the ambassador of the new United States}.

The first lasted from the beginning of September 1759 until the middle of October 1759.
... William Strahan his Edinburgh born but London based agent and friend ...
Franklin accompanied by his son William left London at the end of the first week in August [maybe on 10th August ? in 1759]
and proceeded ... by the West Coast route. On August 29 ... from Liverpool ... The party finally arrived in Edinburgh on September 1st or 2nd. ... On 5 September [1759] the Franklins, father and son, were admitted Guild Brethren of the City of Edinburgh at a ceremony presided over by the great Lord Provost Drummond ... during his stay in Edinburgh Franklin met to our recorded knowledge almost all the circle of friends and acquaintances whom we associate with the Scottish Enlightenment. Above all
Lord Kames
and Sir Alexander Dick,
but also both the professors Munro,
Adam Ferguson,
Joseph Black and
Doctors Cullen and Russell,
the future Principal Robertson and
Adam Smith ...
On 17 September, Franklin left Edinburgh for Glasgow ...
The next week or two were taken up with a Highland visit, perhaps including a visit to Inverary, and on 2 October Franklin was in St Andrews where he was admitted a Guild Brother and received by the University in their Library ...
From 4 October to the end of the visit on 12 October, 1759, the Franklins were occupied again by the social round. During this week they found time, in the company of
Sir Alexander Dick
and Lord Provost Drummond,
to visit the Royal Infirmary ...
It was from this period too that Franklin's friendship with Lord Kames can effectively be dated, although they had earlier been in correspondence (and on the return journey [in 1759] to England
the Franklins stayed with Lord and Lady Kames at Kames in Berwickshire).
...".


At http://www.conspiracyschool.com/round-table by David Livingstone, born in Montreal in 1966:

"...The plot of the Illuminati is directed from London ... According to researcher Dr. John Coleman, who interviewed a Grand Master at Oxford, the Knights of the Garter are the inner-sanctum, the elite of the elite of Her Majesty's Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem

[in 1823, the Council of the French Langues, faction of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, sought to raise through private money to restore a territorial base for the Order of Malta, but the attempt was failed when details leaked to the press. Then the Marquis de Sainte-Croix du Molay became its head. In 1826, Philippe de Castellane, a French Knight of Malta, negotiated in Britain with Scotsman, Donald Currie; De Castellane and Currie were then allowed by the French Council to form the Council of the English Langue in 1831, with a headquartered at St John's Gate {the Old Jerusalem Tavern}, in Clerkenwell

{see Edward Brown, Gudak and Breguet

(in 1870 Louis Francois Clement Breguet transferred the leadership of the company to Edward Brown; he collaborated with Heinrich Ruhmkorff, George Daniels and Professor Thomas Engel, and he met Alexander Graham Bell and obtained a license to manufacture Bell telephones for the French market. He had one son Antoine b. 1851 and he was grandfather of Louis Charles Breguet, aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer - see Duflon & Konstantynowicz in St Petersburg and Moscow - more at http://konstantynowicz.info/Deka_Company_1904_- _1918_St_Petersburg/index.html - and a line to Miezonka and Wola Pszczolecka)
and also Lenin and Trocki
(Krzyzanowski and the Templars in Volhynia and Kiev - a line to the Posen province and Mielzynski - see Angela Merkel and Hanna Suchocka, and also to Cracow and Paszkowski - a line to Armand in Moscow and Anna Konstantynowicz - see Lenin and 'Iskra' - a line to Dzierzynski, Pilsudski, Pilar Pilchau - see 1939 in the Soviet Union):

at 30 Holford Square / Holford Gardens [1800 meters north-west of Clerkenwell Green], Lenin's first London address in April 1902 to 1903 and the offices of Iskra were at 37a Clerkenwell Green - 250 meters north-west of the Old Jerusalem Tavern! At present the Marx Memorial Library is situated ca 200 meters West of the Priory Church of the Order of St John}.

The Order of St. John, formally the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem known as St John International, is a royal order of chivalry first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria a faction of the Order of Malta that emerged in France in the 1820s].

The Knights of the Order of the Garter are the leaders of the Illuminati hierarchy ...

[Queen Victoria, Alexandrina Victoria b. 1819 was daughter of
Edward, Duke of Kent

(son of George III {his father Frederick, Prince of Wales and mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha} + Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1744 - 1818 {her father Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow, and mother Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen})

and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1786 - 1861

(1803 at Coburg, she married 1st to Charles, Prince of Leiningen; 2nd to Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, in 1818 at Amorbach. Victoria's father was Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and mother Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf daughter of Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg)]

... [mentioned above] Charlotte was the grandmother of Queen Victoria, and whose son married the daughter of Frederick III of Hessen-Kassell.

Charlotte's brother was Charles II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whose daughter married the heir of the Prussian crown, Frederick William III.

Frederick II of Prussia was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, who married Louise of Brunswick- Wolfenbuettel. She was the sister of Frederick Duke of Brunswick, the Grand Master of the Strict Templar Observance, and who had convened the great Masonic convention at Wilhelmsbad in Hessen-Kassel.

Frederick Wilhelm II of Prussia was the father of Frederick William III, who became a member of the Order of the Garter.

Of Frederick William III and Louise' four children, three married the brothers and sisters of Csar Alexander I.
Frederick William III's daughter, Charlotte of Prussia, married Paul's son, Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander I, and who also belonged to the Order of the Garter.
Frederick's son Wilhelm I married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the daughter of Nicholas' sister Maria Romanov.
A third child of Frederick, Friedrich Karl Alexander of Prussia, married Maria's Romanov other daughter, Marie Luisa Alexandrina von Saxe-Weimar.

The son of Csar Nicholas, Constantine Nicholaievitch Romanov, Grand Duke of Russia, fathered Olga Constantinovna Romanov, who married George I King of Greece. George was a member of the Order of the Garter, as was his father, Christian IX of Denmark. ...
Christian IX was, in the last years of his life, named Europe's 'father-in-law'. ... Christian's daughter, Maria Fyodorovna married Csar Nicholas III, father of Nicholas II who was killed by the Bolsheviks in 1918. Princess Alexandra married Queen Victoria's son, King Edward VII, the Grand Master of Freemasonry. ...".

The Order of the Garter - The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry; several supernumerary members, known as 'Royal Knights and Ladies of the Garter', belong to the royal family. These titles were introduced in 1786 by King George III; with the installation of Emperor Alexander I of Russia in 1813, supernumerary membership was extended to foreign monarchs, who are known as 'Stranger Knights and Ladies of the Garter'.


The forerunners of the Freemasons - the Knights Templar - founded the concept of banking.

According to former British intelligence agent John Coleman's book, 'The Committee of 300':

the Rothschilds exert political control through the secretive Business Roundtable, which they created in 1909 with the help of Lord Alfred Milner and South African industrialist Cecil Rhodes.

It was the plan known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers, and within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was Rhodes with Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner who was added to the society by Stead.

Rhodes had been planning this event for more than seventeen years (before 1872).

See: the letter of Pike to Mazzini in 1871, and Edward Brown - Breguet Company in 1870.

Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. In modified form, it exists to this day. From 1891 to 1902, it was known to only a score of persons. Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner; others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included:
Bertrand Russell, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.

David Laurence Aaron born 1938, in Chicago, is an American diplomat who served in the Jimmy Carter administration. He then joined the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency where he served as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. In 1974, on the recommendation of Zbigniew Brzezinski, Aaron became Senator Walter Mondale's legislative assistant. In 1977, Aaron was asked by Zbigniew Brzezinski to become Deputy National Security Advisor in the administration of Jimmy Carter. In Israel, Aaron worked with Moshe Dayan.
When Reagan became President in 1981, Aaron moved into the private sector, becoming Vice President for Mergers and Acquisitions at Oppenheimer and Co. and Vice Chairman of Oppenheimer International.
Aaron was involved in the election campaign of Bill Clinton.

We back again to Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel and to George II King of England:

The Grand Master of the Asiatic Brethren, and leading member of the Illuminati, was Prince Karl, the brother of Wilhelm I of Hessen-Kassel.
Both were the sons of Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel, from his wife, Mary of Hanover, Princess of Great Britain, daughter of George II King of England, and therefore cousin to Frederick II the Great of Prussia.

"Give me control of a nation's money and I care not who makes it's laws" - Mayer Amschel Bauer Rothschild.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild / Anschel (b. 1743 or in 1744), was a German Jewish banker and the founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty.

Salomon Mayer - was the son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild / Mosche Meir, b. 1743 or 1744 in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1812 in Frankfurt am Main; Mayer Amschel Bauer, an Ashkenazi Jew, the son of Moses Amschel Bauer, a proprietor of a counting house.

In 1770, "Mayer Amschel Rothschild draws up plans for the creation of the Illuminati and entrusts ... Adam Weishaupt, ... with its organization and development...".

Mayer Amschel Rothschild marries Gutle Schnaper.
In 1773, was born Amschel Mayer Rothschild, the first of Mayer Amschel Rothschild's sons.
"...He like all his brothers who follow him, will enter the family business at the age of 12".
In 1774, [mentioned above] Salomon Mayer Rothschild was born.

In 1776, "Adam Weishaupt officially completes his organisation of the Illuminati on May 1 of this year. The purpose of the Illuminati is to ... fight amongst themselves; destroy national governments; destroy religious institutions... Weishaupt soon infiltrates the Continental Order of Freemasons with this Illuminati doctrine and establishes lodges of the Grand Orient to be their secret headquarters..."

"... It is Rothschild who said, 'give me control of a nation's money, and I care not who makes [writes] the laws."

"... On the other hand we have Alexander Hamilton [born in 1757 in Charlestown, Nevis, British West Indies; died in 1804 at the William Bayard's Home]; who some believe was a Rothschild agent.

Hamilton's mother [RACHEL born in 1729] was first married to Johann Michael Lavien [born ?] (a German Jewish merchant), from whom she separated in 1750; five years [or 7 years ?] before Hamilton's birth [he was born in 1757]. Because of this separation, she could not legally marry again with Hamilton's father, James A. [James Alexander Hamilton b. in 1718], therefore Hamilton was no allowed in the local Christian school. Instead, he had individual tutoring and classes in a private Jewish school. He became the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, Founding Father, economist, political philosopher, and chief of staff for George Washington. He was also the most influential members of Washington's Cabinet, and his financial expert. Hamilton was an advocated for the establishment of a federal bank to be owned by private interests, and for the creation of debt-money; for which he used false arguments to convince Washington. Eventually he convinced the President - despite the opposition of Thomas Jefferson (by then Secretary of State) - and a federal bank was created in 1791 with a 20 years charter. Although it was termed 'Bank of the United States', it was not owned by the nation (but by individual stockholders - private bankers). The name was purposely chosen to deceive the American population and to make them believe that they were the owners of the bank. The charter for the Bank ran out in 1811, and Congress voted against its renewal, thanks to the influence of Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson...".

Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
A close friend of George Washington,
mentioned Alexander Hamilton, and
named above Thomas Jefferson.

Lafayette was a key figure in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830. Lafayette returned to France, and in 1787 was appointed to the Assembly of Notables, which was convened in response to the fiscal crisis. He was elected a member of the Estates-General of 1789. He helped write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, with Thomas Jefferson's assistance; inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence.

"... My conclusion on the connection between the Rothschilds and the American Revolution: it did exist through Alexander Hamilton (who could only push the agenda for the first 20 years of independence), and also quite possibly through Solomon and Franklin; though it made no difference at the end. It is true that the American Freemasons shared the same ideology that emerged from Jewish intellectuals in Germany and spread throughout secret societies; but I'm having a hard time relating the founding fathers directly to the Rothschilds, with the exception of Franklin, who obviously had his hands in far too many pies to count as a confirmed agent for any side...".

Alexander Hamilton
- Hamilton has also become a favorite for conspiracy theorists who think he was a tool for the New World Order, the Illuminati, and / or the Rothschild family, because of his support for a National Bank.

Hamilton, along with Benjamin Franklin, is one of the very few non-presidents to be portrayed on American money. Alexander Hamilton married into the Rothschild family December 14, 1780.
Alexander Hamilton was born Alexander Levine, of Jewish lineage, in St. Croix, the West Indies. After changing his name ... he married Elizabeth Schuyler

[Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton - her mother was Catherine Van Rensselaer Schuyler; Catherine's paternal great-grandfather was Hendrick van Rensselaer and her 2 x great-grandfather was Killian Van Rensselaer, one of the original founders of the Dutch colony, New Amsterdam. Her maternal grandparents were Robert Livingston the Younger (1663-1725) and Margarita Schuyler (b. 1682), the daughter of Pieter Schuyler (1657-1724), the first mayor of Albany]

... John Paul Mitchell insist that Hamilton married into the Rothschild family.
Here's what we actually know about Hamilton's in-laws:
the father, Philip Schuyler, was a General during the Revolutionary War, while the mother Catherine instituted a scorched earth policy to deprive the British of food.
Philip John Schuyler was a general of the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. Come from the third generation of the Dutch family in America. His daughter Elizabeth married Alexander Hamilton who was the first Secretary of the Treasury to the United States under George Washington.

Rondinone said many of the Founding Fathers were conspiracy theorists. 'George Washington had references to The Illuminati in his writings', he said. 'And Thomas Jefferson wrote that King George III was systematically trying to enslave the American colonists. The Founders' talk about conspiracy theories actually helped muster support for the American Revolution.'
He said theories have abounded throughout American history. 'In the case of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, there actually is strong evidence of a conspiracy to overthrow the government,' Rondinone said.

Now on Thomas Dunckerley:

Thomas Dunckerley (1724 - 1795) was a Provincial Grand Master of several provinces, this was made possible by an annuity of L100, rising to L800, which he obtained in 1767 from King George III by claiming to be his illegitimate half brother - the Prince of Wales, later King George II, was Thomas' natural father.

At this time, in 1751 Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund und Altengrotkau began the Order of Strict Observance [with the superior, Prince Charles Edward Stuart], which came from the reconstituted Templar Order in 1743 in Paris.
The first body of Knights Templar in Ireland was "The High Knight Templars of Ireland, Kilwinning Lodge" with Archibald, the 11th Earl of Eglinton, the Grand Master of Lodge Mother Kilwinning in 1779 in Dublin.
In 1736, the Grand Lodge of Scotland was organised and the Kilwinning lodge was one of its constituent lodges; this one acted as a grand lodge, organising lodges in Scotland and on the continent, as well as in Virginia and Ireland.
Archibald Montgomerie, 11th Earl of Eglinton b. 1726 - died in 1796, was Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge of Mother Kilwinning, from 1771 until 1796.

"Lodge Mother Kilwinning is a Masonic Lodge in Kilwinning, Scotland, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. ... is reputed to be the oldest Lodge not only in Scotland, but the world".
Above Montgomerie was elected as one of sixteen Scottish representative peers, in 1776; was appointed Governor of Edinburgh Castle, in 1782. Montgomerie died at Eglinton Castle, a mansion in Kilwinning, North Ayrshire, Scotland. Ca 1790 the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland was formed, which began to warrant Templar Lodges, and evolved into the Supreme Grand Encampment in 1836 [in 1805 as the "Edinburgh Encampment No. 31", then became the"Grand Assembly of Knights Templar in Edinburgh"].

The Templar degree had filtered into the lodges of the Antients from Ireland about 1780.

In 1791 - the formation of TEMPLAR's first Grand Conclave, with Thomas Dunckerley as Grand Master.

In 1805 their Royal Patron, Duke of Kent [Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus], became TEMPLAR Grand Master himself.

The modern revival of Templarism in Scotland starts with Alexander Deuchar, of the Grand Assembly of the High Knights Templar in Edinburgh; in 1811 with a Charter from the Templar Grand Master in England, the Duke of Kent, Alexander Deuchar established the Grand Conclave of Knights of the Holy Temple and Sepulchre, and of St. John of Jerusalem [see Wankowicz and Swolna].

In 1813 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England, and in December 1813 - named Prince Edward [Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus] became Grand Master of the Antient Grand Lodge of England.
Mentioned above the Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus, b. 1767, died in 1820, was the fifth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and the father of Queen Victoria!

Baron von Estorff advised the Landgrave that Mayer Amschel showed an exceptional ability to increase wealth through his investments. Mayer Amschel arranged to hire 16800 Hessian soldiers to assist the nephew of Federick's wife, King George III of England, in suppressing the American Rebellion. When Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel died in 1785, Rothschild obtained total influence over his successor, Karl's brother Elector Wilhelm IX, who he managed to make one of the wealthiest monarchs of his time.

In 1769, Mayer Amschel Rothschild had become an agent for the Hessen-Kassel court:
[but Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel died in 1785]
for Prince William IX of Hesse - Kassel
(Prince WILHELM IX / William IX was the grandson of George II, and also a cousin to George III, who was a nephew to the King of Denmark and also a brother in law to the King of Sweden).
Prince William handed his wealth to be managed by the Rothschilds.

Wilhelm X Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim married Louise Charlotte von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim (born of Denmark-Oldenburg). They had a son
Friedrich Wilhem II von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim born 1820.
Friedrich married Alexandra Nicholaievna von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim (born of Russia-Holstein-Gottorp- Romanov).
Alexandra was born on June 12, 1825.
Mentioned above
Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia (1825 - 1844) was the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas I, Emperor of Russia, and his wife, Princess Charlotte of Prussia. She was a younger sister of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
Above
Alexandra Feodorovna, born Princess Charlotte of Prussia (1798 - 1860), was Empress consort of Russia. She was the wife of Emperor Nicholas I, and mother of Emperor Alexander II.
Charlotte was born the eldest surviving daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia, and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
In 1814, her marriage was arranged for political reason with Grand Duke Nicholas Pavlovich of Russia, the future Tsar Nicholas I.
Mentioned
Frederick William III / Friedrich Wilhelm III (1770 - 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. His parents:
Frederick William II of Prussia + Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Above named
Frederick William II / Friedrich Wilhelm II, b. 1744, was King of Prussia from 1786. His father Prince Augustus William of Prussia, August Wilhelm, b. 1722, was Prince of Prussia and
a younger brother of Frederick II.
Augustus was the second surviving son of Frederick William I and Sophia Dorothea.

Above
Frederick II / Friedrich; b. 1712, was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786.

We back to
Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna of Russia b. 1825, the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas I, and his wife, Princess Charlotte of Prussia.
Mentioned
Nicholas I b. 1796, was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. His parents:
Paul I of Russia + Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg / Maria Feodorovna, Duchess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg; b. 1759, the second wife of Tsar Paul I.
Her father Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg. Friedrich Eugen, Duke of Württemberg b. 1732, Stuttgart; the son of Duke Karl Alexander, Duke of Württemberg and Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis.
Parents of named PAWEL I:
Peter III + Catherine II.

Named
Wilhelm X Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel-Rumpenheim that is Prince William of Hesse-Kassel, b. 1787, the first son of Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen.
Above
Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel b. 1747, a Danish general.
He was born as the youngest son of Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel / Landgrave Frederick II, and Princess Mary of Great Britain, he was the last surviving grandchild of George II of Great Britain, dying one month before Queen Victoria (granddaughter of his first cousin King George III) ascended to the throne.
Mentioned
Frederick II / Landgraf Friedrich II von Hessen-Kassel, b. 1720, was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) from 1760 to 1785.
He raised money by renting soldiers to Great Britain to help fight the American Revolutionary War, he combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian values.


Ferdinand VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBÜTTEL, the Prince of Brunswick-Lünebourg and the TEMPLARS:

Ferdinand VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBÜTTEL,
the General of Prussia, 1758 - 1766 Field Marshal,
Freemason (1777), Grand Master of the Strict Observance [Templar] (1777).
"...The system of the Strict Observance grew out of what is known as Templarism. Templar Masonry commenced to grow up in France soon after true Freemasonry was introduced. This was about 1725. However, no Grand Lodge was established till 1752. The Strict Observance as a separate system was formed Germany and dates from about 1748. It was produced by a process of evolution ..."
- by Burton E. Bennett.

Ferdinand VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBÜTTEL, the Prince of Brunswick-Lünebourg was the member of the Knight of the Garter {Illuminati} (1783)
- the Knights of the Order of the Garter are the leaders of the Illuminati. The Pilgrim Society and the Order of the Garter (or "Knights of the Garter") are the controlling inner-parts of the Military Order of Malta ("Knights of Malta"). The word "Garter" can be seen as another term for "secret".

Daniel Lazar wrote:
One reference stated, "The Society of the Cincinnati" in 1783, it is likely that no Englishman feels a greater sense of pride in being a Knight of the Garter, or Scotsman, a Knight of the Thistle, than an American feels in being a member of The Society of the Cincinnati.
The Order of the Garter is the secret inner group which is an elite group within the Order of St. John of Jerusalem which is the British part of the Knights of Malta. The Knights of the Garter are the leaders of the Committee of 300.

Ferdinand VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBÜTTEL, the Prince of Brunswick-Lünebourg, born in 1721, died in 1792.
His children:

Karl I VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBÜTTEL, Duke;

Elisabeth Christine VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBÜTTEL, 1715-1797, married to Friedrich II Der Große / Frederick the Great, of Prussia, King, 1712-1786;

Juliane VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBÜTTEL, 1729-1796, married to Frederik V the DANMARK, the King, 1723-1766

{Frederick V, Danish and Norwegian, b. 1723, "was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 1746; The Norwegian Masonic historian Karl Ludvig Bugge claims that Frederik V as crown prince was included in the
Copenhagen Masonic Lodge St. Martin in 1744, and inspired by the Prussian king Frederick the Great who was also included in a masonic lodge in his youth. They both had fathers who were violently opposed to the Masons,
but unlike the Prussian king, Frederik V never published his membership of the lodge". As an active Freemason, he set up in 1749 the first Masonic lodge in Norway}.

Named Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg b. 1721, Wolfenbüttel, a German-Prussian field marshal (1758-1766),
in 1757 to 1762 he led an Anglo-German army which repelled French attempts to occupy Hanover. He was a freemason, initiated in 1740 into the Lodge of The Three Globes in Berlin, and received the degree of Master Mason in 1743 at Breslau [see BYSTRZANOWSKI].

In 1738, the future Frederick the Great, then Crown Prince, was initiated as a Freemason in Brunswick;
"... he invited Baron von Oberg and the writer Jakob Friedrich von Bielfeld, who were instrumental to his candidature, to form La loge premiere / La loge du Roi notre grand maitre at Rheinsberg Castle, with Oberg as Master. He led the lodge himself from 1740. The foundation of the Grand Lodge - 1740, when, with the King's permission, the lodge Aux Trois Globes was formed under the auspices of Charles-Etienne Jordan.
A new lodge created in Meiningen, Frankfurt an der Oder, Wroclaw, Dresden and Neuchatel.
In 1744 they therefore took the name Great Royal Mother Lodge of the Three Globes.

"... In 1767 the Mother Lodge "The Three Globes" became submerged in the Rite of Strict Observance as L'union, but withdrew in 1778. After the Williamsbad Congress of 1782/3, which ended Strict Observance, they declared independence and adopted the "Rectified System"...".

Mentioned
Charles-Etienne Jordan b. 1700 in Berlin, was a Prussian-born Huguenot refugee, advisor to Frederick the Great;
he visited France, England and the Netherlands. "At the Rheinsberg Castle he was the member of a radical intellectual circle including general Heinrich August de la Motte Fouque. Jordan was an avid collector of banned radical and "Socinian" books...".

And above Ernst Heinrich August de la Motte Fouque, b. 1698, was a Prussian Lieutenant general and a confidante of King Frederick the Great. Born in The Hague to an old Norman family, befriended Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia, visiting him while the crown prince restricted to Küstrin.

Above
Rite of Strict Observance as L'union - a Rite of Freemasonry,
a Masonic body of the 18th century.
Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund (1722-1776) introduced a new "Scottish" Rite to Germany, which he renamed "Rectified Masonry" and, after 1764, the "Strict Observance", while referring to the English system of Freemasonry as the "Late Observance."
"Despite its initial popularity, growing dissatisfaction among members over the failure to being initiated into the mysteries of the Unknown Superiors led to the Convent of Wilhelmsbad in 1782.
The delegates there renounced their Templar origins...".
Willermoz also claimed to receive instruction from "unknown superiors".
The Illuminati took over Freemasonry in 1782 at the Congress.
This invisible leader was said to have possibly been Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender. This was the same man whom Ramsey had tried to tutor some year prior.
"...The first meeting convened on the October 25th, 1764, for the purpose of convincing the Lodges under the Strict Observance system to recognize Johnson in the officer of Superior. At the second meeting held in 1765, Baron von Hund was invited to attend who had supported Johnson, but, upon discovery that he was a fraud, had him arrested and jailed where he died on May 13th, 1775. The third convention was held in Altenburg, near Jena, in 1768 where Baron von Hund was proclaimed as the Grand Master of all the Strict Observance Lodges {by Barry Newell}."

Mentioned above
Karl Gotthelf, Baron von Hund und Altengrotkau b. 1722, Unwürde, a German freemason; in 1751, he founded the Rite of Strict Observance. Von Hund came from Silesia, descended from Henry von Hund und Altengrotkau, whose son was Commander of the Order of Malta in Glatz, ca 1523 [see SULKOWSKI].
In 1741 Hund was at the coronation of Charles VII of BAVARIA, in Frankfurt, where he was admitted to the Masonic brotherhood. 1742 / 1743 he was in Paris, and there converted to Catholicism. In 1743, he became Master of a lodge.
He claimed that it was in Paris in 1743 that he was initiated, by Scottish knights, into the Order of the Knights Templar, and was the introduced to the pretender to the British throne, Prince Charles Edward Stuart as the Grand Master of the Knights Templar.
Present were the Earl of Kilmarnock and other senior Jacobites. He was initiated by the "Knight of the Red Feather, whose identity he was pledged to conceal, but he may have tried to hint that it was Charles Edward Stuart".
Hund claimed to have been appointed by these "unknown superiors" of the Templars as "commander in chief" of the Order of Province VII (Germany) of the TEMPLARS.
"Hund's relationship to the alleged French Templar Order is unclear, and his surviving diary entries give little information".

Above
Charles VII b. 1697, died in 1745, the prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1742.
Mentioned Charles VII / Charles Albert was born in Brussels, the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, and Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska, the daughter of King John III Sobieski of Poland.
Theresa Kunegunda / Teresa Kunegunda Sobieska, b. 1676, a Polish princess, an Electress of Bavaria and of the Electorate of the Palatinate; Regent of the Palatinate in 1704-1705. The daughter of the Polish King John III Sobieski and Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien.
Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska was also the mother to Clemens August of Bavaria, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.
Her son
Johann Theodor of Bavaria b. 1703, was a cardinal, Prince-Bishop of Regensburg, Freising, and of Liege. "He was said to have had affairs with several women despite his clerical status and was liked by the inhabitants of the bishopric".

The parents of above Ferdinand of BRUNSWICK:

Ferdinand Albrecht II VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBÜTTEL, 1680-1735 + Antoinette Amalie VON BRAUNSCHWEIG-WOLFENBÜTTEL, 1696-1762.


Henry Home, Lord Kames and Agatha Drummond - SOBIESKI and Cochrane:

Above
Agatha Drummond, 1711 - 1795, the daughter of James Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond and Jean Carre. Wife of Henry Home, Lord Kames. Mother of George Drummond-Home, Laird of Blair-Drummond

{GEORGE, 1740 - 1819, son of Henry Home, Lord Kames and Agatha Drummond. Married Janet Jardine

(Janet / Jardine Home Drummond, 1762 - 1840, the daughter of John Jardine, Min. of Tron, Edinburgh - John Jardine, born 1715, son of Robert JARDINE; lived in Lochmaben in 1736; Dean of the Chapel Royal 1761; he known David Hume the philosopher; JOHN married in 1744, to Jean (died 1766), eldest daughter of George Drummond, commissioner of Excise, and Lord Provost of Edinburgh)

with son:
Henry Drummond-Home (born in 1783 in Perthshire, Scotland. He had a son George Stirling Home Drummond b. 1813, Edinburgh)}

and Jean Home [more below !].
Sister of George Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond born in 1705.

Mentioned
Jean Home born ca. 1745 / Jean Heron, the daughter of Henry Home, Lord Kames and Agatha Drummond. Married (1761) to Patrick Heron; divorced in 1772; she was exiled to France by her parents; In 1782, Boswell had a long conversation with Lady Kames about Jean. JEAN was sent to France accompanied by a teacher of french, Alexander Drummond who was going there with a daughter.
James Boswell had affair with Jean in 1761 - 1762 at Kirroughtrie.

Above PATRICK HERON:
born ca. 1736, died 1803. Patrick Heron of Heron and Kirroughtrie, was the son of Patrick Heron (d. 1761) and Margaret, daughter of John Mackie of Palgoun.
Married (1761) to Jean Home, daughter of Henry Home, Lord Kames. They divorced in 1772 following Jean's adulterous affair with a young officer.
Re-married (1775) to Elizabeth Cochrane (1745-1811), a cousin of James Boswell

{Elizabeth Cochrane (1745-1811), the daughter of the 8th Earl of Dundonald. She married Patrick Heron. She was the composer of an air, 'The Banks of Cree'. Above
8th Earl of Dundonald, Thomas Cochrane, 1691 - 1778, was a Scottish nobleman, army officer and politician.
He was Member of Parliament for Renfrewshire. His cousin, William Cochrane, 7th Earl.
Thomas was born in 1691, the seventh son of William Cochrane of Ochiltree, and his wife Lady Mary Bruce, eldest daughter of Alexander Bruce, 2nd Earl of Kincardine.
We back to
John Dundas Cochrane, d. 1825:
Captain John Dundas Cochrane (1793 - 1825) was a Scottish officer in the Royal Navy, traveller and explorer.
An illegitimate son of Scottish adventurer Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone.

Andrew James Cochrane-Johnstone b. 1767, a Scottish soldier, politician and adventurer; was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. The youngest son of above Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, from Jane Stuart b. 1722;
in 1793, ANDREW married Georgiana Hope-Johnstone, a daughter of James Hope-Johnstone, 3rd Earl of Hopetoun.
Note:
John Cochrane was in 1822 in Irkutsk.

Above Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone and his brother the Admiral Alexander Cochrane in the West Indies; servant of Prince Alexander Labanov in Russia.

Charles Stuart Cochrane b. 1796, son of above Alexander Cochrane, career in the Royal Navy, 1823 in Gran Colombia, the firm of Rundell, Bridge & Rundell, for exploitation of the pearl fisheries in Gran Colombia; 1830 in France; next in Glasgow.

After the death of John Cochrane in 1825, Ksenia Cochrane remained in Great Britain to London to John's Cochrane sister Eliza until 1827; next in Petersburg in 1827; here she met the famous Arctic explorer,
Pyotr Anjou (b.1796 / 1797), and married him in St Petersburg;
Ksenia Anjou had six children: Ludmila, Pyotr Anjou a naval man, Fedor, Ivan, Aleksandra, and Elisaveta in St Petersburg and Oranienbaum.
Pyotr Anjou / Pyotr Fyodorovich Anjou, was an Arctic explorer and an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy. Pyotr Anjou / Piotr Fyodorovich Anjou b. 1796 or 1797 in Vyshny Volochyok, near Tver.
See below on COCHRANE !}.

Patrick Heron of Heron and Kirroughtrie was the co-founder, with Archibald Douglas, of the Ayr bank Douglas, Heron & Company which went bankrupt in 1773.
In 1793 he was elected MP for the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. He was inherited by his only surviving child, Mary (d. 1856), and son-in-law Lieutenant-General Sir John Maxwell (d. 1830), 4th Bart of Nova Scotia, who assumed the surname and arms of Heron.

Above
Kirroughtree - close to Newton Stewart; south-west SCOTLAND - west to CASTLE DOUGLAS.

Named above
Lieutenant General Sir John Shaw Stewart Heron-Maxwell, 4th Baronet (1772 - 1830), known as John Maxwell until 1803, was a Scottish officer in the British Army and a politician. He was the 4th son of Sir William Maxwell, 3rd Baronet, of Springkell in Dumfriesshire. His mother Margaret was the daughter of Sir Michael Stewart, 3rd Baronet, of Blackhall, Renfrewshire. Lieutenant general in 1819.
In 1802 he married Mary Heron, the only surviving child of Patrick Heron, a founder of the Ayr Bank and MP for Kirkcudbright Stewartry.
When her father died in 1803, she inherited his estates, and John changed his name to Heron-Maxwell.

Mentioned above
Douglas, Heron & Company, also known as the Ayr Bank, was a Scottish bank with its head office at Ayr. It opened in November 1769 and folded in 1772. There were 131 original partners, including Patrick Heron of Kirroughtree, the Earl of Dumfries, the Earl of March, and Sir Adam Fergusson of Kilkerran; the Duke of Buccleuch, the Duke of Queensberry, and Archibald Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas.

Above
Archibald James Edward Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas b. 1748, a Scottish politician. He was born Archibald James Edward Stewart, in Paris [at the house of Madame Le Brun in Faubourg Saint-Germain], the son of Sir John Stewart, 3rd Baronet b. 1687, and Lady Jane Douglas, daughter of James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas. Lady Jane Douglas was the sister of Duke of Douglas.
Lady Jane was 47 when she married the 60-year-old Colonel Sir John Stewart.

Named
James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas b. ca 1646, was the son of Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus and 1st Earl of Ormonde, and Lady Anne Stuart. James, second marquis of Douglas, born in 1646, succeeded his grandfather in 1660, and was a privy councillor to Kings Charles II and James VII

{James II and VII b. 1633, was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII.
He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II.

James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales b. 1688, nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. In 1719, James Francis Edward Stuart married at the chapel of the Episcopal Palace in Montefiascone, near Viterbo, to
Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702-1735), the daughter of Jakub Sobieski, the granddaughter of King John III Sobieski of Poland.
He had two sons:
1. Charles Edward Stuart b. 1720, nicknamed "Bonnie Prince Charlie";
2. Henry Benedict Stuart b. 1725, a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church}.

His [James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas] first marriage was in 1670 to the Lady Barbara Erskine, daughter of John Erskine, 21st Earl of Mar and Jean Mackenzie. He later married Mary Kerr, daughter of Robert Kerr, 1st Marquess of Lothian and Lady Jean Campbell.
Robert Kerr, 1st Marquess of Lothian, b. 1636, known as the 4th Earl of Lothian from 1675 to 1701.

More on AYR BANK:

Margaret Campbell - born 1729 ARL, SCT [Inver, Scotland]; died 1790; father Colin CAMPBELL, mother Martha MCILVOIRE. Cardross, 37 km north-west to GLASGOW; Cardross, Dumbartonshire, Scotland - Dunbartonshire or the County of Dumbarton is a historic county, lieutenancy area and registration county in the west central Lowlands of Scotland lying to the north of the River Clyde.

Above named INVER and the CAMPBELL clan:
George Arbuthnot's father was a businessman (Aberdeen) who died shortly after being ruined in the Ayr Bank crash of 1772;
George Arbuthnot secured a post as Chief Secretary to the Governor of Ceylon, and founded the Arbuthnot Bank in Madras (1810); 1810 he married Eliza Fraser, daughter of an Inverness solicitor who was staying with her uncle in Madras.
They returned to Britain in 1823, purchased an estate in Surrey, and visited Rome.

Note:
HERON, Patrick (born ca 1672 - died in 1761), of Heron, Kirroughtrie, Kirkcudbright. the son of Andrew Heron of Kirroughtrie by Jean, daughter of John Dunbar of Machermore. PATRICK married 3rd in 1721, Isabel, daughter of Neilson of Dumfries, merchant, widowed after Thomas Maxwell of Cuil, Buittle, Kirkcudbright.

COCHRANE:

John Dandes Cochrane / John Dundas Cochrane / Cochran, British explorer, Captain of the Royal Navy, b. 1793 - d. 08/12/1825. In 1820 journey across Siberia, which went to Kamchatka and back;
from Ekaterinburg he went to Tobolsk and Omsk, Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and to the Chinese border, Zmeinogorsk, Kolivan and Barnaul and Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, to Yakutsk, then Verkhoyansk, and Lower Kolyma and the Upper Kolyma and Oymekon to Okhotsk, crossed to Kamchatka to Petropavlovsk; a year in Kamchatka, he moved to Okhotsk, to Yakutsk and the Lena up in Irkutsk, Nercinsk and Tsuruhaytu on the Chinese border, Kiakhta, Irkutsk

(John Dundas Cochrane / John Cochrane was in 1822 in Irkutsk or 1823),

Tomsk, Omsk, Tobolsk, the Urals. John Cochran, at journey from St. Petersburg across Siberia to Kamchatka, married in 1822 to the Siberian girl and returned to England and published an interesting book about his journey in Philadelphia (1824) and Edinburgh (1824), Weimar, 1825, Jena, 1825, Vienna, 1826.

Kotchoubey suspected him of being a spy, in a letter to Speranskii in 1872;

Cochran is called "the British fleet service captain" and 'Englishman Cochran took foot journey across Siberia'; and returned to England, acc. to "Complete Poems", Khvostova, 1829, p. 219. Death of John Cochrane in 1825, Ksenia Cochrane remained in Great Britain in London with John's Cochrane sister Eliza until 1827; next in Petersburg in 1827.

Note:

James Holman met Captain Rikord in the city of Kazan.

Captain John Dundas Cochrane, d. 1825, was a Scottish naval officer, son of Scottish adventurer Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone; he was a
cousin of Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, and
nephew of Admiral Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis Cochrane.

"Cochrane married Ksenia Ivanovna Loginova (1807-1870) in 1822; she was an adoptive daughter of Admiral Pyotr Rikord, the Russian governor of Kamchatka. As a widow, she married Pyotr Anjou, an Arctic explorer and Russian admiral", by Wikipedia. John Dundas Cochrane died in 1825 in Valencia, Colombia. Above mentioned

Andrew James Cochrane-Johnstone b. 1767, a Scottish soldier, politician and adventurer; was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. The youngest son of Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, from Jane Stuart b. 1722;
1793 he married Georgiana Hope-Johnstone, a daughter of James Hope-Johnstone, 3rd Earl of Hopetoun;
had one daughter.
1797 was promoted to Colonel and then made Governor of Dominica; next he had married Amelia Constance Gertrude Etienette, a widow and the only child of a French governor of Guadeloupe, in 1803. Above named

Thomas Cochrane, 8th Earl of Dundonald b. 1691, a Scottish nobleman, army officer and politician.
Thomas was born in 1691, the seventh son of William Cochrane of Ochiltree, and Lady Mary Bruce, eldest daughter of Alexander Bruce, 2nd Earl of Kincardine, by Wikipedia.


Freemasons in RUSSIA and Scotland:

The Grand Lodge of Russia:

1731, when the Grand Lodge of England appointed a Captain John Phillips as Provincial Grand Master of Russia and Germany, masonry in Russia was mainly the preserve of foreign residents;
in 1741 a Scots Jacobite, James Keith (1696-1758), who fought in the Russian and Prussian service, was Master under the English system;
At St. Petersburg in 1771; in 1772 the first native Provincial Grand Master, Ivan Yelagin (1725-94), secretary to Catherine.
Novikov was imprisoned in 1792, and by 1794 all lodges were forced to close.
The Grand Lodge Astrea, founded at St. Petersburg in 1815.

Above James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, a Scottish soldier and Prussian field marshal, a Jacobite, was born at Inverugie Castle near Peterhead - north of Aberdeen in eastern Scotland,
the second son of
William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland [= Sir William Keith, 8th Earl Marischal], who b. ca 1664, and was also a Jacobite politician of Scotland.
WILLIAM's parents were the army officer George Keith, 8th Earl Marischal (born ca 1614, d. 1694 = 7th Lord Keith, 7th Earl Marischal, Privy Counsellor) [= George Keith, 7th Earl Marischal] and the courtier Lady Mary Hay, the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Kinnoull - 2 km east of Perth.

William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland

[Sir William Keith, 8th Earl Marischal, also known as "9th Earl Marischal", "8th Earl of Marischal", "KT"]

b. ca 1664,
married Mary Drummond / MARIE DRUMMOND, born ca 1670 in PERTH, d. 1729

[her brother was James Drummond, 2nd Duke of Perth born 1673, in DRUMMOND, the father of James Drummond, 3rd Duke of Perth born in 1713 in the Drummond Castle; and of John Drummond, 4th Duke of Perth born in 1714 in FRANCE],

the daughter of James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth, SENIOR

[4th Earl of Perth, Sir James Drummond b. 1648, died in France, Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1716 - he was the son of James Drummond, 3rd Earl of Perth b. ca 1615, died 1675; the grandson of John Drummond born ca 1584],

born in 1648, and his first wife, Lady Jane Douglas
(died in 1676 or 1678 - the daughter of William Douglas, 1st Marquis of Douglas and Mary Gordon)

[compare:
Agatha Drummond, 1711 - 1795, the daughter of James Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond born in 1673, died in 1739

(his father George Drummond, 5th of Blair, 1st of Blair-Drummond, b. 29 Nov 1638, Blair, Stormount, Perthshire, Scotland, died in 1717; grandfather was George Drummond, 4th Laird of Blair; great-grandfather was George Drummond, 2nd Laird of Blair),

and Jean Carre born in 1681.
Wife of Henry Home, Lord Kames.
Mother of George Drummond-Home, Laird of Blair-Drummond and Jean Home.
Sister of George Drummond, Laird of Blair-Drummond born in 1705],

the fourth daughter of
William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Douglas - ca 58 km south-east of Glasgow.

Above named Inverugie is north of Aberdeen, in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, in 1728 set out for service in Russia, where he spent nearly twenty years, in 1747 Keith joined the army of Frederick the Great of Prussia.
He was also one of the first Freemasons active in Russia. In the Russo-Swedish War 1741 - 1743, Keith was Vice-Roy of Finland.

A French trader, Estienne Morin, of the Masonry in Bordeaux since 1744, in 1747, founded an Scots Masters Lodge in the French colony of Saint-Domingue; next 1764 at New Orleans, Mother Supreme Council at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1801.
John Mitchell, born in Ireland in 1741, the first Grand Commander of above Supreme Council.

The Grand Lodge of Antient, Free and Accepted Masons of Scotland was founded in 1736 - members:

William Amherst, 3rd Earl Amherst (1836 - 1910), British nobleman and politician;

John Arbuthnot (born in Kincardineshire, 30 km south of Aberdeen, in 1667 - died in 1735), a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London, the Scriblerus Club;

1739: John Keith, 3rd Earl of Kintore;

1740: James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton, b. 1702, was a Scottish astronomer, President of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh;

1746: Henry Erskine, 10th Earl of Buchan;

1750: Thomas Erskine, Lord Erskine;

1757: Sholto Douglas, Lord Aberdour;

1765: Thomas Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie;

1788: Francis Douglas, Lord Elcho;

1792: George Douglas, 16th Earl of Morton;

1800: Sir James Stirling, 1st Bt., Lord Provost of Edinburgh, (b. 1740 - d. 1805)
his wife was Alison Mansfield, b. 1750, children:
1. Sir Gilbert Stirling, Baronet, b. ca 1779, of Uppal, Midlothian, Scotland,
2. Janet Stirling, of Midlothian, married Livingstone;

Mentioned above Sir James Stirling in the West Indies had made his fortune,
Secretary to Archibald Stirling of Keir,
Secretary of Sir Charles Dalling, Governor of Jamaica.
Acted for the banking house of Mansfield, Ramsay, & Co.;

1833: Henry Erskine, 12th Earl of Buchan.

Note:
1.
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet born on 30 December 1864 in Sellenkull, Poenal, Laanemaa, (Sellenkull = Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km and south-west of Lehola) Estonia. A doctor, who was latterly appointed by the Boer authorities to superintend the hospital, by
James Francis Harry St. Clair-Erskine Rosslyn.
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet, migrated to South Africa in the late nineteen nineties together with his wife Olga Antoinette Vera von Dehn.

2.
Jane Wilhelmina Stirling 1804 - 1859 was a Scottish amateur pianist, took Chopin on a tour of England and Scotland in 1848; her father John Stirling, Laird of Kippendavie, at Kippenross House, near Dunblane in Perthshire, and was descended from a noble Scottish family. She was placed under the charge of her widowed sister, Mrs Katherine Erskine - from 1826, she and her sister divided their life between Scotland and Paris; met Chopin in 1840 / 1842 / 1843.

The Stirlings of Kippendavie, Perthshire, and Carden in the Stirlingshire, are cadets of the Keir family. The ancestor of the Kippendavie branch was Archibald Stirling, son of Archibald Stirling of Keir, to whom his father gave the lands of Kippendavie in 1594.

John Stirling of Kippendavie married Mary, 2d daughter of William Graham, b. ca 1730, and had a son, Patrick, who married in 1810, Catherine Georgina, 2d daughter of John Wedderburn, Esq. of Spring Garden, Jamaica. He died 1860, leaving the elder son, John Stirling, Esq. of Kippendavie, born in 1811.
Children of Mary Graham and John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie, b. 1742, m. 1781:
1. Katherine, 2. Ann Stirling, 3. Mary, 4. Margaret Douglas,
5. William Stirling, of Kenmure and Jamaica, b. 1787,
6. John Stirling, of Grogar and Blackgrane, b. 1788,
7. James Stirling, of Glentyan,
8. Charles Stirling, 1st of Gargunnock, b. 1796,
9. Sylvester Douglas Stirling, of Glenbervie / Woodside, b. 1803, and
10. Jean Wilhelmina Stirling, b. 1804
[Jane Wilhelmina Stirling, 1804 - 1859 was a Scottish amateur pianist, took Chopin on a tour of England and Scotland in 1848].

Above mentioned John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie 1742 - 1816, his parents:

Patrick Stirling, 4th of Kippendavie, b. 1704 and
mother Margaret Douglas.

Patrick Stirling, 4th of Kippendavie b. 1704 - 1745: his children
1.
Patrick Stirling, 5th of Kippendavie, b. 1734, and
2.
John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie, b. 1742.

His father: Charles Stirling, 3rd of Kippendavie, b. 1680 - 1736.


Mentioned above

James Francis Harry St. Clair-Erskine, 5th Earl of Rosslyn, 1869 - 1939, the son of Robert Francis St. Clair- Erskine, 4th Earl of Rosslyn and Blanche Adeliza St. Clair-Erskine.
He come from
James St Clair-Erskine, 2nd Earl of Rosslyn, 1762 - 1837,
who gone from
John Erskine, ca 1675 in Tillicoultry, Scotland, died in 1739. Son of Sir Charles Erskine, 1st Baronet of Alva and Christian Dundas.
Husband of Catherine St Clair.

And this is a branch of
Charles Erskine, of Alva, born in 1611 in Stirling, Scotland, died in 1663; the son of Sir John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar and Lady Marie Stewart;
husband of Mary Hope.

That is
Sir John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar, born in 1556 in Stirling, near DRUMMOND, died in 1634, Stirling, Scotland. Son of Sir John Erskine, 18th Earl of Mar and Annabelle Murray;
husband of Lady Marie Stewart and Anne Erskine.

See also:
Charles Erskine, Earl of Mar (1650 - 1689), a Scottish nobleman. He is regarded as both the 22nd earl (in the 1st creation) and the 5th earl (in the 7th) [= the 21st Earl of Mar (who died in 1689)].
On 2 April 1674 he married Mary Maule, daughter of George Maule, 2nd Earl of Panmure.
Their son
John Erskine succeeded to the title [John Erskine, 22nd and de jure 6th Earl of Mar, (1675 - May 1732), Scottish Jacobite].

Charles was the son of
Sir John Erskine, 21st Earl of Mar, 9th Lord Erskine, b. 1605 in Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, died in 1668.
John 21st was the son of John, Earl of Mar and Lady Jean Hay.
That is
John Erskine, Earl of Mar, b. ca 1580, the son of Sir John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar and Anne Erskine

[Sir John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar, born in 1556 in Stirling, near DRUMMOND, died in 1634, Stirling, Scotland. Son of Sir John Erskine, 18th Earl of Mar and Annabelle Murray; husband of Lady Marie Stewart and Anne Erskine].

John Erskine, Earl of Mar, b. ca 1580 was the husband of Lady Jean Hay.

Note:

"Andrew Michael Ramsay (1686 - 1743), commonly called the Chevalier Ramsay, was a Scottish-born writer who lived most of his adult life in France. He was a Baronet in the Jacobite Peerage.
Ramsay was born in Ayr, Scotland, the son of a baker. In 1710 he visited Francois Fenelon in the Netherlands ... remained in France until 1724 ... 1724, Ramsay was sent to Rome ... Ramsay was associated with
the court party of John Erskine, Duke of Mar
... 1724 Ramsay was back in Paris. Ramsay was in England in 1730 ... died at St Germain-en-Laye ... 1743. ...

Ramsay was associated with Freemasonry from its introduction in France (1725 - 1726).
Charles Radclyffe, Earl of Derwentwater, who acted as Grand Master for France beginning in 1736, was present at Ramsay's funeral.

It is presumed that Ramsay's being a Mason facilitated his introduction into the Gentleman's Club of Spalding, of which the prominent Masonic propagator John Theophilus Desaguliers was then also a member.

In 1737 Ramsay wrote his: Discourse pronounced at the reception of Freemasons by Monsieur de Ramsay, Grand Orator of the Order,
in which he connected Freemasonry with the Crusader knights [TEMPLARS and the Knights Hospitaller].
His own stature as a Knight of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem may have inspired him, or perhaps even his zeal to propagate an alleged tradition linked to the house of Bouillon. ... To Ramsay's letter of 20 March 1737 came Cardinal Fleury's reply at the end of March interdicting all Masonic reunions.
It is frequently mistakenly repeated that Ramsey mentioned the Knights Templar in his Discourse, when in fact he did not mention the Order at all - he mentioned the Knights Hospitaller.

But perceptive listeners would have understood his mention of the Crusader knights to be an indirect reference to the Knights Templar, the memory of whom was still controversial in France and may have led to the Pope's indictment of the organization a year later" [copyright by Wikipedia].

Above John Theophilus Desaguliers - b. 1683, d. 1744, was a French-born British natural philosopher, engineer and freemason who was elected to the Royal Society in 1714 as assistant to Isaac Newton.
"...As a Freemason, Desaguliers was instrumental in the establishment of the first Grand Lodge formed in London in 1717 and served as their third Grand Master.
He helped James Anderson draw up the rules in the "Constitutions of the Freemasons", published in 1723
... trip to the Netherlands in 1731 Desaguliers initiated into Freemasonry - Francis, Duke of Lorraine (1708 - 1765) who later became Holy Roman Emperor. Desaguliers also presided when
Frederick, Prince of Wales, became a Freemason in 1737,
and he additionally became a chaplain to the Prince".

Charles Radclyffe, Earl of Derwentwater - b. 1693, d. 1746,
was the youngest son of Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater and Lady Mary Tudor.

"...Charles Radclyffe was allegedly Grand Master of the Priory of Sion, succeeding Sir Isaac Newton in that role.
Lawrence Gardner asserts that he was linked to the bloodline of the Grail through his mother, Lady Mary Tudor, the illegitimate daughter of King Charles II of England. The Radclyffes were, however, also descended from Ivo de Tailbois, an illegitimate son of the Count of Anjou, and therefore descended from the Merovingian bloodline directly.

Charles Radclyffe along with the Chevalier Andrew Michael Ramsay was responsible of the introduction of Scottish Rite Freemasonry to continental Europe".

John Erskine, 22nd / 6th Duke of Mar - (1675 - 1732), Scottish Jacobite, was the eldest son of the Charles, 21st Earl of Mar [= Charles Erskine, 22nd/5th Earl of Mar (1650-1689)],
from whom he inherited estates;
"...meeting many Highland chieftains at Aboyne, Mar avowed an earnest desire for the independence of Scotland. At Braemar on 6 September 1715, he proclaimed James VIII King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland, thus beginning the Jacobite rising of 1715.
... Mar first married Lady Margaret Hay on 6 April 1703, daughter of Thomas Hay, 7th Earl of Kinnoull. She bore him a son, Thomas [he died without issue], in 1705. ... Mar married for his second wife Lady Frances Pierrepont, daughter of the 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull".
The chief of Clan Erskine, John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar had traveled to London in 1714 expecting the post of Secretary of State of Scotland. However he was not given the job and as a result he became a Jacobite. The Earl of Mar then fled Scotland to Saint-Germain in France, whereupon he betrayed his Jacobite associates. He lost his line of the Earldom of Mar and it was not restored until 1824.

Kildrummy Castle was the seat of the Clan Erskine until it was abandoned after the failed Jacobite Uprisings in 1716. And also Corgarff Castle, Kellie Castle, and
the Rosslyn Castle - Roslin Castle near the village of Roslin in Midlothian, Scotland. It is located around 9 miles south of Edinburgh; only a few hundred metres from the famous Rosslyn Chapel.

Rosslyn Chapel, formally known as the Collegiate Chapel of St Matthew;

"...the chapel has also featured in speculative theories concerning a connection of Freemasonry, the Knights Templar and the Holy Grail. ... The chapel has been a burial place for several generations of the Sinclairs ... containing (variously) ... the Holy Grail, the treasure of the Templars, or the original crown jewels of Scotland. The chapel became the subject of speculation regarding its supposed connection with the Knights Templar or Freemasonry beginning in the 1980s. ... Numerous books were published after 2003 to cater to the popular interest in supposed connections between Rosslyn Chapel, Freemasonry, the Templars and the Holy Grail generated by Brown's novel. ... has many Templar symbols, such as the "Two riders on a single horse" that appear on the Seal of the Knights Templar.

William Sinclair 3rd Earl of Orkney, Baron of Roslin and 1st Earl of Caithness, claimed by novelists to be a hereditary Grand Master of the Scottish stonemasons, built Rosslyn Chapel. A later
William Sinclair of Roslin became the first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland
and, subsequently, several other members of the Sinclair family have held this position".


An influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign UK policy ca 1895 to ca 1921 played Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, a British statesman.
Acc to Aydelotte:

"...in 1888 Rhodes made his third will ... to LORD ROTHSCHILD (his financier in mining enterprises), but ... for strategic reasons Lord Rothschild was subsequently removed from the forefront of the scheme. Professor Quigley reveals that Lord Rosebury, replaced his father-in-law Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes' next and last will. ... Quigley informs us that the central part of the 'secret society' was established by March, 1891, using Rhodes' money.
The organization was run for Rothschild by Lord Alfred Milner - the ROUND TABLE worked behind the scenes at the highest levels of British government, influencing foreign policy and England's involvement and conduct of WW I.

... Between 1894 and 1907 a number of international treaties were signed to have Russia, France, England and further nations unit against Germany in the case of war. It was the task of the COMMITTEE OF 300 to set the stage for the First World War. From the ROUND TABLE group emerged as a front the 'Royal institute for International Affairs' ... known as 'Chatham House' and had among its founding members Lord Albert Grey, Lord Arnold Toynbee ... of the MI6, H. G. Wells, Lord Alfred Milner - head of the Round Table, and H. J. Mackinder - inventor of the so-called geopolitics.

... sums of money from the international bankers, among others from ALFRED MILNER - by Jan Van Helsing - who later took over the secret Round Table, were poured into the Ochrana that already had infiltrated the Bolshevik movement. Agents steered many of its activities. The infiltration was so strong that in 1908 four of the five members of the Petersburg committee of the Bolshevik party were Ochrana agents".

I wrote above that the Round Table was started by Freemason and Rothschild agent, Lord Alfred Milner; but Rhodes, who was connected to the Freemasons, first formalised his idea with William T. Stead;
in 1910, The Round Table Journal: A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire was founded by Lord Milner and members of Milner's Kindergarten: Lionel Curtis, Philip Kerr and Geoffrey Dawson; by 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries: in the United States acted George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Erwin D. Canham.

Victor Rothschild (Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild b. 1910 d. 1990; son of Charles Rothschild; a member of the Apostles Club at Cambridge, a secret society, there he became friends with the future Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt, and Kim Philby - not a member; he was recruited to work for MI5 during World War II, and was the head of B1C, continued to work in security as an adviser to Margaret Thatcher; 1971 to 1974 The Think Tank), who worked for J. P. Morgan & Co., was one of the members of the Round Table.

The Rothschilds had financed Cecil Rhodes, co-operated with the Morgans and the Rockefellers, and they financed the activities of Edward Harriman (railroads) and Andrew Carnegie Steel.

Roundtable inner Circle of Initiates included Lord Milner, Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Balfour, Albert Grey and Lord Nathan Rothschild
(Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild b. 1840, d. 1915, a British banker in issuing loans to the governments of the USA, Russia and Austria; a close relationship with Benjamin Disraeli, he also funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and the De Beers diamond conglomerate, and administered Rhodes's estate from 1902 and set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford).

According to Gary Allen's expose, Milner financed the Russian Bolsheviks on Rothschild's behalf, with help from Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg.

The Round Table movement, founded in 1909 - acc. to historian Carroll Quigley - was connected to a secret society named the 'Society of the Elect' with Cecil Rhodes, Stead and Lord Rothschild as his designated successors, and also Milner, Reginald Baliol Brett Lord Esher, Cardinal Manning, Lord Arthur Balfour, Lord Albert Grey and Sir Harry Johnston;
Carroll Quigley claims in 'Tragedy and Hope' that Rhodes's 'Society of the Elect' was established in 1889 - 1891; an outer circle known as the Association of Helpers was later organised by Milner as the Round Table;
its sister organisations:
Lionel Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920, and Walter Lippmann in 1921 - the Council on Foreign Relations, in America. See also: Alexander May, The Round Table, 1910-66, ed. by University of Oxford.


The palace in Wroniawy was built in 1820; Wroniawy belonged to Adam Gajewski of Wolsztyn, who given Wroniawy to his daughter Antonina, married Count Plater; in 1885 or 1895 Count Plater sold Wroniawy to hands of Baron Goldschmidt - Rotschild;
name Goldschmidt - Rotschild Maksymilian from Franfurt / Maximilian von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (1843 - 1940) was a German banker and art collector.

The son of Benedict Hayum Salomon Goldschmidt, he was the co-inheritor of the Goldschmidt family bank along with his brother Adolphe Goldschmidt [copyright by Wikipedia].
He married Minna Karoline Freiin von Rothschild, the daughter of Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild.
He was the richest person in the German Empire.
After the death of his father-in-law, the last male of the Frankfurt Rothschilds, Maximilian Goldschmidt and his wife adopted Rothschild's name.
Emperor William I gave him the title of Baron de Goldschmidt-Rothschild.
His son was Albert Maximilian von Goldschmidt-Rothschild b. 1879 in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1941 in Lausanne, the Vaud County [see Duflon, Anna Konstantynowicz nee ARMAND, Lenin...], Switzerland.

Above Minna Caroline "Minka" von Goldschmidt-Rothschild (von Rothschild) b. 1857, daughter of Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild and
Hannah Mathilde nee Rothschild b. 1832, who was the daughter of
Anselm Salomon von Rothschild b. 1803

[ANSELM - son of Salomon Mayer von Rothschild b. 1774

{Salomon Mayer - was the son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild / Mosche Meir, b. 1743 or 1744 in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1812 in Frankfurt am Main; Mayer Amschel Bauer, an Ashkenazi Jew,
the son of Moses Amschel Bauer, a proprietor of a counting house.

In 1770, "Mayer Amschel Rothschild draws up plans for the creation of the Illuminati and entrusts ... Adam Weishaupt, ... with its organization and development...". Mayer Amschel Rothschild marries Gutle Schnaper. In 1773, was born
Amschel Mayer Rothschild, the first of Mayer Amschel Rothschild's sons.

"...He like all his brothers who follow him, will enter the family business at the age of 12".

1774, Salomon Mayer Rothschild born.

In 1776, "Adam Weishaupt officially completes his organisation of the Illuminati on May 1 of this year. The purpose of the Illuminati is to ... fight amongst themselves; destroy national governments; destroy religious institutions... Weishaupt soon infiltrates the Continental Order of Freemasons with this Illuminati doctrine and establishes lodges of the Grand Orient to be their secret headquarters..."},

and Caroline STERN],

and Charlotte Nathan nee Rothschild b. 1807.

Apollon (Apollo, Apellon) Wasylewicz Konstantynowicz who b. ca 1862, was the son of Wasilij / Wasyl Konstantynowicz who was born ca 1835 / 1840. The wife of Apollon was Anna Armand, oldest - Anna nee Armand was born on 19 August 1866 in Moscow - daughter of Evgenii / Eugeniusz Armand - Eugene born about 1842.
Eugene Konstantynowicz - son of above mentioned Apollon Konstantynowicz, Polish, and Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand, Polish roots - and his children were living in Switzerland and Paris, France, that is grandchildren of Anna nee Armand, and great-grandchildren of Varvara Karlovna Demonsi / Demonets or DEMONTET.
Eugene Konstantynowicz, as a patient, was treated in Switzerland, there he became acquainted with Marusya, who cared for her uncle Leon Bakst, along with Sophia, Bertha, Paul and Emily.
Eugene Konstantynowicz / Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinowitz (1890 - 1977) had two sons, architects - Nikolai and Pyotr Constantinowitz

(Mikolaj Konstantynowicz and Piotr Konstantynowicz; but also is inf. about 3 children of Maria nee Klaczko / Maria Markovna Klyachko and Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinovich / Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz),

acc. to correspondence of Howard D. Rothschild to Constantinowitz Marie in 1976-1980; Howard Rothschild born 1907 and died 1989 in New York.

Constantinowitz, Pyotr Yevgenievich (Kanstantinovich / Constantinowitz Pierre was born 1928 and address: Orée du Bois Brulé, 78380 Bougival) and Constantinowitz Nikolai Yevgenievich (born 1931 - Nicolas, 45B Route des Gardes, Meudon).
Constantinowitz, Yevgeny Apollonovich (Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz son of Apollon Konstantynowicz; born 1890 - died 1977) was a cello and piano player.

Mentioned above Howard D. Rothschild / Howard Rothschild born 1907, d. 1989, "...was an artist and a major collector of art work related to Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. His fascination with Ballets Russes began in 1915 ... he became a close friend and an anonymous benefactor of many aging Ballets Russes dancers...".
Howard D. Rothschild b. in New York, United States, d. in London. Son of Frederick William Rothschild

["Fred" b. 1867 in New York, died 1940 in New York. Son of William "Wolf" Rothschild

{"Wolf" b. 1829 in Göppingen, Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. Son of Marx ben Herz Rothschild

(born in 1789 in Jebenhausen, Göppingen, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, d. 1851 in Göppingen. Son of Herz Marx Rothschild {{"Naphtali" b. 1738 in Bad Mergentheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Son of Marx Herz Rothschild born ca 1700, and Gudele}} and Frommet OTTENHEIMER)

and Braendel KATZ daughter of Weil}

and Matilda ROSENHEIM]

and Sarah B. Rothschild nee ADLER.
Copyright by Thomas Föhl in 2015 at geni.com.

Marx Herz Rothschild and Gudele - b. ca 1690/1700 ?

Moses Kalmann Rothschild / Moses Bauer / Mosche ben Kalman Rothschild, b. in Frankfurt am Main; he was the son of Kalman Herz Rothschild, zur Hinter Pfann and Gütle;
husband of Schönche (Schönle);
father of Herz Moses Rothschild b. ca 1690 ?
[compare above named Marx Herz Rothschild b. ca 1690/1700 ?, and his wife Gudele]
and Amschel Moses Rothschild [b. 1710; see below].

Above Herz Moses Rothschild / Hirsch Hirz / Hertz / Hersch, b. ca 1690 ?, in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1728 in Frankfurt am Main.

Named above Frommet Rothschild (nee Ottenheimer) [nee Oppenheimer?], b. 1754 in Jebenhausen, Göppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany; d. 1821 in Göppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg.
Daughter of Salomo Ottenheimer and Jette. Wife of Herz Marx Rothschild. Mother of Sara Lindauer; Isidor Isaak Rothschild; Hindle Dettelbacher; above Marx ben Herz Rothschild and Simon Naphtali Herz Rothschild. Sister of Jacob Ottenheimer; Maier Ottenheimer; Behle Kaufmann and Isak Ottenheimer, by geni.com.

Above Salomo Ottenheimer b. 1725 in Mühringen, Horb am Neckar, Baden-Wurttemberg; d. 1791 in Göppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg. Son of Josle Isai Odenheimer or Ottenheimer from Haigerloch, Tübingen, Baden- Wurttemberg, and Zettlin.

Mentioned
Sarah B. Rothschild (Adler) b. 1879 in New York, daughter of Samuel Adler and Caroline nee ABRAHAM.
Above Samuel Adler b. 1827 in Germany, died 1918 in New York. Mentioned Caroline Adler (Abraham) / "Carrie Abraham" b. 1848. Daughter of Judah Abraham and Sara Abraham.
Named above Judah Abraham born in 1810 in Bavaria, Germany, d. 1888 in New York. Son of Abraham.

Acc. to 'michaeljournal.org/nwo1.htm'
in 1773 - Mayer Amschel Rothschild assembles twelve of his most influential friends, and convinces them that if they all pool their resources together, they can rule the world. This meeting takes place in Frankfurt, Germany. Rothschild also informs his friends that he has found the perfect candidate, an individual of incredible intellect and ingenuity, to lead the organization he has planned - Adam Weishaupt.

May 1, 1776 - Adam Weishaupt (code named Spartacus) establishes a secret society called the Order of the Illuminati.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild, written also Anschel (1744 - 1812), was a German Jewish banker and the founder of the Rothschild dynasty.
Meyer Amschel Rothschild was born in 1744 in Frankfurt am Main, as one of eight children of Amschel Moses Rothschild (d. 1755) and his wife Schönche née Lechnich, d. 1756.

Above Amschel Moses Rothschild / Anschel ben Mosche Rothschild, b. 1710 in Frankfurt am Main, Hessen- Nassau. Son of Moses Kalmann Rothschild - born ca 1670 ?

Above Moses Kalmann Rothschild / Moses Bauer / Mosche ben Kalman Rothschild, b. in Frankfurt am Main; he was the son of Kalman Herz Rothschild, zur Hinter Pfann and Gütle; husband of Schönche (Schönle); he was the father of Herz Moses Rothschild b. ca 1690 ? [compare above named Marx Herz Rothschild b. ca 1690/1700 ?, and his wife Gudele] and Amschel Moses Rothschild [b. 1710; see above].

Above Herz Moses Rothschild / Hirsch Hirz / Hertz / Hersch, b. ca 1690 ?, in Frankfurt am Main, d. 1728 in Frankfurt am Main.

The illuminati were apparently founded in Bavaria in 1770 [1776] by one Adam Weishaupt. In 1744, Mayer Amschel Bauer / Mayer Rothschild was born in the free city of Frankfurt, Germany, to an Ashkenazi Jew who ran a counting house and also worked as a money exchanger. Mayer Rothschild started working for a bank owned by the Oppenheimer family in Hanover, Germany. Following the death of his father, he returned to Frankfurt in order to take over his father’s business. It was during this time that he changed his last name from Bauer to Rothschild.
Mayer married Gutle Schnaper, the daughter of an influential and respected merchant, Wolf Salomon Schnaper.

By 1785, the Illuminati was banned and all of the Bavarian lodges of the Grand Orient were closed down. Around the same time, Mayer Rothschild moved with his family to a five story house in Frankfurt, which he shared with the Schiff family.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744 - 1812) was also a financial advisor of Landgrave of Hesse Hanau - Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (1747 - 1837). Landgrave was born as the youngest son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel (the future Landgrave Frederick II - see below) and Princess Mary of Great Britain. He was the last surviving grandchild of George II of Great Britain.

Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel married Maria Princess of Hanover, cousin of Frederick II the Great King of Prussia, and the daughter of [mentioned above] George II King of England.
In December 1745, Frederick [Frederick of Hesse] landed in Scotland with 6000 Hessian troops to support his father-in-law, [named above] George II of Great Britain, in dealing with the Jacobite rising.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, his [Mayer Amschel Rothschild] five sons began expanding the family business:
1809, Nathan Mayer Rothschild 1st (1777-1836) in London;
1812, Jakob Rothschild (1792-1868) in Paris; 1820,
Salomon Rothschild (1774-1855) in Vien;
in 1821, Kalman Rothschild or Carl Mayer von Rothschild (1788-1855) in Naples;
oldest Amschel Mayer Rothschild (1773-1855) in Frankfurt.

The family supported the creation of the state of Israel. Edmond James de Rothschild is the patron of the first settlements in Palestine in Riszon le-Cijjon, ca 1887 (see Oliphant and Odessa).

Baron Solomon Benedict de Worms (1801 - 1882) was an Austrian aristocrat, plantation owner in Ceylon [see tea and Azbelev - Duflon and Konstantynowicz family; Pilsudski and Sieroszewski in Japan]; stockbroker in London. His father was Benedikt Moses Worms (1769 - 1824) and his mother,
Schonche Jeannette Rothschild.
He had two brothers, Maurice Benedict de Worms (1805-1867) and Gabriel Benedict de Worms (1802-1881).

His maternal grandfather was Mayer Amschel Rothschild.

Samuel Oppenheimer (born 1630, Heidelberg - 1703, Vienna) was a Ashkenazi Jewish banker, imperial court diplomat. Oppenheimer's son, Simon Wolf Oppenheimer, established a banking house in Hanover. Simon Wolff's [d. 1726] son, Jakob Wolf Oppenheimer continued the family banking house.

"It was there, from 1757 to 1763, that Mayer Amschel Rothschild apprenticed and learned the banking business that would become synonymous with that family name".

1.
Johanna Oppenheimer (Rothschild) b. 1833 in Hochhausen, Karlsruhe, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany; d. 1901 in Hesse / HESSEN, Germany; wife of Moritz Oppenheimer; sister of William Rothschild.
2.
Ida Rothschild (nee Oppenheimer) 1853 - 1910, daughter of Sigmund Salomon Oppenheimer [come from Emanuel Oppenheimer b. 1787 in Bavaria, Germany, d. 1840 in Bavaria; son of Joseph Löb Oppenheimer of Burgkunstadt, Upper Franconia, Bavaria] and Babette.
She was 1st time married to Salomon Julius Rothschild son of Isaak
[he come from Herz Marx Rothschild and Frommet, daughter of Jacob Simon Wolf Oppenheimer / Wolf Oppenheimer; he was born in 1759 - died in 1797 in Hannover],
and 2nd to Salomon Rothschild son of WOLF [come from Wolf (Wolf-Gang) Rothschild b. 1810].

See: Marx ben Herz Rothschild b. 1789 in Jebenhausen, Göppingen, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg; died 1851 in Göppingen.
Son of Herz Marx Rothschild and above Frommet.

Mentioned above Wolf Jacob Simon Oppenheim / Wolf Oppenheimer, b. 1759, died April 12, 1797 in Hannover. Son of Jacob Simon Wolf Oppenheimer b. ca ?, died July 6, 1760 in Hannover.
His father was Simon Wolf Oppenheimer b. ca 1650 in Vienna, Austria; d. 1726 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany.
And grandfather was Samuel Wolf Oppenheimer b. 1630 in Heidelberg, Germany; d. 1703 in Vienna, Austria.


'The Pilgrims Society', founded in 1902, is a British-American society established, 'to promote ... peace between the United States and Great Britain'.
The elite membership of politicians and diplomats "... have included Henry Kissinger, Margaret Thatcher, Caspar Weinberger, Douglas Fairbanks Jr., Henry Luce, Lord Carrington, Alexander Haig, Paul Volcker, Thomas Kean and Walter Cronkite ... Nelson W. Aldrich, Winthrop W. Aldrich, Admiral William J. Crowe, Allen W. Dulles, John Foster Dulles, W. Averell Harriman...", and Joseph P. Kennedy.
Named above Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy Sr. (1888 - 1969) was an American politician, with his children:
President John F. Kennedy (1917 - 1963),
Attorney General and Senator Robert F. Kennedy (1925 - 1968), and
Senator Ted Kennedy (1932 - 2009).
He was a member of the Irish Catholic community. He was the Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. "Joe Kennedy Sr. was also part of several elite orders, such as the Knights of Malta and the Pilgrim Society, a highly secretive group that held within its ranks members including the Rockefellers, the Vanderbilts, J. P. Morgan, British Royals, various heads of the Skull and Bones society, Freemasons, Knights Templar and Presidents of the Federal Reserve Bank ... The Pilgrim Society is probably the most influential 'elite group' in existence".

By William Weston:

"Another influential person in Freeport Sulphur was John (Jock) Whitney. He was a member of the pro-British, anti-American Pilgrim Society according to Congressman Thorkelson who made some remarks regarding the Pilgrims in 1940. Jock's father and grandfather were members of Skull and Bones and Jock himself was a knight of St. John of Jerusalem and honorary commander of the Order of the British Empire, according to Prof. Donald Gibson. He also belonged to the Metropolitan Club with Allen Dulles. That Freeport Sulphur is a representative client of Doyle Smith and Doyle highlights the conspiratorial significance of that mysterious law firm". In 2000, over 81% of Americans believed that JFK’s assassination was planned by more than just a lone gunman, making it one of the most widely accepted conspiracy theories in US history".

"...Kennedy's firing of Allen Dulles as head of the CIA alone is likely to have squared him with the Eastern Establishment. Dulles grew up with the Rockefeller family and became an executive of the Pilgrims Society, which has always been dominated by the major banks and think tanks in New York. The New York Times, Time magazine, Newsweek, CBS and other media outlets were part of this network".

"...Helms came from an elite Pilgrims Society family, was close to the aristocratic Mellon family (Pilgrims; close to the Rothschilds and British royal family) during his term as director of the CIA, joined Bechtel as a consultant in 1978 and is known to have visited Henry Kissinger's birthday party in 1983, along with David Rockefeller (Pilgrims), Peter Peterson (Pilgrims), George Shultz (Pilgrims), Walter Cronkite (Pilgrims), LBJ's widow and Helmut Schmidt. Allen Dulles became an executive member of the Pilgrims Society and was a youth friend of the Rockefellers. John McCloy, who was appointed to the Warren Commission along with Allen Dulles, was another Pilgrim and major Rockefeller representative....".

Note on Ascher Ginsberg:

Baron Solomon Benedict de Worms (1801-1882) was an Austrian aristocrat, plantation owner in Ceylon; stockbroker in London. His father was Benedikt Moses Worms (1769-1824) and his mother, Schonche Jeannette Rothschild. He had two brothers, Maurice Benedict de Worms (1805-1867) and Gabriel Benedict de Worms (1802 -1881).
His maternal grandfather was Mayer Amschel Rothschild.

Baron Solomon Benedict de Worms (1801-1882)
spending some time in London, next went to Ceylon to build one of the largest plantations; 1865, he returned to London and worked as a stockbroker. His son: George de Worms was born 1829. His uncles, who owned plantations in Ceylon with his father, were Maurice Benedict de Worms and Gabriel Benedict de Worms. He served as Justice of the Peace for Middlesex, the City of Westminster and Surrey. Grandson: Anthony Denis Maurice George de Worms was born 1869. He was a Fellow of the Royal Philatelic Society and the Royal Society of Literature. Mentioned above Maurice Benedict de Worms was born in 1805 in Frankfurt, Germany. Together with his brother Gabriel, he travelled to the Far East in 1841 and purchased a plantation in Ceylon. They sold the plantations in 1865. The Ceylon Company Limited was the first to import tea seeds from India, and Jenkins, was the Manager of the Ceylon Company Limited.

Acc. to 'nwoobserver.wordpress.com/key-information-for-new-readers':
1773 - "Mayer Amschel Rothschild assembles twelve of his most influential friends, and convinces them that if they all pool their resources together, they can rule the world. This meeting takes place in Frankfurt, Germany. Rothschild also informs his friends that he has found the perfect candidate, an individual of incredible intellect and ingenuity, to lead the organization he has planned - Adam Weishaupt".

But the second source wrote:

Ascher Ginsberg - Ahad Ha'am (1856 - 1927) and Theodor Herzl for several years were at the head of the Zionist movement and were called the founders of Zionism;
close friends of Herzl were Max Nordau, and Professor Richard Gotheyl;

Asher Ginsberg was born in Skwira / Skvyra, the province of Kiev, Russian Empire, in 1856 (see: Severin / Seweryn Krzyzanowski b. 1787 in Parchamówka in the Skwir county / Skwira, Ukraine, d. 1839 in Tobolsk, colonel to 1826 of the Polish Army, exiled in 1830 to Tobolsk!).

Ginsberg learned to read in Russian and German; in 1868 the Ginsberg family moved to Gopisgitsa (near by Lubowicze?), to 1886. In 1878 he traveled to Odessa, traveling and studying Latin, mathematics, history and geography. 1882 to 1884 he visited Vienna, Berlin, Breslau, and studied the French, German, English and Russian philosophers; in Vienna, he met with Karl Netter, founder of the World Union of Israel or Alliance Israelite Universelle, interested in the plans of the 'Union' of Jewish colonization; he joined the Kagan (close to B'nai B'rith); 1884 Ginsberg, returned to Russia to Odessa. This city was then the center of Union Hovevei Zion that is the Friends of Zion with Leon Pinsker. 1886, Ascher Ginsberg finally settled in Odessa, and in 1889 the founder of Jewish newspaper 'Hamelits' Alexander Tsederbaum came to Odessa, met with Ginsberg, then Asher Ginsberg founded a secret society Bne Moshe / Sons of Moses; 1890, Asher Ginsberg became the director of the Hebrew newspaper Keveret. General collection of his works was published in 1895, under the title The Crossroads. In 1896, Ginsberg became one of the directors of the Jewish community edition Ahiazafa in Warsaw, and in 1896 received a large grant from K. Wissotzky, from Moscow, and founded the monthly journal Ha Shiloah; Ginsberg and his followers took part in the First Zionist Congress held in Basel in 1897. No less than Herzl, Ginsberg also wanted Palestine, and in 1884, the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith has made the first attempt at combining Western and Eastern Jews, in Katowice / Kattovitsa, during a general meeting. The same thing happened at the Basel Congress in 1897, carried out their own plans for Jewish colonization in Palestine.

In South Africa a Russian immigrant named Benjamin Ginsberg (not Ginsburg!), whose family had long traded in European teas, recognized the marketing potential of the South African rooibos tea / bush tea / mountain tea, and Ginsberg in 1904 became the first exporter of rooibos. Benjamin Ginsberg, the Founder of Rooibos Tea, b. 1890; Benjamin Ginsberg, a young Russian from a Moscow tea merchant family (see: Ginsburg from Odessa, Nagasaki, Colombo!), joined his trader father in the Cederberg in 1903. Benjamin started buying Rooibos and reselling it in other areas, he applied ancient Chinese tea curing techniques. He sold his 'Mountain Tea' to settlers in the Cape and shortly became the first exporter of rooibos using contacts of the family tea business.

Ahad Ha'am visited Eretz Israel in 1891 and 1893; in 1900, Baron E. Rothschild gave supports of Jewish settlement in Eretz Israel; the Odessa Committee organized in Odessa, Istanbul, Beirut, Jaffa, Jerusalem and Haifa network of information offices.

George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was born in Dublin.
He was the youngest child of George Carr Shaw (1814 - 1885) and Lucinda Elizabeth (Bessie) Shaw née Gurly, 1830 - 1913; the family was of English descent and belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. In 1880 Shaw began attending meetings of the Zetetical Society, to "search for truth in all matters affecting the interests of the human race".

Here he met Sidney Webb. Shaw married Charlotte, daughter of Horace Payne-Townshend, a wealthy Stock Exchange investor.

He was employed by millionaire William Waldorf - Lord Astor, owner of the Pall Mall Gazette, and became a close friend of the Milner Group leader - Waldorf and his wife Nancy.

Shaw's friend, Sidney Webb married Beatrice - a close friend of Rothschild associate and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, the daughter of Richard Potter, a wealthy financier with international connections, the chairman of the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railways of England and Canada.

Shaw, Webb, Olivier and Wallas became the Fabian Society's dominant Big Four with John Passmore Edwards, an leader of the Liberal Manchester School, and with Richard Cobden.

The Fabian Society was in close touch with the Rothschilds both directly and through Lord Arthur Balfour, and has also been close to David Rockefeller.

Trocki back to Petersburg in May 1917, co-operated with Aleksandr Kierenski and Sliozberg from the B'nai B'rith; acc. to Aronson and Frank L. Britton.
On 26 March 1917 Leon Bronstein Trotsky left New York, + 265 socialists:
Lincoln Steffens, Charles R. Crane, Nickita Muchin, Leiba Fisheleff, Konstantin Romanchanco, Gregor Teheodnovski, Gerchon Melintchansky; Robert M. Coulter and Mandel House / Mendel-Hans, helped to Trocki in Halifax, Canada, and
madame Fels of the Rothschild house in USA;
above mentioned L. Steffens, was closest friend of W. Wilson, Ch. R. Crane and Trocki.



Tadeusz Kosciuszko's best friends:
General Franciszek Paszkowski,
Tadeusz Mostowski,
General Stanislaw Fiszer,
and Wirydianna Kwilecka Radolinska who met Kosciuszko in Paris in the years 1801-1802.

Wiridianna / Wiridiana Radolinska - her grandparents:
Józef Stefan Radolinski of Wschowa, 1680-1740

[Józef Stefan Radolinski had 5 sons and 2 daughters; Józef Stefan lived at the court of Polish King, Jan III Sobieski; officer in Wschowa (see Sulkowski).
His granddaughter was also PETRONELA Radolinska (b. ca 1747 or circa 1764/1766-1821)

{Ignacy BLESZYNSKI was owner of Zloczew, married Petronela Radolinski. Kazimierz Bleszynski 1703 - 1757, who married Teresa Jordan had mentioned above the son Ignacy Bleszynski (1742 - 1813). Ignacy was half brother of Wojciech Ludwik Jordan and Konstancja Urszula Walewska. Petronela RADOLINSKA who died in Zloczew / Zloczow, m. in 1789 to Ignacy Bleszynski (1742 - 1813), son of above Kazimierz and Teresa Struss; Ignacy was the owner of Zloczów and Brzezno; he was born in Zloczów, 1st married to Apolonia Sudrawska. See: Wola Pszczolecka. PETRONELA Radolinska (b. ca ca 1747 / 1764-1821), was the daughter of Jan Radolinski 1726-1796 and Brygida or Maria Brygida Galecki; Petronella / Petronela was the granddaughter of Józef Stefan Radolinski of Wschowa b. 1680 - died in 1740 who was also father of Józef Stanislaw Radolinski [Józef Stanislaw Radolinski 1730 - died in 1781 in Winnogóra, the Szamotuly County, father of Antonina Maria Breza and Wiridianna / Wirydianna Fiszer] and remember that Józef Stefan Radolinski was brother of Zofia Walewska 1677 / 1678 - 1723 who m. Kazimierz Walewski. Jan Jakub Zamoyski (b. 1716, died in 1790, IX Ordynat. Ludwika Maria Poniatowska born 1728, in 1745 married Jan Jakub Zamoyski, with daughter Urszula Zamoyska. Ludwika Maria Poniatowska died in 1781, was daughter of Stanislaw Poniatowski and LUDWIKA was also the sister of the King of Poland - Stanislaw August Poniatowski; mentioned above Urszula Zamoyska (1750-1806), was best known as Ursula Mniszech. Ludwika Maria Poniatowska had the second daughter - Brygida / Maria Brygida Galecki / Brygida Galecka [b. ca 1747 ?] - see about Radolinski, Fiszer, Wola Pszczolecka, Kosciuszko; see at my webpages on Venture, Sulkowski, Murat, Paszkowski, Szaniawski, Armand)}.

Nephews and nieces of Jozef Stefan Radolinski of Wschowa -
Konstancja Radolinska 1720-1782 m. 1st Jan Antoni Walewski 1700-1747, m. 2nd to Stanislaw Poninski 1712-1791;
Kajetan Radolinski b. ca 1730 m. in 1755 to Malgorzata Lubienska 1733-1784
{Kajetan Radoliński b. ca 1730 was son of Andrzej RADOLINSKI b. 1680 [Andrzej the 3rd] and Marianna Walewska! MARIANNA Walewska RADOLINSKA [b. 1695 ?] was daughter of Kazimierz Walewski and his wife Zofia born circa 1677 / 1678 who was daughter of Andrzej Radoliński b. ca 1650 [Andrzej Radolinski younger, 1650 - 1708] and Marianna SARNOWSKA}];

Teresa Swinarska 1700-1771; Leon Raczynski 1698-1755; Wirydianna / Wirydiana Bninska 1718-1797 {see more below};
Wirydianna's Fiszer parents:
Józef Stanislaw Radolinski of Wschowa 1730-1781; Katarzyna Raczynska 1744-1792.

Wiridianna Radolinska 1761-1826 m. 1st in ca 1780 to Antoni Maciej Konstanty Kwilecki, chamberlein of the King, b. 1764 son of Franciszek Antoni Kwilecki 1725-1794 and Teresa Agnieszka Sczaniecka 1740-1807.

Wiridianna Radolinska 1761-1826 m. 2nd in 1806 to General Stanislaw Fiszer 1759-1812, son of Karol Ludwik Fiszer, General Major, 1730- 1783 + Joanna Luiza Elzbieta von Luck 1738-1788.

Named above
Wirydianna Mielzynska - Raczynska born Bninska / Wirydiana Bninska 1718-1797, was daughter of Wojciech Bninski 1690 - 1755 and Katarzyna Cienska; her husband - Leon Raczynski b. 1698, with children:
1. Filip Nereusz Raczynski b. 1747 m. Michalina Raczynska (with children: Eduard Raczynski b. 1786 m. Constantia Potocka; Atanazy Raczynski b. 1788 m. Anna Elzbieta Radziwill),
2. Magdalena Raczynska born 1761 + Michael Lubomirski.

The Governor Jozef Mielzynski, was closest relatives to Wirydianna Radolinska / Wirydianna Kwilecka Radolinska / Wirydianna Fiszer - she was next of kin to Raczynski, Bninski, Mielzynski, Radolinski, Kwilecki; she was an envoy at the Four-Year Parliament, and she wrote speeches for her cousins.
We back to Wirydianna (1761 - 1826) daughter of Józef Stanisław RADOLINSKI and Katarzyna.
In 1806 she married Stanislaw Fiszer, a general who served Napoleon in his campaign against Russia, and bring her closer to Kosciuszko, who took care of the general Fiszer.
General Stanislaw Fisher was adjutant to Kosciuszko.
Wirydianna Fiszerowa / Fiszer was living in Łobżenica Gorka / Łobżenica / Lobzenica, but we know the names of the four estates, which was related to her childhood and adult life of Wirydianna. Here was the family house of her father, Jozef Radolinski; Lobzenice's house was sold approx. 1778 - 1793 to Prussian general.
Chobienice appear for the first time in the diaries of Wirydianna due to the changes in the live of her family after the Prussian annexation.
The parents decided to move from Łobżenica to Winnogóra, but the kids were send to grandmother.
Later, along with her mother and sister, Wirydianna a lot of time spent in Chobienice's mansion; Chobienice belonged at that time to the second husband of grandmother - the governor Jozef Mielżyński.
His father Franciszek MIELZYNSKI in the 30s and 40s of the eighteenth century built a new residence by Adam Stier.
Rogalin - Kazimierz Raczynski owner, with a large sympathy felt for his cousin Katarzyna, mother of Wirydianna; their fathers - Leon Raczynski and Wiktor Raczynski / Victor were brothers;
so, Wirydianna and her sister Katarzyna / Catherine part of her childhood spent in his uncle's estate; uncle treated her like a daughter. Lifestyle in Rogalin hit novelty and showed great people, wrote Wirydianna;
politically, Kazimierz Raczynski was with Russia, was on the Russian fixed salary, in 1775 he was the governor general of Great Poland, in 1778- 1784 he chaired the Commission of Good Order in Poznan, one of the best in Poland. In 1768 he has started to build baroque-classical headquarters in Rogalin, but in 1780 moved permanently to Warsaw, and Rogalin taken his son - Filip Raczynski / Philip Raczynski, who not too favorable of the Radolinskis.
Winnogóra - a few years of her life, Wirydianna spent in Winnogóra - leased by her father after the first partition of Poland, when part of the family land was incorporated in Prussia.
It belonged to the so-called assets of bishop's table in Poznan. When the parents moved to Winnogóra, Wirydianna stood there in a mansion built in the '60s of the eighteenth century by the Bishop Teodor Kazimierz Czartoryski;
Wirydianna's mother, widowed in 1781 but during the carnival Catherine / Katarzyna Radolinska lived in Poznan; sometimes the Marshal Kazimierz Raczynski was occupying half of the house received numerous petitioners. Just before the third partition in 1795, the Radolinskis lost the right to lease Winnogóra. At the end of the eighteenth century the Church estates were sequestered by the Prussian government, including Winnogóra;
in 1807 Napoleon given Winnogóra to General Jan Henryk Dabrowski.
When Wirydianna, already the wife of Anthony Kwilecki, spent time in Winnogóra, her mother moved to Chobienice.
The construction of classicist palace of Catherine Radolinska began in 1786-1788, by Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer, under the direction of Antoni Höhne.
1793 Wirydianna Kwilecka moved to Chobienice, with independence from her husband; after her divorce from first husband Wirydianna left with two children and settled in Warsaw. It was there that she met General Stanislaw Fiszer, to whom she married in 1806.
Next place - Sierniki, a village in the Oborniki district, 10 km south-east of Rogozno. The estate's proprietorship changed several times throughout 17th century and up to 3rd quarter of the 18th century.
In the late 18th century, the property was bestowed to Katarzyna Radolinska, nee Raczynska, and she erected a new classicist residence in 1786 - 1788; after Katarzyna death in 1792, Sierniki was inherited by her daughter Wirydianna nee Radolinska, Kwilecka;
the property was sold to Wladyslaw Szuldrzynski in 1849.
Wirydianna nee Radolinska, Kwilecka - Fiszer, after the formation of the Congress Kingdom in 1815, was living on a widow's pension in Warsaw.

Wiridianna Kwilecka / Wirydianna Fiszer Radolinska was sister of Antonina Maria Breza 1771 - 1845, wife of Stanislaw Kajetan Krystian Breza with son Wlodimir Anton Breza / Wlodzimierz Antoni Maciej Breza born 1812 in Dresden, d. 1876,
father of Adam Breza 1850 - 1936 in Warsaw;
grandfather of Aleksandra Epstein and Wanda Iwanicka. Mentioned Adam Breza born in Swiontkowo in 1850 married Isabella Goldstand and had 2 children.
Swiontkowo / Swiatkowo - 12 km south-west of Znin, the Poznan Prov., German.

Mentioned TADEUSZ Kosciuszko in the autumn of 1775 decided to emigrate, and in late 1775, he attempted to join the Saxon army, and then returned to Paris. Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kosciuszko / Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko arrived to France 1775/1776; sailed for America in June 1776, with the help of Pierre Beaumarchais. In August 1776, Kosciuszko was assigned to the United States War Department; served as a volunteer under Benjamin Franklin;
spring 1777, under Major General Horatio Gates, then with Major General Philip Schuyler, General Benedict Arnold,
in 1780 with General George Washington;
then under command of Major General Nathanael Greene; with Colonel John Laurens. October 1783, Congress promoted him to brigadier general.

Kosciuszko lived with help of the Polish-Jewish banker Haym Solomon,
and received a certificate for 12.280 dollars, at 6%.
Winter 1783/84, General Greene invited Kosciuszko to his home; Kosciuszko was member of the Society of the Cincinnati, oldest patriotic organization, founded in 1783, to promote appreciation of the achievement of American independence, with Major General Henry Knox, Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton, and George Washington who was elected the first President General of the Society, Aaron Burr, and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.

In July 1784, General Tadeusz Kosciuszko set off for Poland, where he arrived in August; settled in Siechnowicze north-east of Brest by Bug river; his brother Józef Kosciuszko had lost most of the lands, but Kosciuszko had the help of his sister ESTKO Anna Barbara (1741-1814).

Tadeusz Andrzej Kosciuszko was the brother of named Józef Tomasz Kosciuszko;
Katarzyna Zólkowska and
mentioned Anna Estka / Anna Barbara Krystyna Estka.

Above Józef Tomasz Kosciuszko 1743 - 1789, married to Burniewicz, was father of Rachela Aniela Broel-Plater

(Rachela PLATER 1784 - 1860, was mother of Adam Michal; Michal; Lucjan Stanislaw; Ferdynand; Aleksandra b. 1812; Fabian Antoni Ignacy; Tadeusz August Jan; Antoni Konstanty Broel- Plater; Rachela Broel-Plater and Anna);

Aleksander Kosciuszko with daughter Antonina Traugutt

(Antonina Kościuszko married 1st to Romuald Traugutt b. 1826, the commander of the 1863 Uprising; m. 2nd to Franciszek Mickiewicz b. ?, son of Aleksander Julian Mickiewicz (Aleksander Julian b. 1801 in Nowogródek) who was brother of famous
Adam Mickiewicz (Adam married Celina Szymanowska daughter of Józef Szymanowski and Maria Agata Wolowska - Szymanowska, famous composer); above Józef Szymanowski m. 2nd to Elżbieta Młodzianowska with daughter Zofia Szymanowska who married Teofil Lenartowicz, poet.
Above mentioned
Lt. Colonel Romuald Traugutt (1826 - 1864) was a Polish general, October 1863 to August 1864 he was the Dictator of Insurrection, headed the Polish national government on 17 October 1863 to 20 April 1864,
and was president of its Foreign Affairs Office; hanged on 5 August 1864, together with Rafał Krajewski, Józef Toczyski, Roman Żuliński and Jan Jeziorański);

Jozef Kosciuszko and

unknown Kosciuszko who was father of Abraham Salomon Kosciuszko - 1821 in Suwalki, died 1917, husband of Jeanette Marx
and father of Louis Kosciuszko b. 1857 [grandfather of Jacques Achille Kosciusko 1913 in Paris, died 1994 in Paris].


We back to USA and Thomas Jefferson who called Tadeusz Kosciuszko "the purest among the sons of liberty"; Thomas Jefferson b. 1743 was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the third President of the United States (1801 - 1809).
"However, there is some evidence that indicates he may have been a Mason and that he attended Masonic meetings. Dr. Joseph Guillotin reported that he attended meetings at the prestigious Lodge of Nine Muses in Paris, France - the same lodge attended by Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, and John Paul Jones. He marched in a Masonic procession with Widow's Son Lodge No. 60 and Charlottesville Lodge No. 90 on October 6, 1817, and participated in laying the cornerstone for Central College (now known as the University of Virginia)"; acc. to
http://toddecreason.blogspot.co.uk/2011/ by Todd E. Creason in 2011.

"I see him OFTEN, ... He is as pure a son of liberty, as I have ever known, ... and of that liberty which is to go to all, and not to the few or rich alone. Thus did Thomas Jefferson describe his new-found friend General Kosciuszko in 1798. Kosciuszko had left his native Poland in 1776 to join the American patriots ... Jefferson had scarcely known him then, but when he returned to his adopted fatherland for a second time in 1797 the two men became close friends and saw each other, for a time, almost daily.
Kosciuszko travelled in 1796 / 1797 from Russia to Sweden with his secretary J. U. Niemcewicz and with cheerful officer, Libiszewski who often had to carry the General;
[Libiszowski / Libiszewski willingly performed this service. In Sweden, Kosciuszko was listening to Libiszewski playing the guitar at his bedside and to a concert organised in his honour by the best musicians; in Philadelphia was a musician in orchestra. He died - still young - of fever in Cuba. In 1892 the Sosnowski manor from Waleria Niepokójczycki, bought Alfons Libiszowski. In Libiszow is the Libiszowski manor, 'Rybakówka'; Libiszow is situated 5 km west of Sosnowica; east of Ostrow Lubelski].
The American newspapers followed with interest his triumphal fourney through Sweden and England. At Gothenburg, the principal inhabitants turned out to greet the Polish hero ... In London, the leaders, including Fox, Wilberforce, and Sheridan, waited on him. The members of the Whig Club had their president, General Banastre Tarleton, the former dashing cavalry commander who almost captured Jefferson during the American Revolution, present a sword worth 200 guineas to Kosciuszko as a public testimony of their sense of his exalted virtues and of his gallant, generous, and exemplary efforts to defend and save his country. Rufus King, the American Minister to Britain, arranged his passage to the United States. At Bristol, where the citizens presented him with a magnificent mahogany case of silver plate weighing more than 216 ounces, each piece inscribed "The Friends of Liberty in Bristol to the Gallant Kosciuszko", the General stayed in the home of the American Consul. ... Kosciuszko arrived at Philadelphia in August, 1797. ... him to the boarding house of Mrs. Loveson on Second Street. For the next few months, the leading citizens and several noble French emigres feted him. Later ... he visited his old friends General Anthony Walton White in New Brunswick, New Jersey, and General Horatio Gates just outside New York City. For a time Kosciuszko enjoyed a popular triumph similar to that Lafayette was to receive in 1824. Portraits of him were sold in Philadelphia; ... No one in Philadelphia saw the General more often than Vice-President Jefferson; he was with him almost daily, and, as Niemcewicz remarked, "Kosciuszko completely adhered to Jefferson." An amateur artist, he painted a small watercolor, probably in April, 1798, of Jefferson ... Since the General had never received full payment for his services in the Revolution, Jefferson helped him claim what was due. Oliver Wolcott, Secretary of the Treasury, paid him $12,280.54 principal and $2,947.33 in interest for the years 1785-1788. ... Jefferson also assisted in securing for Kosciuszko a 500-acre military land warrant, located on the Scioto River in what is today Columbus, Ohio. ... When young Niemcewicz late on the evening of May 4, 1798, returned to the house in Philadelphia where the General and he were staying, Kosciuszko swore him to secrecy and then dramatically informed him: "I leave this night for Europe."
... Jefferson arrived in a covered carriage; Kosciuszko was carried out and the carriage drove off to Newcastle. News that Polish emigre leaders were organizing Polish legions to fight with the Italian allies of Napoleon was Kosciuszko's chief reason for returning to France. He hoped that Poles who had been drafted into the Russian, Prussian, and Austrian armies would desert to join the legions, and that eventually they, with French aid, would re-establish the Polish state. By March, 1797, the Polish general Dombrowski had 2,000 men organized into the first legion. Kosciuszko, learning about the movement soon after his landing in America, had wanted to go to France immediately. The French Consul informed his government of this two days after the General's arrival ... on his arrival in Paris, the General told the officers of the Polish legions who welcomed him:
"I want to be ever and inseparably with you. I want to join you to serve our common country. Like you I have fought for the country, like you I have suffered, like you I expect to regain it. This hope is the only solace of my life."
Jefferson, ... treated Kosciuszko as an informal envoy from the United States to France. Kosciuszko later wrote: "Jefferson considered that I would be the most effective intermediary in bringing an accord with France, so I accepted the mission even if without any official authorization."
Jefferson helped him obtain a passport under the assumed name of Thomas Kanberg.
Kosciuszko, ... about securing his passage, frequently importuned Jefferson to hurry. ... The two men agreed upon a cipher or code in which they could correspond, though, as it turned out, they did not actually use it.
Kosciuszko gave Jefferson power of attorney to act for him in all business concerning his property in the United States ... Dr. Benjamin Rush, his Philadelphia friend and physician, when reporting the General's wounds almost healed, though he would always limp slightly, had added: "Every step he takes will remind him of his patriotism and bravery." For the next twenty years, Jefferson and Kosciuszko corresponded, usually several times a year. Part of this exchange was over business. Although Jefferson had turned the General's funds over to John Barnes, an excellent Philadelphia banker... Through the years, Kosciuszko confined his letters chiefly to business. He usually wrote in French with considerable misspelling and bad grammar. Kosciuszko's opinion of Jefferson remained high. When the Virginian was nominated for the presidency, the Pole urged him to be "always good, true American a Philosopher and my Friend," and again: "Do not forget in your post be always the virtuous Republican with justice and probity without pomp and ambition in a word be Jefferson and my friend." ...
When Kosciuszko returned to France in 1798, he wrote the Czar a strong letter, which he gave to the newspapers, revoking his oath not to resist him on the grounds that the Czar's ministers had exacted that promise by terror and against his free will. This letter infuriated Paul and resulted in reprisals against the families of leading Polish emigres, including Niemcewicz's.
Kosciuszko served for a time as a kind of ambassador of the Polish legions with the French Directory; he was known as "chief of the Polish nation." Two legions based in Italy... and Kosciuszko helped organize a third unit, the Legion of the Danube.
After Napoleon assumed dictatorial powers under the coup d'etat of November, 1799, Kosciuszko developed a deep distrust of him. ... Napoleon had failed to meet his demands for an independent nation, a constitution based on the British model, and freedom and lands for the serfs.
On the other hand, Julian Niemcewicz, who had married and settled in New Jersey, ... enlisted Jefferson's help in securing a passport to Poland so that he might fulfill "a sacred duty to hasten to my post, and join my feeble Services to those my Countrymen undertake." ...
Kosciuszko sadly returned to exile, this time in Switzerland.

In his letter of April, 1816, he explained to Jefferson what happened:
Tsar Alexander promised me to enlarge the Duchy of Warsaw to the Dzwina [Dvina] and Dnieper, our former limits, but his ministers refused to carry out his generous and magnanimous plans, and unfortunately the Kingdom of Poland is smaller by a good third than the Duchy of Warsaw. Tsar Alexander pledged me a constitutional government liberal and independent and even to enfranchise our unfortunate serfs and give them their land.
That alone would have immortalized him, but it went up in smoke. I am now at Soleure in Switzerland watching the Allied Powers in bad faith treating the little states unjustly and acting toward their own subjects as wolves with sheep.

In the last letter Tadeusz Kosciuszko wrote Jefferson, in September, 1817, he added:
"I am the one true Pole in Europe, all the others under the circumstances are the subjects of different foreign powers". ...
Late in October, 1817, Frantz Xavier Zeltner, in whose home Kosciuszko lived at Soleure, wrote Jefferson that the General had died in his arms on October 15.
Jefferson commented thus to Zeltner in reply:
To no country could that event be more afflicting nor to any individual more than myself. I had enjoyed his intimate friendship and confidence for the last 20 years, and during the portion of that time which he spent in this country, I had daily opportunities of observing personally the purity of his virtue, the benevolence of his heart, and his sincere devotion to the cause of liberty...".

Tadeusz Kosciuszko in 1783 was promoted by the Continental Congress to brigadier general.
Returned to Poland in 1784.
In 1796 after the death of Catherine the Great, Kosciuszko was pardoned by Paul I, and emigrated to the United States again.
Kosciuszko left for the United States, via Stockholm, Sweden and London, departing from Bristol on June 17, 1797, and arriving in Philadelphia. In March 1798, Kosciuszko received a letters from Europe with news that Polish General Jan Henryk Dabrowski was fighting in France under Napoleon and that Kosciuszko's sister had sent his two nephews in Kosciuszko's name to serve in Napoleon's ranks.
Tadeusz Kosciuszko consulted Thomas Jefferson, who procured him a passport under a false name and arranged for his secret departure for France and to Russia.
By Wikipedia: "Jefferson considered that I would be the most effective intermediary in bringing an accord with France, so I accepted the mission even if without any official authorization."
Tadeusz Kosciuszko arrived in Bayonne, France, on June 28, 1798.
The best friends of Kosciuszko in France after 1798 were the Zeltners;
Xaver Joseph Anton Zeltner born in 1764 in Solothurn, died 1835 in Saronno (Lombardy), close to Milano, Cath., son of Franz Anton Zeltner, and Anna Maria de La Martiniere.
Brother of Peter Josef ZELTNER - in 1794 the Jesuit College of Solothurn. 1781-88 officer of the Swiss Guards in France. 1789 public notary in Solothurn, 1793-94 Governor in Lugano. Febr. 1798 arrested in Solothurn as a patriot, 1798-1800 government governor. 1802-03 the Consul in Paris. 1810-14 member of the Solothurn cantonal parliament, 1811-14 appellation judge. 1814 member of Government, then under arrest;
at his residence (today the Kosciuszko Museum) lived 1815-17 the Polish freedom fighter Tadeusz Kosciuszko.

Jefferson and Kosciuszko met in 1797 and became firm friends. Jefferson was a member of the American Philosophical Society for 35 years, ... founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin.
"...Agrippa Hull, a freeborn black New Englander, volunteered at eighteen to join the Continental Army. During the Revolution, Hull served Kosciuszko as an orderly, and the two became fast friends. ...
When Kosciuszko returned to America in the 1790s, bearing the wounds of his own failed revolution, he and Jefferson forged an intense friendship based on their shared dreams for the global expansion of human freedom.
They sealed their bond with a blood compact whereby Jefferson would liberate his slaves upon Kosciuszko's death. But Jefferson died without fulfilling the promise he had made to Kosciuszko...".

We back to friends of Kosciuszko.
Szymon Askenazy, 'Ksiaze Józef Poniatowski...', wrote:
Józef Poniatowski in the summer of 1798 settled in Prussian Warsaw. In 1798 the French Republic invaded the Rhine and the Alps, Bonaparte sailed for Egypt;
Mrs. Vauban, his favorite, has invited to each other Versailles homeless to Warsaw, Louis XVIII, the Dukes of Berry and Conde. "He received us with true contentment" - writes in his diary ex-adjutant of Kosciuszko and the head of the brigade of the Danube, General Fiszer / Fisher, on his return to Warsaw and visited the Prince in Jablonna.
1802 - the Prussian government has changed attitude towards Duke.

Stanislaw Fiszer / Fischer (1769–1812) was Polish General and Chief of Staff of the Duchy of Warsaw. He was married to Wirydianna Radolinska Kwilecka
(see Wola Pszczolecka; Kalinowski, Oginski, Trubecki, Konstantynowicz; Estonia; Walewski and Madalinski, Kiedrzynski);
1783-1788 studied at the School of Cadets, served the Division of Tadeusz Kosciuszko during the Polish-Russian War in 1792, Polonne and Dubienka; arrived at Frankfurt by Oder and recognized the Prussian army.
During the Kosciuszko Insurrection accompanied Kosciuszko at Maciejowice, was send with Kosciuszko and Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz to St. Petersburg, as the only state prisoner refused to testify, for which he was deported to Nizhny Novgorod.
1796 / 1797 FISZER went to Paris,
then the Danubian Legion organized as brigadier general; 1799, was taken into captivity.
Then under General Moreau; Livorno - the infantry legion,
1801 FISZER left for Paris (see Kosciuszko); he stayed there surrounded Kosciuszko, who show to him Wirydianna Kwilecka Radolinska, and managed to get the Koninko estate near Poznan, where FISZER settled in 1803. He married to Wirydianna in 1806.
Since 1811 led the mobilization for war with Russia. In 1812 he joined the General Confederation of Polish Kingdom;
Moscow in 1812, as chief of staff; the Battle of Borodino and taken Moscow. At the back from Moscow, was killed.
Freemason in Gdańsk in 1792.

Ludwik Fiszer b. 1800, Warszawa, a lawyer, was a nephew of General Stanislaw Fiszer.
His grandfather d. 1783, was the colonel of the Russian army, and then service of Polish Army in 1767, adjutant general of the King Stanislaus Augustus.
Parents of Stanislaw Fiszer 1759-1812 were Karol Ludwik Fiszer General Major, 1730-1783 and Joanna Luiza Elzbieta von Luck 1738-1788;
wife Wirydianna 1761-1826 was daughter of Józef Stanislaw Radolinski of Wschowa, 1730-1781 and Katarzyna Raczynska 1744-1792 (see Kiedrzynski and Raczynski).

More about Stanislaw Fiszer:

Stanislaw Fisher / Fischer was the son of Charles Louis Fischer, who passed through the Polish army from the Russian service (ca 1761; see Pilar-Pilchau), a lieutenant colonel; Charles Fischer in 1767 was the adjutant of the king, and in 1771 was promoted to the rank of colonel in the 1st infantry regiment.
In 1767 Charles Fischer received nobility with the coat of arms Tarczała, in 1774 major general. He was married to Joanna Louise Elizabeth von Luck.
Stanislaw FISZER was born in Mazovia as the youngest of four siblings (he had the oldest sister Joanna, and two older brothers - William Louis Sebastian and Charles John Leonard).
Stanislaw Fiszer defended the Constitution of 3 May and was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of Military Virtue in 1792.
Also gained promotion to captain, and above all had Kosciuszko's trust; was his favorite (he called to him "Fiszerek").
Stanislaw Fiszer remained in the army after the Tagrowica.
In 1792 was admitted to the Gdansk Masonic Lodge, and he organized here a secret conspiracy. Together with Dabrowski tried to organize resistance against the Prussians in 1793 in Pomerania with Gdansk and Torun.
During the insurrection of 1794 Fisher was promoted to the rank of Major;
in April 1794 - Stanislaw Fiszer was the aide - adjutant to Kosciuszko and chief of his staff. Fisher in the absence of Kosciuszko signed his orders;
1794 - emigrated to France, where he vegetated in Paris;
after returning of Kosciuszko from America in 1798, Fisher went to the legion of the Danube, in which he was the head of the brigade.
1800 - close to Offenburg fell into the hands of Merveldt; as a political prisoner he was sent to the Czech, where he was imprisoned in Königgrätz (Hradec Kralove) until 1 February 1801.
With the efforts of Kosciuszko and General Moreau was replaced by Lichtenstein. Fisher after consultation with Kosciuszko, back to the Danube Legion, but resigned - the summer of 1801;
leaves the service. Studied in Paris;
Kosciuszko showed to him Wirydianna Kwilecka, nee Radolińska; then he traveled to Italy, England, Holland and Germany, where in the local libraries studied the works of the military. The summer of 1802 - visited Warsaw and met Jozef Poniatowski.

Stanislaw FISZER settled then in the Great Poland, where Mycielski gave him the property

{Fiszer lived in
Koninko in 1803 - 17 km south-east to POZNAN.
In 1775 in the Koninko estate, divided a land, after the death in 1774 of Gorecki; witnesses: General Jan Zakrzewski and Teresa Gorecki - the spouses; Teresa was widowed after 1st husband General Józef Gorecki; General Jan Zakrzewski and Teresa Gorecki Zakrzewska were the heirs of the deceased already Wojciech Dzierzbinski. Above named Jan Gorecki of RZUCHOW died in 1774, was married Zofia Niwinska. Before 1775 Anna Kierski also died; Krzysztof Kierski was died; Marianna Jemelska the General wife died, too. The court established the amount of the inheritance of the Koninko and Świątniki properties. Koninko and Świątniki were sold in 1731 to hands of Władysław Andrzej Kurnatowski. The court divides this sum into two parts, ie the son and daughters of Jozef Gorecki and Teresa Zakrzewska Gorecka.
Here we read about Marianna Zakrzewska, the wife of Samuel Kierski, official in Rogoźno, who was died.
Marianna was widowed in 1729. Łukasz Gorecki was the brother of Jozef ?

At the beginning Krzysztof Mielzynski, MP, Jr., d. in Poznan in 1658, married in 1623 to Elzbieta NIEGOLEWSKA, with sons:
Jakub; Maciej Mielzynski official in SREM; Stanislaw;
daughters:
Anna m. Kazimierz Rogalinski;
Jadwiga MIELZYNSKA 1st to Wladyslaw Maniecki, 2nd to Fabian Wilhelm Rosen, Colonel;
Dorota;
Zofia + Wojciech Kierski;
Katarzyna.

Katarzyna BREZA KIERSKA was mother of:
ONUFRY;
Michal Breza (Michal Breza of Lubaczów, 1718-1771 [see above] was father of Stanislaw Kajetan Krystian von Alcantara Ignatz Breza born 1752/1754, and Ewa Woynarowski);
and Brygida Raczynska.

Onufry Breza, official in Wlodzimierz [Wolynski] in 1789, son of Jan Dominik BREZA and Katarzyna Kierska, married Helena Jawikiewicz, of MSCISLAW.
His brother Michal (d. 1771in Chorostkow) took Chorostkow, or Antoni (1758-1818), son of named MICHAL BREZA, clerk in Ostrog. Michal m. Anna Czarnecka, daughter of Nikodem from Volhynia, and Teresa nee Drzewiecki. Michal bought Siekierzynce and here were born his sons:
Józef (1796-1877), Colonel in the Kingdom of Poland, and next son Maksymilian Wincenty Breza (1807-1890), Lieutenant in 1831; also sons: Hipolit and Józef. Siekierzynce took Hipolit Breza (1806-1882), officer of the Polish Army, m. in 1837 to Honorata Radziminska, daughter of Gotfryd, official in Zaslaw, and Felicja Mikoszewski. They had 4 daughters and 3 sons.
Siekierzynce owned Achilles Breza (1845-1905), m. in 1870 to Felicja Pruszynska, daughter of Mieczyslaw, and Halina Czeczel, owner of Cecyniówka.
His son Stanislaw b. 1871, in 1890 m. Maria Zólkiewska, daughter of Antoni and Katarzyna Weryha-Darowski; Stanislaw was the last owner of Siekierzynce; he had 2 sons: Achilles jun. and Tadeusz (1905-1970), writer and diplomat.

Lukasz Kiedrzynski born ca 1740, on 01.08.1774 married 2nd time to Franciszka Maria Raczynska b. ca 1755 daughter of Józef Raczynski - son of Stanislaw Raczynski and Zofia nee Grodzynska - and Brygida nee Breza - daughter of Jan Dominik Breza 1681 - 1738, and Katarzyna nee Kierski / KIERSKA BREZA, b. 1680 d. 1749. Daughter of Lukasz Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Kiedrzynska, was Wiktoria nee Kiedrzynska - she was born ca 1775, studied in Poznan, translator of French philosophers, was near by to sister of her mother - Tekla Zmichowska nee Raczynski and her husband Józef RACZYNSKI.

Above named The Society of Polish Republicans was the Polish secret organization, in Warsaw on October 1, 1798 to mid-1801; with contact to the Deputation in Paris, and Kosciuszko in Paris. The main activists were:
Jan Orchowski / John Aloysius Orchowski,
Raymond Rembieliński,
Andrew Horodyski and
Erazm Mycielski / Erasmus Mycielski.

Andrzej Michal Horodyski b. 1773 in Baworowo, freemason, in 1798 moved to Warsaw, where he became director - after ERASMUS Mycielski - of the Society of Polish Republicans.

Erazm Mycielski b. 1769 in Kamieniec Podolski, died 1800 Kalisz, Colonel in 1794, son of Aleksander Mycielski General; 1775 served the Regiment of Poninski. Captain 1788. Campaigns in 1792 took place in Lithuania. The Kosciuszko Uprising 1794. He was a member of the conspiracy, preparing the uprising of Kosciuszko; promoted by Tadeusz Kosciuszko. He was one of the founders of the Polish Society (1798). He was involved in the conspiracy in the Great Poland.

Above Aleksander Mycielski 1723 - 1818, the Crown Army lieutenant general, envoy. Aleksander Mycielski 1723 - 1818 was son of Jan MYCIELSKI / John Mycielski, a lieutenant of the royal army and Domicella Horodynski; he was a friend of Joseph Alexander Sulkowski.

Above Aleksander Józef Sulkowski, 1695 - 1762, 1733-1738 the Saxon Electorate prime minister, Count and Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, chamberlain of Augustus III, 1734 Saxon Infantry Major General, grew up at the royal court, was the closest adviser the King and Elector Augustus III. Prince Alexander Joseph died in Leszno in 1762, had a four sons from his first marriage.

See - In 18th cent. Jan Nepomucen Mycielski (owner of Gostyn) - 1775.

Józef Kalasanty Szaniawski / Joseph Calasanz Szaniawski b. in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, 1764, died 1843 in Lviv, a Polish philosopher and politician, during the Kosciuszko Uprising (1794) was a Polish Jacobin. Member of the Jacobins Security Department - Deputation in 1794, and after 1796 a member of a secret political organization called "Centralization of Warsaw"; he was a member of the "Polish Deputation" 1795 - 1796; emigrated to Paris, 1797; the Polish Deputation came into conflict with the moderate Kościuszko-Uprising émigré activists of the "Agency" founded in Paris in 1794 and supporting Henryk Dąbrowski's Polish Legions. In 1811 he resigned, close to Stanislaw Zamoyski in Zwierzyniec. Soon after, near by the Czartoryski family and
1810 he married Luiza Mycielska / Louise Mycielski Moskorzewska, becoming attorney general of the Duchy of Warsaw (1807 - 1815), then active in the Congress Poland. He was a member of the Masonic lodge Temple of Isis in 1811 - 1812, Casimir the Great in 1819 - 1820, the Great East, an honorary member of the lodge Excellence in 1821.

Les Freres Anglais et Franēais Réunis was founded in 1807 in Poznan, subsidiaries of the French Grand Orient, and consisted of numerous military and civilian dignitaries and prominent citizens; the champion for a long time was general Wincenty Axamitowski.
Members: Colonel Stanislaw Mycielski, Józef Poninski, Aleksander Zychlinski, Augustyn Zaborowski,
Bernard Rose, Count Kacper Skarbek, Wiktor Szoldrski, General Henryk Dabrowski, General Amilkar Kosinski, Count Aleksander Bninski, Kazimierz Turno, Count Melchior Lacki. In 1812 Faustyn Zakrzewski a master; and with Jozef Poniatowski.

The Konarzewski family had Pepowo to 18th cent., then Weronika Konarzewska married Maciej Mycielski and she brought him as her dowry named Pepowo; with Chocieszewice, in 1846 - Teodor Mycielski. 1830, Józefa Mycielski in Rokosowo. ROKOSOWO is situated south-west of GOSTYN}.

Meanwhile Wirydianna KWILECKA finally obtained a divorce from first husband, and she could marry Fiszer.
When Stanislaw Fiszer received a letter of Wybicki, sent in Berlin on November 4, 1806, Fisher contrary to the promises made his wife and objections of Kosciuszko, immediately gone to Dabrowski.
The chief of the legions sent him on 18 November 1806 to Napoleon, with the report on the state of the organization of the Polish armed forces; at the request of Dabrowski was promoted to Brigadier General.
He served as the Chief of Staff under Zajączek; he was head of the Polish military General Staff. At the end of January 1809 visited Paris, where he discussed issues related to the reorganization of the army of the Duchy of Warsaw. 1810, Fiszer / Fisher was promoted to the rank of Major General.
1811 - Fiszer / Fisher also served as head of the Polish military intelligence.
In the war of 1812 Gen. Fisher served as Chief of Staff of Polish corps. During the Battle of Smolensk in 1812 personally led the attack of the Polish infantry.


Wincenty Aksamitowski
born 1760 in Nagórzany near Kamieniec Podolski, died in 1828 in Warsaw.
The General of division of the army of the Warsaw Duchy.

One of the most important masonic lodges operating at the French army was "Brothers from the Great Army." Wincenty Aksamitowski performed function in the office of the First Caretaker.

Les Freres Anglais et Franēais Réunis was founded in 1807 in Poznan, and it was subordinated to the French Grand Orient; consisted of numerous military and civilian dignitaries and prominent citizens; General Wincenty Axamitowski / Wincenty Aksamitowski was the champion for a long time.

General Wincenty Axamitowski / Wincenty Aksamitowski was the son of Ignacy Aksamitowski (Ignacy died in 1810), of Podole [see Kajetan Bystrzanowski and Jan Paszkowski], and Tekla de Witte; GENERAL WAS THE GRANDSON OF General Jan de Witte.

{Jan de Witte senior, b. 1709, d. 1785, in Kamieniec Podolski; Polish military engineer; Dutch origin, architect, representative of the Baroque, from 1781 general-lieutenant of the Crown troops; father of Joseph Witte. Jan de Witte and his wife Marianna Lubonski were buried in the Catacombs of the Cathedral in Kamienec Podolsky. Jan de Witte (1705-1785) - Commandant of the fortress and border strongholds in 1768-1785. Builder and defender of Kamienec Podolski; co-operated with Lubomirski in Lviv, and in Rivne.

Józef Zefiryn de Witte (Witt) Count, 1739 - 1815, General, the son of above JAN, senior.

Karolina Rozalia Tekla Sobanska nee Rzewuska (1793/1795 - 1885) - Countess, an agent of the Russian tsarist police, wife of Jerome Sobański. Carolina Rzewuska was born as a daughter of Adam Lawrence Rzewuski and her siblings were Ewelina Hanska, and Adam RZEWUSKI, Russian general. After completing education in Vienna, she married Jerome Sobański, landowner close to Odessa; 1818 he met Karolina by General Ivan Osipovich de Witte / Jan de Witte. She participated in the social life of the city, and 1823 met Alexander Pushkin. Pushkin fall in love with Sobańska. The next exile, who found himself, surrounded by Witt and Sobański, was Adam Mickiewicz. Sobańska was known as a traitor; August to October 1825, Mickiewicz and Sobanski participated in the expedition to Crimea, but Woroncew arranged Mickiewicz's transfer to Moscow. In 1829 Mickiewicz probably thanks to her left Russia and went to Germany on board an English ship.

General Witt
[Iwan Osipowicz de Witt, Jan de Witte junior, b. 1781, Kamieniec Podolski, d. 1840 in St Petersburg; General and Count; the son of named Józef Zefiryn de Witte + Zofia Glavani]
was appointed martial law governor of Warsaw in 1831. General Witt was appointed as the military governor, while Nikolai Korff, one of the Baltic German generals, took over as the city commandant}.

Wincenty Aksamitowski in 1774 served the Polish army, a cadet at the School of Crown Artillery in Warsaw. A second lieutenant in 1781. He fought as captain in the war aginst Russia in 1792. The Poles in June 1797 formed two legions in ITALY, and artillery under the head of Vincent Aksamitowski.
Wincenty Aksamitowski was in 1812 the Governor of Poznań.
In the Moscow campaign of 1812, Wincenty Aksamitowski replaced the chief of staff of the king of Naples, Joachim Murat, and Wincenty Aksamitowski fought in the campaign of 1813.
Wincenty Aksamitowski fought at Lipsk and Hanau, then again in the service of J. Murat [see Franciszek Paszkowski and Jozef Sulkowski].
In the French campaign of 1814, he commanded the Brigade of General J. Defranca. After the fall of Napoleon he was the deputy chairman of the Central Council of Administration of the Polish Corps. In 1815 he returned to the country and was active in the army of the Kingdom of Poland.

In Paris, in 1802, Wincenty Aksamitowski was a graduate of the 33rd degree of the Scottish Rite of the upper classes [the TEMPLAR - see Artur Potocki].
The administrative steps rise from 31 to 33 degrees, creating the white Freemasonry. The Mason, entering the administrative stages, becomes a follower of the Gnostic monism (the belief that Lucifer is a god) and performs the function of authority over the Masons from the lower levels of initiation.

In 1803, Wincenty Aksamitowski co-operated with General Tadeusz Kosciuszko and his secretary Franciszek Maksymilian PASZKOWSKI.

The Scottish Rite -
one of the dominant and more extensive masonic rituals, deeply permeated by the tradition of Judaism. Despite the name, it was not created in Scotland, but in Napoleonic France. It has 33 degrees of initiation. Connected above all with regular freemasonry.

Wincenty Aksamitowski was the master of the Polish United Brothers of the Freemasonry, founded by General Alexander Rozniecki.
Wincenty Aksamitowski in 1820 was a great guardian of the Seals - of the National Polish Great East.
He died in Warsaw 1828 or in 1829.

Wincenty Aksamitowski (1760-1829) and Michal Sokolnicki (1760-1816) represented the group of former legionaries, who after 1801 decided to enlist in the French army.
Wincenty Aksamitowski the son of Aksamitowski Ignacy (1736 - 1771); married Aksamitowska Vincencja (1782 - 1838).

Wincenty Aksamitowski was the Great Seal keeper;
he keeps a list of all the acts he has saved in the seals with the date of the order under which they were seized and the date of supply with stamps. Before him: 1815, Stanisław Węgrzecki; 1819, Józef Lubowidzki; and in 1820 Wincenty Aksamitowski; next was - 1821, Józef Miklaszewski.

Officials of the Grand Orient, appointed by the Grand Master:
there were also six officials from the East, appointed for a year by the master: speaker, secretary, master of rituals, hospice, Stuart and director of harmony.
Samples:
1816, Ksawery Kossecki;
1820 - Stanisław Potocki General;
1821, Wincenty Aksamitowski.


We back to Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kosciuszko / Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventure Kosciuszko, b. 1746, hero in Poland, Belarus, and the United States. As Supreme Commander of the Polish National Armed Forces, he led the 1794 Kosciuszko Uprising. Born in Mereczowszczyzna / Merechevschina, Belarus close to Kosów Poleski / Kosava;
Tadeusz Kosciuszko was the youngest son of Ludwik Tadeusz Kosciuszko, an officer in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Army, and his wife Tekla, nee Ratomska.
Kosciuszko moved to France in 1769 to studies, returned to Poland in 1774, returned to France. In 1776, Kosciuszko moved to North America, where he took part in the American Revolutionary War; back to Poland in 1784, as a major general in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Army in 1789; Polish-Russian War of 1792; 1796, Kosciuszko was pardoned by Paul I, and he emigrated to the United States; close friend of Thomas Jefferson,
returned to Bayonne, France, on June 28, 1798.
Kosciuszko remained politically active in Polish circles in France, and in 1799, he joined the Society of Polish Republicans, but October 17 and November 6, 1799, he met with Napoleon Bonaparte; 1801, Kosciuszko settled in Breville, near Paris;
Kosciuszko wrote a letter to Napoleon, and did not move to the Duchy of Warsaw;
after the fall of Napoleon, he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I, in Paris and then in Braunau, Switzerland, demanded borders on the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east.
In Vienna, Kosciuszko called new Poland as "a joke" of Russia; send letters to the Tsar, and left Vienna, moved to Solothurn, Switzerland.

Above named The Society of Polish Republicans was the Polish secret organization, in Warsaw on October 1, 1798 to mid-1801; with contact to the Deputation in Paris, and Kosciuszko in Paris.

Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski died in 1856, in September 1800 received the assignment to captain in the Italian Legion. In 1801 he met Thaddeus Kosciuszko and the next three years 1801-1804 he spent at his side gathering material for a biography.
In 1804-1805, he was in a camp of Chalons-sur-Marne.
He was reactivated on the staff of Joachim Murat, as a translator and espionage officer, also an aide of Murat.
He had correspondence contact with Kosciuszko, who named him 'my Paszkos'.
In January 1815 General Franciszek Paszkowski resigned from the position of secretary in the Polish Kingdom, and was deleted from the state service of the Polish army.
After leaving the military he went abroad, visiting Kosciuszko and Frederick Augustus ex Duke of the Warsaw Duchy

(Frederick Augustus I / Frederick Augustus Joseph Maria Anton Johann Nepomuk Aloys Xavier / Friedrich August I b. 1750, was King of Saxony 1805-1827, Elector of Saxony 1763-1806 and as Duke Frederick Augustus I / Fryderyk August I of Warsaw 1807– 1813; succeeding his father in 1763 as the elector Frederick Augustus III. Son of Frederick Christian / Fryderyk Krystian Wettyn b. 1722 who was the son of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, by his wife, Maria Josepha of Austria. Grandson of Augustus III / Augustas III b. 1696 the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1734 until 1763, known as Frederick Augustus II / Friedrich August II - 1719 he married Maria Josepha, daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Joseph I).

General Franciszek Paszkowski back to the Posen Duchy [winter 1815/1816 ? - January 1816 to Prussia], and then he settled in the Republic of Cracow [1819 ?] - in 1820 in the village Tonie; after the death of Kosciuszko received an inheritance, and in Krakow organized the funeral of Kosciuszko; he was one of the initiators of the Kosciuszko mound in Krakow and chairman of the committee of its construction.
1822 - Jan Karski was caught on the border of the Kingdom of Poland; and a letter to Dobrzycki was found, in which numerous matters were discussed: Umiński, Kniaziewicz, Arnold Skórzewski, General Paszkowski were threatened with arrest.

Stanisław Mielżyński was born on November 14, 1778 in Rąbin as Stanislaw Kostka Andrew James. He was the fourth child (the first of three sons) of the writer of the Crown - Maximilian Mielżyński and Constance Czapski. In the early 90's of the XVIII cent., the family lived in Pawlowice owned Maximilian. In 1799, died Count Maximilian Mielżyński, the owner of a huge fortune inherited by his three sons. Stanislaw got Pawlowice, Poniec, Łaszczyn and Gołańcz. His brother Nicholas among others, Żytowiecko, Leka, Karczewo, Baszków close to Krotoszyn and Rawicz; the youngest brother Thomas died four years later. Three brothers had sister Catherine.
On 18 November 1800, Stanislaw married in Gostyn to Prowidencja Honorata Zaremba, the daughter of the chamberlain Peter Zaremba and Elizabeth nee Radoliński.
From this marriage were born in the following order: Elizabeth (1802), Joseph (1803), next daughter (1807), Leon (1809) and Eleanor (1815).

In 1806 in November, the French troops invaded the Great Poland; in Poznan was gen. Jan Henryk Dabrowski and Joseph Wybicki who known Mielżyński and began creating Polish army;
the count Stanislaw Mielżyński on 24 November 1806 was appointed colonel of the Napoleonic army and began to organize 3rd infantry regiment in the division of the General Jan Henryk Dabrowski.
The commanders of the other regiments in the division were also Prince Anthony / ANTONI Sulkowski from Rydzyna (1 Regiment), Łącki (2 regiment) and Poniński (4 Regiment).
With Mielżyński co-operated the commander of the battalion Major Stanislaw Fisher / Fiszer (then the Army Chief of General Staff).
On January 3, 1807 created division of gen. J. H. Dąbrowski, with the 3rd Infantry Regiment, of Colonel Stanislav Mielżyński stationed in Pawlowice. Other regiments in Leszno, Zduny and Rawicz (see Sulkowski).
The service of regiment in Gdansk lasted for two years until 1809. In the spring of 1809 the Duchy of Warsaw was attacked by the Austrian army. He was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General (20 March 1810). Mielżyński was the commander of one of three departments in Plock. On the way to Russia 30 V 1812 by Leszno passed Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, going from Głogów to Poznań.
The Polish Army was partly assigned to the units of the French, led by Prince Jozef Poniatowski.
The corps consisted of three infantry divisions;
General Mielżyński was appointed commander of the infantry brigade in the 16th infantry division of General Zajączek. With him commanders of the brigades in the division were: General Franciszek Paszkowski (II infantry brigade) and General Tyszkiewicz (cavalry brigade).

Mielżyński co-operated with Zakrzewski and Miaskovsky. During 1813, the Russians occupied the former Duchy of Warsaw. His mother died July 29, 1813 (1812 ?).
After complete breakdown, General Mielżyński was commander in the 3rd Infantry Division of General Loison within the thirteenth corps of Marshal Louis N. Davout; Meanwhile, on December 19, 1812, Russian troops seized Leszno, then again took the Prussians. As a result of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Great Poland was the Grand Duchy of Posen.
On September 8, 1815 Mielżyński was released from military service and began acted in secret societies, among others, in the Poznan branch of the National Freemasonry, the 'Association of Kosynier', he was a member of Freemasonry in the seventh degree and also belonged to several other Masonic lodges: "Knights of the Star", "The Brothers of the Union", was a master of the lodge "Humanity".
Stanislaw Mielżyński died in Pawlowice in June 1826 and was buried here;
left 17-year-old son Leo, who got Pawłowice and Kąkolewo;
Stanislaw;
Elizabeth (1822 married Louis Mycielski, who in 1831 died) got Poniec;
Filipina (wife of Ignatius Szczaniecki - Miedzychód, a colonel during the uprising of 1848) had Łaszczyn, while
youngest Eleonora Laura (m. in 1834 to Karol Czarniecki of Volhynia, divorced, 2nd m. in 1850 to General Józef Napoleon Hutten-Czapski) taken Gołańcz.
Gołańcz is situated at northern Great Poland, close to Chodziez. The widow Prowidencja lived later in Poznan by 11 years. She died in Poznan, on October 11, 1837 and was buried in Pawlowice.
Inf. under copyright by http://www.krzemieniewo.net.

The important note:
A.
Katarzyna Raczynska b. 1744 - d. 1792 married Józef Antoni Radoliński / Jozef Radolinski (= Józef Stanisław Radoliński born 1730 - died in 1781 in Winnogóra, the Szamotuły County) born in 1740; her parents: Leon Raczyński and Wirydianna Miełżyńska, Raczyńska born Bnińska. Leon was born in 1698, d. 1750.
Wirydianna BNINSKA was born in 1718 (wife of Leon Raczyński and Józef Klemens Krzysztof Mielżyński).
Katarzyna had brother Filip Nereusz Raczyński.
Filip Nereusz Raczyński (1747 - 1804) was son of above named Leon, General Major of the Polish Army.
Michał Kazimierz Raczyński (1650 - 1737, father of Wiktor and above named Leon);
above Wiktor Raczyński (1698 - 1764, father of Kazimierz);
above Leon Raczyński (1698 - 1750 or 1755, father of Filip Nereusz; and brother of Wiktor Raczyński; Kazimiera Bona Hutten - Czapska; Kazimierz Bona Raczyński and Konkordia Ruszkowska);
Count Kazimierz Raczyński, (1739 - 1824), General of the Polish Army, MP in 1793; Kazimierz Jan Nepomucen Raczyński herbu Nałęcz b. 1739 in Wojnowice, court marshal of the Crown, member of the Targowica Confederation, member of the Confederation of Andrew Mokronowski; 1797 - 1804 chairman of the Banking Committee, appointed to liquidate the Polish banking. The title of count on 6 July 1798 in Berlin.
His daughter Michalina married to Filip Raczyński with sons: Atanazy and Edward.
Atanazy Raczyński b. 1788 in Poznan, d. 1874 in Berlin, Polish landowner, the younger brother of Edward, owner of Obrzycko, MP in 1837, 1841. He was Prussian ambassador in Lisbon and Madrid.
Edward Raczyński b. 1786, died in 1845, Zaniemyśl; landowner, married Constance Potocki with one son Roger Maurice. 1806 - 1809 he served Napoleon's army and the army of the Duchy of Warsaw. He was awarded the Order of Military Virtue. Political and social activist Grand Duchy of Posen. In 1814 he made journey to Odessa; 1827 a member of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Sciences. He founded an agricultural school in Jeżewo near Srem (1841). Financially supported writers: Adam Mickiewicz and Bronislaw Trentowski.
B.
Józef Raczynski b. ca 1710 / 1720 / 1730, was son of Stanislaw Raczynski and Zofia nee Grodzynska;
Stanisław Raczyński b. ca 1700;
Jozef married Brygida BREZA and was father of
Anna Strzelecka born ca 1757;
Zuzanna Raczyńska;
and also Franciszka Maria Raczynska Kiedrzynska b. ca 1755
(daughter of above Józef Raczynski [Jozef was son of Stanislaw Raczynski and Zofia nee Grodzynska] and Brygida nee Breza).

Franciszek Strzelecki was son of Józef Strzelecki and Jadwiga; husband of above named Anna Raczyńska (Anna Strzelecka Raczyńska, b. ca 1757, died on February 4, 1807; she was mother of Kazimierz Anastazy Strzelecki; Piotr Strzelecki; famous Paweł Edmund Strzelecki, and Izabela Świętopełk-Słupska; she was half sister of Franciszek Wojciech Raczyński).
Above Paweł Edmund Strzelecki b. 1797 in Głuszyna, the Poznań province, died 1873 in London; Sir Paul Edmund de Strzelecki was a Polish explorer and geologist.
1839 he set out on an expedition into the Australian Alps and explored the Snowy Mountains. In 1840 he climbed the highest peak in Australia and named it Mount Kosciuszko, to honour Tadeusz Kościuszko; corresponded with Charles Darwin.

Lukasz Kiedrzynski born ca 1740, owner of Kunow / KUNOWO, on 01.08.1774 married (2nd time ?) to Franciszka Maria Raczynska b. ca 1755 daughter of Józef Raczynski - son of Stanislaw Raczynski and Zofia nee Grodzynska - and Brygida nee Breza - daughter of Jan Dominik Breza and Katarzyna nee Kierski.
Daughter of Lukasz Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Kiedrzynska, was Wiktoria nee Kiedrzynska - she was born ca 1775, studied in Poznan, translator of French philosophers, was near by to sister of her mother - Tekla Zmichowska nee Raczynski and her husband Józef. Wiktoria married Jan Zmichowski, from family of Józef Zmichowski.
Marriage in 1801 - Jan Zmichowski fought in 1794 under Kosciuszko, lived in Rawicz (Sulkowski !); Jan Zmichowski was judge; in Rawicz were born his children:
Wiktoria
and Kornelia.
The Narcyza Żmichowski parents moved home from Rawicz to the Posen Duchy in 1819;
Wanda Narcyza Albina Redel nee Żmichowska b. ca 1816 was daughter of Jan Żmichowski and Wiktoria; wife of Władysław Ignacy Józef Redel, and sister of
Kornelia Gloger
(Kornelia Gloger nee Żmichowska 1810 - 1902, was wife of Karol Paweł Antoni Gloger and mother of Maria Wiktoria Rostworowska;
sister of Wiktoria Lewińska,
above Wanda Narcyza Albina Redel and
Narcyza Żmichowska).


Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) and TERESA had sons:

1. Krzysztof Mielzynski,

[governor of Przemet (1717-1721), the official in Kcynia (1693), 1670-1721, with son Andrzej Mielzynski, 1698- 1771, m. Anna Petronela Bninska 1720-1771, and grandson Maksymilian Antoni Jan Mielzynski, b. 1738 - Laszczyn, died in 1799 - Pawlowice, the owner of PAWLOWICE, m. in 1771, Mierzyszyn, to Konstancja Hutten-Czapska, 1749-1813; with daughter Css Katarzyna Mielzynska 1775- 1817, m. Prokop Mielzynski, lieutenant (1793), 1763-1800]
2. Franciszek Mielzynski
[Franciszek Walenty Mielzynski, 1682-1738, the owner of CHOBIENICE;
with children:
1. daughter
Józefa Mielzynska, ca 1729-1752, m. Rafal Tadeusz Gajewski,
and granddaughter Wiktoria Jakobina Gajewska b. in 1749, m. Jan Józef Kwilecki 1729-1789.
2.
Józef Klemens Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI, the owner of CHOBIENICE,
governor of Kalisz (1758-1763), Poznan (1763-1782), Kalisz (1782- 1786), Poznan (1786-1792), 1729-1792;
m. Wirydianna / Wirydiana Bninska, 1718-1797
{Leon Raczynski, 1698 - died 1750, son of Michal Kazimierz Raczynski, was also the husband of Wirydiana Mielzynska-BNINSKA}.


Freemasonry, Illuminati and the Templars Order - conspiracy and conspirators: 1793/1794, 1796, 1819/1820/1821, 1833. History Of Secret Societies: Templars, Illuminati, and Freemasons. The Order of the Illuminati: Origins, Methods and Influence.

I managed to investigate and decipher a system in 2013 after 26 years of my researches: this is a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military intelligence of the Tsarist Russia:
deep political espionage (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic technological-scientific intelligence (Breguet + Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company, also Nobel and Armand families:
telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.).

Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence.

An influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign UK policy ca 1895 to ca 1921 played Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, a British statesman.

Acc to Aydelotte:
"...in 1888 Rhodes made his third will ... to LORD ROTHSCHILD (his financier in mining enterprises), but ... for strategic reasons Lord Rothschild was subsequently removed from the forefront of the scheme. Professor Quigley reveals that Lord Rosebury, replaced his father-in-law Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes' next and last will. ... Quigley informs us that the central part of the 'secret society' was established by March, 1891, using Rhodes' money.

The organization was run for Rothschild by Lord Alfred Milner - the ROUND TABLE worked behind the scenes at the highest levels of British government, influencing foreign policy and England's involvement and conduct of WW I.
... Between 1894 and 1907 a number of international treaties were signed to have Russia, France, England and further nations unit against Germany in the case of war. It was the task of the COMMITTEE OF 300 to set the stage for the First World War. From the ROUND TABLE group emerged as a front the 'Royal institute for International Affairs' ... known as 'Chatham House' and had among its founding members Lord Albert Grey, Lord Arnold Toynbee ... of the MI6, H. G. Wells, Lord Alfred Milner - head of the Round Table, and H. J. Mackinder - inventor of the so-called geopolitics.
... sums of money from the international bankers, among others from ALFRED MILNER - by Jan Van Helsing - who later took over the secret Round Table, were poured into the Ochrana that already had infiltrated the Bolshevik movement. Agents steered many of its activities. The infiltration was so strong that in 1908 four of the five members of the Petersburg committee of the Bolshevik party were Ochrana agents".

Upon his return from South Africa, Viscount Milner occupied himself mainly with business interests in London, becoming chairman of the Rio Tinto Zinc mining company, a director of the Joint Stock Bank, in January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson, in Russia, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed; he was an advocate of inter-allied cooperation, in St. Petersburg in February 1917. But Trotsky in his book 'My Life' tells of a British financier, who in 1907 gave him a large loan to be repaid after the overthrow of the Tsar. Arsene de Goulevitch, who witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution, has identified both the name of the financier and the amount of the loan: over 21 million rubles were spent by Lord Alfred Milner in financing the (October 1917 Revolution) Russian Revolution.
It was a big dream of Pilsudski and Poles to Tsarist Russia collapsed, and then in the revolutionary chaos appeared Lenin had passed into Russia by the Germans.

A documents made it clear, that this above mentioned funding was provided by Milner and channeled through Sir George Buchanan, who was the British Ambassador to Russia at the time, acc. to Goulevitch, p. 230.


In March 1832, Adam Mickiewicz stayed in Dresden, Saxony, where he wrote the third part of his poem 'Dziady'. July 1832 he arrived in Paris, accompanied by Ignacy Domeyko; in Paris, Mickiewicz published articles in 'Pielgrzym Polski', and wrote 'The Books of the Polish People and of the Polish Pilgrimage' - in the part: 'Pilgrim LITANY' we read:
"...The universal war for the freedom of peoples,
We ask you, Lord.
The weapons and national eagles,
We ask you, Lord...".

Tadeusz A. Kisielewski in "The Great War and Polish independence" ed. Rebis Publishing House, 2014, shows the First World War (the Great War 1914-1918) as a game of powers, which fight each other for dominance over Europe and domination in the colonies.

In 1832 the author of 'Pilgrim LITANY', Adam Mickiewicz, although romantic poet, but cool, wrote that an essential condition of Poland's independence is the conflict between the invaders, and it must be converted into a European-wide war [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland].

In 1895, Pilsudski published an article titled "Russia", in which he formulated for the first time a basic condition for independence by Poland: to "slit the seams of ethnic Russia" and other non-Russian parts of the empire (to split the seams of ethnic Russia and other non-Russian parts).

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins, Serbs and Bosniak, coordinated by Danilo Ilic, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society.
"...In May of 1914 Colonel Dmitrijevic, a secret way from his own government, introduced the idea of the assassination of Archduke. The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow, was not able to decide, and reached an agreement with friends from the General Staff in St. Petersburg, and after a few days passed acceptance: 'Works ... we will not leave you alone'. Today we know that these words were not empty. We do not know who made the decision. Whoever he was, he had to be close to the heads of the party pro war; it was leading by the uncle of the Tsar, Grand Duke Nicholas (Nikolai); and operate at the interface between the military and diplomacy, he soon began a covert operation to observe long-term Russian ambassador in Belgrade, Nikolai Hartwig. One thing is certain: the decision of St. Petersburg, and then ... shots of Princip started the chain of events that led to the global carnage...",
according to http://foxmulder2.blogspot.com/2014/06/najwieksze-sekrety-kryptonim.html by Hubert Kozieł.

The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow / Viktor Alekseevich Artamonov / Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov / Виктор Алексеевич Артамонов, had a close relationship with Apis.

The network:
Montenegro - Potapov - Parvus - Berezyna - Konstantynowicz - Artuzow - Volpi - Venetia - electricity:
Prince Arseny Karageorgievich / Karadjordjevic b. 1859, d. 1938, was educated in Paris lycee and graduated from the 2nd Konstantinovskoye Military College in 1888; served until 1916 to the Russian military, Major General of the Russian Imperial Army, participated in the Russian- Japanese War and in the First World War; the pretender to the Serbian throne, who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion; the friend of Drzewiecki, Duflon, Breguet in St Petersburg (see: Potapov in Montenegro; the Azbelev / Azbelew family, and the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Petersburg; Nagasaki and Bronislaw Pilsudski, Volpi; Neuchatel in Switzerland).
Arseny was the son of Serbian Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic and Princess Persia.

And at present back again to Montenegro and Serbia, Venetia and Turkey:

"...Parvus's status in Switzerland was secured by his longtime colleague, Adolph Muller, the German Ambassador in Berne, and a Munich publisher. According to authors James and Suzanne Pool ... he had done business with the Nazis since before the putsch. ... The money that Hitler used to purchase the newspaper came from a White Russian and former Okhrana associate, Vasili Biskupsky. ... At the close of World War I, Parvus wrote the following profile of the European situation:
'There exist two possibilities only: either the unification of western Europe, or Russia's domination. The whole game with the buffer states will end in their annexation by Russia, unless they are united with central Europe in an economic community, which would provide a counter-balance to Russia'.
Under any circumstances, Parvus argued that the era of the nation-state system had ended in Europe...".

Parvus also got into the tightly controlled arms business, probably under the patronage of Sir Basil Zaharoff of the Vickers Arms cartel, a prominent Anglo - Venetian enterprise. Once the Balkan Wars had started, leading directly into World War I, Parvus turned his attention back to Russia, laying plans to finance a revolution, to be led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Parvus set his scheme for revolution down in a March 9, 1915 memorandum to the German Foreign Ministry, vowing that the Bolsheviks would take power in Russia in 1916, and seeking financial support. ...
One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski, the head of the Political Section and a longtime business associate of none other than Young Turks financier, the Venetian Synarchist Party operative Giuseppi Volpi, the future controller of Mussolini.
According to his own memoirs,
von Hutten-Czapski had seen the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War as an opportunity 'to smash the Tsarist Empire', a view shared by Parvus.


A key excerpt from Piłsudski's 1904 memorandum declared:

Poland's strength and importance among the constituent parts of the Russian state embolden us to set ourselves the political goal of breaking up the Russian state into its main constituents and emancipating the countries that have been forcibly incorporated into that empire. We regard this not only as the fulfilment of our country's cultural strivings for independent existence, but also as a guarantee of that existence, since a Russia divested of her conquests will be sufficiently weakened that she will cease to be a formidable and dangerous neighbour.
The Promethean movement, according to Charaszkiewicz, took its genesis from a national renaissance that began in the late 19th century among many peoples of the Russian Empire. ... this was so in Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia and Azerbaijan. These socialist parties would take the lead in their respective peoples' independence movements. ... Ultimately the peoples of the Baltic Sea basin - Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania - won and, until World War II, all kept their independence. The peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins - Ukraine, Don Cossacks, Kuban, Crimea, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Northern Caucasus - emancipated themselves politically in 1919-1921 but then lost their independence to Soviet Russia.
In 1917-21, according to Charaszkiewicz, as the nations of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins were freeing themselves from Russia's tutelage, Poland was the only country that worked actively together with those peoples.
... Immediately after the loss of independence by the peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins and the annexation of those lands in 1921 by Soviet Russia, Poland was the only country in Europe that gave material and moral support to the political aspirations of their Promethean (pro- independence) emigres.

... Throughout the years 1918-39, according to Charaszkiewicz, the Polish Promethean leadership consistently observed several principles. The purpose of the Promethean enterprise was to liberate from imperialist Russia, of whatever political stripe, the peoples of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins and to create a series of independent states as a common defensive front against Russian aggression. Each Promethean party respected the political sovereigny of the others.

The conspiracy in Russia created curtains and protected from the beginning by the modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia created by Benkendorff and Dubbelt from Estonia and Latvia - thanks to this major role in this system can be played a German families from Estonia.

They anchored (Fabian Pilar von Pilchau of Parnu) in Lithuania / Belarus and joined with families from Belarus: Piłsudski, Dzierzynski, Konstantynowicz and so on. Thanks to this connections the German Empire took over from the top of all this political system according to some theorists, and by others - the British intelligence.
This statement is not true, or not true fully. The main ally of Britain during the First World War was Russia, and the Romanov dynasty with its last tsar. This is confirmed by the organization of the Allied mission to Russia in January 1917 and earlier such a mission to Romania. Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. Ireland fought then about freedom, just like the Poles. Scotland also fight, like Estonia.

"...In January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson as chief military representative, and including a banker and two munitions experts - on the mission to Russia. There were 50 delegates in total including French, led by de Castelnau, and Italians. The object of the mission, stressed at the second Chantilly Conference in December 1916, was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed with a view to coordinating attacks...".

Today it is difficult to say who, what country, either a government, or an institution, maybe a NGO managed this complicated structure.

Those who have studied the roots of this complex structure, the most common commit certain substantive and methodological mistakes, runs the risk of retaliatory attacks and ridicule, and even fully social ostracism.

"...Lenin was preceded by a Swiss spy named Pierre Gilliard who was hired to tutor the Romanov children in French. Charles Sydney Gibbes was their English tutor.
The Revolution was planned in London and Geneva... Both men were MI6 operatives (this is an opinion of Scrivener) and they could be relied upon to maintain strict secrecy as to the final fate of the Romanovs...",
acc. to Patrick Scrivener.

This structure had a military - intelligence - political nature. This structure created for decades the leading politicians, and drove to the spectacular political internationally events. The mystery of the complicated machines - several octopuses - caused the birth of conspiracy theories, such theories and journalism as Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894.

For a 100 years such theories indicate specified states, as well as some nations or particular politicians, as drivers of the intelligence structure - this situation lasts from 1916 to today, 2014.

The answer to the above question at the moment is gone.

In the history of Tsarist Russia, it is difficult to find a detail, because there is difficult to get to archives of a special services and political institutions.

These data obviously yet not suggest who or what was the driving force of the intelligence network and the military-political structures, which in details is discussed on this web site, and broadening data on the site designated as part two. Both of these parties were formed in the second half of 2014. So Carroll Quigley wrote in 1981:

"... in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole.
For these men were organizing a secret society that was, for more than fifty years, to be one of the most important forces in the formulation and execution of British imperial and foreign policy. ... The leader was Cecil Rhodes, fabulously wealthy empire-builder ... The second was William T. Stead, the most famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day. The third was Reginald Baliol Brett, later known as Lord Esher, friend and confidant of Queen Victoria, and later to be the most influential adviser of King Edward VII and King George V. ... the three drew up a plan of organization for their secret society and a list of original members. The plan of organization provided for an inner circle, to be known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers. Within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be exercised by the leader, and a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was to be Rhodes, and the junta was to be Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner.
In accordance with this decision, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner was added to the society by Stead ...
Rhodes had been planning for this event for more than seventeen years (around 1873).
Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. ... in modified form, it exists to this day. ...".


The ARMAND family from Moscow [+ General Franciszek Paszkowski] and the French roots of the Konstantynowicz family [Anna Armand Konstantynowicz and Inessa Armand - Lenin Uljanov] - Prometheism / PROMETEIZM of Poles in Russia, 1877/1878 - 1904:

Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia in 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow), the daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution.
Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica, b. 1767, the daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand in 1791. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably).
The 29 year-old General Paul Armand, in 1791 [Jean-Louis Armand in 1799], came from Paris to Russia in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay [see below].
He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine in 1791.
After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, in 1792/1793, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then, after 1815, the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.

Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demontet family ran in Moscow and in KAZAN a sales of these French wines.

When Paul Armand married [ca 1783 / 1785], he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand in MOSCOW, was trading house of DEMONSI / Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.

Mentioned above
Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage [ca 1806] to Elizabeth Osipovna (1786 / 1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny / EUGENIUSZ ARMAND, born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker [compare HACKER in the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company].

In 1811 in Moscow lived:

Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1786 / 1787,
and his son Louis-Jean ARMAND, b. 1807 / 1808, French nation;
his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787/1788 and
the daughter Elizabeth b. 1807.
Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived (again?) to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica, the daughter of Charles, was born 1767.

Louis-Jean ARMAND, b. 1807 / 1808.

Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia in 1799.

Yevgeny Armand born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow.

Paul was killed and Paul's son, Jean - Ivan [= Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1786 / 1787], started a wine-import business [in 1799 in Russia - but in Moscow in 1808].
But it was Ivan's son, the first
Eugene [= Yevgeny / EUGENIUSZ ARMAND, born in 1809], who founded the Armand fortunes.

Note to Marquis de Courtenay in Russia in 1791:

The last male member of the French Courtenays died in 1733 [the last male member of the French Courtenays committed suicide in 1727], but his niece married the Marquis de Bauffremont, and her descendants assumed the title of "Prince de Courtenay".
However the marquis de Beauffremont [Louis de Bauffremont (1712-1769)] was made in 1757 Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and this title was recognised in France.

Above LOUIS had a brother - Prince Joseph of Bauffremont (1714-1781) who married in 1762 to Princess Louise Benigne Marie Octavie Francoise Jacqueline Laurence of Bauffremont / Princesse de Bauffremont-Courtenay [b. ca 1745 ?] 1750-1803.

JOSEPH's son -
Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont-Courtenay, [maybe he was born before 1773 !] b. 1773, died in 1833, married in 1787 [in 1787, San Ildefonso, Province de Segovie, Castille et Leon, Espagne] to Marie-Antoinette Rosalie Pauline of Quelen de La Vauguyon (1771-1847), the daughter of Paul Franēois of Quelen de Stuer de Caussade, second duke of La Vauguyon, prince of Carency, and Marie Antoinette Rosalie de Pons de Roquefort.

Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont - Courtenay (1773-1833), son of JOSEPH [not of Louis] served under the Bourbons.
He fled France during the French Revolution and emigrated in Koblenz, then Alexandre was in Russia in 1791, he entered the rank of a colonel in Spain, served in the campaigns of 1793 and 1794 as captain of the cavalry in the service of France.
He settled in the United States [in 1794 ?].
He later returned to France [compare General Tadeusz Kosciuszko] and was made a Count of the French Empire by Napoleon in 1810. Louis XVIII made him a peer of France in 1815 and in 1817, and duke in 1818.
Alexandre Emanuel Louis de Bauffremont, marquis de Listenois had 2 sons:
Alphonse (1792-1860), 2nd Duke of Bauffremont;
Theodore (1793-1852).

Brief note on Courtenay in England:

John Courtenay Throckmorton (1753/1754-1819), fifth baronet of Coughton, county Warwick (1791).
William Paston married Mary Courtenay, daughter of mentioned John Courtenay.
Above Sir John-Courtenay, 5th bart., was commemorated as being "a ban vivant", and he was baronet after Christopher Hewetson. John was the son of George Throckmorton SENIOR, and Anna Maria

[= Anne Maria Paston b. ca 1730, was the daughter of William Paston and Mary Courtenay. Mary Courtenay b. ca 1705, was the daughter of John Courtenay. John Courtenay b. ca 1670, lived at Molland, Devon, England
(Molland-Bottreaux; in 1703 of Molland-Champson. The Courtenay family in West Molland in 1467 - 1489 - 1733 - 1863)].

Husband of Maria Katherine Giffard. Brother of Sir George Throckmorton, 6th Baronet, JUNIOR; Sir Charles Throckmorton, 7th Baronet; William Throckmorton; Robert Throckmorton and Teresa Metcalf.
Sir George "6th Baronet Throckmorton of Coughton" Courtenay-Throckmorton, JUNIOR, formerly Throckmorton. Born on 25 Sep 1754 in Warwick, England.

Now on the Konstantynowiczs - HURKO and PROMETEIZM in 1877/1878:

Prometheism - in 1904 Jozef Pilsudski announced the division of Russia into component parts, and giving independence to countries that were strongly incorporated into Russian Empire.
The name Prometeizm was described in the years 1924-1926 from the inspiration of Tadeusz Schaetzel and Tadeusz Holowko.

Georgians researcher from France and the state of Washington in the USA, Georges Mamoulia writes that the creator of the word Prometheism was HAJDAR Bammat - inf. 2009.
Wlodzimierz Baczkowski writes in 1984, on the name Prometeizm is associated with the Prometheus League and followers of Józef Pilsudski.

Charaszkiewicz writes that the idea of Prometheism appeared in the Memorandum of Jozef Pilsudski to the government of Japan in 1904
[see Sieroszewski and Azbelev - the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - in JAPAN. Breguet and Nobel around the Konstantynowiczs].

Roman Knoll in Ankara in 1924-1925 devoted his efforts to implementing the idea of Prometheism.

In the definition of the Promethean movement, it should be specified that it is not synonymous with the term Promethean thought. It is the close cooperation of the representatives of enslaved nations with "Polish factors" aimed at bringing the independence of these countries.
On the other hand, the Promethean thought from 1877/1878 is a much broader concept, it is understood as the idea of dismembering the Russian Empire based on the unified movement of nations enslaved by Russia.

Already in the years 1877-1878, Polish officers in the headquarters led the Russian Army in the Balkans, and they met with the problems of Russian imperialism and the problems of small nations in Transcaucasia and the Balkans.
In 1877 in order to overcome the ridges of the Balkans, the General JOZEF HURKO / Josif Hurko (about 12000 soldiers) was appointed as commander.

General Jozef Hurko / Iosif Vladimirovich Hurko (Gurko) born in July 1828, in Veliky Novgorod or in the village of Burnejko in Mogilev Governorate; died 1901 in the village Sakharov in the Tver Governorate; Russian field marshal.
He came from a Polish-Belarusian noble family, the son of General Vladimir Iosifowicz Hurka (1795-1852) and Tatiana Aleksandrowna, baroness Korff;
the grandson of Polish nobleman Józef Hurko-Romejko, junior, died in 1811.

General Jozef Hurko born in 1828, was a student in 1846; participant of the Crimean War (1853-1856). Then a commander of the 2nd Division of the Guard.
In the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), he was commanding the Division from June 1877, he made a march - maneuver for the Balkans (commanded by Aleksandr Puzyriewski), for which he was promoted to general-adjutant.
Mentioned above
Józef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR died in 1811, the son of Jozef Hurko Romejko, senior, Polish nobleman and state activist of the Russian Empire, the first vice-governor of the Kurland Governorate after 1795/1796.
He came from a noble family from the Polish province of Vitebsk. He was born ca 1750/1760. He served the army as Petyhorski's lieutenant before 1796.
Recommended by the general-governor of Kurland, Peter Ludwig von Pahlen, on the newly created position of vice-governor of the Kurland Governorate. The nomination was issued by Tsarina Catherine II.
In addition to the estates in the Courland province, Jozef Hurko-Romejko, junior, also owned estates in the Mogilev Governorate, in the Orsza county.
That is
Krynki = Krotowsza or neighbouring Krotowsze / KROTOVSHE;
Wysokie Łuszajewo;
and
Pograbiówka.

He died in 1811.

Krynki was situated in the Wysoczany district; the ORSHA county in the Mohylew province.
Kratowsza, in 1849 belonged to the Mikulino Rudnia parish.
Wysokie Łuszajewo = Wysokie / Vysokoje - north to ORSHA; close to Obuchovo; Grishany; Jurcevo.

Burnejko in the Mohylew province.

General Jozef Hurko owned in 1901 Sacharowo in the TWER province [compare inf. in my domain].

KRYNKI, south-east to KOPTI; west to Bolszaja WYDREJA; south-east to VICEBSK; north to Vyshacany. See KOLPINO - west to OSIPOVO; close to LUCHOSA.

BABINOWICZE / Babinavichy - in the 17th and 18th cent. belonged to OGINSKI. 1772 to Russia. Babinowicze, the Orsza county; by the Werchita River. Бабінавічы / Babinowicze in the ORSHA county - Babinowicze - south to Liozno, of the Vitebsk region of Belarus. North to ORSHA.

Józef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR b. ca 1750/1760, was the son of SENIOR Jozef Hurko / JOZEF HURKO - ROMEJKO, born ca 1710 - in 1759-1780 the Vitebsk chamberlain.
Jozef Hurko / Gurko, senior, was maybe the son of JAN HURKO, born ca 1680 from KROTOWSZE-KRYNKI.

Christina Golynskaya (Krystyna Holynska) was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski. She gave her estate in will to her brother Kazimierz HOLYNSKI, and to her sister Frantiska.
In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of Jesuits.
Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms, born ca 1670 - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was the first husband of KRYSTYNA HOLYNSKA; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko born ca 1680 of Krotowsze-Krynki) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714.

Acc. to 'Secret Memoirs of the Court of Petersburg...' Zachary Konstantynowicz / Constantinowitz in 1796 was a valet (servant) of Yekaterina Alexeevna or Catherine II the Great, Empress of Russia.

Stephen (Stefan) Golynsky (Stefan Kazimierz Holynski born ca 1630/1640) was the third son of Davyd / Dawid Holynski, owned the estate Soin (Soino, Soino Wielkie, Woronowe Slobody).
In 1663 Golynsky / Holynski mentioned, Mayor Zhmudsky, served in the regiment of Ilya Surin (mother of Stepan Holynski was kind of Surin ancestry).

On January 31, 1664 a priest of the Mstislavl Church, Herman Konstantynowicz filed a complaint against Paul Moskevich and Stephen Golynsky / Stefan Holynski for armed mob to his house, for loot his grain bread and torturing her daughters
(a data extracted from the Vitebsk and Mogilev documentary province books, stored in a central repository in Vitebsk, and published under the editorship of M. Verevkin, T. 24, Vitebsk 1893, p. 455-457).

Christina Golynskaya
(Krystyna Holynska born ca 1680)
was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski / STEFAN HOLYNSKI born 1630/1640. She gave her estate in will to her brother Kazimierz and to her sister Frantiska. In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of Jesuits. Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was her first husband; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko born ca 1680) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714
(I think that the above error about the Rohoza nickname arose from confusion between this nickname and surname Rahoza; for example Michał Rahoza with the Szreniawa coat of arms from Kiev in 1579).

Józef HURKO JUNIOR, had 2 sons:
Leopold Hurko (1783-1860) the Russian Major General;
Włodzimierz Hurko (1795-1852) the Russian General; and the daughter
Ewelina (d. 1821 in ROMA) - the wife of Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the POLOCK official (1778-1840), the son of Justynian Niemirowicz.

Włodzimierz [1795-1852], had a son {the grandson of Józef HURKO [died in 1811]} the Russian Field Marshal and the Warsaw governor, Józef Władimirowicz Hurko / Romeiko-Gourko / Иосиф Владимирович Гурко (1828-1901).

Zenaida Lubomirska nee Hołyńska, b. 1820 in Rowne / Rivne, was daughter of Michał Hołyński and Elżbieta Tolstoj; wife of Kazimierz Anastazy Karol Lubomirski
with children:
Stanisław Michał Henryk Michał Henryk Lubomirski [1838-1918],
and Marie Lannes de Montebello.

Above Michał Hołyński / Михаил Иванович Голынский, b. 1784, was son of Jan (Ivan) Hołyński and Barbara KASZYC.

Above Jan (Ivan) Hołyński b. 1746, was son of Józef Antoni Tadeusz Hołyński and Petronela ZUKOWSKA.

Above Józef Antoni Hołyński / Juozas Antanas Holinskis of the MSCISLAU province of POLAND, born ca 1720/1730, was son of Kazimierz Hołyński b. ca 1670, and Teofila MOSKIEWICZ.

Kazimierz Hołyński b. ca 1670 - the son of Stefan Kazimierz Hołyński and Izabela Ostankiewicz.

KAZIMIERZ of the MSCISLAU province was brother of
Franciszka Holynska born ca 1665;
Teofila Wojna;
Jan Michał Hołyński;
Krystyna Romeyko-Hurko - Konstantynowicz born ca 1680;
Jakub Hołyński;
and Barbara Romeyko-Hurko.

Note to above mentioned KAZIMIERZ Holynski b. ca 1670:

Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz b. ca 1670/1680, near of kin with Holynski family from Soino (either Big Soino or Voronove Slobody near by a farm of Mielkovka = Mietkowka), and his siblings, and Hurko family also (from Krotowsza otherwise called Krynki or Krotovshe that belonged to Romejko - Hurko family in the Orsa district / JAN HURKO born ca 1670) were in trouble with Holynski

(Kazimierz Holynski born ca 1670, the son of Stefan Kazimierz Holynski from Chlyszczewo i.e. Chwostowo close by border between Belarus and Russia, from Soino and Uszpol, born ca 1630/1640)

family after 1714.

The above Soino is situated 18 km east away from Mscislau, at territory of Russia now i.e. 7 km from present border; it was the Grand duchy of Lithuania 1359 - 1772 and next in Russia: the Mstislavl district, Soino region = "volost" that is similar to county, in a parish of Mscislau (archbishopric of Mahileu, in the Mscislau - Klimavicy catholic area were three parishes: Lozovica, Mscislau and Smolensk in the 19th cent.);
one our leg lived in the territory of present Belarus, but the second one stood at the present land of Russia in borders after 1992.

A fortunes of Poles in this remote easterly territories of the former Both Nations Republic turned out differently than by Vistula, because not a few Poles had got to choose military service in the Russian Army since the end of the 18th cent. [see 1877/1878] or they worked as engineers in different corners of former Russia since second half of the 19th century.


The von Ronne - Pilsudski - Oginski - Holynski - Lubomirski branch and the Orsha county:

Feliks FILIP RONNE 2nd, born before 1800 - d. in 1844

[the son of FELIX von RONNE, b. 1770

{Felix von Rönne / Rene, b. 1770, d. 1827, was the son of Mikolaj von Rönne and Aniela PILSUDSKA}

+ Antonina GIELGUD

{Antonina was the wife of Felix von Rönne and mother of Antoni von Rönne; Maria Tekla Oginska; Ludwika von Rönne; Feliks Filip von Rönne and Teodora Oginska}],

married 1st to Franciszka ZALUSKA / Franziska Countess Zaluskyte [died in 1844 in DRESDEN], 2nd m. to Princess Ruboviska.

Above
Franciszka ZALUSKA / Franciszka Maria Lubomirska born in 1793 in Warsaw;
her father
Teofil Wojciech Załuski + Css Honorata Igelström nee Stempkowska.

Franciszka ZALUSKA married twice:
1.
Fryderyk Wilhelm Lubomirski b. 1779 in Rowno

[the son of prince Jozef Alexander Lubomirski b. 1751;
the grandson of Stanisław Lubomirski b. 1704 in Braclaw;
the great-grandson of Jerzy Aleksander Lubomirski b. 1666 in Nowy Sacz;
the great-great-grandson of Aleksander Michał Lubomirski who come from
Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski b. 1616 in Nowy Wisnicz;
the son of Stanisław Lubomirski b. 1583];

{compare:
Zenaida Lubomirska nee Hołyńska, b. 1820 in Rowne / Rivne, was daughter of Michał Hołyński and Elżbieta Tolstoj;
ZENAIDA was the wife of Kazimierz Anastazy Karol Lubomirski, 1813-1871 -
the son of Fryderyk b. 1779;
the grandson of Józef Aleksander Lubomirski, 1751-1817;
the great-grandson of Stanisław Lubomirski, 1704-1793};

{2nd note:
On October 7, 1918, on initiative of Prince Lubomirski / Prince Zdzislaw Lubomirski, Polish declaration of independence was announced and 14th October 1918, Polish Army soldiers pledged allegiance to the Polish flag.
Above Prince Zdzislaw Lubomirski, a Polish aristocrat, landowner, chairman of the "Central Civil Committee" in 1915. In 1917 to 1918 member of the Regency Council. Zdzislaw Lubomirski born 1865 in Nizhny Novgorod, the son of
Prince Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski and Maria Zamoyska.
Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna / Dubrovno, the Moghilov government; d. 1908, son of Eugeniusz Lubomirski.
Eugeniusz Lubomirski b. 1789, d. 1834, landowner of Dubrovno close to Orsha from his father KSAWERY Lubomirski; EUGENIUSZ was the son of
Ksawery Lubomirski / Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski 1747-1819, and Teofila Rzewuski / Teofila Beydo-Rzewuska 1762-1831. Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski, born in 1747, d. in 1819, 2nd married to Maria Lvovna Naryshkina, born in 1766.
Mentioned
Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski born in 1747, was the son of
Stanislaw Lubomirski, born in 1704, d. 1793, married in 1740 to Ludwika Honorata Pociej.

Above named Dubrowno in the Sienno (north-east of Miezonka) catholic area; the Orsha county, Moghilev government; at present in the Vicebsk oblast; 90 km to Vicebsk, 19 km north-east of Orsza / Orsha.
Dubrovno was owned by 1774 to Sapieha;
then Count R. A. Potiemkin / G. A. Potemkin to 1791 (a watch factory!), close to Ksawery Lubomirski estate (and his daughter Klementyna girlfriend of Piotr Kroer);
since 1791 Lubomirski taken Dubrovno - now this place is "capital" of the government; next to
Eugeniusz Lubomirski - 1809 new Orthodox church; Dubrovno was the Lubomirski family estate to 1917!
DUBROWNA is situated 42 km south to BABINAVICHY of the Oginskis and south to KRYNKI of the Hurko family - it is a total distance around 73 km from Krynki to Dubrowna};

2.
named above
Feliks FILIP RONNE 2nd, born before 1800 - d. in 1844.



100 years earlier
Michal Kleofas Oginski with his parents in 1772 - 1773 was living in Viena; 1773 back with mother to Guzow again; 1785 memeber of Parliament in Warsaw; in March 1794 the Uprising began, which was led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Count Mikhail-Cleophas Oginski was in the front ranks of the rebels. Donated 188000 zlotys, was in command of 480 riflemen. He was elected to the National Council.
Twice attempted to enter the Minsk Governorate to raise Belarusians against Russian occupation; actions under him to Dyneburg / Dinaburg on August 12, 1794; also struggled against Prussian intervention.
When the Russians occupied Vilnius 1794, Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Warsaw.
The Russians outlawed him and seized all his lands. In fall of 1794 he, along with Isabella, flees to Vienna and Venice in Italy, but she soon returned to Poland after learns that her husband has spent on the case "revolution" even her family jewels. Thereafter Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Paris.
He swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1802 and settled in Zalesie village 1804, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow.
1807 - Oginski met Napoleon in Italy,
in Venice; he told with Napoleon but next Oginski moved on Tuscany in 1808, where he was 12 years before; here in Florence General Menou was appointed governor, and Oginski was in the Pitti Palace; after the peace of Schoenbrunn, Oginski repaired to Paris, at the invitation of the Russian minister Prince Kurakin; Oginski was in Paris the seventh time; from Paris back to Wilno, and was entrusted with a memorial from the nobility of Lithuania, and he repaired to Petersburg in 1810 to Alexander who appointed of Oginski to be Senator of Russia and the Russian Emperor gave Oginski the rank of Privy Councilor. In 1810, the nobility of Vilna and Grodno provinces decided to send a representative to the Alexander I on economic and administrative affairs of the region, and this representative was elected Michal-Cleophas Oginski and supported by the Governor- General Mikhail Kutuzov. Then he rejoined his family at Paris; he again appeared at the Tuilleries in 1810, where Napoleon and Duroc again received him about the project re-establishment of the kingdom of Poland. In April 1811 Oginski back to Petersburg to Emperor with regard to Poland.
Michal Kleofas Oginski, not once (1810-1811) met the Russian Emperor Alexander I in St. Petersburg, Vilnius, Mogilev and Vitebsk, developed the latest project of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, known as the Oginski Plan;
this Plan for the restoration of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, to unite the eight provinces, in 1810-1812 offered to Alexander I, however, was rejected by the Emperor in May 1811;
in June 1812, Michal Kleofas / Michael Cleophas Oginski with troops stationed in St. Petersburg. After the war with Napoleon returned to Zalessie, where he remained until 1822, slowly moving away from political affairs;
in 1817 Oginski moved from St Petersburg to Vilna.
I wrote down in 1810 Oginski moved to St. Petersburg, Russia. There he met the Russian Emperor.
"...In 1814, the tsar decreed that the Retow / Rietavas manor be sold to M. K. Oginski for the sum of 277,600 silver rubles. In this way, Rietavas became a private manor of the Oginski family, and soon after that, their most important residence in Lithuania. Duke M. K. Oginski was a multifaceted personality: a prominent figure in the life of the state, the last treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a composer, a man of letters ... (by Jeffrey Andrev Clarke, Liucija Balkevičiūtė).
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, M. K. Oginski lost hope that the Lithuanian state would be restored, and he decided to emigrate. In 1822, he transferred ownership of his Rietavas property to his wife Maria nee Neri / Marija and to his children, and in 1823 he left for Italy. M. K. Oginski never returned to Lithuania".

"...After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Ogiński considered the Polish puppet Kingdom of Poland, with the Tsar himself as King, a sell-out, and he lost faith not only in politics, but also in his marriage, which, like his first one, had gone sour. In 1823 he wrote his most famous Polonaise No 13 in A minor, known as Farewell to the Fatherland, and exiled himself to his beloved Florence...",
by Iwo Załuski, at http://www.oginskidynasty.com/Kleofas.aspx.
In 1815, his marriage came to divorce, said love life of his wife probably condemned his reputation and now Oginski as a senator of the Russian Empire, after the creation of the Congress Kingdom in 1815, left for Italy, settling in Florence again.
By Jerzy Jan Lerski, ‎Piotr Wróbel, ‎Richard J. Kozicki:
"Disappointed again, Oginski emigrated to Western Europe in 1815. ...".
In 1817 Oginski resigned as senator,
"...in 1822 he became seriously ill, he had drove to Florence (again) to cure itself. From this time Oginski gave away the music and composition ... In 1831 he gave his note book (collection of his notes) with more than 60 works for piano and some songs out".
But different sources wrote:
In 1823 (1815, 1822?) failing health forced him to move to Italy, where he spent the last 10 years of his life.
But in 1820, when finally disappointed policies of Alexander I, Oginski agreed to move to a second wife's home in Napoli / Naples.

A strongest organization in the region of Napoli / Naples was the Carbonari movement in 1820; they proclaimed a constitutional monarchy in Naples.
King Ferdinand I accepted vision of social revolution political changes. Vienna and the Holy Alliance directed intervention against the revolution in 1821. Reintroduced the absolute rule of Ferdinand I.
There are many theories about the creation of the Carbonari movement; creators were to be French Freemasons in opposition to the Masonic Swedish Rite or officers who came to Italy with Joseph Bonaparte and Murat to propagate fighting with the reign of Ferdinand IV; there is also a view that English created in Sicily the Carbonari movement, either Queen Maria Carolina of Austria or the Italian Illuminati at the end of the eighteenth century.
Giuseppe Garibaldi b. 1807 in Nice, politician, and fighter for the unification of Italy, was a Freemason, Grand Master of the lodge Grande Oriente d'Italia, but his grandfather and father were shipowners, owners and captains of small vessels in the northern and western Italy; he joined the revolutionary Carbonari. In February 1834 he took part in a failed uprising led by Mazzini in Piedmont, in Genoa. Giuseppe Mazzini b. 1805 in Genoa, a journalist, a fighter for freedom together with Garibaldi, also Mazzini was a Freemason; maintained close contacts with Albert Pike, also a Freemason.
We must back now to Napoli / Naples / Neapol:
Silvati, Joseph b. in Naples 1791, lieutenant of the Bourbon cavalry, former officer of Murat, affiliated with the Carbonari, together with M. Morelli stationed in Nola (1-2 July 1820), and started the riots of 1820-21;
after the revolution failed he fled to Ancona; arrested by the papal authorities and handed over to the Bourbon government, was sentenced to death and executed.

In Naples, the conspiracy, which was not intended to overthrow King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies but only to ask a constitution, was growing rapidly and involved senior officers. In March 1820 the message from Spain across quickly in the Kingdom of Naples to strengthen the Carbonari and Masonic movements.

Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. It used French families located in Switzerland, Ceylon, France, Russia. Scottish and Irish families combined to Naples and Marseille, Ceylon, Odessa and Japan; Russians, English and Pilsudski entered by Japan to Ceylon; parallel from Odessa the Zionist movement came out founding a base of the state of Israel. Odessa has paired their to Berezino, Ireland - Japan - Ceylon [Philby !].

And the whole system took over the movement of Germans from Estonia, and underground combat movement of Pilsudski, combining the objectives of the independence of these two states: Poland / Lithuania / Belarus [11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland] + Estonia / Latvia, and as I wrote above Israel. Then they created a counterintelligence and intelligence of new Bolshevik Russia and the USSR. It already was a masterpiece, but totally wrecked by Stalin in 1937 - have to say that in this case, Stalin was a genius.

At the end part of that intelligence system of Soviet Union took over the colony by building its so-called People's Polish Republic and the Ministry of Defence, through affinitized of the Konstantynowiczs: the Jaroszewicz, Spychalski, Zarako Zarakowski families and friendly Swierczewski family. Interesting in all of this is the use of Frenchmen to the creation of this system, most moved on the Konstantynowiczs - not so completely.
This is the connection:
Waclaw Sieroszewski a colleague of Azbelev, who was in Nagasaki - his brother is a director of the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz; so, the Nobel family with Sydney Reilly, an Irishman and a Jew from Odessa - this is the same family of Nobel, where the brother of above-mentioned was the head of the board of the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - this is short way to the Swedish Enigma! Waclaw Sieroszewski of course was mate to a brother of Jozef Pilsudski - Bronislaw, which of course anchored in Nagasaki, and then here sailed Reilly.
One very interesting figure - erased from history: Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski from the Mscislaw district.


In his speech [on 27th April 1961] President Kennedy addresses his discontent with the press's news coverage before, and during, and after the Bay of Pigs incident, suggesting there is a need for "far greater public information" and "far greater official secrecy". Why?

On April the 28th, 1961 we read on the 'JFK Tells of Red Menace',

"President Kennedy told the nations newspaper publishers Thursday night that no formally declared war ever posed as great a threat to American security as does the rampant worldwide menace of communism. In view of this deadly challenge, he urged newspapers across the land to re-examine their obligations in the light of global danger and, in presenting the news, to heed the duty of self-restraint. Kennedy ... speaking at the annual Waldorf-Astoria dinner of the Bureau of Advertising of the American Newspaper Publishers Association, suggested there is a need for greater public information, and at the same time a need for greater official secrecy...".
On April 28, 1961, President Kennedy explained what is meant by the term: "The Communist conspiracy".
We read The Address in Chicago at a Dinner of the Democratic Party of Cook County on April 28, 1961:
"Mayor Daley, Governor Kerner, Senator Douglas, Congressman Dawson, Chairman Cullerton ... ladies and gentlemen: ... We live in a hazardous and dangerous time. ... Now our great responsibility is to be the chief defender of freedom, in this time of maximum danger. Only the United States has the power and the resources and the determination.
We have committed ourselves to the defense of dozens of countries stretched around the globe who look to us for independence, who look to us for the defense of their freedom. We are prepared to meet our obligations, but we can only defend the freedom of those who are determined to be free themselves.
... The Russians and the Chinese, containing within their borders nearly a billion people, totally mobilized for the advance of the Communist system,
operating from narrow, interior lines of communication, pressuring on Southeast Asia with the masses of the Chinese armies potentially ready to move-of the Russians who hold great power potentially in the Middle East and Western Europe ...
There is no easy answer to the dilemmas that we face. Our great ally is the fact that people do desire to be free, that people will sacrifice everything in their desire to maintain their independence.
And as the true nature of the Communist conspiracy becomes better known around the globe, when people come to realize - as they surely will - that the Communist advance does not represent a means of liberation but represents a final enslavement, then I believe that they will rally to the cause to which we have given our support and our commitment".

John F. Kennedy in his Address before the American Newspaper Publishers Association, on April 27, 1961 acc. to 'jfklibrary.org/Research/Research-Aids/JFK-Speeches':
"...The very word "secrecy" is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings. We decided long ago that the dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweighed the dangers which are cited to justify it. Even today, there is little value in opposing the threat of a closed society by imitating its arbitrary restrictions. Even today, there is little value in insuring the survival of our nation if our traditions do not survive with it. And there is very grave danger that an announced need for increased security will be seized upon by those anxious to expand its meaning to the very limits of official censorship and concealment. ...
Today no war has been declared - and however fierce the struggle may be, it may never be declared in the traditional fashion. Our way of life is under attack. Those who make themselves our enemy are advancing around the globe. The survival of our friends is in danger. And yet no war has been declared, no borders have been crossed by marching troops, no missiles have been fired.
... It requires a change in outlook, a change in tactics, a change in missions - by the government, by the people, by every businessman or labor leader, and by every newspaper.
For we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence - on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day.
It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations. Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined. Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed.
It conducts the Cold War, in short, with a war-time discipline no democracy would ever hope or wish to match."

And by 'charismanews.com/politics/events' -
Donald Trump on 10/14/2016, during a speech in Florida, Republican presidential nominee [said]:
"... The Washington establishment, and the financial and media corporations that fund it, exists for only one reason: to protect and enrich itself. The establishment has trillions of dollars at stake in this election. ...
This is not simply another 4-year election.
This is a crossroads in the history of our civilization
that will determine whether or not We the People reclaim control over our government.
The political establishment that is trying everything to stop us is the same group responsible for our disastrous trade deals, massive illegal immigration and economic and foreign policies that have bled this country dry. The political establishment has brought about the destruction of our factories and our jobs ...
It's a global power structure that is responsible for the economic decisions that have robbed our working class, stripped our country of its wealth, and put that money into the pockets of a handful of large corporations and political entities.
... The Clinton Machine is at the center of this power structure. ... The most powerful weapon deployed by the Clintons is the corporate media. ... For them, it is a war - and for them, nothing is out of bounds. This is a struggle for the survival of our nation. This election will determine whether we are a free nation, or whether we have only the illusion of Democracy but are in fact controlled by a small handful of global special interests rigging the system.
This is not just conspiracy but reality, and you and I know it. The establishment and their media enablers wield control over this nation through means that are well-known.
Anyone who challenges their control is deemed a sexist, a racist, a xenophobe and morally deformed.
They will attack you, they will slander you, they will seek to destroy your career and reputation. And they will lie, lie and lie even more.
...
Our great civilization, here in America and across the civilized world, has come upon a moment of reckoning.
We've seen it in the United Kingdom, where they voted to liberate themselves from global government and global trade deals and global immigration deals that have destroyed their sovereignty. ...
But the central base of world political power is here in America, and it is our corrupt political establishment that is the greatest power behind the efforts at radical globalization and the disenfranchisement of working people. Their financial resources are unlimited. Their political resources are unlimited. Their media resources are unlimited. And, most importantly, the depths of their immorality is unlimited. Our political establishment has no soul.
I knew these false attacks would come. I knew this day would arrive. And I knew the American people would rise above it and vote for the future they deserve. ...
This is a conspiracy against you, the American people. This is our moment of reckoning as a society and as a civilization.
... This election is about every man, woman and child in our country who deserves to live in safety, prosperity and peace...".


At the beginning of 2014, the first on the world I am showing very interesting network! Lenin and Inessa Armand, Konstantynowicz, Breguet, Duflon, nobility from Scotland, Italy, Ireland, France, Switzerland, the German noble families in Estonia.

This military - political intelligence network has a different appearance depending on, which side you watch from. It's like the external universe, which expands. It has a chaotic structure, but only to the viewers. For top executives of the network, it is extremely bright and clear.

It works like clockwork.

Time passes, and this network is expanding, as the universe, at that time some stars turning pale, faded and disappeared.

Maciej Pietraszczyk on 19 January 2015 wrote down:
"A feature of the network operation is the lack of central leadership but actions are run in a fixed overall direction; they are not necessarily coordinated. This causes the highest effectiveness and practically physical impossibility of liquidation".


The Illuminati officially founded their organization on May 1, 1776 in Bavaria, today in Germany. 'The real purpose of this Order - Weishaupt wrote - is ruling the world. To achieve this, it is necessary to destroy all religions, overthrow governments and ban ownership of private property'.

Weishaupt also ordered his anti-monarchist organization to take control of Bavaria through infiltration.

Some experts suggest that Adam Weishaupt was the true architect of the American Revolution 1775-1783.

Weishaupt was the founder of the association from Bavaria - known as the Illuminati. Weishaupt, his followers and their heirs were also attributed to political and organizational influence on the French Revolution 1789, and Russian Revolutions in 1917. The Illuminati are often exchanged in numerous contemporary conspiracy theories.

Freemasonry should not be confused with the Illuminati. President George Washington, a freemason, declared that "none of the lodges is in this country tainted with the rules attributed to the Illuminati community".
But it is known that by 1782 the Illuminati had infiltrated Freemasonry in Bavaria.

It is not known they ever managed to infiltrate lodges in America.
For centuries both in Europe and in USA many specialists from various fields of political science examines the organizations of Masons and the Illuminati. Some of them think that Freemasonry is trying to introduce a theocratic New Order of the World, symbolically depicted in the form of the Great Seal of the United States of America.

Some legends point to the links between Freemasonry and the Knights Templar Order. Historian John Robinson claims that freemasonry can actually originate from this order - some monks got from France to England and there, they secretly survived until the eighteenth century.
Most of the Masonic terminology is of Old French origin and has been taken over by English.
The anniversary of the death of the Grand Master of the Templars, James de Molay, is celebrated in the lodges. Revenge was to be made by beheading of Louis XVI in the former Templar stronghold. The first mention of Templars associated with Freemasonry comes from protocols of the lodge "Chapter of the Royal Vault of St. Andrew" in Boston in 1769. The Grand Lodge in York sanctioned in 1780 a degree "Knight of the Templar".

Many Masons denies the origin of Freemasonry from the Templars - this was expressed in Wilhelmsbad in 1782 declaring that Scottish-style of the masonry is not a continuation of the Order's tradition.
Nonetheless, similar to masonic organizations are formed referring to the tradition of the Templars, for example the Order of Eastern Templars promoted by Aleister Crowley, head of the British section.


Jean-Philippe Garran / Jean-Philippe Garran de Coulon / Jean Philippe GARRAN DE COULON and a conspiracy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels - 1789 / 1845:

"... Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote in 1845:

The revolutionary movement which began in 1789 with the Cercle Social, whose main representatives were to be Leclerc and Roux, and which ended in Babeuf's conspiracy,
gave birth to the communist idea which Buonarotti, friend of Babeuf, reintroduced into France after the Revolution of 1830.
This Social Circle aka Cercle Social was an organization founded in Paris in 1789, located at rue du Theatre Francois, No 4.

It was in the mold of a masonic lodge whose founder - Bonneville - claimed he was carrying on the mission of the Bavarian Illuminati. Bonneville in 1791 wrote in reference to Mirabeau's 1788 defense of the Bavarian Illuminati, and then Bonneville claimed he was carrying on the Bavarian Illuminati program in France:

"... This project (of the Illuminati) continues. Mr. Mirabeau was beautiful, noble and great; and since the very instant when [electoral] districts were summoned in May 1789 [for the Estates General], The Mouth of Iron, persevered with all its might their noble intentions, and never has abandoned the principles and promises of THOSE WHOSE NAME IS CURSED BY POSTERITY [i.e., the Illuminati]. ...".

The reputable specialist on the French Revolution, Mathiez, comments on this passage: 'Bonneville considered himself the heir who carried on the thought and work of Weishaupt'.

As Billington noted, 'Nicholas Bonneville was ... the decisive channel of Illuminist influence'.

... Besides the Jacobins, the Cercle Social (Social Cercle) influenced the French Revolution. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels even credit the Social Cercle with the birth of the communist movement. ...

Other writers for the Social Cercle were
Claude Fauchet,
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre,
J. Ph. Garran de Coulon,
Groupil de Prefelne,
Chabroux,
and Restif.

Branson also mentions as Cercle Social members -

Jacques Godard and
Henri Bancal Desissarts (1750-1826), a Deputy in the Convention,
besides Condorcet,
Brissot. ...".

Stanisław II August Poniatowski, King of Poland was brother of Michał Jerzy Ludwik Poniatowski b. 1736 in Gdańsk, d. 1794 in Warsaw;

Michał Jerzy Ludwik Poniatowski was father of Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski 1767 - 1828 who married 2nd time to Jeanne Garran de Coulon, but 1st time married to J. Venture de Paradis or Victoire Franēoise Venture de Paradise
(see Sulkowski, Venture and Breguet, Duflon, Konstantynowicz at my domain: part 1, 2, 3 - the links below).

First marriage of Maleszewski with a beautiful Victoire Franēoise Venture de Paradise, called "Egyptian", the representative of the then "Merveilleuses", gave him a number of concerns. They had a daughter born in Paris in 1794 - Victoire Clementine, later married Alfred de Laqueuille. In addition, his name wore two daughters of his wife, Adela Mortier and Olimpia Chodźko Leonardowa; after the death of his wife in 1813 he married in 1816 to Jeanne, daughter of an old friend Jean Philippe Garran de Coulon.

Branch from Jean VENTURE d. 1660, Consul de Marseille in 1637; his son Charles de VENTURE sieur de PARADIS; grandson Jean Michel de VENTURE b. 1701 in Marseille; great-grandsons Jean Joseph de VENTURE and Jean Michel de VENTURE de PARADIS born 1739 Marseille -
his children:

1. Unknown by name de VENTURE de PARADIS married to Jozef Sulkowski / Joseph SULKOWSKI born in 1770 in the Poznan province in Poland - died in 1798 in Cairo / Kair / Caire, Egypt: the friend and aide de camp to Bonaparte, friend with Muiron, Vivant Denon, Carnot, Augereau, and Bourienne;
Captain, was wounded at the Battle of Arcole in November 1796 between French and Austrian forces, southeast of Verona during the War of the First Coalition, a part of the French Revolutionary Wars; shortly before his death, he married one of the daughters of Venture de Paradis, an old military interpreter on the Egyptian expedition; in 1798 in Cairo were murdered General Dupuy, and the Bonaparte's Aide-de-camp Joseph Sulkowski.

and 2. Jeanne VENTURE de PARADIS 1774 - 1813 married to

a. Ludwik / Louis MALESZEWSKI with children

Klementyna nee Maleszewska / Clementine MALESZEWSKI married to de LAQUEILLE, and

Olimpia Maleszewska / Olympe MALESZEWSKI married to Leonard CHODZKO b. 1800 - died in 1871;

b. m. 2nd in 1810, Paris to Antoine Louis BREGUET 1776 - 1858 with children:

A. Louis Franēois Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889 with children:

Louise BREGUET 1847-1930,

Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882,

Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877;

B. Louise Charlotte Clémentine BREGUET 1810 - 1887 married to Dr LIONNET.

"... Besides carrying on the Patriote Francais, Brissot was one of the collaborators of the Chronique du Mois. This publication which appeared monthly from November, 1791, to July, 1793, was not, properly speaking, a newspaper at all, but merely a series of essays.
It was founded, so the prospectus set forth, to further the public good. It might more truly have been said, to further the interests of the Girondin party. To this periodical Brissot made a number of contributions, but they consisted chiefly of reproductions of articles which had already appeared elsewhere, and hence do not add materially to the knowledge of Brissot as journalist or politician...".

'La Chronique du Mois ou Les Cahiers patriotiques' [The Chronicle of the Month or The Patriotic Papers]:
de E. ClavQre,
C. Condorcet,
L. Merrier,
A. Auger,
J. Oswald,
N. Bonneville,
J. Bidermann,
A. Broussonet,
A. Guy-Kersaint,
J. P. Brissot,
J. Ph. Garran de Coulon,
J. Dussaulx,
F. Lanthenas,
Collot d'Herbois.

Another person who came under the influence of the teachings of Richard Price and became a Unitarian was George Courtauld (b. 1761), son of Samuel Courtauld. He became a radical and supported American Revolution. He sold up went to America in 1785.

Shelburne encouraged Jeremy Bentham to take an interest in French politics. He introduced him to Andre Marellet and 2 members of the Bowood Circle, Samuel Romilly and Pierre Etienne Louis Dumont (1759-1829), tutor to Henry Petty Fitzmaurice (1780-1963) and translated Bentham's writings into French, acted as intermediaries between Bentham and Honore Gabriel Riquetti, Comte de Mirabeau a prominent Revolutionary of Italian origins.

Bentham corresponded with other French politicians like
Jacques Pierre Brisset de Warville a leading Girondin in the Legislative Assembly,
Louis Alexandre, duc de la Rochfoucauld d'Enville,
Jean Phillipe Garran de Coulon (b. 1749 [see MALESZEWSKI]), member of the Estates General and Legislative Assembly,
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Perigord - Minister of Foreign Affairs (1799-1807),
Jean Antoine de Gavain (1761-1828), President of the Tribunal (1802) and Secretary (1804) and
Bon Albert Briois de Beaumer (1781-1801), President of th National Assembly (1790).

Bentham drafted a French Constitution and was elected a French citizen.

Sir Samuel Romilly, (1757-1818), English legal reformer, was the second son of Peter Romilly, a watchmaker and jeweller in London. Samuel's grandfather came to England from Montpellier after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes and married Margaret Garnault, another Huguenot refugee;
SAMUEL went to Geneva in 1781, where he met the chief democratic leaders, including Etienne Dumont. He was a friend of Mirabeau, to whom he was introduced in 1784 and who introduced him to Lord Lansdowne. Romilly visited Paris in 1789.
He married Anne, daughter of Francis Garbett of Knill Court, and was appointed Chancellor of the County Palatine of Durham. Romilly supported William Wilberforce in his battle to abolish slavery and was a friend of Samuel Whitbread.

Johann August Starck / Stark (1741 - 1816)
was a author and the Königsberg theologian, best remembered for arguing that an Illuminati

{the Bavarian Illuminati, a secret society founded in 1776. "The society's goals were to oppose superstition, obscurantism, religious influence over public life and abuses of state power. ... The Illuminati - along with Freemasonry and other secret societies - were outlawed through edict, by the Bavarian ruler, Charles Theodore, with the encouragement of the Roman Catholic Church, in 1784, 1785, 1787 and 1790. ... the group was vilified by conservative and religious critics who claimed that they continued underground and were responsible for the French Revolution..."}

led conspiracy, which led to the outbreak of the Revolution in France 1789

{see Jean Philippe GARRAN DE COULON and Maleszewski with Poniatowski}.

Immanuel Kant and Johann Georg Hamann were among his acquaintances in Königsberg. In 1776 went to Mitau [Courland; at margin see Komorowski] and took place here as professor of philosophy until 1781 when he back to Darmstadt.
1767 or 1768 - J. A. von Stark / STARCK has established a new sect, which grew out of Clirici Ordinis Templariorum / Clerics of the Knights Templar;
he was in 1761 initiated into a French freemasonry lodge at Göttingen but left for St. Petersburg in 1761, while teaching in St. Petersburg, Starck had met a Greek by the name of Count Peter Melesino / Melissino, 1726-97, a lieutenant-general in the Russian Imperial Army, and whose order of freemasonry claimed the clerics of the Templar Knights; then traveled to Paris in 1765 and obtained a position at the royal library; back to Germany, in Wismar (1766-8).

Starck promoted the clerical brand of Templarism

[see: in France in 1749; in 1750 in French Brittany; see Count Belford who had flown from Scotland to Russia; in Ireland 1750/1760 or since ca 1758-1760; on 24th June 1758 in Tipperary at Lodge No 296 (see below) with Sir Chas. A. CAMERON; Berlin in 1760; in Ireland in 1765 - Sir Edward Gilmore]

and in 1768 joined it to movement of Karl Gotthelf von Hund (1722-76), a union formalized in 1772. He helped found a Strict Observance lodge at Wismar (1767), returned to St. Petersburg in 1768, presumably on freemasonry business, back in Königsberg in 1769 where he lived next door to Immanuel Kant.
1769 - in Boston, New England, was established the Provincial Grand Lodge, under the auspices of Scotland.

Jeanne Maleszewska nee Garran de Coulon, was daughter of
Jean-Philippe Garran / Jean-Philippe Garran de Coulon / Jean Philippe GARRAN DE COULON who was b. April 10, 1749 or 29/04/1749 (born in Saint-Maixent on 19 April 1748), died on 10/12/1816 in PARIS - FRANCE (or 19-11-1816 / December 19, 1816); he was a French politician, was born in HAUTE-SAŌNE - FRANCE; Secretary of Henrion de Pansey in Paris; lawyer in 1789; member of the legislative in 1791; member of the Institute.
Jean Philippe Garran de Coulon, lawyer in Paris. Jean Philippe Garran de Coulon took part in the agitation preceding the meeting of the States General and was elected alternate member of the Third Estate of Paris. Member of the first and the second Paris Commune, he directed the Research Committee - the police, and
presented the insurrection on 14 July 1789 as the member of conspiracy.

Maleszewski Piotr had known J. P. Garran de Coulon, who had daughters:
1. Jeanne Franēoise Félicité GARRAN de COULON;
2. Félicité-Franēoise GARRAN DE COULON.

Garran-Coulon, member of the Comite des Recherches was writing 'Report on the troubles of Santo Domingo'; Garran-Coulon, the left-leaning deputy wrote the report, noted on Oge affair in Saint-Domingue.
"...BORD appears to have gratuitously added Garran's name to a passage from the 'Proces-verbal des Electeurs' which described a group of unnamed Electors angrily denouncing Flesselles. ...".

B. M. Shapiro wrote:
"Eager to demonstrate that all of the violent eruptions of summer 1789 were parts of a carefully orchestrated Masonic plot and equally eager to connect the Comite des Recherches to this plot, Gustave Bord was trying to persuade his readers that GARRAN, the author of the Comite's published brief against those servants of the Monarchy who had escaped the July violence, was a 'point man' in a well-planned effort to eliminate a host of top royal officials.
For, having helped dispose of Flesselles and Berthier, Garran's next assignment, in Bord's eyes, was to engineer the judical assassination of BESENVAL:

'At each event, he launches the word or phrase which compromises the man in the hot seat... Garran de Coulon was certainly partly responsible for the assassinations of the Prevot des Marchands and the Intendant de Paris, and now he is given the task of rendering a legal opinion on the question of whether those in authority in JULY (1789) were guilty'.

By adding his 'evidence' linking Garran to the Flesselles and Berthier assassinations to his extravagant vision of the Comite des Recherches as 'the model for all these revolutionary committes which, in a few months, will put the executioner to work on a full-time basis', BORD was able construct the following equation:
July Massacres = Comite des Recherches = Terror. ...".

"Jean-Philippe Garran de Coulon, 1748-1816, the son of a provincial tax collector, had come to Paris to join a crowd of starving authors and client-less lawyers. And though he was the author of no less than forty-three pre-revolutionary literary and philosophical works ... none of them was apparently ever published.
But despite being, as childhood friend and National Assambly deputy Creuze-LATOUCHE put it, almost unknown, before the Revolution, GARRAN quickly established himself as an important Parisian activist in the crucial months of May, June, and July 1789.

On April 22, his local district had only selected him as a supplemental delegate to the Assembly of Third Estate Electors. Yet, benefitting, in all likelihood, from his close ties to CREUZE-LATOUCHE (also on KATE'S list of leading 'proto-Girondins'), he rapidly attained city-wide recognition and was almost elected in late May 1789 to the Estates-General itself. It was in the Assembly of Electors that Garran came into his own as a key member of the municipality's democratic fraction. ... we will see Garran playing an especially significant role on July 14 itself.

By the time the Comite des Recherches was formed in October, he was one of BRISSOT'S most important allies in the Assemblee des Representants, the municipal council which replaced the Electors on July 30. ... Garran was probably the one man most closely identified with it in the public mind.

... Hence, it was Garran who was largely responsible for the political cover that the Comite's aggressive public image provided for the indulgent policies of the FAYETTIST regime. ...

Garran was the first deputy elected from Paris to the Legislative Assembly in 1791 ... he remainde closely linked to BRISSOT and his other former colleagues from the municipality ... ... Garran served in the Thermidorian Convention, the Directory's Council of 500, and the Bonapartist Senate. He was also made a Count of the Empire...".

Above mentioned Creuze-LATOUCHE / Jacques Antoine Creuze-Latouche (1749 - 1800) was a French lawyer, Jacobin, and member of the National Convention of France during the French Revolution. He was born at Chatellerault, a lawyer in Poitiers and in Paris.
He spent some time in Switzerland before returning to Chatellerault in 1784;
1789 he was elected deputy to represent the third estate of Chatellerault in the Estates-General of 1789. 1789 a judge of the High Court of Orleans, to play an active role in the Chatellerault Jacobin Society and in 1790 he joined the Jacobin club in Paris. At the trial of King Louis XVI of France he voted against the appeal to the people, for detention followed by banishment and then for suspension.

Jacques Antoine Creuze-Latouche was the son of Jacques Creuze, lord of La Touche, adviser to the king and captain-superintendent of the castle of Chatellerault, and Maria Theresa Fremond La Merveillere. He traveled to Switzerland; married in 1780 with his cousin Jeanne Creuze from Antran in France, close to Vienne in the region of Poitou-Charentes. They have two daughters, Laura Chapelain de Saint-Cyr and Teresa but both had no children.
1793, he gathered Eudora Roland, daughter of Madame Roland and her husband Jean Marie Roland, Viscount of Platiere, but
Madame Roland was guillotined November 8; Jean Marie Roland, Viscount of Platiere, born 1734 in Thizy and died in 1793 in Bourg-Beaudouin;
Madame Roland, born Jeanne Marie Philipon, leading figure of the French Revolution. She played a major role in the Girondist party, and Eudora her daughter, became an orphan; the famous botanist Louis Augustin Guillaume Bosc, a leading friend of Madame Roland, became her guardian; she married Pierre Leon Champagneux. Bosc was also an active member of the Philomatic Society of Paris.

Note on Maria Theresa Fremond La Merveillere:

come from Gilles Fremond, advisor to the king, who died on August 20, 1663 in Chatellerault. and his son Anthoine FREMOND who had son Anthoine III Fremond, born in 1661 and died in Chatellerault in 1739, captain of the Castle Chatellerault. He married in 1693 to Marie daughter of Joseph, of Poitiers, royal notary, and Florence Rigaud.

They had Marie Therese Florence Fremond, born in 1707, died in 1783, married Jacques Creuze, of la Touche (1694 -1762) that is Jacques son of Michel b. 1663, m. in 1687 Claire RENAULT; Jacques married in 1741 Marie Therese Florence FREMOND de LA MERVEILLERE - her brothers and sisters: Antoine Jerome Fremond b. 1696, pastor of Coussay-les-Bois, archpriest of Chatellerault; Marie Jeanne Francoise, born 1700, married 1738 to Pierre Delaveau Treffort, lord of Massardiere, widower of Anne Beaupoil.

Jacques Antoine Creuze / Jacques Antoine 1749-1800, m. in 1780 Jeanne CREUZE / Jeanne-Catherine b. 1754 d. 1810, daughter of Michel Creuze, the Lord of La Maisonneuve 1733-1812.

Jacques-Antoine Creuze La Touche / Jacques Antoine Creuze as "Latouche-Creuze", born in 1749, economist, politician, member of the Convention, takes an active part in the reaction after 9 Thermidor, member of the institute, married his cousin with 2 girls:
1. Madame Chapelain de Saint-Cyr / Laure Creuze de La Touche / Laura Chapelain de Saint-Cyr m. in 1815 to
Armand Chapelain de Saint-Cyr;

Armand, Charles, "Alexis" Chapelain de Saint-Cyr was the Commissioner of powder and saltpetre;
she was born 1783;

2. Therese Claire Creuze de la Touche / Therese Creuze de La Touche / Therese Clementine 1781-1862, m. in 1806 Pierre MARTINET;
woman of letters; next of kin to Moriere, Bellaing, Lombares, Morcenx, Beaurepaire, Grailly of Hemery, of Dorides, Tudert, Montecler, Dreuzy.

Above named
Jacques Pierre Brissot or Jean Pierre Brissot (1754 - 1793), was a leading member of the Girondist movement during the French Revolution. Brissot was born at Chartres; a lawyer at Paris; married Felicite Dupont (1759 - 1818), who translated English works;
they lived in London; started in London a paper, Journal du Lycee de Londres; he paid a visit to the United States in 1788.

Acc. to Wikipedia:
Thomas Jefferson, ambassador in Paris at the time was familiar enough with him to note, 'Warville is returned charmed with our country. He is going to carry his wife and children to settle there'. Alas for Brissot, such an emigration never happened.
1789, Brissot was member of the Jacobin Club, of the Legislative Assembly, and later of the National Convention. Brissot was against the decision to execute the King.

Jean-Philippe GARRAN DE COULON, Count married to Anne-Jeanne Barrengue - she died on August 7 or 6th, 1808, in Saivres (or died in Champmargou, town of Auge, Deux-Sevres).
Garran de Coulon, Jean-Philippe (Count) died before December 26, 1816.

Jeanne Franēoise Félicité Garran de Coulon, wife of Pierre Jean Maleszewski, resident at rue du Pont de Lodi, and Felicity Franēoise Garran de Coulon, widow of Baron Guillaume Garran de Coulon, residing at rue Cassette No. 28, organized her father's funeral.
Guillaume Garran de Coulon married to Félicité Francoise GARRAN COULON after 1800 in Paris. The title of Count for Guillaume Garran, captain of dragoons, was granted by patent on February 20, 1812.

Above Anne-Jeanne Barrengue, born in Paris in 1759, died in Champmargou. Married in the Loiret department on April 23, 1780.

At margin again to DE COULON:
Jean-Philippe Garran de Coulon (close to Niort, west France; Garran de Coulon, Jean-Philippe was born in Saint- Maixent (Deux-Sčvres) close to Niort in 1748) died in 1816, the son of a provincial tax collector, had come to Paris to join a crowd of starving authors and client-less lawyers.
But despite being, as childhood friend and National Assambly deputy Creuze-LATOUCHE put it, almost unknown, before the Revolution, GARRAN quickly established himself as an important Parisian activist in the crucial months of May, June, and July 1789. Jacques-Antoine Creuze La Touche / Jacques Antoine Creuze / Jacques Antoine 1749-1800 had seen in his youth Switzerland and Savoy - south of Geneve.

We remember about the COULON family from Neuchatel, Suisse / Switzerland, for example Andre de COULON in 1922 in Neuchatel; Genevieve de COULON m. Alain GAUTIER; Albert de COULON 1824-1893; Paul Louis Auguste de COULON 1777-1855; Alphonse de COULON 1815-1884 m. in 1846 Julie DU PASQUIER 1827-1919.

COULON de Christiane, b. 1923 in Neuchatel (see Breguet, Duflon, Schaub) come from COULON Georges Albert, winemaker, 1850 - 1916; and COULON Alphonse 1815 - 1884 (study of Law in 1839 at the Universities of Berlin and Paris; visited the capitals of the North, Copenhagen, Christiana, Stockholm and St. Petersburg, then Greece, Egypt and Constantinople. He enters the Great Council in May 1840; at the Court Advocate, in Neuchatel in 1843, Tribunal president of Neuchatel in 1848 - until 1865).

He was son of COULON Paul Etienne, banker in Paris, b. 1779, in the house Coulon and Co.; 1813 trip to Italy. Naturalized in the Vaud canton.

COULON Paul Etienne was son of COULON Paul, member of the Pourtales and Co., a refugee from France to Switzerland in 1754, citizen of Neuchatel in 1767. Born 1731, d. 1820. Paul Coulon had also son Louis-Auguste Coulon - author of the memories:
Paul Coulon, was the son of Joseph Coulon and his wife Jeanne Falies, of Rouergue, emigrated to Cornus, accompanied by his friend Jacques Carbonnier, moved to Geneva; Joseph Coulon brought from Barbain several wheat shipments. Paul Coulon was friend of the Rabout family from St Etienne; Rabout later was a member and president of the National Assembly, and shared the fate of the Girondins (Jefferson wrote to Rabout de St. Etienne, on June 3, 1789).

Louis-Auguste Coulon - author of the memories, knew in Paris in 1796 his son Paul Rabout
(Jean-Paul Rabaut de Saint-Etienne b. 1743 - d. December 1793, was a leader of the French Protestants and a moderate French revolutionary; a Calvinist pastor; he sat among the Girondists, opposed the trial of Louis XVI, was a member of the Commission of Twelve; guillotined).

COULON Paul, member of the Pourtales and Co., refuge in Switzerland for religion in 1754, was received bourgeois on April 27, 1767. He entered the same year as an associate in the house of Pourtales.

Jacques Carbonnier, the friend of Paul Coulon, made in Geneva a clock; married a sister of Paul Coulon; his brother- in-law was a watchmaker; Paul Coulon was godfather to their first child, Paul Louis Carbonnier born in Geneva, then in Neuchatel, he co-operated with master Berthoud to teach him to know the goods of India; at the time of the French Revolution, in 1790, he managed the house Pourtales & Cie. in Lorient, a seaport in the Morbihan department in Brittany in north-western France.
During the dissolution of the house Pourtales & Cie in 1796, Paul Coulon founded the house Coulon & Cie. with his nephew Carbonnier, his son Francois Auguste de Meuron and his two elder sons;
it was the merchandise of India that bought to London sales; principal place of business was in Paris, but the branch was in Neuchatel; it has been liquidated as a result of the continental blockade in 1809.
It was also in 1774 that Paul Coulon bought the extensive area of Viala on the Larzac, above the city of Cornus.
He gave it to his younger brother Stephen.

Paul Coulon came to settle in Neuchatel after his marriage. He acquired the bourgeoisie in 1767 and was lodged in the house of Mr Jeremiah Pourtales, father of his partner.
Paul Coulon had four children and bought the house and possession Brun in the suburb of Neuchatel, but the withdrawal was made in the same year by Captain Brown, who had married a rich widow.
1783, Paul Coulon bought house in the suburb Lake, then a small property near Corcelles Concise; 1807 - Paul Coulon was friend to the Watteville family of Berne and Mr Gety the pastor in Lausanne. Paul Coulon died in 1820.

And about the Garran family:
GARRAN DE BALZAN, FRANCOIS-GABRIEL-EMILE, Senator, born in Saint-Maixent (Deux-Sevres) on January 30, 1838, son of a mining engineer, completed his studies in Paris, and, back in his department, made the liberal policy. Mr Garran Balzan was a mayor, and was elected councilor of the Canton Menigoute where he organized an agricultural meeting, of which he was president.


Tadeusz Kosciuszko in 1774 - 1775/1776 in Poland:

Tadeusz Kosciuszko in 1775 was largely unknown to anyone and a rather unfortunate nobleman, but educated at school in VERSAL / Versailles.

Tadeusz Kosciuszko was a graduate of the Corps of Cadets in Warsaw and the Royal Guard Military Academy for Cavalrymen in Versailles close to Paris. He returned to Poland in 1774 / 1775, two or three years after it was partitioned by Russia, Austria and Prussia. In 1776 he arrived in the United States.

"... Kosciuszko returned to Poland in 1774, but he remained there for less than two years. While many narratives hurry past this homecoming, highlighting Kosciuszko's undoubted desire to fight in the American struggle for independence, it is important to remember that several factors pushed the young captain away from Poland. In 1772 Prussia, Austria and Russia had partitioned Poland, seizing around 30% of its territory...".

There was no place in the Polish Army for Kosciuszko, and he began as tutor of Ludwika Sosnowski, the daughter of a General SOSNOWSKI. Tadeusz was forced to leave in 1775. He fled to France where, at some point in late 1775 or the first half of 1776, he heard about the American rebellion against the British. Kosciuszko left during the summer of 1776, and by the 18th of October he was a colonel in the Continental Army.

Above General Józef Sylwester Sosnowski (died in 1783), was a Voivode of Smolensk (1771) and Polock (1781), Grand Notary of Lithuania (1754), Field Commander of Lithuania (1775-1780), MP of 1764, and Marshall of the Electoral Sejm of 1764.
Sosnowski is best remembered as the father of a love interest of Tadeusz Kosciuszko's, Ludwika Sosnowska.
General Józef Sylwester Sosnowski married Tekla Despot-Zenowicz, with 2 daughters:
Katarzyna and Ludwika.

The Sosnowski family home was located in Sosnowica. Sosnowica is a village in the Parczew County, in Poland.

We back to Kosciuszko who set out for America after hearing of the 1775 fighting at Lexington and Concord. He was already on his way across the Atlantic when the Continental Congress in Philadelphia adopted the Declaration of Independence. He was in Philadelphia before the end of August, 1776.
"... Kosciuszko was then 30 years old, the youngest son of a Polish family of noble background but limited wealth. He was a skilled military engineer trained in Poland and in graduate academies in France. He knew French and German as well as Polish and he soon learned to converse in English, although he never wrote it fluently".

1780 in America:
12th August -
In Orange Town Kosciuszko bows with George Washington, who highly appreciated his work on the construction of the West Point fortress.
17th August -
Kosciuszko met General GATES in Traveller’s Rest.

21st to 23rd September -
In Richmond, Wirginia, Tadeusz Kosciuszko met Governor Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Kosciuszko was on his way to Richmond, Virginia, to deliver money from Gates to Gov. Thomas Jefferson.
Jefferson briefed Kosciuszko about the state of the military in Virginia and discussed logistics about helping the Southern Army.
Jefferson was more concerned with improving the quality of Virginia's educational system and making his fellow citizens better informed and more capable of running a democratic ward-government than with creating a states' rights bastion when he founded the University of Virginia.

We back to USA and Thomas Jefferson who called Tadeusz Kosciuszko "the purest among the sons of liberty"; Thomas Jefferson b. 1743 was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the third President of the United States (1801 - 1809).

"However, there is some evidence that indicates he may have been a Mason and that he attended Masonic meetings. Dr. Joseph Guillotin reported that he attended meetings at the prestigious Lodge of Nine Muses in Paris, France - the same lodge attended by Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, and John Paul Jones. He marched in a Masonic procession with Widow's Son Lodge No. 60 and Charlottesville Lodge No. 90 on October 6, 1817, and participated in laying the cornerstone for Central College (now known as the University of Virginia)"; acc. to toddecreason.blogspot.co.uk.

"I see him OFTEN, ... He is as pure a son of liberty, as I have ever known, ... and of that liberty which is to go to all, and not to the few or rich alone. Thus did Thomas Jefferson describe his new-found friend General Kosciuszko in 1798. Kosciuszko had left his native Poland in 1775 or in 1776.
... Jefferson had scarcely known him then, but when he returned to his adopted fatherland for a second time in 1797 the two men became close friends and saw each other, for a time, almost daily".

Kosciuszko travelled in 1796 / 1797 from Russia to Sweden with his secretary J. U. Niemcewicz and with cheerful officer, Libiszewski / LIBISZOWSKI who often had to carry the General;

[Libiszowski / Libiszewski willingly performed this service. In Sweden, Kosciuszko was listening to Libiszewski playing the guitar at his bedside and to a concert organised in his honour by the best musicians; in Philadelphia was a musician in orchestra. He died - still young - of fever in Cuba.
In 1892 the Sosnowski manor, bought Alfons Libiszowski from Waleria Niepokójczycki.
In Libiszow is situated the Libiszowski manor, 'Rybakówka';
Libiszow is situated 5 km west of Sosnowica; east of Ostrow Lubelski].

SOSNOWICA - after Partitions the village was in Austria, then in the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.

"... The American newspapers followed with interest Kosciuszko's triumphal journey through Sweden and England. At Gothenburg, the principal inhabitants turned out to greet the Polish hero ... In London, the leaders, including Fox, Wilberforce, and Sheridan, waited on him. The members of the Whig Club had their president, General Banastre Tarleton, the former dashing cavalry commander who almost captured Jefferson during the American Revolution, present a sword worth 200 guineas to Kosciuszko as a public testimony of their sense of his exalted virtues and of his gallant, generous, and exemplary efforts to defend and save his country.

Rufus King, the American Minister to Britain, arranged his passage to the United States. At Bristol, where the citizens presented him with a magnificent mahogany case of silver plate weighing more than 216 ounces, each piece inscribed "The Friends of Liberty in Bristol to the Gallant Kosciuszko", the General stayed in the home of the American Consul. ... Kosciuszko arrived at Philadelphia in August, 1797.

... him to the boarding house of Mrs. Loveson on Second Street. For the next few months, the leading citizens and several noble French emigres feted him. Later ...

he visited his old friends General Anthony Walton White in New Brunswick, New Jersey, and General Horatio Gates just outside New York City.

For a time Kosciuszko enjoyed a popular triumph similar to that Lafayette was to receive in 1824. Portraits of him were sold in Philadelphia; ... No one in Philadelphia saw the General more often than Vice-President Jefferson; he was with him almost daily, and, as Niemcewicz remarked, "Kosciuszko completely adhered to Jefferson." An amateur artist, he painted a small watercolor, probably in April, 1798, of Jefferson ... Since the General had never received full payment for his services in the Revolution, Jefferson helped him claim what was due. Oliver Wolcott, Secretary of the Treasury, paid him $12,280.54 principal and $2,947.33 in interest for the years 1785-1788. ... Jefferson also assisted in securing for Kosciuszko a 500-acre military land warrant, located on the Scioto River in what is today Columbus, Ohio. ...

When young Niemcewicz late on the evening of May 4, 1798, returned to the house in Philadelphia where the General and he were staying, Kosciuszko swore him to secrecy and then dramatically informed him: "I leave this night for Europe."

... Jefferson arrived in a covered carriage; Kosciuszko was carried out and the carriage drove off to Newcastle. News that Polish emigre leaders were organizing Polish legions to fight with the Italian allies of Napoleon was Kosciuszko's chief reason for returning to France. He hoped that Poles who had been drafted into the Russian, Prussian, and Austrian armies would desert to join the legions, and that eventually they, with French aid, would re- establish the Polish state. By March, 1797, the Polish general DABROWSKI / Dombrowski had 2,000 men organized into the first legion.

Kosciuszko, learning about the movement soon after his landing in America, had wanted to go to France immediately. The French Consul informed his government of this two days after the General's arrival ... on his arrival in Paris, the General told the officers of the Polish legions who welcomed him:
"I want to be ever and inseparably with you. I want to join you to serve our common country. Like you I have fought for the country, like you I have suffered, like you I expect to regain it. This hope is the only solace of my life."

Jefferson, ... treated Kosciuszko as an informal envoy from the United States to France. Kosciuszko later wrote: "Jefferson considered that I would be the most effective intermediary in bringing an accord with France, so I accepted the mission even if without any official authorization."

Jefferson helped him obtain a passport under the assumed name of Thomas Kanberg.

Kosciuszko, ... about securing his passage, frequently importuned Jefferson to hurry. ... The two men agreed upon a cipher or code in which they could correspond, though, as it turned out, they did not actually use it. Kosciuszko gave Jefferson power of attorney to act for him in all business concerning his property in the United States ... Dr. Benjamin Rush, his Philadelphia friend and physician, when reporting the General's wounds almost healed, though he would always limp slightly, had added: "Every step he takes will remind him of his patriotism and bravery." For the next twenty years, Jefferson and Kosciuszko corresponded, usually several times a year. Part of this exchange was over business. Although Jefferson had turned the General's funds over to John Barnes, an excellent Philadelphia banker... Through the years, Kosciuszko confined his letters chiefly to business. He usually wrote in French with considerable misspelling and bad grammar. Kosciuszko's opinion of Jefferson remained high. When the Virginian was nominated for the presidency, the Pole urged him to be "always good, true American a Philosopher and my Friend," and again: "Do not forget in your post be always the virtuous Republican with justice and probity without pomp and ambition in a word be Jefferson and my friend." ...

When Kosciuszko returned to France in 1798, he wrote the Czar a strong letter, which he gave to the newspapers, revoking his oath not to resist him on the grounds that the Czar's ministers had exacted that promise by terror and against his free will. This letter infuriated Paul and resulted in reprisals against the families of leading Polish emigres, including Niemcewicz's.

Kosciuszko served for a time as a kind of ambassador of the Polish legions with the French Directory; he was known as "chief of the Polish nation." Two legions based in Italy... and Kosciuszko helped organize a third unit, the Legion of the Danube".

1797:

7th June: In BRISTOL Kosciuszko met Elias Vanderhorst.

18th August:
In Philadelphia Kosciuszko met Thomas Jefferson.

Note to Despot-Zenowicz:

Tekla Burgundyfera Zenowicz

[b. ca 1760, daughter of Antoni Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1730 + Eleonora Magdalena Skarbek-Wazynska b. ca 1735.

ANTONI ZENOWICZ DESZPOT / Despot, had children:

Jerzy Despot-Zenowicz / Jerzy Zenowicz, b. ca 1760;

Michal Despot-Zenowicz born ca 1770, + Anna Despot-Zenowicz nee Niemirowicz-Szczytt; Michal Despot- Zenowicz born ca 1770, + Anna Despot-Zenowicz nee Niemirowicz-Szczytt who had 2 sons [all children: Wirginia, Justyna, Jan, Hieronim b. ca 1800; Antoni; Ludwik; Ignacy b. 1802]: 1. Ignacy Despot-Zenowicz (c. 1802 - d. ?); 2. Jan b. ca 1800.

Tekla Burgundyfera Swiatopelk-Mirska; Tekla Burgundyfera Despot-Zenowicz born ca [1760 ?] 1770. Above TEKLA was the daughter of Antoni Despot- Zenowicz born 1730 + Eleonora Magdalena Skarbek-Wazynska b. 1743. ANTONI ZENOWICZ maybe was the son of JANUSZ ZENOWICZ Despot, b. ca 1700/1710. Emilia Amelia Wollowicz (Despot-Zenowicz), b. ca 1700, probably was the sister of named JANUSZ. Emilia married to Aleksander Wollowicz b. ca 1700. EMILIA was the daughter of Krzysztof Despot-Zenowicz, junior, ca 1650/1660 - 1717. They come from Jerzy (Jur) Jan Zenowicz, inf. 1639. Next was Stanislaw Zenowicz (ca 1610-1672) inf. 1646, 1653, 1661, 1665, 1671; his son was Krzysztof Zenowicz junior, born ca 1650/1660, died 1717, in Oshmiany 1687 - 1715, Colonel, governor in Minsk in 1709.

Kunegunda Despot-Zenowicz {m. Wincenty Prószynski};
Marianna Dmochowska;
Eleonora Kielpsz and
Weronika Zenowicz m. Michal Wzgird]

married Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski / Jan Mirski [b. ca 1750 / 1760]
with children:
1.

Klaudiusz Mirski [b. ca 1785] m. Brygida Swiatopelk-Mirska / Brygida Mirska [b. ca 1790] (daughter of Tadeusz Swiatopelk-Mirski b. ca 1750 / 1760, and Anna. The granddaughter of Jan Stanislaw SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI (b. ca 1700 or ca 1720, died in 1761) with Joanna Rymsza),
with daughter
Walentyna Mirska [b. ca 1810] m. 1st to Franciszek Czerwinski and 2nd she married in 1837 in Wilno to August Oginski
[son of Konstanty Oginski and Petronela Stoklicka]
with a son JAN Oginski and
granddaughter Jadwiga Oginska + Jan Oskierka, 1881-1971

{JAN OSKIERKO / Oskierka was the grandson of Jan Oskierka b. 1820 + Julia; the great-grandson of Rafal Michal Oskierka 1761-1818; Pawel Oskierka of Rzeczyca; Tomasz Swiatopelk-Mirski 1788-1852; Józef Czyzewicz; Maria Oskierka; Franciszka Jelenska; Konstancja Wlosowska; Eufemia Izycka}.

2.

Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski / Iwon Mirski, b. ca 1787 / 1790, the owner of Kamienpol, died in MIORY in 1849, the Braslaw county; the marshal of the DZISNA county in 1812. He married Michalina Osmulska (1799-1835) and
they had daughter
Natalia Mirska b. ca 1828, m. Eugeniusz Bouvie b. 1813, that is Natalia de Bouvier (Swiatopelk-Mirski).

Natalia Mirska / Nathalia Herminie Micheline Jeronime SWIATOPELK MIRSKA, Pss, born ca 1828 in Kamienpol in the Vilnius governorate; died in 1887 in Versailles, FRANCE.

NATALIA was the wife of Eugeniusz de Bouvie, and mother of Michel Adalbert Jean de Bouvie born 1859. Sister of Klaudia Jesman and Wieslaw Swiatopelk-Mirski.

Named Michel Adalbert Jean Chrysosthome de BOUVIÉ was born in Vilnius / WILNO in 1859. His father Eugene Louis Dominique de BOUVIE, baron, born in 1813, near Vilna / WILNO - 32 km - in Choumsk, that is SZUMSK / Šumskas / Slobódka - Polany
[the SZUMSKI family - see Konstantynowicz],
died in 1879 - Loivre, Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, FRANCE. Doctor and surgeon; De Bouvie, baron, was living in Wilno, in 1857.

Eugene's parents:
Jean Baptiste Joseph de BOUVIÉ, Officer and doctor, born ca 1785; and EVELYNE MORASKA / Ewelina Morawska ? / Evelyne de MORASKA / maybe of Morasko
[in Poznan; Morasko was owned by Ignacy Korwin Bienkowski in the 18th cent., b. ca 1720, d. in 1793], b. ca 1795, d. in 1879.

Named SZUMSK, owned, at the beginning of the 19th cent., by Ludwik Szumski, d. 1825; he built a palace, and Wincenty Smokowski painted a polychromes in the SZUMSKI / Shumski Palace.

Note:

Stanislaw Wollowicz 1720-1775 m. Antonina Franciszka Wolowicz, 1732-1779, the daughter of
Aleksander Wollowicz b. ca 1700, and Emilia Amelia Wollowicz (Despot-Zenowicz), b. ca 1700;

EMILIA was the daughter of Krzysztof Despot-Zenowicz, ca 1660 - 1717.

Aleksander Wollowicz b. ca 1700 had brothers:
Marcyan 3rd,
Dominik 2nd / Dominik Marcin Wollowicz,
Krzysztof,
Jerzy / Jerzy Wollowicz and
Stanislaw / Stanislaw Wollowicz who died in 1737 and had gotten married to Eleonora Racs.

Oginski Józef (1807), son of Ignacy Oginski, 1755-1787 and Józefa Zofia Oginska, 1760-1846; grandson of Józef Oginski 1713-1776 [see below !]; Antonina Biallozor, 1728-1812; Andrzej Ignacy Oginski 1740-1787 + Paula Anna Szembek 1737-1798.

Named Jozef Oginski born 1713, m. 2nd in 1751 to Antonina Biallozor / Antonina Monwid-Bialozor;
Antonina was born ca 1728; they had 2 children: mentioned above Ignacy Oginski, 1755-1787 + named above Józefa Zofia Oginska, 1760- 1846.

Note:
Apolonia Oginska born Wyhowska, in ca 1710 / ca 1717 / 1730 - 1751. Apolonia Oginski Wyhowska married Jozef Prince Oginski.
They had daughter: Apolonia Oginski, 2nd, born 1751.

Stanislaw Jurewicz was the son of JOZEF JUREWICZ / Jurievitsch b. ca 1770, and Joanna or ANNA DESPOT ZENOWICZ b. ca 1770 / 1775.

Anna Zenowicz Jurewicz was the daughter of Jozef Despot ZENOWICZ b. ca 1745, and POLONIA OGINSKA 2nd, b. ca 1751.
Anna Zenowicz Jurewicz b. ca 1770 / 1775, was the wife of named JOZEF JUREWICZ / Jurievitsch b. ca 1770; the mother of
Stanislaw Jurievitsch b. 1800 / 1802 and
Anna von Wrangell nee Jurewicz, b. 1819 !

Named Apolonia Oginski (born Wyhowska), ca 1717 - 1751 or born 1710 / 1730, married Jozef Prince Oginski. They had 3 daughters [?]: Katarzyna Princess Oginska and 2 other children - see above POLONIA OGINSKA 2nd, b. ca 1751.

Jurjewicz, Lukasz Mateusz, b. ca 1660, had son Jurjewicz, Franciszek Felicjan, b. 1695 in the Oshmiana ex-district.

Franciszek Felicjan Jurjewicz / Jurewicz had children:
Jurjewicz, Tomasz, b. 21/12/1720,
Jurjewicz, Stanislaw, b. 1725,
ANTONI JUREWICZ / Anthony Yurevich / Jurjewicz, Antoni, b. 1730 / 1735 + Agnieszka Konstantynowicz of the Mscislau branch of the Konstantynowiczs, born ca 1740;
and last Jurjewicz, Adam, b. 1740 + Marianna.

Ignacy Nikodem Jurjewicz, was born to Antoni Jurjewicz and Agnieszka Konstantynowicz.

Jurjewicz or Jurjevicius Antoni was born in 1735.

Ignacy had 6 brothers and sisters:
Tadeusz Jurewicz,
Michal Jurjewicz,
JOZEF born 1770,
and so on.

Ignacy married Justyna Wieliczko. They had 3 sons: Józef Jurjewicz b. ca 1790 [see below], and 2 other children. Above Ignacy Nikodem Jurjewicz b. ca 1760 / 1770.

Acc.to my research, the brother of Ignacy Jurewicz b. 1760/1770, and son of named Antoni Jurewicz b. ca 1730/1735, was JOZEF JUREWICZ / Jurievitsch b. ca 1770, married Joanna or ANNA DESPOT ZENOWICZ.

Stanislaw Jurewicz / Stanislav Yurevich, b. 1800/1802, with whom the poet Pushkin met in Mogilev, was next of kin to Ignacy Despot Zenowicz / Ignatius Despot Zenovich. Ignacy Despot ZENOWICZ b. ca 1830 was a translator of Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin. Ignacy's children: Mieczyslaw Deszpot-Zenowicz b. ca 1850, Maria Aniela, Wanda.

Stanislaw Juriewicz, b. 1800/1802, as the oldest brother, divided these properties among his brothers. His brother, Michal Juriewicz, received Kraszuty, a large estate covered by a dense forest, known to contain bears, moose, and other big game. His brother Jan received two estates, Franopol and Porzecze.

His father was Joseph Juriewicz/ Jozef Jurewicz, b. ca 1770, from the Orsha district in the province of Mogilev.

Jozef Jurewicz came into possession of Kolpino after his marriage to Joanna Despot Zenowicz / Anna Deszpot- Zienowicz b. ca 1775; also in Kraszuty / Wielkie-Kraszuty / Krashuty.

Stanislaw was the son of JOZEF JUREWICZ / Jurievitsch b. ca 1770, and Joanna or ANNA DESPOT ZENOWICZ b. ca 1770 / 1775.

Anna was the daughter of Jozef Despot ZENOWICZ b. ca 1745, and POLONIA OGINSKA b. ca 1750. Wife of named JOZEF JUREWICZ b. ca 1770. Mother of Stanislaw Jurievitsch b. 1800 / 1802 and Anna von Wrangell nee Jurewicz, b. 1819 !

Stanislaw was the father of Mieczyslaw Jan Filip Jurievitsch b. ca 1835, m. Roza Katarzyna ROSSI.

Fryderyk Marian Jurewicz / JURJEWICZ Fryderyk (1871-1929) was great-grandson of named Józef Jurjewicz b. ca 1770 [son of Agnieszka Konstantynowicz Jurewicz]; Jan Nepomucen Moszynski; Anna Zenowicz / named Joanna Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1770; Maria Sadowska 1780-1840.
Grandson of Stanislaw Jurewicz 1802-1877 and Joanna Moszynska.
Parents: Mieczyslaw Jan Filip Jurewicz b. ca 1835, and Róza Katarzyna Rossi b. ca 1840.

Fryderyk's sister was Anna Jurewicz b. 1871.

Józef Jurjewicz b. 1790, m. Waleria Syruc daughter of Michal Syruc and Lenkiewicz.

Karl Philipp (Karl Ivanovich) Wrangel von Hübenthal was died in 1858 in Vitebsk, m. 1st to Konstantina Naskin; 2nd married Anna Wrangel JUREWICZ / Jurewitz.

Anna WRANGEL was the daughter of JOZEF JUREWICZ and ANNA Despot Zenowicz.

Anna Wrangel JUREWICZ / Jurewitz was the mother of Alexis Stanislaus Wrangel von Hübenthal.

Jozef Jurewicz b. ca 1770, came into possession of Kolpino after his marriage to Joanna Despot Zenowicz / Anna Deszpot-Zienowicz b. ca 1775; also in Kraszuty / Wielkie-Kraszuty / Krashuty.

Karl married to Anna Jurevich [Anna Wrangel von Hübenthal BETSY b. 1804 or 1819, nee JUREWICZ] who had three estates in Vitebsk province - Kolpino, Reblino and Zabel [Reblio, and Zabelja]. Kolpino belonged to her mother, nee Despot-Zenovich [JOZEF JUREWICZ b. ca 1770, married to Joanna JUREWICZ or ANNA DESPOT ZENOWICZ b. ca 1770 / 1775].

TADEUSZ Swiatopelk-Mirski b. ca 1760, was the son of Jan Stanislaw SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI ca 1720, d. 1761, and Joanna Rymsza.
TADEUSZ Swiatopelk Mirski b. ca 1760 maybe was the brother of Jan SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI b. ca 1770, who married Tekla Burgundyfera Despot-Zenowicz.

Tekla Mirski had son JAN Swiatopelk Mirski and granddaughter
Natalia Swiatopelk Mirska b. ca 1840 married Eugeniusz BOUVIE / Eugene Bouvier of SZUMSK - see the Szumskis and Dominik Konstantynowicz.

Tekla Burgundyfera Despot-Zenowicz born ca [1760 ?] 1770. Above TEKLA was the daughter of Antoni Despot-Zenowicz born 1730 + Eleonora Magdalena Skarbek-Wazynska b. 1743.

ANTONI ZENOWICZ maybe was the son of JANUSZ ZENOWICZ Despot, b. ca 1700/1710. Emilia Amelia Wollowicz (Despot-Zenowicz), b. ca 1700, probably was the sister of named JANUSZ.

Emilia married to Aleksander Wollowicz b. ca 1700.

EMILIA was the daughter of Krzysztof Despot-Zenowicz, ca 1660 - 1717.

Tekla Sosnowska (Despot-Zenowicz) b. ca 1731 - the daughter of named JANUSZ ZENOWICZ b. ca 1700/1710, and Kotryna Despot-Zenowicz.
Wife of Józef Sylwester Sosnowski - the mother of mentioned Css Katarzyna Plater and Ludwika Lubomirska.

Ludwika Sosnowska b. 1751, d. 1836, Równe; m. Józef Aleksander Lubomirski.

Katarzyna Plater, b. ca 1748 - died in 1832, m. Józef Wincenty Plater - the owner of Horynka at Volhynia.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, born 1832, served 1862 - 1882 as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi. STANISLAW ZENOWICZ / Despot Zenovich Stanislav Ivanovich, son of Jan Despot Zenowicz / Jan Despot-Zenowicz (b. ca 1800) was born in 1833 or 1835, education in France, he settled in the Caucasus, 1856 with the rank of titular counselor, served as an officer of the Caucasus Governor, the Baku District Court, was appointed by the Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich.

Jan Despot Zenowicz / Jan Despot-Zenowicz (b. ca 1800) was the son of Michal Zenowicz b. ca 1770 and Anna Szczytt.

MICHAL was the son of named above ANTONI ZENOWICZ born ca 1730. ANTONI ZENOWICZ maybe was the son of JANUSZ ZENOWICZ Despot, b. ca 1700/1710.

MICHAL was the brother of Tekla Burgundyfera Despot-Zenowicz, b. ca 1770. Jan SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI b. ca 1770, m. Tekla Burgundyfera Despot-Zenowicz. They had son JAN Swiatopelk Mirski and granddaughter Natalia Swiatopelk Mirska b. ca 1840 married Eugeniusz BOUVIE / Bouvier of SZUMSK - see the Szumskis and Konstantynowicz.

Note on the Despot-Zenowiczs:

Antoni Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1730 / 1735 had son
Michal Despot-Zenowicz born ca 1770, + Anna Despot-Zenowicz nee Niemirowicz-Szczytt who had 2 sons
[all children: Wirginia, Justyna, Jan, Hieronim b. ca 1800; Antoni; Ludwik; Ignacy b. 1802]:
1. Ignacy Despot-Zenowicz (c. 1802 - d. ?);
2. Jan b. ca 1800.

In Biegienie in the Wolkowysk county were living: Przetocki (1830), Chodakowski (1830-1900), Nestorowicz (1847), Despot-Zenowicz (1847), Heburowicz (1928); buried in Szydlowice: above ? Jan Despot-Zenowicz, lived 85 years, his mother lived 71 years, his son Jan Julian Despot-Zenowicz Major of the Russian Army lived 72 years, wife of ? Julianna; father Nestorowicz senior died January 1847 roku, his daughter Pelagia, son Edward Nestorowicz, next daughter Anna Nestorowicz Despot- Zenowicz.

Mentioned Jan Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1800 had 2 sons [maybe 4 sons: Zenon b. 1830, Stanislaw, Aleksander, Ignacy]:

1.
Ignacy Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1830, son of Jan Despot-Zenowicz b. ca 1800; + Justyna Despot-Zenowicz nee Brzostowska b. ca 1830 from Wincenty Brzostowski, Marshal of the Lucyn / Ludsen county, Livland, now Latvia, b. ca 1790.

Wincenty Brzostowski was grandson of Augusta Oginska 1724-1791, and great-grandson of Józef Tadeusz Oginski 1693-1736.

Stanislav Yurevich, with whom the poet Pushkin met in Mogilev, accounted Ignatius Despot Zenovich nephew owner of the Kolpino estate. Alexander Pushkin back in 1824 from Odessa to Mikhailovsky, was in Kolpino, close to present city Pustoshka. In those years it was owned by Ignacy Despot Zenowicz / Ignatius Despot-Zenovich, a member of the Masonic Lodge in St. Petersburg. Ignacy Despot ZENOWICZ b. ca 1830 was a translator of Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin.

Ignacy's children: Mieczyslaw Deszpot-Zenowicz b. ca 1850, Maria Aniela, Wanda.

Stanislaw Jurewicz / Stanislav Yurevich, with whom the poet Pushkin met in Mogilev, was next of kin with named above Ignacy Despot Zenowicz / Ignatius Despot Zenovich. Stanislaw Juriewicz, as the oldest brother, divided these properties among his brothers. His brother, Michal Juriewicz, received Kraszuty, a large estate covered by a dense forest, known to contain bears, moose, and other big game. His brother Jan received two estates, Franopol and Porzecze. Joseph Juriewicz/ Jozef Jurewicz, from the Orsha district in the province of Mogilev had a sister, Anna von Wrangell nee Jurewicz, b. ca ?, was seventeen years younger than he. Jozef Jurewicz came into possession of Kolpino after his marriage to Joanna Despot Zenowicz / Anna Deszpot- Zienowicz; also in Kraszuty / Wielkie-Kraszuty / Krashuty.

2.
Despot Zenovich Stanislav Ivanovich, born in 1833 or 1835.

Stanislaw Iwanowicz Despot-Zenowicz / Despot Zenovich Stanislav Ivanovich, born in 1833 or 1835, d. 1900, Catholic, 1853 in Moscow, then in 1853 in Tiflis; 1865 trip in Germany, France, England, Wien, Italy, Turkey, and back Tiflis; 1867 moved to Baku; 1873 in Russia, Wien, Italy, back in Nov. 1873; Baku city Mayor 1879-1894.

3.
His brother was Aleksander Iwanowicz Despot-Zenowicz (1829-1897), Moscow Univ., the Tobolsk governor in 1862-1867, then an official in the Ministry of the Interior.
In 1851 he was appointed foreign language interpreter at the Head Office of Eastern Siberia in Irkutsk. In 1855 he was appointed Chairman of the Commission in Bukhara; 1858 he was sent to the Chinese city Urga for border important secrets and diplomatic information. Since 1859 he was appointed mayor of the border town of Kyakhta in eastern Siberia in 1860. Pole by birth; 1870 lived in St Petersburg; Despot-Zenovich was as the gendarmerie General.

They come from Jerzy (Jur) Jan Zenowicz, inf. 1639.
Next was Stanislaw Zenowicz (ca 1610-1672) inf. 1646, 1653, 1661, 1665, 1671;
his son was Krzysztof Zenowicz junior, born ca 1650, died 1717, in Oshmiany 1687 - 1715, Colonel, governor in Minsk in 1709.

Brief explanation:
A.
Jan SWIATOPELK-MIRSKI born ca 1770 married Tekla Burgundyfera Despot-Zenowicz, with sons:
Jan b. ca 1810 m. Michalina Osmulska, with daughter Klaudia born ca 1840 m. Jan Jesman;
Klaudiusz b. ca 1810 m. Brygida Swiatopelk-Mirska with daughter Walentyna b. ca 1850 m. 1st August Oginski, 2nd to Franciszek Czerwinski.

B.
Mikolaj Boguslaw Zenowicz (died 1621 close to Chocim)
was son of Krzysztof ZENOWICZ, senior, Catholic,
his daughters:
Anna Zofia (d. 1664) m. Albrycht Wladyslaw Radziwill, 2nd to Franciszek Florian Zebrzydowski;
Zofia married to Pawel Sapieha.


An important note:

Albert Pike [Albert Pike b. 1809, died 1891, was an attorney, soldier, writer, and Freemason, elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction in 1859, of thirty-two years] described in a letter wrote to Mazzini [Giuseppe Mazzini, 1805 - 1872, an Italian politician, journalist; "William R. Denslow lists Mazzini as a Mason, and even a Past Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy"], dated August 15, 1871, plans for three world wars necessary to bring the One World Order, and it is a "commonly believed fallacy that for a short time, the Pike letter to Mazzini was on display in the British Museum Library in London, and it was copied by William Guy Carr

[died 1959, was an English-born Canadian naval officer and an author; educated in Scotland; he also refers to the theories of l'abbe Augustin Barruel and John Robison {John Robison b. 1739, d. 1805, was a Scottish physicist; the first general secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh; worked with James Watt on an early steam car; he authored Proofs of a Conspiracy in 1797, accusing Freemasonry of being infiltrated by Weishaupt's Order of the Illuminati"} who explained the French Revolution as a Freemasonic plot linked to the German Illuminati of Adam Weishaupt, associated to the conspiracy theory of the New World Order],

former Intelligence Officer in the Royal Canadian Navy. The British Library has confirmed ... that such a document has never been in their possession, but Cardinal Rodriguez have said that it was in 1925".
Carr learned about this letter from Cardinal Caro y Rodriguez of Santiago,
[died 1958, was a Chilean Cardinal; "...Caro was strongly opposed to the influence of Freemasonry in modern society and wrote several anti-Masonic pamphlets"];
"... no conclusive proof exists to show that this letter was ever written. Nevertheless, the letter is widely quoted and the topic of much discussion".

The extracts of the letter:

"The First World War must be brought about in order to permit the Illuminati to overthrow the power of the [Emperors] Czars in Russia and of making that country a fortress of atheistic Communism. The divergences caused by the "agentur" (agents) of the Illuminati between the British and Germanic Empires will be used to foment this war.

At the end of the war, Communism will be built and used in order to destroy the other governments and in order to weaken the religions. ... During the Second World War, International Communism must become strong enough in order to balance Christendom, which would be then restrained and held in check until the time when we would need it for the final social cataclysm.
... The Third World War must be fomented by ... the leaders of Islamic World...".

"... Michael Haupt said, that William Guy Carr said, that Cardinal Caro y Rodriguez of Santiago, Chile said, that ... Dr. Bataille aka Leo Taxil said about Albert Pike and Giuseppe Mazzini in 'Le diable au XIXe siecle', v. II, 1892- 1894, p. 605...".

At https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Guy_Carr we read:

"...In 'Pawns in the Game', Carr claims that World War I was fought in order to enable the Illuminati to overthrow the powers of the Tsars in Russia ... Michael Haupt had taken the three world war theory from the introduction of Carr's Pawns in the Game (1958). This introduction outlines a plan that Carr attributes to Pike, but not to the letter from Pike to Mazzini. Only the last section of the three world war plan in Haupt's text is a quote attributed to the letter from Pike to Mazzini. This quote is virtually identical to the one in Rodrique's book and it can be traced to the book Le diable au XIXe siecle (1894) by Gabriel Jagond-Pager a.k.a. Leo Taxil, where it is claimed to be from a letter of Pike to Mazzini written in 1871. This quote was later considered to describe the Bolshevik revolution, but whether a hoax or not, it predates 1917. The book of Jagond-Pager is enlisted in the British Museum, which is what Rodriguez meant by his statement, and it contains the full letter, be it hoax or not. The plan attributed to Pike is also described in part in Le Palladisme by Margiotta and it seems to describe the same plan as in Jagond-Pager's book, so it is possible that in this case the famous hoaxer Leo Taxil actually refers to some existing letter, but Dominico Margiotta may be another pseudonym of Jacond-Pager. There is nothing of the three world war plan in this letter, and nothing especially prophetic-it simply describes a Freemasonry plan to overthrow all religions".
At https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pawns_in_the_Game_(book):

"...a Book written by the Canadian William Guy Carr published in 1955. The author was killed {?} in mysterious conditions" {created this page on 1 November 2015}.

Abnormally strange theories appeared already in the 19th century, then in 1916 in Great Britain, and since then, these considerations are in order to hide the real motor for the global intelligence network. These shocking theories are designed to excite readers of its mystery and with the events described not to the end.

"Albert Pike ... moved to Arkansas [1833] where he became a prominent member of the secessionist movement. He was chosen by Mazzini to head the Illuminati operations in America and moved to Charleston, South Carolina, in 1852 [to New Orleans in 1855]. During the war he was made a brigadier general ... Mazzini was not only the head of the Illuminati, he was the leading revolutionist in Europe. He was determined to establish a New World Order on the rubble of the old order and created a plan to accomplish his goal. He detailed his plan for world domination in a letter to Pike on January 22, 1870: 'We must allow all the federations to continue just as they are, with their systems, their central authorities and their diverse modes of correspondence between high grades of the same rite, organized as they are at the present, but we must create a super rite, which will remain unknown, to which we will call those Masons of high degree whom we shall select...', [acc. to] Lady Queensborough, Occult Theocracy, pp. 208-209.

This secret rite is called "The New and Reformed Palladian Rite [or Reformed Palladium]." It has headquarters in Charleston, S.C., Rome in Italy, and Berlin ... Pike wrote about his beliefs and goals in 1871 in "Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry."

"The Palladian Rite, according to conspiracy theorists it is the very top of the Illuminati pyramid. Conspiracy theorists point to the Palladian Rite as being the secret overlord of all Masonic Rites uniting all masonry together in a dark agenda to propitiate three world wars to bring about the New World Order Government led by shape shifting reptiles from outer space".

Pike designed a plan for world conquest and wrote of it in a letter to Mazzini dated August 15, 1871. He said three future world wars would prepare the world for the New World Order ... This strategy is corroborated by Dr. Dennis L. Cuddy PhD. in 'The Power Elite's use of Wars and Crises'." See: pike.htm and http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/. Above Dennis Laurence Cuddy, is historian and political analyst, received a Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill [also at NewsWithViews.com].

Mazzini was the member of the underground "Carbonari" society, also with Lelewel [see Chodzko, Oginski ...], Krepowiecki and Józef Zaliwski. On 17 February 1833, Zaliwski [see Lubiec estate close to Wola Pszczolecka; Sulimierski, Bleszynski, Psarski ...] left Paris and traveled to the Polish lands.

Giuseppe Mazzini born 1805, died in 1872, was an Italian politician, journalist and headed the Italian revolutionary movement. William R. Denslow lists Mazzini as a Mason, and even a Past Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy; in 1840 Mazzini reformed the Giovine Italia in London, and from London he wrote a series of letters to his agents in Europe and South America, and made friends with Thomas Carlyle and his wife Jane; in 1843 he organized another riot in Bologna; in 1847 he moved again to London, also founded the People's International League; 1848 Mazzini was in Paris; in April 1848 Mazzini reached Milan, when the First Italian War of Independence started; joined Garibaldi's force at Bergamo, moving to Switzerland with him; in 1849 a republic was declared in Rome.

"Under Lord Palmerston, England supports all revolutions ... and the leading revolutionary in Her Majesty's Secret Service is Giuseppe Mazzini ... Mazzini is a Genoese admirer of the ... Venetian friar Paolo Sarpi. Mazzini's father was a physician to Queen Victoria's father. For a while Mazzini worked for the Carbonari, one of Napoleon's Freemasonic fronts. Then, in 1831, Mazzini founded his Young Italy secret society. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, ... President of France, sent him articles for his magazine. Mazzini's cry ... that the people are the new God. ... Mazzini teaches that Christianity developed the human individual, but that the era of Christianity, of freedom, of human rights, is now over ... The British would take care of Industry and Colonies; the Poles, leadership of the Slavic world; the Russians, the civilizing of Asia. The French get Action, the Germans get Thought...".

"... Mazzini has tried to put this into practice just last year. In November 1848, armed Young Italy gangs forced Pope Pius IX to flee from Rome to Naples. From March to June of 1849, Mazzini ruled the Papal States as one of three dictators, all Grand Orient Freemasons. During that time, death squads operated in Rome, Ancona, and other cities. Some churches were sacked, and many confessionals were burned. ... During this time he was planning to set up his own Italian national church on the Anglican model. The defense of Rome was organized by Giuseppe Garibaldi, who had joined Mazzini's Young Italy in the early 1830s. But a French army ... drove out Mazzini, Garibaldi, and their supporters.

Lord Palmerston said that Mazzini's regime in Rome was 'far better than any the Romans have had for centuries' ...

Right now Mazzini is here in London, enjoying the support of Lord Ashley, the Earl of Shaftesbury, a Protestant fanatic who also happens to be Lord Palmerston's son- in-law. Mazzini's direct access to the British government payroll comes through James Stansfeld, a junior Lord of the Admiralty and a very high official of British intelligence. ... Stansfeld's father-in-law, William Henry Ashurst, is another of Mazzini's patrons, as is John Bowring of the Foreign Office ... Bowring is Jeremy Bentham's literary executor. John Stuart Mill of India House is another of Mazzini's friends. Mazzini is close to ... writer Thomas Carlyle, and has been having an affair with Carlyle's wife. Young Italy, as we have seen, was founded in 1831, attracting the young sailor Giuseppe Garibaldi and Louis Napoleon.

Shortly thereafter there followed Young Poland, whose leaders included the revolutionaries Lelewel and Worcell.
Then came Young Germany, featuring Arnold Ruge ... In 1834, Mazzini founded 'Young Europe', with Italian, Swiss, German, and Polish components. ... By the end of this century we will have a Young Argentina (founded by Garibaldi), Young Bosnia, Young India, Young Russia, Young Armenia, Young Egypt...", acc. to Webster G. Tarpley, Ph.D.

Theories of William Guy Carr on the Satanism - the Illuminati - Zionism, are obviously erroneous, mistaken and very strange because it was a global political network of the Russian intelligence infiltrated by the British, French and Germans, and by the Polish independence conspiracy.

Compare three dates:

1.
6 km to the south of the BRZEZIE was the palace in Wieniec founded in the early nineteenth century by the family of Miaczynski; in 1868 the property bought a Warsaw banker of Jewish origin and a great Polish patriot - Leopold Kronenberg.

2. 1870 Brown of London - took the Breguet company [below];

3. and the letter of 1871 from Albert Pike to Mazzini [above].

Breguet cooperated also with Chambrier, V. Foy, the French government (dial telegraph in 1845), the Telegraph Company in 1863 (electric telegraph - Breguet System, late 19th century), in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s with Wood, Edward George b. in Clerkenwell, Islington, January 1812, d. 1896 from Cheapside, City of London, who was friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist (galvanic telegraph, Crossley's Telegraph in Halifax), d'Arlincourt (transmitter); Breguet patented a Telegraph Communicator - Breguet Alphabetical Type, circa 1870; manufactured the telephone transmitter (Boudet, Laborde, Breguet, Ader, Du Moncel, and others) and telephone receivers (Bell, Breguet, and others). In 1877 telephones appears in Russia but in the Russian army experiments on telephone made in 1878. L. Dyuflon and Dizeren in St. Petersburg established the Electrotechnical workshop on 1892, June 27. On 1896, December 14, L. Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and A. V. Konstantinovich [Apollon Konstantynowicz son of Wasyl Konstantynowicz] in St. Petersburg established The Factory of electromechanical structures when Tesla received a British patent on the design of the spark gap - rotating strap. 1898, K. F. Siemens, W. Siemens, A. V. Gvineria and A. Y. Rothstein in St. Petersburg established the Russian joint stock company of electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske'. 1899 were starting experiments on radio in Russian War Department. 1902 (1901), the Plant of electromechanical structures reorganized into a joint stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co', DECA.

In 1870 Louis Francois Clement Breguet transferred the leadership of the company to Edward Brown;
Louis Francois Clement Breguet collaborated with Heinrich Ruhmkorff, George Daniels and Professor Thomas Engel, and Louis Francois Clement Breguet met Alexander Graham Bell and obtained a license to manufacture Bell telephones for the French market. He had one son Antoine b. 1851 and he was grandfather of Louis Charles Breguet, aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer. The great-grandson of Louis Franēois Clément Breguet: above Louis Antoine b. 1851 d. 1882, was the last of the Breguet family to run the business. So he took on noted English watchmaker Edward Brown of Clerkenwell to look after the Paris factory. London-born Edward Brown became the factory manager, his partner - 1870 - and, after Breguet's death, the owner and head of the company. His sons Edward and Henry Brown headed the firm into the 20th century.

By Michael Weare at http://clicktempus.com/turning-points-in-time-breguet:

under Brown and his descendants, Breguet remained a niche Parisian watchmaking boutique for the next century. Edward Brown died in 1895, and was succeeded by his two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired in 1920. Then Henry Brown became the Head of Breguet's Firm. The watching making firm continues to market itself under the name of 'Breguet'. The electrical instrument business trades first under the name of 'Breguet fabricant' and from 1881 - 'Maison Breguet'. The Brown family owned the Breguet watch brand for 100 years, five years longer than the Breguets. The complicated watches were built by the Joux Valley's leading watchmakers including the Victorin Piguet workshops. 1881 'Maison Breguet' that is Maison Breguet SA was the name given to the Breguet family business after it had sold off to Edward Brown in 1870 and reorganized by 1881. It manufactured electrical instruments, telegraphs, telephones, and industrial engines. It continued to operate in Paris until 1898 when its factories were moved to an industrial area in northern France.

At all my domain very interesting on line {see below !}:
Chodzko - Oginski - Breguet - Konstantynowicz - Schaub - Gilliard - Duflon - Armand - Paszkowski - Kosciuszko - Fiszer - Mielzynski.


TRUBETSKOY Nikolai Nikitich (1744-1821) is known as a close friend of Novikov and one of the main members of society Martinists. In 1796 Paul I sent him to the Voronezh province, but he was soon appointed as a senator in Moscow Senate.

This Society had a close connection to the Franco-Masons and the Illuminati, in the end of the XVIII century, was a lot of branches in Russia and Germany. Many of its members were of royal and high-ranking foreign persons, such as the Duke of Brunswick, Duke Kassalsky, Velkner, Prussian First Minister, etc.
Many of the members were the Russians: Lopuhin Ivan, Ivan Turgenev, Kutuzov, Tatishchev, Chebotarev, etc.

His brother Prince Yuri Nikitich, who was also a member of society Martinists, had a name Neasta (Neastes).

Philip Monoux Lucas (George Smith Philip Monoux Lucas born ca 1780 ?, d. December 1830; at St. Vincent island 1802 - 1810; lived in Marylebone, Middlesex in 1827) + (ca 1805 ?) Sarah nee Beesly b. in Ireland ca 1781, had daughters:
Anna Maria (1809 - 1846) Lucas married the Austrian Joseph Ferdinand Count de Taafe (d. 1845 near London) in 1842, and
Harriet Fraser Lucas married Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski [see MI5].

Joseph Ferdinand Count de Taaffe b. ca 1792, a Freemason and was a member of the states of Moravia and Bohemia, the Count of the Empire, the Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, great grandson of Nicholas VI Visconne. Nicholas Taaffe was the 6th Viscount Taaffe and 6th Baron of Ballymote, born 1685 at Crean's Castle in county Sligo, Nicholas Taaffe was an Irish-born courtier and soldier who served the Habsburgs in Lorraine and Austria.

Georgina Augusta Konarska was born in 1855 at Brussels, Belgium, and she was the daughter of named above Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski and Harriet Fraser Lucas.

The Order of St. John / the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem "first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria. It evolved from a faction of the Order of Malta that emerged in France in the 1820s and moved to Britain in the early 1830s, where, after operating under a succession of grand priors and different names, it became associated with the founding in 1882 of the St John Ophthalmic Hospital near the old city of Jerusalem and the St John Ambulance Brigade in 1887".

The Knights Templar / The United Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta, is a fraternal order affiliated with Freemasonry. "Unlike the initial degrees conferred in a regular Masonic Lodge, which only require a belief in a Supreme Being regardless of religious affiliation, the Knights Templar is one of several additional Masonic Orders in which membership is open only to Freemasons who profess a belief in Christianity".
"It is known by varying degrees of formality as the Order of Malta, or the Order of Knights of Malta, or the Ancient and Masonic Order of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes, and Malta. In practice this last and fullest version of the name tends to be reserved to letterheads, rituals, and formal documents".

In 1774, in Poland was established the Grand Priory of the Order of Malta, headed by Prince Adam Poniński.

In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte setting off on the Egyptian campaign took Malta and the Order was exiled.
Above
Adam Poniński b. 1732, was the Speaker of Parliament from 1773 to 1775, and the Prior of the Priory of the Polish Order of the Knights of Malta. In Poland were two 'komandorie' (Commanderies).

The Order of the Knights of Saint John, also known as Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, and the Hospitallers, were among the most famous of the Roman Catholic military orders during the Middle Ages. The Roman Catholic order was further damaged by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798 and became dispersed throughout Europe. By the early 19th century, the order had been severely weakened by the loss of its priories throughout Europe. Only 10% of the order's income came from traditional sources in Europe, with the remaining 90% being generated by the Russian Grand Priory until 1810. This was partly reflected in the government of the Order being under Lieutenants, rather than Grand Masters, in the period 1805 to 1879, when Pope Leo XIII restored a Grand Master to the order. Copyright by Wikipedia.

The Russian Emperor, Paul I, gave the largest number of knights shelter in St. Petersburg, an action which gave rise to the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitallers and the Order's recognition among the Russian Imperial Orders. The refugee knights in St Petersburg proceeded to elect Tsar Paul as their Grand Master – a rival to Grand Master von Hompesch until the latter's abdication left Paul as the sole Grand Master. In 1834, the order, by this time known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), acquired new headquarters in Rome where it has remained since.

Michał Radziwiłł Red (1870 - 1955 in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) was a nobleman and diplomat in the embassy of the Russian Empire in Paris. He was also a Knight of Malta. He was born to Ferdynand Radziwiłł and Pelagia Sapieha; his great grandfather was Prince Anton Radziwill and his great grandmother was Princess Louise of Prussia (1770 - 1836).

Above Ferdynand Fryderyk Radziwiłł (1834 in Berlin - 1926 in Rome), was also a Knight of Malta since 1889; father of Janusz Franciszek, Michał Radziwiłł Red, Karol Ferdynand; son of Bogusław Fryderyk Radziwiłł and Leontyna Gabriela von Clary und Aldringen. 1874-1919 member of Reichstag.

Above Janusz Franciszek Ksawery Józef Bronisław Maria Radziwiłł 1880 in Berlin - d. 1967, 1935 - 1939 senator; was also a Knight of Malta since 1926 as President.

Stefan Przezdziecki,
Rajnold Przezdziecki;
Alfred Chłapowski, too.

Antoni Wankowicz / Anton Vankovich, having a rather large estate in Igumen County, made ​​a career of the noble service in native county, had friendly relations with the most influential families of the county:
Wankowicz, Konstantynowicz, Osztarp, Moniuszko, Jelski, Pruszynski, Slotwinski, Janiszewski;
he hold positions of cornet in the Igumen county (1802-1804), chairman of the Igumen county court (1804-1805), Marshal of the Igumen county (1805-1808). He got quite rare in those days, the Maltese Order of St John of Jerusalem. He became a member of the local Masonic lodges, which was very popular and common in those days - "Vladislav Jagiello" and The Peace Room / 'The shrine room'.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Francis Servatius Hutten-Czapski b. 1851, d. 1937, in 1890 negotiated with Pope Leo XIII end of the Kulturkampf in Germany; he was friend with the Cardinals of the Vatican; persuaded the German general staff to support the Bolsheviks (1916 - 1917) and in the independent Poland (since 1918 - 11 November 1918 - Independence of Poland) was the president of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta.

His father Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to (January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833;
1833 - 1837 Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834, including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland. Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to H. Koziel, in 1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
The republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini.

Bogdan Hutten - Czapski had met on a secret intelligence mission with the family of Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Hutten-Czapska in 1892 in Belarus.

Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapska, b. 1894 in Prague, died in 1981, Maisons-Laffitte, was
the granddaughter of Emeryk Czapski / Emeric Hutten-Czapski of the family who had a huge estates from Radziwill, around Minsk, in Curland, Lithuania and Volhynia.

Ferdinand Radziwill of the Polish Knights of Malta, has come after Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, an old friend of the Prussian court and military.

Stanisław Sołtan b. 27.8.1756 - died in 1836 in Mitawa, General, secret acted in 1793, then in 1812, member of Parliament of 1782, 1788, m. Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł d. 1802, daughter of Stanisław and Karolina Pociej, owned Zdzięcioł; m. 2nd in 1820 to Konstancja Toplicka-Tupalska 1-v Kasper Korsak, daughter of Antoni and Róża Górska.

Stanislaw had children:

a. Helena Sołtan + Franciszek Sołtan, member of the Order of Malta,

b. Adam Leon Ludwik Sołtan, b. 2.7.1792 in Warszawa, freemason, m. Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839,

c. Karolina Sołtan, b. ca 1780 / 1790 + Józef Piottuch-Kublicki [see Dominik Konstantynowicz],

d. Anna Sołtan, b. ca 1790 + Antoni Wańkowicz,

e. Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan was born 1824 in Uzukrewno (his mother's estate) and died on March 15, 1900 in Prezma, now Latvia, was son of Stanislaus Soltan and Constance Toplicki / Konstancja Toplicka, studied at a high school in Mitawa in 1835- 1842 Courland.

Catherine married Francis Kossakowski (b. 1815), that is Katarzyna O'Brien de Lacy, 1820 / 1827-1910, married Franciszek Korwin-Kossakowski in 1840. Franciszek was born in 1815, in Marciniszki.
Katarzyna Korwin - Kossakowska nee O'Brien de Lacy, was born to Patryk O'Brien de Lacy and Julia O'Brien de Lacy nee von Damme; Patryk was born in 1800. Julia was born in 1800. Katarzyna had brothers - Piotr O'Brien de Lacy, and Aleksander O'Brien de Lacy b. 1830 m. Gabriela Radowicka b. 1850, who had daughter
Aleksandra 1895 - 1987, by www.sejm-wielki.pl: m. ca 1915 to Andrzej Miączyński 1876 - 1936 with daughter
Zofia 1919-2015 m. Stanisław Komorowski 1915-2004 with Andrzej Komorowski 1950, Stanisław Komorowski 1950, Krzysztof Komorowski 1954, Anna.

Grandparents of above Franciszek:
Antoni Korwin-Kossakowski 1735-1798 and Eleonora Straszewicz b. 1750; Ludwik Gorski from Retów 1749-1815 and Konstancja Odachowska.

Parents of above Franciszek:
Szymon Korwin-Kossakowski, a member of the Malta Order (the Sulkowskis!), 1777-1828 and Józefa Ewa Rachela Gorska b. 1783. Franciszek d. 1887.

Hipolit Gorski (his sister Józefa Górska married to Szymon Kossakowski b. 1777 in Marciniszki, died in 1828, with sons: Ludwik Kossakowski b. 1805, d. 1843, and Franciszek Kossakowski b. 1815). Hipolit Gorski b. ca 1790 was son of Ludwik Gorski and stepson of Konstancja Odachowska b. 1750.

In 1797 Catherine II gave Augustówek to General Maurice de Lacy for his merits during the Turkish-Russian war. Maurice de Lacy, residing permanently in the palace of King Stanislaus Augustus, compiled in 1819 testament to his nephew, Patrick O'Brien, senior, the son of Terence and Mary de Lacy, captain of troops of England. Even before his death, ie. before 1820, gen. Maurice de Lacy gave to above Patrick O'Brien surname de Lacy, and the Tsar Alexander I to combine the two names in one: O'Brien de Lacy.

The founder of the Polish family line became a nephew of Count Maurice - above named senior Peter O'Brien de Lacy. He followed his uncle, serving in the Russian army, and he received from Catherine II, Augustówek, confiscated after the abdication of King Poniatowski. Not having children of their own, Maurice left the palace his nephew Patrick senior, who gave Augustówek in the hands of his younger son Alexander, who married a Polish girl, Gabriela Radowicka.
From this marriage were born three daughters: Maria, Genevieve and Alexandra, and three sons: Terence, Patrick junior, and Maurice.

Above "...Count Patrick O'Brien de Lacy / de Lassy [junior] had served his life term [a poisoning case] at the Shlisselburg fortress near St. Petersburg until 1917, when he was released together with other prisoners. Soon afterwards he returned to his family's originally native Scotland and, according to one source, was employed as naval engineer at Dundee Shipyard". This is very important information, because Patrick was of Irish origin, but after 1917 emigrated to Scotland and to Dundee, close to Perth. It seems to me that poisoning case could have completely different motives.

Please look for Perth and Dundee at my domain!

Patrick, who was born in 1790 [1800 ?], married a Miss Egan at Bath, England and was later divorced; he later became known as Patrick O'Brien de Lacy of Grodno [senior].
At the time of John and Johanna Pierse's wedding Mary de Lacy (or Mrs. Mary O'Brien) was dead and her youngest child Patrick O'Brien was 5 years old [senior]. The first recorded birth of a child to John and Johanna Pierse was Maurice in 1804 and who was known as Maurice de Lacy Pierse.

Immediately prior to 1815, Patrick O'Brien [senior], then aged 24 or 25, had become a Lieutenant of Militia in the Russian service. Between 1815 and 1819, Patrick O'Brien spent half a year in Russia and half in England because of his poor health. In 1819, at the request of above mentioned General Maurice de Lacy, he took up permanent residence in Russia and, upon the General's recommendation, applied for and obtained a commission in the Guards of the Russian Emperor.

Thus, when General Maurice died at Grodno in December 1819 (Jan. 1820 ?), these three, Dr. Condon, Lieutenant Patrick O'Brien (de Lacy) senior and named above Maurice de Lacy Pierse, were in attendance at the funeral. Immediately after the funeral, Maurice de Lacy Pierse was persuaded by Patrick O'Brien (de Lacy) to go to London from Poland, where he arranged to meet him regarding the contents of the General's will which, O'Brien declared.

Patryk O'Brien de Lacy senior married 2nd to Julia. Despite the fact that neither Patrick O'Brien de Lacy [senior], nor his wife Julia von Damme / Dame were Poles, quickly and completely became the Polish;
their six children:
daughter
Catherine / Katarzyna married Francis / Franciszek Kossakowski (b. 1815);
son
Peter / PIOTR [see below] was married to Louise / Ludwika Ronikier;
Henry / Henryk;
Karol / Charles and
Maurycy / Maurice [2nd] remained unmarried;

Alexander married Gabriela Radowicka

(Alexander O'Brien de Lacy, 1842-1908, son of Patryk O'Brien de Lacy senior and Julia O'Brien de Lacy nee Von Dame. Patryk was born in 1790 [1800 ?]. Alexander and Gabriela nee Radowicka born in 1856, had 6 children: Maria Jaholkowski, Genowefa Zembszuski and so on).

Louise Ronikier that is Ludwika Ronikier was daughter of Kazimierz Jozef Ronikier 1787 - 1863, and Ludwika Zbijewska b. after 1787. Ludwika Ronikier, married to Piotr O'Brien de Lacy / Peter (son of Patryk / Patrick O'Brien de Lacy 1st / senior and Julia), and had son:

Patryk O'Brien de Lacy 2nd (O'Brien de Lacy, Patrick Petrovic, b. 1863, junior), who m. 1st Maria Tanska with children:
Piotr junior and Katarzyna;

Patryk O'Brien de Lacy 2nd / junior married 2nd to Ludmila Buturlin, that is Ljudmila (b. 1876) nee Buturlin, m. 1st (div) Dmitri Aleksandrovich Buturlin (d. 1942); m. 2nd to Patrick O'Brien de Lacy junior.

Please compare below the genealogical data:

Dmitry Buturlin Sergeevich / Dmitri Buturlin b. 1850-1917 or died on 12.05.1920; Aide to the Head of the General Staff. Gen. Lieutenant (1906), head of the 26th Infantry Division in Grodno, 1912 - General of Infantry.

His wife - Ludmila Pavlovna, nee Countess Bobrinskaya / LUDMILA BOBRZYNSKA (Ljudmila Bobrinsky / Ludmila Pavlovna, 1860 / 1866 {?} - 1911 Paris), in 1876 (div 1891),
with children:

1. Ljudmila (b. 1876) nee Buturlin, m. 1st (div) Dmitri Aleksandrovich Buturlin (d. 1942); m. 2nd to above Patrick O'Brien de Lacy junior;

2. Wassili Buturlin (1884 - poisoned by his brother-in-law on 11 May 1910), m. Maria Maximilianovna Sticke- Haymann.

Brother of above Dmitri Buturlin was Aleksander Buturlin (Moscow 1845-Moscow 1916) m. Jelisaveta Mikhailovna Snitko (d. after 1913). Father of mentioned Dmitri Buturlin:

Sergei Buturlin (1803-1873) m. Maria Sergeievna Gagarin (1815-1902).

Jozef Sulkowski in 1779 to 1782 with an uncle or a grandfather was in Naples, Flanders, Netherlands, England, Spain, Portugal, Paris to Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche; in 1783 in Russia to Ekatherina II who given to him title of officer.

I am thinking that a boy Jozef was taken into the care of a wealthy uncle, the Duke Casimir Augustus Sulkowski. August fancied himself that Jozef is an adoptive son; Duke took him on nearly 3-years tour in Europe.

August Kazimierz Sulkowski the prince, born on November 15, 1729 in Dresden, died on January 7, 1786 in Leszno, the governor of Gniezno 1768-75, and in 1775-1776 the marshal of the Permanent Council; the governor of Kalisz from 1775, Poznan from 1778, general lejtnant of the Crown troops from 1782; after 1755 he became a Maltese bachelor; the son of the prince Aleksander Józef Sulkowski and Maria Franciszka Stein zu Jettingen. Married to Ludwika Mniszech (1751 - 1799). The owner of Kobylka close to Wolomin. August Poniatowski, sold Kobylka to the governor of Kalisz, August Sulkowski.
Duke Sulkowski sold in 1772 named Kobylka to Count Aleksander Unruh / Unrug, 1704 - 1773, the son of Jerzy Von Unruh = Georg Sebastian von Unruh and Anna Helena. Aleksander was the husband of Helena Beata Oppeln Bronikowska Unruh, and Joanna Krystyna Charlotta, the daughter of Zygmunt Fryderyk Troschke de Rosenwerth. Father of Fryderyk Sebastian Unrug.

Joseph Sulkowski was taken to the highest courts. Particular sympathy to him showed the queen of France, Marie Antoinette. According to the chroniclers, made him a page to her; Prince August died in 1786. In 1783 served the Rydzyna Regiment of the Polish army, 1786 lieutenant.

Above named Duke August Sulkowski died on 7 Jan. 1786 and given to Jozef Sulkowski the title of the 'Commandor of the Malta Order' with 12000 'zlotych' per year;
Jozef Sulkowski in 1786 served 10th regiment of the Polish army; Dec. 1791 Captain, 1792 in Lithuania on the Zelva river banks fought against the Russian Army (Virtuti Militari) under General Michal Zabello / Zabiella 1760-1815; escaped from Poland in Autumn 1792 to Paris.
1793 the French citizen,
1793 married daughter of Jean-Michel de Venture de Paradis 1739-1799; 1793 served the secret service of the 'Convention nationale' in Syria, India, Constantinopole, but in Autumn 1794 back to Poland, under Tadeusz Kosciuszko troops;

around Nov. 1794 back to Paris, on 1 May 1796 the French Army; in 1796 - 1797 Italy: a friend of Napoleon Bonaparte and on 27th October 1796 his Adjutant.

Alexander Sulkowski Sulima b. 1730 / 1731 - 1786, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire from 1752, lieutenant general of the royal army in 1785, Austrian field marshal, was the son of Alexander Joseph Sulkowski; the Order of Malta cavalier.

Francis Sulkowski Sulima born in 1733, died on April 28, 1812, prince of the Holy Roman Empire from 1752, inspector general of infantry, Chamberlain of Stanislaw August Poniatowski, superior of the Commandery of St. John the Baptist, of the Knights of Malta since 1776 to ?, the Austrian court chamberlain from 1754.

Jozef Sulkowski's father was Franciszek SULKOWSKI, prince 1733 - 1812

(copyright by B. C. Biega at page biega.com/sulkowski-family.html:

ALEXANDER JOSEPH SULKOWSKI, b. 1695 in Cracow, d. 1762 in Leszno [see MIELZYNSKI and ROKOSSOWSKI], a companion of August III, son of August II, and was his Minister of State in Saxony from 1733 to 1738; a Count of the Holy Roman Empire in 1733; Prince by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in 1752; bought the estates of Rydzyna and Leszno from the exiled ex- king of Poland Stanislaw Leszczynski, and estates of Bielsko in Cieszyn Silesia,
married Baroness Maria Francis Stein zu Jettingen, had four sons and three daughters:

1. August Casimir (Kazimierz) SULKOWSKI, b. 1729, general of the royal army, Marshal of the Polish parliament 1775 - 1776, married Louise Mniszech in 1766;

2. Alexander Antoni, b. 1730, General of the royal army 1785, married Elenor Cetner in 1755;

3. FRANCIS (FRANCISZEK), b. 1733, d. 1812, the Bielsko estates,

4. ANTONI PAUL, b. 1734, the RYDZYNA line;

5. Marianna, b. 1728, d. 1749, married Franciszek Jakub Szembek in 1747;

6. Joanna, b. 1736, d. 1800, married Prince PIOTR SAPIEHA / Peter Sapieha in 1750;

7. Josepha Petronela, b. 1737, married Prince Ignacy Potocki in 1753).

Jean Michel de VENTURE de PARADIS born 1739 Marseille - his children:

1. a daughter unknown by name de VENTURE de PARADIS married to Jozef Sulkowski / Joseph SULKOWSKI born in 1770 in the Poznan province in Poland - died in 1798 in Cairo / Kair / Caire, Egypt: the friend and aide de camp to Bonaparte, friend with Muiron, Vivant Denon, Carnot, Augereau, and Bourienne;
and
2. Jeanne VENTURE de PARADIS 1774 - 1813 married to

a. Ludwik / Louis MALESZEWSKI [see Walewski, Zamoyski, Radolinski, Poniatowski, and Wola Pszczolecka] with children

Klementyna nee Maleszewska / Clementine MALESZEWSKI married to de LAQUEILLE, and

Olimpia Maleszewska / Olympe MALESZEWSKI married to Leonard CHODZKO b. 1800 - died in 1871;

b. m. 2nd in 1810, Paris to Antoine Louis BREGUET 1776 - 1858 with children:

A. Louis Franēois Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889 with children:

Louise BREGUET 1847-1930,

Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882,

Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877;

B. Louise Charlotte Clémentine BREGUET 1810 - 1887 married to Dr LIONNET.

And now let's get back to Belarus to such character as Antoni Wankowicz / Anton Vankovich who married Catholic noblewoman Anna Stanislavovna Soltan, who belonged to a wealthy and influential in those days family, was in close relationship with the magnate clans;

her mother was Franciszka Teofila Radziwill / Francisco Theophile Stanislavovna Radziwill, daughter of Stanislaw Radziwill (1722-1787) and Karolina Pociej / Carolina (1732-1776);

her father Stanislav Stanislavovich Soltan Pereswiat (1756-1836), who was court Marshal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1791-1792), and in 1812 he led the Commission to the Provisional Government

[on June 19, 1812 was created on the orders of the French Emperor Napoleon administrative authority in the occupied territory of the French troops in the Lithuanian-Belarusian provinces of the Russian Empire during the Franco-Russian war].

With his wife Anna Soltan, Anton Tadeushevich Vankovich had three daughters who married off very well.

The first daughter Clementine Antonievna Vankovich married a wealthy Count Edward Mostowski / Edward son of Jozef Mostowski (1790-1855), the Sventsiany county leader (1812-1840), the provincial leader of the Vilna (1840-1843), owner of the estate Cerkliszki / Tserklishki in Vilnius province;

the second daughter Valeria Antonievna Vankovich (1805 - ?) married a wealthy Count Konstantin Ignatievich Tizengauzen / Konstanty Tyzenhaus (1786-1853), owner of the Postawy estate, in the Rakiszki / Rakishki county, famous ornithologists and regional specialists.

The third daughter Wanda Antonievna Vankovich (1808-1842) married the wealthy Count Benedykt Tyszkiewicz / Mihalavich Benedict Tyszkiewicz (1807-1866), the provincial leader of the Kovno (1846-1849), owner of the estate Czerwony Dwor close to Kaunas / Kovno.

Antoni Wankowicz / Anton Vankovich, having a rather large estate in Igumen County, made a career of the noble service in native county, had friendly relations with the most influential families of the county: Wankowicz, Konstantynowicz, Osztarp, Moniuszko, Jelski, Pruszynski, Slotwinski, Janiszewski; he hold positions of cornet in the Igumen county (1802-1804), chairman of the Igumen county court (1804-1805), Marshal of the Igumen county (1805-1808) [see MIEZONKA].

He got quite rare in those days, the Maltese Order of St John of Jerusalem. He became a member of the local Masonic lodges, which was very popular and common in those days - "Vladislav Jagiello" and The Peace Room / 'The shrine room'.

In 1812, when the Franco-Russian war in Minsk province began, came the French troops that established here its management system. Anton Vankovich joined the French authorities and set up local administrations under Prince Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout on July 13 / July 25 - the Commission of the Provisional Government of the Minsk province; cooperated with
Prince Michael Kryshtafavich Dominikovich Puzyna and

the Commissioner-General Michael Antonovich Zenovich / Michal Zenowicz;

Anton Tadeushevich Vankovich and Michael Antonovich Zenovich were members of the economic department, headed by chairman
Ignacy Moniuszko / Ignatius Stanislavovich Moniuszko (1787-1869) [see OGINSKI, and Dukora close to MINSK].

According to the decree of the French Emperor Napoleon I on June 19 (July 1) 1812 to control the territories seized by the French, were created departments in Vilna, Grodno, Minsk and Bialystok; Vankovich became part of the new administration and has been a member since July 17 to August 15, 1812, and then was supervisor of the military hospital of the French "Grand Army" in Minsk. He inherited his father's estate, in Minsk Province, Zazere and Vidagoshch [Zarzecze and Widagoszcz]; the palace in Vilnius, called the Vankovitski palace.

Those who have studied the roots of this complex structure, the most common commit certain substantive and methodological mistakes, runs the risk of retaliatory attacks and ridicule, and even fully social ostracism.

Now brief note on the Uvarov family settled in Pskov. Fedor Petrovich Uvarov had his cousin's nephew Sergei Uvarov Apollonovich (1847 in Tula, Kharkov and Tver); Fedor Petrovich Uvarov [see below] was born on April 16, 1773 [or 1769] in the village Hruslovka in the Tula province. He was married to Princess Maria Feodorovna Lubomirski. His father was on trial and lived in St. Petersburg, the property was under arrest, and the Uvarov had to live with his mother in the village. In 1786, Fedor Petrovich was sergeant in the Life Guards Regiment. 1788 the captain of Sofia Infantry Regiment. 1790 he took part in military actions in Poland and again in 1792 and 1794. 1798 he received the rank of colonel. He became a close friend of Ekaterina Nikolaevna Lopukhina, mother of the emperor's favorite. In March 1798 he was transferred to St. Petersburg, 1800 he was appointed chief of the Cavalry Corps;
he had the Order of St. John of Jerusalem; 1800 - lieutenant general. Uvarov became one of the most closest friend to EMPEROR Alexander, accompanied him on walks and trips.

At the head of the Horse Guards he fought in 1805; Austerlitz; he accompanied the Emperor Alexander in Erfurt; 1807 - the commander of the 1st Cavalry Division. 1812 he was appointed commander of the 1st Cavalry Corps, which joined the Patriotic War of 1812 - Uvarov spoke against the order to leave Moscow; participated in the Battle of Vyazma; the campaign of 1813 at Leipzig. He was awarded the rank of general of cavalry; he was under the Emperor in Vienna; Uvarov died on November 20, 1824 in St. Petersburg and buried in the church in the presence of Emperor Alexander I and the Great Princes.

The genealogy on above mentioned Princess Maria Feodorovna Lubomirski that is Marianna:

Pr Jan Teodor Konstanty Lubomirski of Wisnicz and Jaroslaw, 1683 - 1745; m. in 1727 to Anne Elisabeth Cumming (b. in Ireland 1685, d. in Vienna in 1776), widow of horsebreeder John Christ.

Elisabeth Christ, Lubomirska born Cummings in 1685 or 1695 and died in 1782 or 1776 [or 1689 / 1700 - 1776], that is Elisabeth Elzbieta Marianna Lubomirska born Cumming De Culler / Culter Commiges / Elżbieta Marianna Lubomirska (Cummings de Culler-Coming) b. 1689 in Ireland.

Maybe she is Elisabeth CUMMINGS, b. on 5 Jan. 1687, married Joseph FRENCH, son of Samuel and Sarah (Cummings) French; Elisabeth was daughter of JOHN-3 CUMMINGS b. in Boxford, MA, in 1657 and lived in Old Dunstable, married Elisabeth, daughter of Samuel Kinsley of Billerica, MA.

Jan Teodor Lubomirski adopted Elisabeth's children as his own:

Pss Maria Susanna Anna Christ, b. Cracow in 1722, d. in Vienna in 1771 [Anna Esterhazy born Lubomirska / Maria Susanna Anna Esterhįzy De Galįntha], m. in Warsaw in 1744 to Gf Miklos Esterhįzy de Galįntha (1711 - 1764); and next adopted son
Pr Kasper Lubomirski, Russian General-Lieutenant, who died 1780, m. Pss Barbara Lubomirska
with daughter above named
MARIA / Pss Marianna {2nd}, 1773 - 1810, 1st m. (div) Protazy Antoni Potocki (1761 - 1801) with daughter EMILIA POTOCKA m. to JOZEF KALINOWSKI d. 1825
[see WOLA PSZCZOLECKA and Walewski, Radolinski, Sulimierski, Kiedrzynski;
with daughters:
Jozefina b. 1816,
OLGA b. 1822,
SEWERYNA, and
MARIA TRUBECKA nee Kalinowska {see an affair in St Petersburg in 1840, and her daughter Maria m. KONSTANTYNOWICZ of KAZAN and Estonia and the son - NESTOR Trubecki vel Kalinowski}].
MARIA / Pss Marianna 2nd time married to Ct Valerian Alexandrovich Zubow, general of infantry (1771 - St.Petersburg in 1804);
3rd m. Feodor Petrovich Uvarov, general of cavalry (1769 / 1773 - St. Petersburg in 1824). MARIA / Pss Marianna, b. 1773 had sister Pss Jozefa Lubomirska,
1 st m. Adam Walewski;
2nd m. Ct Joseph de Witt (died 1814).
Adam Walewski + Józefa Lubomirska had 2 children: a.
Tadeusz Walewski (1795-1855), in 1828 m. to Anna Karwicka / Ann Dunin-Karwicka (1797-1881), daughter of General Krzysztof Karwicki; b.
Izabela Walewska
[Izabela Walewska 1800-1886 m. Siergiej Gagaryn 1795-1852 / the chief chamberlain Sergei Sergeyevich Gagarin, with daughter Maria 1829-1906, and son Siergiej Gagaryn 1832-1890 {Prince}]. Husband of above Maria Kalinowska {countess Maria Kalinowska was born after 1805 or ca 1819} was Gregory / Grigory Troubetzkoy / Grigorij Petrovich Trubecki who - settled before 1832 in the Kingdom of Poland - was born in 1802 after death of his father, and died in 1879 or 11 January 1874 - his brother
Prince Jurij Petrovich Trubeckoj / Yuri Troubetzkoy was born 1796, died 1859 (married to Olga Nikolaevna Tchaikovsky / Czajkowski daughter of Mikolaj Czajkowski).
His sister Anna nee Trubecki / Trubetsky / Anna Kozhoukhova born 23 December 1793 died 29 March 1827 (married to Alexandr Stepanovitch Kozhoukhov / Aleksander Kozuchow or Kozuchowski son of Stefan Kozuchow or Kozuchowski).


Captain Franciszek Majewski, was authorized to set up the Lodge by the Edinburgh, whose members he knew during his stay in England; The TEMPLARS [Templariusze] acted until the outbreak of the November Uprising in Kiev and Berdichev. Many of the Templars were also members of Patriotic Society, like Lieutenant Colonel Seweryn-Krzyzanowski.

The Patriotic Society also spread to Lithuania, where reached the Masonic circles;

The Templars Masonic Society was founded in 1820 in Volyn. The arrests, which took place in 1825, after the military coup of the Decembrists, resulted in detection of the Patriotic Society.
The Special Committee qualified to judge eight of its members, recruited from the Kingdom Polish
[Majewski was born in KASKI - 11 km north-east of Guzow of the Oginskis, near Sochaczew; or in Kaski in the Minsk government ?]:
Colonel Seweryn Krzyzanowski {Severin / Seweryn Krzyzanowski b. 1787 in Parchamówka in the Skwir county / Skwira (see Ascher Ginsberg!), Ukraine, d. 1839 in Tobolsk, colonel to 1826 of the Polish Army, exiled in 1830 to Tobolsk; he was a poor invalid in TOBOLSK, both his feet are paralyzed, and he never quits his chamber; his company, M. Onufry Pietraszkiewicz, his nurse, a German [?? - Elvira Ernestovna Rosenberg, from Baltic German or German ? born ca 1840]},
Captain Franciszek Majewski, Wojciech Grzymala,
Stanislaw Soltyk [!], priest Konstanty Dembek, Stanislaw Zablocki, Andrzej Plichta and Roman Zaluski. MAJEWSKI Franciszek (1781- died after 1837), was son of Stanislaw Majewski and Barbara Zabinska; he was Captain, Freemason, founder of the Templars Society, served Polish army in 1806. After returning to the country in 1817 he joined the Polish army, established contacts with a Masonry, because of his Scotland patent, and was admitted to the lodge "Temple of Isis"; he had the title of member of the Supreme Chapter of the Edinburgh, and founded the Templars Society; the first member was a former colonel P. Lagowski in Warsaw in 1819. In January 1820 adopted several new members and acted under the care of the Grand Master of the Templars - Duke of Kent
{the modern revival of Templarism in Scotland starts with named above Alexander Deuchar, of the Grand Assembly of the High Knights Templar in Edinburgh; in 1811 with a Charter from the Templar Grand Master in England, the Duke of Kent, Alexander Deuchar established the Grand Conclave of Knights of the Holy Temple and Sepulchre, and of St. John of Jerusalem [see Wankowicz and Swolna]}.
Most members of the Templars entered the Patriotic Society. In 1836 Majewski obtained the right to return to the country; Roman Sanguszko recommended him to his parents, and then Majewski lived in Slawuta as a resident close to Sanguszko.
Prince Paweł Karol Sanguszko-Lubartowicz / Paul Carl Sanguszko-Lubartowicz (1682-1752), a Court and Grand Marshal of Lithuania, second married to Marianna Lubomirska {1st}, heiress of Ostroh / Ostrog
{Princess Marianna Lubomirska, 1693 - 1729, a daughter of Grand Marshal of the Crown Józef Karol Lubomirski, and Princes Teofila Ludwika Zasławska, the daughter of Prince Władysław Dominik Zasławski and Katarzyna Sobieska - sister of King of Poland Jan III Sobieski; Marianna married Prince Paweł Karol Sanguszko and had son Janusz Aleksander Sanguszko, Court Marshal of Lithuania, who married Konstancja Denhoff, the daughter of Stanisław Ernest Denhoff},
but main residence was above Slawuta / Slavuta (now in Ukraine);
then Slawuta to Hieronymous Sanguszko (1743-1812);

after partitions of Poland, Eustachy Erasmus Sanguszko fought during the Kosciuszko Uprising and Napoleon's Russian campaign -
his son, named above Prince Roman Sanguszko, participated in the November Uprising, and was exiled to Siberia.


A few words about the Templars in the south of Ireland and on the Curraghmore House, close to Portlaw, in the Co. Waterford:
the Curraghmore House is located at half way from Clonmel to Waterford. See http://curraghmorehouse.ie/, where we read:

"Curraghmore House in Waterford [county] is the historic home of the 9th Marquis of Waterford. His ancestors (the de la Poers) came to Ireland from Normandy...".

At https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curraghmore: "Curraghmore near Portlaw, County of Waterford, [south] Ireland, is a historic house and estate and the seat of the Marquess of Waterford. ... The estate was inherited by Lady Catherine la Poer who married Sir Marcus Beresford in 1717. He was elevated to the peerage in 1720 as Baron Beresford and Viscount Tyrone, and in 1746 he was created 1st Earl of Tyrone (third creation). ... The 1st Earl's eldest son George was created 1st Marquess of Waterford in 1789...".

In Crook is the castle, formerly occupied by the Knights TEMPLARS, and erected by LE POER, Baron of Curraghmore, in the 13th century; CROOK, co. Westmorland.
Clontarf Castle is a castle, dating to 1837, in Clontarf, close to Dublin, Ireland; there has been a castle on the site since 1172 built by "either Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath, or his tenant Adam de Phepoe. Clontarf was subsequently held by the Knights Templar and, after their suppression in 1308, passed to the Knights Hospitaller, until they were in turn deprived of it at the Dissolution of the Monasteries". In 1660, John Vernon, passed Clontarf Castle to his son, Edward Vernon.

See on the de Lacy family at my domain [see Latvia, Plater Zyberk, Buturlin, and around Grodno]:

At the beginning was Hugh de Lacy - the son of Gilbert de Lacy (died ca 1163) of Ewyas Lacy, Weobley and Ludlow. Hugh de Lacy was married twice. Before 1155 Hugh married Rohese of Monmouth (also known as Rose of Monmouth or Roysya de Monemue). Hugh and Rohese had 9 children, 4 sons and 5 daughters:

1. Walter de Lacy (1166 - 1241; on his death his estate was divided between his granddaughters Margery and Maud. He married Margaret de Braose, the daughter of William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber and Maud de St. Valery and had issue: Gilbert de Lacy of Ewyas Harold, Herefordshire married Isabel Bigod, with 1 son Walter de Lacy, who married Rohese le Botiller but had no issue);
2. Hugh de Lacy, 1st Earl of Ulster (d. 1242; had legitimate and natural children. The earldom became extinct at de Lacy's death);
3. Gilbert de Lacy.
Hugh married 2nd Princess Rose Ni Conchobair, daughter of King of Ireland, Ruaidri Ua Conchobair. They had a son William Gorm de Lacy (declared illegitimate by Henry II of England).
The history of de Lacy family is associated with a battle in 1690 in which Ireland lost its independence in favor of England. Many Irish have chosen exile rather than surrender to William III of Orange. On one ship was James de Lacy with his nephew Peter de Lacy.
Alice DeLacy / Conway, b. circa 1642 in Killorglin, County Kerry, Ireland; daughter of Edward Conway and Catherine; wife of Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill, Esq. and Patrick Dowdall. Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill married Lady Alice Conway, by whom his children were:
Edmond,
Peter {see below},
Patrick,
Elizabeth and
Hanora [see more below !].

Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill, Esq. and Alice:

"...Edmond de Lacy, father of the famous Marshal Peter de Lacy of Russia, settled at Rathcahill (Monagea) in 1677 (The "Roll of the House of Lacy" gives this Edmond Lacy as being grandfather of Marshal Peter, which in my opinion, is a slight error. Vide Begley's History of Limerick). Edmond married the Lady Alice Conway, by whom his children were Edmond, Peter, Patrick, Elizabeth and Hanora. Hanora de Lacy married George Browne, Baron of Camas, a scion of the ancient household of Knockmany, and these were the parents of the illustrious Count Marshal George Browne, Governor of Riga and Livonia and Knight of the Order of St. Anne. Count George was born at Mayne, Castlemahon, on June 15th, 1698...";
under copyright by http://www.limerickleader.ie/news.
De Lacy / Laci / Lacey, is the surname of an old Norman noble family.

Count Peter von Lacy / Pyotr Petrovich Lacy b. 1678, died in Riga in 1751, was Russian imperial commander; Peter Lacy [see above] was born as Pierce Edmond de Lacy in Killeedy near Limerick, Ireland.
Count Peter claimed that his father Peter [!?] was the son of John Lacy of Ballingarry. Count Peter's grandfather John Lacy of Ballingarry was of the House of Bruff.
In 1700, Peter was drawn into the Russian army. Service began with the rank of captain, and graduated as Governor-General of Riga, then the whole of Latvia. His first land battle in Russia was Narva; Lacy withdrew to Riga and resumed the command of the Russian forces stationed in Livland. He administered Northern Latvia and Southern Estonia;
his son Franz Moritz von Lacy / de Lacy had entered the Austrian service in 1743.

Count Peter married Estonian-Livonian noblewoman Maret Philippine / Martha von Funcken from Liezere, widow of the young Count Hannes Kristof Frölich, daughter of general Remmert von Funcken of Liezere, and his second wife baroness Helena Üksküla
[Martha von Phillippine FUNCKE (1685-1759), m. to the Riga Governor, General Peter von Lacy (1678-1751)].
They had 5 daughters and 2 sons:
above
Franz Moritz von Lacy / Francis Maurice de Lacy / Boris Petrovich Lassi, born in 1725, St. Petersburg - 1801, Vienna, was the son of Count Peter von Lacy and was a Austrian field marshal. He was a close friend to Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor; his father, Count Peter von Lacy or Pyotr Petrovich Lacy or Peter Lacy was born as Pierce Edmond de Lacy in 1678 in Killeedy near Limerick into a noble Irish family - Riga Governor, General, d. 1751; his mother, Countess Martha Philippina von Loeser, the widow of the Count von Funk of Livonia - Martha von Phillippine FUNCKE (1685-1759).
Franz Moritz was born in St Petersburg, and entered the Austrian service in Italy, Bohemia, Silesia and the Netherlands; his last years were spent in retirement at his castle of Neuwaldegg near Vienna, by Wikipedia.

From "THE ENGLISH BRANCH OF THE PIERSE FAMILY", by John H. Pierse:

"...Johanna, was the daughter of Patrick de Lacy of Rathcahill, a townland in West Limerick a mile or so from Templeglantin, and Lady Mary, daughter of Henry Herbert of Templeglantin.

Patrick and Mary de Lacy of Rathcahill had a number of children:

Maurice, the eldest (1739-1820) later to become the famous General in the Russian service of Augustovik Palace (Augustowek) near Grodno, and

Henry who conformed to the Protestant religion, and who lived in Dublin,

Johanna (1750-1795) who married Pierce O'Brien,
Mary (1752-1795) who eloped with a certain William Terence (later 'Patrick') O'Brien of Tullig and Drumtrasna,
Frances who married a certain Mr. Joyce but had no family, and
Benedicta.
...
At the time of the wedding in 1795, John Fitzmaurice Pierse was 32 years of age and his bride, Johanna was 25 years old... The first recorded birth of a child to John and Johanna Pierse was Maurice in 1804 and who was known as Maurice de Lacy Pierse. In 1819, the eldest son Maurice, at the tender age of 15, left Ireland to visit his grand-uncle General Maurice de Lacy, then aged 79, at his palace home at Augustovik near Grodno in Russian Lithuania. He was apparently well received there and stayed on together with his friend Dr. Condon during the time of the General's final illness (Dec. 1819) and death in January 1820.

His aunt's son, Patrick O'Brien, whose legitimacy was a matter of dispute among the de Lacy family, had also left Ireland first in 1811, ... he married Miss Egan at Bath, and later travelled to Russia to introduce himself to the general, and who also remarked that he had been well-received at Grodno. Immediately prior to 1815, Patrick O'Brien, then aged 24 or 25, had become a Lieutenant of Militia in the Russian service. Between 1815 and 1819, Patrick O'Brien spent half a year in Russia and half in England because of his poor health. In 1819, at the request of General Maurice de Lacy, he took up permanent residence in Russia and, upon the General's recommendation, applied for and obtained a commission in the Guards of the Russian Emperor.

Thus, when General Maurice died at Grodno in December 1819 (Jan. 1820?), these three, Dr. Condon, Lieutenant Patrick O'Brien (de Lacy) and Maurice de Lacy Pierse, were in attendance at the funeral. Immediately after the funeral, Maurice de Lacy Pierse was persuaded by Patrick O'Brien (de Lacy) to go to London from Poland, where he arranged to meet him regarding the contents of the General's will which, O'Brien declared,
...
1820-1, Johanna Pierse died (it is not certain whether in Ireland or in England) at the age of about 50 years, and shortly afterwards the Pierse family emigrated to England. The family would have been: John Fitzmaurice Pierse, widower, aged 59, William Fitzmaurice, aged 18, Mary de Lacy, aged 15, John Patrick, aged 11, Patrick John, aged about 9, George, aged 6, and any other children not yet traced. ... they most likely sailed from Limerick or Cork to London, where Maurice, aged 18, was already in residence. ... Wilson Place, entire houses were occupied all by Co. Kerry emigrants ...

Maurice de Lacy Pierse returned to Russia and there joined the Russian Service. Letters sent by him, dated November 1823 (when he was 19) from Petrosky in Russia to his sister Mary (aged 16) in London, written up to Autumn 1829 addressed from Chumetry just before he died in the siege of Adrianople in September, 1829 outline his career ...
When in 1792 General Maurice de Lacy of Grodno (then aged 52) together with his kinsman General Count George de Lacy Browne, Governor of Riga, made a visit to Ireland to see their relatives, they were appalled to see the state of poverty into which the family had fallen. They stayed with Maurice's mother (then quite elderly) at Rothcahill ... and returned to Russia the following year. Upon their return, Maurice made arrangements for sums of money ... His mother did not live long to enjoy her fortune and died in 1795 (the year in which John Fitzmaurice Pierse and Johanna O'Brien were married) leaving future gifts to pass to her daughters and their descendants:
these were John Fitzmaurice and Johanna Pierse (daughter of Johanna O'Brien, nee de Lacy who also died in 1795), Mary Condon, nee O'Brien, whose husband Richard Condon had died before 1792 and whose eldest son Dr. Maurice John Condon joined General Maurice in the Russian service, Kathleen or Kitty O'Brien (otherwise Mrs. Fitton or Mrs. McGrath of Cork) - later all daughters of Johanna O'Brien nee de Lacy.
... Other equal beneficiaries were: James Morphy of Newcastle West and Killarney (widower of Benedicta nee de Lacy, who died before 1792) and their children Miss Mary Morphy who died in March, 1819 and her sister Lucy Morphy (otherwise Berry) who had married another James Morphy and who was still living in 1830. Other possible beneficiaries were the daughters of Mary de Lacy (otherwise O'Brien) who was the youngest of General Maurice de Lacy's sisters, who was alleged to have eloped with a certain Terence or Dennis O'Brien of Tullig and Drumtrasna, and who had an illegitimate son, Patrick. Another sister, Frances (or Fanny) had married a certain Mr. Joy but died before 1792 ...
Mrs. de Lacy-Browne was claimant to the disputed bequests of Count Maurice de Lacy of Augustovik, Grodno ... some $5,000,000 from the various funds of her kinsman. ... Charles Nash, Mary de Lacy Nash and their son Maurice FitzGerald de Lacy Nash have been fruitless. They appear to have just disappeared. Possibly they emigrated. Now Mary's brother William Fitzmaurice Pierse, born also in 1807 and therefore possibly a twin ... He was about 18 years of age when he arrived in England with his father and his brothers and sisters. ... were baptised in Christchurch: Maurice de Lacy (b. 3 October, 1832), Elizabeth (b. 25 December 1833), Amelia (b. 16 September, 1836), Florence Johanna (b. 14 March, 1838), Marion O'Brien (b. 22 November, 1839), Kathleen..., William Fitzmaurice (b. September 1843), and Alice Emma (b. 22 February, 1845)".

The founder of the Polish family line became a nephew of Count Maurice - Peter O'Brien de Lacy. He followed his uncle, serving in the Russian army, and he received from Catherine II, Augustówek, confiscated after the abdication of King Poniatowski. Not having children of their own, Maurice left the palace his nephew Patrick, and he gave Augustówek in the hands of the younger son Alexander, who married a Polish girl, Gabriela Radowicka.

Mentioned Honora (Hanora [see above !]) de Browne / de Camus Browne of Camas / DeLacy, daughter of Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill, Esq. and Alice DeLacy, was wife of George de Browne, de Camus, and she was mother of George, 1st Count Browne of Camas and Ulysses Browne.
Above Ulysses Browne was husband of Maria Philippina Magdalena Gfin. von Martinitz, and was father of
Baron Maximilian Ulysses / Reichsgraf von Browne / Camus und Mountany, b. 1705 in Basel, Switzerland, died 1757.

Above named Count Pierce Edmond de Lacy / Peadar de Lasa, b. 1678, had family:
1. the son-in-law, Riga Governor-General George Browne;
2. son - Franz Moritz Lacy (1725-1800), a famous military leader;
3. nephew was Boris P. Lassi / Moritz Lazy / Lacy, 1737-1820, General of Infantry (Boris Petrovich Lassie was the Russian military leader, General of Infantry, a hero of the storming of Izmail and Prague. In 1797-1798 the Governor-General of the Kazan province. He began his service in the Austrian army, in 1762 admitted to the Russian service with the rank of lieutenant, in respect to the merits of Field Marshal Lassi immediately promoted to captain; he remained out of work until 1805, when the first he was sent to Naples with a secret mission, and then, was appointed commander of the Russian, English and Neapolitan troops to protect the kingdom of Naples. After Austerlitz Lassie returned from Naples to Russia and settled in his estate in Grodno, where he died in 1820).

Above mentioned Count (in 1774) George Browne / Seoirse de Brśn, b. 1698, Limerick, Ireland - d. 1792, Riga, Russian commander of the Irish origin, general-in-chief, the Riga Governor-General. He was married first to the daughter of Field Marshal Peter Lacy, their son, Count Ivan Y. (Georg) Brown, commander of the Kexholmsky regiment, Maltese gentleman, buried in Vienna with his famous uncle, an Austrian Field Marshal Count Lacy. After the death of Helen Lassie / Lacy in 1764 he married again, to Eleanor Christine von Mengden (1729-1787). Buried in Kurland, in the town of Schönberg.


Count Peter von Lacy, or Pyotr Petrovich Lacy b. 1678, that is Pierce Edmond Lacy, was born in Killeedy near Limerick; his family of Limerick [west of Ireland] came from William Gorm de Lacy, the son of Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath who died in 1186.

Pierce father's brother was Lieutenant-Colonel John Lacy of the House of Bruff.
PIERCE had 5 daughters and 2 sons, including Count Franz Moritz von Lacy / Francis Maurice de Lacy, the Austrian Field Marshal.
Maurice de Lacy, residing permanently in the palace of King Stanislaus Augustus, compiled in 1819 testament to his nephew, Patrick O'Brien, senior, the son of Terence and Mary de Lacy [see below !]; Maurice left the palace his nephew Patrick senior, who gave Augustówek in the hands of his younger son Alexander, who married a Polish girl, Gabriela Radowicka [with three daughters: Maria, Genevieve and Alexandra, and three sons: Terence, Patrick junior, and Maurice]. Above Count Patrick O'Brien de Lacy / de Lassy [junior] had served his life term [a poisoning case - see BUTURLIN] at the Shlisselburg fortress near St. Petersburg until 1917, when he was released and returned to Scotland as naval engineer at Dundee Shipyard.
So, above Patrick O'Brien, senior / Peter O'Brien de Lacy / Patryk O'Brien de Lacy b. 1790 / 1791, died 1870, was a son of Maurycy {?} or Terence {?} and Mary de Lacy [Mary de Lacy O'Brien died in 1795] {Mary was maybe with Dennis O'Brien of Tallig and Drumtrasna, 1770-1830, who had wife Margaret born in 1770 - d. 1850, with two sons: Morgan [with children: Ann; Denis born in LIMERICK; Ellen] and Denis d. 1851}; Patryk married Julia with son Aleksander.
Patryk was nephew of General Maurice de Lacy who compiled in 1819 testament to Patrick O'Brien, senior, and given him the surname de Lacy.
We back to UK and reading THE ENGLISH BRANCH OF THE PIERSE FAMILY by John H. Pierse at www.winsolve.webspace.virginmedia.com:
John Fitzmaurice Pierse b. 1763, married in 1795 to Johanna b. ca 1770 [her mother died in 1795, her father before 1794] with oldest sons: Maurice [junior] b. in 1804 - known as Maurice de Lacy Pierse [see below], and William Fitzmaurice Pierse b. in Co. Kerry [?].
JOHANNA'S uncle was above named General Maurice de Lacy of the Russian service, was in Ireland in 1792 to visit his mother in Rathcahill.
Her aunt was Benedicta, who had married James Murphy Esq. of Newcastle West and Killarney, and had two daughters Mary and Lucy.
Her next uncle, Henry de Lacy, was a Protestant; his relative was Mrs. Evans;
JOHANNA'S aunt - Fanny (Frances) had married Mr. Joy but had no children and died before 1792.
Her youngest aunt Mary had eloped with a Terence or Dennis O'Brien of Tallig and Drumtrasna and had five children - illegitimate - the youngest of whom was above named Patrick, who was born in 1790, and married Miss Egan at Bath, England and was later divorced; he later became known as Patrick O'Brien de Lacy of Grodno.
Mary de Lacy (or Mrs. Mary O'Brien) dead in 1795.
The next children of above named JOHANNA: Mary (de Lacy) Pierse born in 1807, in Co. Kerry, John (Patrick) Pierse, born in 1811, in Co. Kerry, and George, born in 1816.
In 1819, the above eldest son Maurice, left Ireland to visit his grand-uncle General Maurice de Lacy [b. 1740, d. Jan. 1820], at his palace home at Augustovik near Grodno in Lithuania. General Maurice de LACY's aunt had son - above Patrick O'Brien, had also left Ireland first in 1811, travelled to Russia to introduce himself to the general, become a Lieutenant of the Russian service, but 1815 - 1819, spent half a year in Russia and half in England; when General Maurice died at Grodno in December 1819 or Jan. 1820, Lieutenant Patrick O'Brien (de Lacy) and Maurice de Lacy Pierse, were in attendance at the funeral. In 1820/1821, Johanna Pierse died in Ireland or in England and her family sailed from Limerick or Cork to London; then Charles Nash married in 1836 to Maurice's [junior] sister Mary Pierse, with son [in 1839] Maurice FitzGerald de Lacy Nash.
When in 1792 General Maurice de Lacy of Grodno together with his kinsman General Count George de Lacy Browne, Governor of Riga, made a visit to Ireland to see their relatives, they were stayed with Maurice's mother at Rothcahill; General Maurice known the daughters of Mary de Lacy (otherwise O'Brien) who was the youngest of General Maurice de Lacy's sister, who was eloped with Terence or Dennis O'Brien of Tullig and Drumtrasna; another sister, Frances (or Fanny) had married Mr. Joy but died before 1792.
Patrick O'Brien upon the death of General Maurice in 1819/20 had taken up residence and possession of the estate at Augustovik Palace, near Grodno [all above data under copyright by John H. Pierse].


The Freemasonry in the Poznan province:

Les Freres Anglais et Franēais Réunis was founded in 1807 in Poznan, subsidiaries of the French Grand Orient, and consisted of numerous military and civilian dignitaries and prominent citizens; the champion for a long time was
general Wincenty Axamitowski.
Compare the note [Paris, on November 11, 1803] on Duke Poninski signed by:
General Tadeusz Kosciuszko;
Captain Franciszek Paszkowski;
Ksawery Walewski / Xavier de Walewski;
Axamitowski, colonel, in the service of France;
Zawadzki, battalion commander in the service of France;
M. Piotrowski, formerly General of Poland [see below];
B. Komorowski.

The deputy head of the Freemasonry in the Poznan province was Jozef Krzyzanowski owner of Pakoslaw, a village in the Rawicz County, in west-central Poland, close to Golejewko, east of Rawicz [see Sulkowski !], south-east of ROKOSOWO [Rokossowski], west of Krotoszyn, ca 24 km south-west of PEPOWO.

Members:
Colonel Stanislaw Mycielski,
Józef Poninski,
Aleksander Zychlinski,
Augustyn Zaborowski,
Bernard Rose,
Count Kacper Skarbek,
Wiktor Szoldrski,
General Henryk Dabrowski,
General Amilkar Kosinski,
Count Aleksander Bninski,
Kazimierz Turno,
Count Melchior Lacki.

In 1812 Faustyn Zakrzewski a master;
and Jozef Poniatowski;
others members:
Barbara Dabrowska,
Julianna Poninska,
Karolina Palombini,
Jaraczewska,
Wincentyna Axamitowska,
Eufemia Kwasniewska,
Sulkowska, and
Augustyna Zablocka;
Lasocki in Lomza,
General Kretkowski in Leczyca,
Plichta in Plock,
Franciszek Mickiewicz,
General Stanislaw Mielzynski,
Maximilian MOSZCZENSKI;
and Adam Moszczenski;

it was constituted again in December 1815 and on 16 March 1816 with Zaborowski, and was the meeting mourning for a brother Thaddeus Kosciuszko on 19 December 1817.

In Dec. 1819 - Jan. 1820 was meeting of General Jan Nepomucen Uminski with Colonel Dobrogoyski, envoy of Kalisz. Dobrogoyski informed on the secret network in Cracow, and Uminski was claiming that is always ready to establish a branch in the Great Poland; he had confidential relations with
Lieutenant Colonel Louis Sczaniecki;

the secret organisation was formed - probably at the beginning of 1820 in Poznan - national Freemasonry:
Sczaniecki,
Count Wiktor Szoldrski,
Gajewski,
Czapski,
Pawlikowski,
Morawski,
Jarochowski,
Karol Stablewski,
Klaudiusz Sczaniecki,
brothers Bojanowski,
Zaborowski,
Radomski,
Stanislaw Chlapowski,
Skórzewski,
three brothers Mielzynski,
two Potworowski,
Tytus Dzialynski,
Józef Krzyzanowski,
Garstkiewicz,
Monkowski,
Bukowiecki,
Alojzy Zaborowski,
Kalinowski,
General Pradzynski also in Warsaw.

General Uminski was a member since 1820 with witnesses Morawski, Pradzynski, Adam Grabowski, with a contacts to counties nobility of southern, around Gostyn and Leszno. Maybe a separate filial existed in Leszno. In 1820 gathered a large number of members from the Leszno area; Pradzynski was in Leszno a member of the commission to limit the Russian - Prussian border.

The Union of Scythemen came from the National Poznan Freemasonry.

According to testimony of Pradzynski - General Stanislaw Mielzynski was the chairman of above The Union of Scythemen;
members among others:
judge Morawski and
general Uminski, the delegate to the headquarters in Warsaw.
The oath was more militancy, than of the national Freemasonry. When in Poznan was founded named above Union, in Warsaw a negotiations were started in the direction of assimilation whole organization. Poznan recommended the creation of the central committee of the whole Poland in Warsaw or Poznan; Uminski stayed in Warsaw since May 6, 1821. To the Association was given the name of the Patriotic Society [in Warsaw].
At the head stood Wierzbolowicz.
Uminski was the formal founder of the Patriotic Society.
In this way national Freemasonry formally ended its life, transforming in 1820 in Poznan to the Union of Scythemen, and in 1821 to the Patriotic Society. People remained the same.

Uminski again was - from February to April 1822 - in Warsaw.
Józef Krzyzanowski, was in Warsaw, too, but soon, in fact Lukasinski was arrested, and also Dobrogoyski and Dobrzycki.

1823 Count Stanislaw Soltyk, later Franciszek Jablonowski, among others, made contact with Russia.

And next very interesting figure:
Seweryn Krzyżanowski (1787 in Parchamówka in Ukraine, died in 1839 in Tobolsk), Lieutenant Colonel of the Polish Army, leader of the Patriotic Society. In 1808 he joined the army of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1809-1811 in Spain, like MAJEWSKI [see below !]. He was a Freemason. He belonged to the lodge Shield North.

Captain Franciszek Majewski, was authorized to set up the Lodge by the Edinburgh, whose members he knew during his stay in England [more below]; The TEMPLARS / "Templariusze" acted until the outbreak of the November Uprising in Kiev and Berdichev. Many of the Templars / "Templariuszes" were also members of Patriotic Society, like Lieutenant Colonel Seweryn-Krzyzanowski. The Patriotic Society also spread to Lithuania, where reached the Masonic circles.
The Templars Masonic Society was founded in 1820 in Volyn. The arrests, which took place in 1825, after the military coup of the Decembrists, resulted in detection of the Patriotic Society.
The Special Committee qualified to judge eight of its members, recruited from the Polish Kingdom

[Majewski was born in KASKI - 11 km north-east of Guzow of the Oginskis, near Sochaczew; or in Kaski in the Minsk government ?; above Kaski and Helenow in 1890 were owned by Count Potocki and Wladyslaw Bacciarelli concluded a contract of lease of above KASKI, and his son Kazimierz was appointed administrator of KASKI and Helenów. But we know about different Kaski estate:
Anna Cielecka (ca 1770 - 1838), the proprietress of estates Galewice, Kaski farm close to Galewice (Galewice 10 km north-east of Wieruszow and 8 km north-east of Chobanin; KASKI - 2 / 3 km east of above Galewice and east of Domanin; Kaski - 11 km west of LUTUTOW and west of Dymki of the Kiedrzynskis. family; see OLSZOWSKI / Olszewski, Kreski, Madalinski and Psarski families), and Gizyce with Maczniki in the Kalisz province, m. Adam Wegierski (ca 1770 - 1829), with daughter Róza Tekla Wegierska (b. 1804), married in Warsaw in 1829, to Ludwik Fiszer (born 1800 - died in 1877 in Lomza)]:

Colonel Seweryn Krzyżanowski,
Captain Franciszek Majewski,
Wojciech Grzymała,
Stanisław Sołtyk [!],
priest Konstanty Dembek,
Stanisław Zabłocki,
Andrzej Plichta and
Roman Załuski.

MAJEWSKI Franciszek (1781- died after 1837), was son of Stanisław Majewski and Barbara Żabińska; he was Captain, Freemason, founder of the Templars Society, served Polish army in 1806, fought in Spain, during his stay in France (Sedan) was adopted in 1809 to the Masonic lodge, and received the first three stages of initiation. In 1811 he was captured by the English in Alboro in Portugal;
transferred to a POW camp in the county of Somerset in England, then in Scotland, entered the lodge of Scottish Rite and received the degree of Rose Croix; he received the right to establish of new lodges. After returning to the country in 1817 he joined the Polish army, established contacts with a Masonry, because of his Scotland patent, and was admitted to the lodge "Temple of Isis";
he had the title of member of the Supreme Chapter of the Edinburgh, and founded the Templars Society;
the first member was a former
colonel P. Łagowski in Warsaw in 1819.

In January 1820 adopted several new members and acted under the care of the Grand Master of the Templars - Duke of Kent. Most members of the Templars entered the Patriotic Society; after the uprising of the Decembrists, Majewski was imprisoned with several members of the Templars (1826), then he was deported in 1828 to St. Petersburg, was also sent as a soldier to the Caucasus, where he became friends with Roman Sanguszko. In 1836 obtained the right to return to the country. Then R. Sanguszko recommended him to his parents; he taken a village in the lease; Majewski lived in Sławuta as a resident close to Sanguszko.

Prince Paul Karol Sanguszko-Lubartowicz (1682-1752), second married to Marianna Lubomirska, heiress of Ostroh, but main residence was above Sławuta / Slavuta (now in Ukraine); then to Hieronymous Sanguszko (1743-1812); after partitions of Poland, Eustachy Erasmus Sanguszko fought in the Kosciuszko Uprising and Napoleon's Russian campaign.

The earliest information in the world of the Knights Templar Degree is from the meeting of an Irish Royal Arch Lodge, in 1769 with William Davis, a P.M. and Member of Lodge No. 58. The first body of Knights Templar in Ireland was "The High Knight Templars of Ireland, Kilwinning Lodge" with Archibald, the 11th Earl of Eglinton, the Grand Master of Lodge Mother Kilwinning in 1779 in Dublin. In 1736, the Grand Lodge of Scotland was organised and the Kilwinning lodge was one of its constituent lodges; this one acted as a grand lodge, organising lodges in Scotland and on the continent, as well as in Virginia and Ireland. Archibald Montgomerie, 11th Earl of Eglinton b. 1726 - died in 1796, was Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge of Mother Kilwinning, from 1771 until 1796. "Lodge Mother Kilwinning is a Masonic Lodge in Kilwinning, Scotland, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. ... is reputed to be the oldest Lodge not only in Scotland, but the world". Above Montgomerie was elected as one of sixteen Scottish representative peers, in 1776; was appointed Governor of Edinburgh Castle, in 1782. Montgomerie died at Eglinton Castle, a mansion in Kilwinning, North Ayrshire, Scotland.
Ca 1790 the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland was formed, which began to warrant Templar Lodges, and evolved into the Supreme Grand Encampment in 1836 [in 1805 as the "Edinburgh Encampment No. 31", then became the"Grand Assembly of Knights Templar in Edinburgh"]. The Templar degree had filtered into the lodges of the Antients from Ireland about 1780. In 1791 - the formation of its first Grand Conclave, with Thomas Dunckerley as Grand Master.
In 1805 their Royal Patron, Duke of Kent, became Grand Master himself.
The modern revival of Templarism in Scotland starts with Alexander Deuchar, of the Grand Assembly of the High Knights Templar in Edinburgh; in 1811 with a Charter from the Templar Grand Master in England, the Duke of Kent, Alexander Deuchar established the Grand Conclave of Knights of the Holy Temple and Sepulchre, and of St. John of Jerusalem [see Wankowicz and Swolna].
In 1813 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England, and in
December 1813 - above Prince Edward became Grand Master of the Antient Grand Lodge of England.
Mentioned above the Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn / Edward Augustus, b. 1767, died in 1820, was the fifth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and the father of Queen Victoria!
The Duke of Kent was appointed Field-Marshal of the Forces in 1805. His wife was Princess Victoria of Saxe- Coburg-Saalfeld with daughter
Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom.
His mother - Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.


The Kościuszko Mound - Presidents of the Committee since 1820:

1820 - 1856 General Franciszek Paszkowski
[see Armand and Konstantynowicz in Moscow];
1856 - 1878 Piotr Moszyński [see below];

1878 - 1883 Franciszek Władysław Paszkowski;
1884 - 1917 Stanisław Tarnowski;
1917 - 1926 Franciszek Paszkowski.

Piotr Moszyński - born 1800, young marshal of the Volhynia nobility [see Brody of the Paszkowskis] joined the underground Templar Society
[since 1820 by Captain Franciszek Majewski
{at the beginning in Kilwinning - a town in North Ayrshire, Scotland, about 34 km south of Glasgow. Kilwinning is notable for housing the original Lodge of Freemasonry in Scotland. When the Lodges were renumbered, Kilwinning was kept as Lodge Number '0', the Mother Lodge of Scotland. Alexander Montgomerie, 10th Earl of Eglinton b. 1723 was the Grand Master Mason of the Grand Lodge of Scotland from 1750-51. Archibald Montgomerie, 11th Earl of Eglinton (1726 - 1796) was Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge of Mother Kilwinning, from 1771 until 1796. Montgomerie was appointed Governor of Edinburgh Castle, in 1782. 1806 - 1820: The Prince of Wales (afterwards King George IV) was the Grand Master Masons of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. See also the Rosslyn Chapel};
May 1821 - in Balta the Patriotic Society with
Michal Skibicki,
Stanislaw Karwicki,
Piotr Moszynski,
Feliks Ciszewski;

August 1821 in Berdyczow:
Colonel Marcin Tarnowski of the Union of Scythemen from the Posen province [see Mielzynski];

in Podolia acted
Ludwik Sobanski,

in Kiev -
Antoni Czarkowski,
Anzelm Iwaszkiewicz,
Stanislaw Joteyko;

others in the Patriotic Society:
Mikolaj Worcell,
Atanazy Grodecki,
Aleksander PROZOR [see Malkiewicz]
and KAROL PROZOR,
Franciszek Zaleski,
Jan Lipski,
NARCYZ OLIZAR,
Waclaw Rzewuski,
Aleksander Bledowski;
Colonel Seweryn Krzyzanowski and
Lukasinski - head border].

Piotr Moszyński died in August 1879; at the funeral, on his coffin was a wreath of thorns. His first wife left him when he was in exile. His second wife, married after returning from Siberia, after ten years of marriage and giving birth to five children, fell into a severe, incurable disease.

Son Emmanuel, born in 1843, died in the Battle of Miechow on February 17, 1863;

the future President of the Committee was born in 1800 in the village of Łoniów, in the district of Sandomierz; he was elected Speaker of the nobility of Volyn province. Arrested at the beginning of 1826 years and subjected to interrogation by three years of judgment.
He was sentenced to 12 years in Siberian exile. Those years spent in Tobolsk
[see Krzyzanowski and Trocki - Lenin, Armand, Anna Konstantynowicz];
after returning from Siberia arrived in 1840 to Cracow. This former conspirator turned now in a conservative environment - near to general Franciszek PASZKOWSKI; he was not only The Kościuszko Mound Committee President,
but also an honorary member of the Cracow Scientific Society, an active member of the Cracow Agricultural Society and the Society of Mutual Insurance of Fire Damages.


We back to Freemasonry in Poland:

In autumn 1822, after the arrest of Valerian Łukasiński,
Lieutenant Colonel Seweryn-Krzyzanowski led the underground Patriotic Society.
In 1824, in Kiev, he established contacts with the Association of the South (later Decembrists). On February 20, 1826 he has been arrested. The court cleared him of the most serious charges, but for belonging to a secret organization sentenced him to 3 years and 3 months of prison. On July 2, 1828, Emperor Nicholas I extended his sentence indefinitely, and put him in the Peter and Paul Fortress in Petersburg. On February 18, 1830 was sent to the province of Tobolsk; KRZYŻANOWSKI Seweryn was son of Tadeusz Krzyżanowski and Maria Szernel / Szornel / Shernel.

In October 1822 Jan Karski, a native of the village Pomiechow / Modlin, was arrested and it was found a letter to Dobrzycki, with numerous names:

Uminski [Jan Nepomucen Uminski b. 1778, Czeluscin, died in 1851, Wiesbaden],
Kniaziewicz,
Arnold Skórzewski,
General Franciszek Paszkowski / Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski b. 1778, Brody, died in 1856, Cracow
[General Franciszek Paszkowski in 1816 - 1819 or to 1822 lived in the Great Poland, then in Cracow]!

The captured Karski sang everything he knew, and were arrested Łukasiński, Dobrzycki and Dobrogoyski. They were asked, in Warsaw, on the other generals of the Great Poland

[Free Poles Association / Free Lechytes - a secret patriotic organization in 1819-1823 in the Kingdom of Poland; founded in November 1819 in Warsaw by Tadeusz Krepowiecki, Wiktor Heltman and Ludwik Piatkiewicz; among the members was Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, in 1820 he was the member of the SCYTHEMEN / KOSYNIERZY; 1821 - the Patriotic Society; he was jailed 1826-1830];

General Umiński replied that General Franciszek Paszkowski rejected membership
[acc. to me Paszkowski was secret member of the Union of Scythemen or of the ILLUMINATI Order ?, and he escaped in 1822 to Free City of Cracow],
and General Amilkar Kosinski said

{Kosinski in 1809 occupied the post of the Governor of Warsaw, then the commander of Polish troops in the battles at Szczekociny and Zarnowiec; he once again demanded his resignation when he was omitted from promotion. At that time, he was granted a long-term lease of the Poznan - Staroleka property in 1809/1810 - STAROLEKA is the part of east POZNAN. From 1811, he was a general of the division. In 1812 he joined the General Confederation of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1814 he was offered a transfer to the Prussian service and organizing Polish national defense in the Grand Duchy of Poznan. He accepted the offer, but he immediately resigned. He died in 1823 in Targowa Górka. Kosinski was a member of the lodge Franēais et Polonais Reunis (French and Poles United Brothers) from 1807, and from 1810 a founding member of the Saint John in Poznan. Antoni Amilkar Kosinski born 1769 in the DROHICZYN district; named Targowa Górka - 10 km west to WRZESNIa, lose to Mystki and north to WINNA GORA - ca 16 km; see Wirydianna Fiszer}:

"lost the good opinions".

Then Maciej Mielzynski reorganized the Union of Scythemen, excluding former members and acquiring 10 - 12 new ones.

We back to 1812:

General Stanislaw Mielżyński was appointed commander of the infantry brigade in the 16th infantry division of General Zajączek.
Beside him commanders of brigades in the division were:
General Franciszek Paszkowski (II infantry brigade),
and General Tyszkiewicz (cavalry brigade);
also Zakrzewski and Miaskovsky.
At the end of June 1812 a great army crossed the Niemen and entered the lands of the Empire of Russia. On the way to Moscow General Mielżyński participated in many battles, close to Smolensk was wounded.

On September 8, 1815 STANISLAW Mielżyński was officially released from military service and began operations in secret independence organizations, including the Poznan branch of the National Freemasonry. Later, he stood at the head of the Union of Scythemen separated from Freemasonry; he was a member of Freemasonry in the seventh degree and also belonged to several other Masonic lodges: "Knights of the Star", "Brothers of the Union", and was a master of "Humanity".

In February 1826 General Uminski, Joseph Krzyzanowski and Count Maciej Mielzynski were arrested, and transfered in Torun to prison investigators; arrested Wierzbolowski, Szreder, Oborski and Lukasinski, too; Mielzynski was released from the guilt; General Uminski sentenced to 6 years for fortress. Uminski was jaled in Glogow, whence escaped on 17 February 1831. In 1846-1847 Uminski was allowed to settle in Prussia - but outside the Grand Duchy of Poznan; died in 1857 in Wiesbaden.

Above Józef Krzyzanowski:

the deputy head of the Freemasonry in the Poznan province was Joseph Krzyzanowski owner of Pakoslaw, a village in the Rawicz County, in west-central Poland, close to Golejewko, east of Rawicz [see Sulkowski !], south-east of ROKOSOWO [Rokossowski], west of Krotoszyn, ca 24 km south-west of PEPOWO; 20 km south-west-west of BASZKOW of the Mielzynskis!
Pakoslaw in 1764-1791 belonged to Ignatius Wyskota-Zakrzewski, the participant of the Kosciuszko Insurrection, the first constitutional president of Warsaw; in 1791 to Michal Krzyzanowski of Miedzyrzecz [married to Aloysia Gajewski]; then to his son Józef Krzyzanowski senior, who sold Pakoslaw after 1831 to Acerenza-Pignatelli; Józef married Aniela Kolaczkowski. Ca 1860, PAKOSLAW was bought by Stanislaw Czarnecki who married Anna Mielzynska.

Above JOZEF senior of PAKOSLAW:
his parents were
Michal Krzyzanowski of Miedzyrzecz, 1734-1810 + Alojza Anna Gajewska of Blociszewo, 1757-1815.
Above Józef Filip Jakub Krzyzanowski, 1793-1856, FREEMASON + Aniela Julianna Józefa Kolaczkowska, had son
Henryk Franciszek Niepomucen Krzyzanowski 1821-1901 + Józefa Skarbek-Malczewska 1830-1918,
with son Józef Krzyzanowski junior, 1860-1894.

Józef Krzyzanowski senior + Aniela had children:
1. above Henryk Franciszek Niepomucen 1821-1901,
2. Leon Piotr Pawel + Tekla Krzyzanska.
3. Michal Józef Stanislaw 1828-1903,
4. Józefa Aniela Krzyzanowska Lewiecka, 1834-1917,
5. Maria Florentyna Józefa Krzyzanowska 1831-1916 + Napoleon Kreski Count, 1814-1870,
[he was son of Konstanty Hermenegild Kreski 1785-1850 + Brygida Dzik-Kozuchowska 1800-1868, and grandson of Joachim Kreski 1723-1795 + Justyna Magnuska 1740-1817.
Joachim Kreski 1723-1795 that is Joachim Kreski / de Kresko Kreski, 1723-1795 and Justyna Magnuska 1740- 1817].
Above Konstanty Hermenegild Kreski b. 1785 in Grebanin, close to Baranów and Kepno, d. 1850 - Grebanin. The member of the Zaliwski movement in 1833. His son above named Napoleon 1814-1870 m. above Maria Florentyna Józefa Krzyzanowska 1831-1916. His son in law was Edward Napoleon Kreski 1806-1879.
Above Joachim Kreski Count, born in Kobylagóra / Kobyla Góra in 1723, died in Grebanin, near Baranów. Marriage in 1765, Doruchów, to above Justyna Magnuska born in Kuznica Bobrowska, close to Grabów nad Prosna, the Ostrzeszow county.
Father of Joachim Kreski born in Kobylagóra, was Ignacy Franciszek Ksawery Kreski, b. 1689 in Kepno, d. 1763 in Grebanin, clerk in Wielun and Stawiszyn, before 1756 owner of Myslniów, Kuznica, Szklarka and Zawady in the Ostrzeszow county.
SZKLARKA MYSLNIEWSKA in the Kobylagóra parish was owned by Ignacy Franciszek Ksawery Kreski but in 1756 bought by Psarski. Ignacy Franciszek Ksawery Kreski married to Konstancja Koszutska b. ca 1690, daughter of Piotr Koszutski b. 1640 in Koszuty, clerk in Poznan, and his wife Jadwiga Pstrokonska.

Maria Joanna Konstancja Kreska / Marya Joanna Konstancya Kreska, born 14 August 1774 in Grebanin
(next of kin to owners of Wola Pszczolecka; see Ludwik Walewski and his son: Wojciech Walewski 1715-1757, m. 1750 [1740 ?] to Teresa Laszewska b. 1720, with children:
a. Rozalia Walewska b. 1750 [1740 ?] m. Jakub Madalinski;
b. Ludwik 1754-1820 m. Antonina Kalinowska b. ca 1760
with sons
1. Karol Franciszek Salezy Walewski b. 1795 m. Maria Radolinska with children: Piotr Ludwik Teodor Walewski b. 1822, and Jadwiga Maria Walewska 1825-1857;
2. Napoleon Izydor Roscislaw Walewski 1802-1835 m. to Natalia Marianna Kreska 1804-1832, with children:
Ludwik Mieczyslaw Walewski b. 1830, Wanda Walewska b. 1832),
the Baranów parish, close to Kepno and the Polish-Prussian border, married on 27 August 1804 in Grebanin, close to above Baranów, to Andrzej Kiedrzynski / Jedrzej Kiedrzynski.
She was daughter of Joachim Kreski b. 1723 in Kobylogrod / Kobyla Gora close to Ostrzeszow, died 1795 in Grebanin, the Baranów parish, close to Kepno and the Polish-Prussian border, and she had mother Justyna Magnuska b. 1749 and died 1817 in Grebanin.
Andrzej Kiedrzynski (junior) was born ca 1770 ?, son of Kacper / Kasper Kiedrzynski and Marianna Arcichowski, from Rokutow in the Grodzisko parish. Kasper or Kacper Kiedrzynski born 1740 / 1750 ?, married to Maryanna Arcichowska.
Antoni Aleksy Kiedrzynski, Wojciech, Michal and Wiktoria Rogujska were children of Maciej Kiedrzynski b. ca 1710 - who was brother of Wiktoria (1st). Above Kasper or Kacper Kiedrzynski born 1740 / 1750 was the brother or cousin of above Antoni Aleksy Kiedrzynski.

Ignacy Franciszek Ksawery Kreski, b. 1689 in Kepno, d. 1763 in Grebanin, in 1756 owner of Myslniów, Kuznica, Szklarka and Zawady in the Ostrzeszow county, sold to Psarski; 1719 m. Konstancja Koszutska daughter of Piotr and Jadwiga Pstrokonski, with:
a) Halina m. in 1754 in Rychwal, to Rupniewski,
b) Ludwina m. Ignacy Dobrzycki,
c) Cecylia Katarzyna b. 1719 in Swiecin,
d) Joachim Kreski, b. 1723, d. 1795 in Grebanin, officer in Ostrzeszow, estate in Grebanina, m. in 1765, in Kuznica Bobrowska, to Justyna Magnuska d. 1817 in Grebanin, daughter of Józef, with:
1. Adam Jan Ewangelista Franciszek b. 1772, m. 1795 in Grebanin, to Psarska,
2. Maria Joanna Konstancja Kreska b. 1774, m. 1804 in Grebanin, to Andrzej Kiedrzynski son of Kacper / Kasper Kiedrzynski and Marianna Arcichowski, from Rokutow in the Grodzisko parish
(Maria Joanna Konstancja Kreska / Marya Joanna Konstancya Kreska, born 14 August 1774 in Grebanin, the Baranów parish, close to Kepno and the Polish-Prussian border, married on 27 August 1804 in Grebanin, close to above Baranów, to Andrzej Kiedrzynski / Jedrzej Kiedrzynski. She was daughter of Joachim Kreski b. 1723 in Kobylogrod / Kobyla Gora close to Ostrzeszow, died 1795 in Grebanin, the Baranów parish, close to Kepno and the Polish-Prussian border, and she had mother Justyna Magnuska b. 1749 and died 1817 in Grebanin),
3. Wiktoria Ewa b. 1776, Grebanin, m. Rafal Nerski of Grebanin,
4. Elzbieta b. 1780, m. 1807 in Grebanin, to Konstanty Rekowski d. 1837, owner of Borzewisko, Captain,