The noble Konstantinovich family history.

Switzerland, Estonia, Belarus, Poland and
Russia
1772 - 1939.
Historia i genealogia rodziny Konstantynowicz.


We stayed in 

St Petersburg and Moscow

"Duflon, Konstantynowicz & Co." 

abbreviated as 

DEKA 

Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho was a key figure in the development of the Russian  air force; well-bred in

Georgia  /  საქართველო  /   Sakartvelo  

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich born 13 / 25 October 1832 in Peterhof, Field Marshal and on December 6, 1862 was appointed governor in the Caucasus and commander the Caucasian Army, with all rights chief of the army to July 23, 1881. Initiator of the compilation of the 'Caucasian Collection', published in Tiflis in 1876-1912. In marriage he had six sons and one daughter, among others Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France: Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies. Mason, and called himself Philalethes. Receiving education at home in Georgia, often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals. In 1892 he commanded the destroyer 'Revel', in 1895, was a senior officer of a battleship and in 1899, on the battleship 'Admiral Apraksin', then transferred to the Black Sea Fleet, where he commanded the battleship 'Rostislav'. With the beginning of the 1st World War, in fact, led the fleet of Russia. In 1915, Admiral, with the December 1916 field inspector - general of military aircraft; after February 1917 was in the Crimea, and in 1919 went into exile. Since 1903 an honorary member of the Nikolaev Naval Academy, was also the chairman of the Eng. Technical Society. In exile, was the honorary chairman of the Union of Russian military pilots and he was the patron of the National Organization for Russian scouts. He was in France in 1909 and next established the Volunteer Aerial Association under his presidency (All Russian Aero Club) and set up the first military aviation school in Sebastopol in 1909 or 1910 - finally formed at Sevastopol (Sebastopol) for the winter 1912 and in Gatchina for the summer 1912; near to Russian military intelligence. The Duke, Freemason, Vice-Admiral was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Russian  Military Air Fleet  in 1914 or 1915  and  he  became Inspector of Aviation; aide-de-camp to Nicholas II, an old friend of the Tsar and  married to  his sister Xenia.

The fate of life of these people and the noble clans will meet in the future:

1. Anna Sophia Pilar von Pilchau nee von Berg, b. 1710, d. 1784 in Tallinn, Harju, Estonia; daughter of Jakob Johann von Berg and Agenete Wilhelmine von Meck; wife of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau; she was mother of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau; Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau; she was sister of Reinhold Wilhelm von Berg and Jakob Friedrich von Berg; Otto Gustav von Berg and Robert Johann von Berg. Mentioned Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu), Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia, and this same Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau had children: Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich, Jakob Johann, Catharina Elisabeth, Reinhold Woldemar. Copyright by geni.com and Peter Trefilov.

2. Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, son of Joachim Johann von Sievers (b. 1699); grandson of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753 (his son Karl Eduard von Sievers, b. 1710 in Nybygard, Finnland, d. 1774 in St. Petersburg, father of Elisabeth Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata, Johann Carl Sievers of Ropkoy b. Lais (Livl.) 1749 d. 1805 acc. to: Peter Trefilov, Benedikte b. 1750, Peter and Karl Gustaf Joachim of Waiwara b. 1758 in Petersburg); caunt 1798, Extraordinary Ambassador to Poland. Cementery in Wolmar in Livonia / Valmiera / Wolmar, is a town in northern Latvia, about 100 km north-east of Riga and 50 km from the border with Estonia. From 1749 to 1755 as a diplomat in London and Kopenhagen (embassy of Prussia). Peter von Sivers b. 1674 = Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671 d. 1726, son of Joachim Sievers; this above named Christian Peter Sievers had children: Anna Magdalena, Joachim Christian / Joachim von Sievers and Maria Elisabeth Gunzel, but Peter Trefilov in 2011 not informed about Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval; Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671 had brother Joachim Johann b. ca 1674 - his son Karl Eduard von Sievers b. 1710 of Nybygard; in this branch was Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, son of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. 1699, grandson of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753. Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau b. 1749 was daughter of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and was wife of Georg Johann von Sivers / Sievers b. 1750. He was son of Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval and Leonette Wilhelmina Rehbinder / Lunetta Wilhelmina von Rehbinder. The family of Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers b. 1716 d. 1781 and Leonette Wilhelmina von Rehbinder 1729 - 1753: son Georg Johann von Sivers (b. 1750, Euseküll, Estonia; died Hiitola / Pukinniemi / Khiytola - a rural settlement of the Republic of Karelia, Russia) married in 1773 in Tallinn to Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau (b. 1749, Wait, Estonia) with children: Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers 1780, Anna Charlotta Christina von Sivers 1783, Dorothea Wilhelmina Johanna von Sivers, Elisabeth Christina, Catharina Hedvig Elisabeth.

3. Wilhelm Schaub / Wilhelm Johann-Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub, 1861 - 1934. Vasily Schaub / Wilhelm Johann Christian, Russian architect, also being built in Moscow, Saratov, Yekaterinburg. Son of (1834 in Göttingen, d. 1905 in St Petersburg, Russia) Wilhelm Karl Albert Emil Schaub. Göttingen is a university town in Lower Saxony. Grandson of Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub (b. ca 1800 ?). Probably Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub come from Johannes b. 1766 m. second time in 1800 to Elise NEFZGER, who had child Johannes 1801 (Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub) + Barbara SCHWOB. Remember on Heinrich Schaub b. 1802 in Sissach, close to Basel; Swiss politician in the Basel canton 1832, 1838 und 1850, 1869 to 1870.

Wilhelm Johann Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub was father of Woldemar Schaub and Gustav Schaub. Gustav Schaub, owner of the mechanical production company in Estonia and director of the Society Volta in Revel (company, also co-operated with the Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, specialised in the production of dynamo maschines and electricity motors, and in 1917 its authorized capital amounted to 2,000,000 rubles) and Director of the Company called Karl Winkler in St. Petersburg. Society Volta supplied also the plant Noblessner in Revel / Tallinn.
Europe 1789, 1815, 1914, 1917, 1937. Belarusian, Estonian, Polish and Russian genealogical and historical database


4. William Lock / Locke, William, the younger (1767-1847), amateur artist, friend of Henry Fuseli; Locke painted historical and allegorical subjects, after 1819 he lived at Rome and Paris (see: Luke Schaub from Neuchatel and Basel - In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy; Paszkowski family in Cracow, Moscow, Rome and Paris also!); leaving one son, William 3rd, and a daughter Elizabeth. Locke, William, the third (1804-1832), captain and amateur artist, published some illustrations to Byron's works. He was drowned in the lake of Como, Italy; married Selina, daughter of Admiral Tollemache; he had daughter,

Augusta Selina Locke b. 1833, married: a. Ernest Lord Burghersh,

b. the Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square. Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua!

c. Thomas de Grey, the present Lord Walsingham / Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham b. 1843 in Stanhope Street, Mayfair, London, d. 1919, was an English politician, 1874 to 1875 he served as a Lord-in-Waiting in the second Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli.

5. Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871. That was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia. His father Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau was born in 1769 in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, after Major of the Russian army. The son of above mentioned Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 and died d. 1871, was Stanislaw Caunt Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska (from Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806), she died on 28 Jan 1898, Wilno; her son Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, born 1860, married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec, he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierzynski; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937.

6. a. Magnus Wilhelm / Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu), Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia, and this same Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau had children: Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich, Jakob Johann, Catharina Elisabeth, Reinhold Woldemar. On the other side Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano; MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, 1840. The first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern; she was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano. She also was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. This is the branch of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. The same branch: Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830 / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu). He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.

b. Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871. That was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia. His father Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau was born in 1769 in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, after Major of the Russian army.

The branch of Magnus Fabian:

b1. Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar: Major Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 (1769?); Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774; Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

b2. Above Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., his father Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801 from Hallik close to Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremoisa close to Keila-Joa, served for the Polish army as Major in 1757. Yegor Maksimovic Pilar has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811.



1892

At the beginning Louis Franzevich Dyuflon founded technical office in the 2nd half of the 19th century in Moscow. L. Duflon / Dyuflon and Apollon Konstantynowicz acted in the St. Petersburg branch of the 'Breguet' Company

(A. Konstantynowicz / Apollon Konstantinovich / Constantinovich for the Breguet Moscow branch).
At present the Montres Breguet SA is a member company of the Swatch Group of western Switzerland in L'Abbaye (L'Abbaye is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne). It was founded by

Abraham-Louis Breguet in Paris in 1775.

Abraham-Louis Breguet or Bréguet b. 10 January 1747 and died on 17 September 1823, born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland (Neuchatel).



Acc. to 'rootsweb': Willaim Milton at Taunton in Somerset, died in 1844. CHILDREN: John Milton b. 1822, and wife Ann Cook had child Sydney Milton b. 1862 - who was living in Clifton Bristol. In 1890 Sydney Milton married Lina Susette Schwab / Lina Schaub b. 1867, St. Blaise / Hauterive in the Neuchatel district, Switzerland; Lina's parents were Jakob Schwab / Schaub probably b. in Ferenbalm, Bern canton, and Susanna Teuscher born in Daerstatten, Bern.
Ferenbalm / Les Baumettes, is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland, 25 km east of Neuchatel, ca 20 km south-east of St. Blaise, and ca 22 km north of Fribourg.
Saint-Blaise is a municipality in the district of Neuchâtel in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland. St. Blaise, close to Neuchatel, ca 6 km north-east. Hauterive is 5 km of Neuchatel, near by St. Blaise. Among others Pierre Duflon was living in Lausanne and Neuchatel, Suisse; Marc Duflon from Neuchâtel and BOVERESSE, 16 km north-west of Concise, and south-west of Nauchatel.
Sydney Milton / SIDNEY MILTON had the following children: Lina Rosalie Milton b. 1890, John Sidney Milton or Sidney John Milton b. 1891, William Frederick Milton, George Albert, Albertina Marguerit Susette Milton, Ellen Frances May Milton, Charles William Milton. Sidney was off in the Boer war; Lina died in 1904. The family SCHAUB, come from Neuchâtel, in 1868. Lina Schaub / Schwab, 1901 and was living in Bristol, England, but was born in canton de Neuchatel and married John Sidney Milton. It is believed that they died in Bern in the early 1900's; may have been living later in Canton de Friborg / Fribourg / Fryburg.
In Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchâtel, Suisse, 21 km north-east of Concise (Schaub family; maybe as the Schwab), and 14 km south-east of Neuchatel, 19 km north-west of Fribourg; probably in the 18th cent. in Saint-Aubin were the Schaubs. Luke (Lucas) Schaub, come from Bâle / Basel was born 1690 and died in London, 1758; received an education in Basel and in Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchâtel to learn the French language, after law school; Abraham Stanian, British Ambassador in Switzerland gave him various missions; also, Lord Cobham - British Ambassador in Vienna, take Schaub with him. In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy.

Let's look again on ambassadors in the 18th century in Poland, France, in London. Let us remember about such persons as:
Stanian / Stanyan, Schaub from Switzerland, Sivers / Sievers from Estonia and Latvia. In the background are the family Rebinder / Rehbinder and von Pilar - Pilchau from Estonia. Of course, it is the branch of
Pilar Pilchau, which settled in Mickuny and Parnu.
Now details:
1. Anna Sophia Pilar von Pilchau nee von Berg, b. 1710, d. 1784 in Tallinn, Harju, Estonia; daughter of Jakob Johann von Berg and Agenete Wilhelmine von Meck; wife of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau; mother of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau; Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau; she was sister of Reinhold Wilhelm von Berg and Jakob Friedrich von Berg; Otto Gustav von Berg and Robert Johann von Berg. Copyright by Peter Trefilov. Mentioned Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis (Jõgisuu), Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia, and had children: Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich, Jakob Johann, Catharina Elisabeth, Reinhold Woldemar. Copyright by geni.com and Peter Trefilov.
Ebba Emilie Pilar von Pilchau b. 1866, her parents: Olga Marie Emilie von Staal and Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilchau von Pilar. Above Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 in Padis / Padise, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland / Estonia and died in 1862, and grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 from Jöggis / Jőgisuu, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland).
2. Father of above Anna Sophia Pilar Pilchau: Jakob Johann von Berg b. 1686 d. 1734. Husband of above Anna Sophia: Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau b. 1709, d. 1752, son of Friedrich Jakob Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth von Knorring, father of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau; Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau b. 1749 and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau, all by Peter Trefilov.
3. Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, son of Joachim Johann von Sievers (b. 1699); grandson of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753 (his son Karl Eduard / Карл Ефимович von Sievers, b. 1710 in Nybygard, Finnland, d. 1774 in St. Petersburg, father of Elisabeth / Елизавета Карловна Putjatin / Elizavieta Puciata, Johann Carl Sievers of Ropkoy b. Lais (Livl.) 1749 d. 1805 acc. to: Peter Trefilov, Benedikte b. 1750, Peter and Karl Gustaf Joachim of Waiwara b. 1758 in Petersburg); caunt 1798, Extraordinary Ambassador to Poland. Cementery in Wolmar in Livonia / Valmiera / Wolmar, is a town in northern Latvia, about 100 km north-east of Riga and 50 km from the border with Estonia. From 1749 to 1755 as a diplomat in London and Kopenhagen (embassy of Prussia), here he also had the opportunity with his superiors Count Tschernschew to travel to France and Germany and next to England. After he was active in the Livonian District and became in 1792 Russian ambassador to Poland. Then he initiated the process for the second partition of Poland. In 1794 he was an ambassador, after successful negotiations, recalled. Jakob Johann von Sievers b. 1731, from Wesenberg / Rakvere, Lääne-Virumaa, Estland; brother of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. 1741; Carl Eberhard von Sievers b. 1745; Marie Helene von Guldenhof; Anna Magdalena von Köhler and Peter Christian von Sievers b. 1754, by Are Saarne.
4. Above Friedrich Jakob Pilar von Pilchau b. 1675. Above Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau b. 1749 was daughter of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and was wife of Georg Johann von Sivers / Sievers b. 1750
(son of Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval and Leonette Wilhelmina Rehbinder / Lunetta Wilhelmina von Rehbinder
[family of Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers b. 1716 d. 1781 and Leonette Wilhelmina von Rehbinder 1729 - 1753: son Georg Johann von Sivers (b. 1750, Euseküll, Estonia; died Hiitola / Pukinniemi / Khiytola / Хийтола - a rural settlement of the Republic of Karelia, Russia) married in 1773 in Tallinn to Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau (b. 1749, Wait, Estonia) with children: Friedrich Wilhelm von Sivers 1780, Anna Charlotta Christina von Sivers 1783, Dorothea Wilhelmina Johanna von Sivers, Elisabeth Christina, Catharina Hedvig Elisabeth];
grandson of Peter von Sivers b. 1674
[maybe Peter von Sivers b. 1674 = Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671 d. 1726, son of Joachim Sievers; this above named Christian Peter Sievers had children: Anna Magdalena / Анна Магдалена, Joachim Christian / Joachim von Sievers and Maria Elisabeth Gunzel, but Peter Trefilov in 2011 not informed about Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval;
Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671 had brother Joachim Johann b. ca 1674 - his son Karl Eduard or Карл Ефимович von Sievers b. 1710 of Nybygard; in this branch was Jakov Sivers / Jakob Johann von Sievers, 1731 - 1808, son of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. 1699, grandson of Joachim Johann von Sievers b. ca 1674 d. 1753]).
5. Mother of Dorothea Charlotta Baronesse Pilar von Pilchau b. 1749 (wife of Georg Johann von Sivers / Sievers b. 1750), was Anna Sophia Pilar von Pilchau nee von Berg, b. 1710. Georg Johann von Sivers was son of Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sivers b. 1716 in Reval and Lunetta Wilhelmina von Rehbinder; grandson of Peter von Sivers b. 1674 / maybe Christian Peter Sievers b. 1671.

Luke Schaub, Lukas Schaub, Lucas Schaub b. 1690 in Basel, Swiss descent. Son of a notary, a study of law in Basel, diplomatic career in the service of England; 1715-1716 he was a British charge d'affaires to the Holy Roman Empire; 1720, he was - by the English King George I - knighted; 1721-1724 he was an English ambassador in Paris; 1737 he mediated in the so-called salmon fishing dispute between Basel and France. He married Marguerite de Ligonnier du Buisson, b. 1717, d. 1789. Father of Hans Heinrich Schaub (you must check!) and Frederica Augusta Schaub b. 1750, d. 1832 - she married William Lock; her child William Lock 2nd b. 1767, d. 1847. He married Elizabeth Jennings (d. 1847), daughter of Henry Constantine Jennings / Jennings-Noel, in 1805. He lived at Norbury Park, Surrey, England.
Above William Lock / Locke, William, the younger (1767-1847), amateur artist, friend of Henry Fuseli; Locke painted historical and allegorical subjects, after 1819 he lived at Rome and Paris (Paszkowski family in Cracow, Moscow, Rome and Paris also!); leaving one son, William 3rd, and a daughter Elizabeth. Locke, William, the third (1804-1832), captain and amateur artist, published some illustrations to Byron's works. He was drowned in the lake of Como, Italy; married Selina, daughter of Admiral Tollemache; he had daughter, Augusta Selina Locke b. 1833, married
1. Ernest Lord Burghersh,
2. the Duca di San Teodoro
(Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square. Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, 1840 - was an Italian philosopher and historian. Cecilia / Cecylia Mariano Pilar von Pilchau died 1896 in Italy, Neapol. She was born 1847 in Audern, close to Parnu, Livonia. Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor of the University of Naples. Relatives: Adolph (ALF), Jacob Constantin von Pilar Pilchau (1851 - 1925 in Pärnu, Baron of Livonia, and the marshal of the district magistrate in Parnu); and Helene Bertha Johanna von Adele Gruenewaldt (1853-1889, nee Pilchau von Pilar, married Walther Gruenewaldt). That is on Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847–1896), from Italian cementery. The first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com) Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar. Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. Gorki was living on Capri Island (Lenin and Dzierzynski were here). Capri is close to Sorrento, ca 13 km on west; south of Napoli / Neapol where was living MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani - was an Italian philosopher and historian; student of Augusto Vera; his two wifes from the Pilar Pilchau family of Audern and Parnu. From Capri to Napoli: kilometers 32, bearing: SW),
and 3. Thomas de Grey, the present Lord Walsingham.
Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham b. 1843 in Stanhope Street, Mayfair, London, d. 1919, was an English politician, 1874 to 1875 he served as a Lord-in-Waiting in the second Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli. Marriages to Augusta Selina Elizabeth LOCKE / Selina Lock in 1877, Marion GWYTHERNE-WILLIAMS and Agnes Baird HEMMING.

Child of William Lock and Elizabeth Jennings: Elizabeth Lock b. 1806, d. 1877 (Baroness of Wallscourt or Bessie). In 1822 she married Joseph Henry Blake, 3rd Baron Wallscourt, son of Colonel Henry James Blake and Anne French;
children of Elizabeth Lock and Joseph Henry Blake, 3rd Baron Wallscourt: Henry Joseph Blake b. 1823, William Richard Blake b. 1825, Elizabeth Frederica b. 1827, Elizabeth Nina b. 1830, Erroll Augustus Blake, 4th Baron Wallscourt b. 1841, d. 1918: 1874 married, firstly, Lady Jane Harriet Charlotte Stanhope, daughter of Charles Wyndham Stanhope, 7th Earl of Harrington and Elizabeth Still de Pearsall; married, secondly 1896, Mary Ethel Palliser, daughter of Sir William Palliser and Anne Perham; educated at Eton College, Windsor, Berkshire; he was extra Aide-de-Camp to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Children of Erroll Augustus Blake, 4th Baron Wallscourt: Charles William Joseph Henry Blake, 5th Baron Wallscourt b. 1875, Erroll Wyndham Lincoln Blake b. 1875, unmarried, Elizabeth Lucy Eily Blake b. 1877, d. 1966 (she married Major Leycester Penrhyn Storr, son of Reverend John Storr and Amy Theodosia Leycester, 1907 and had: Norah Storr, b. 1908, m. F. D. Atkinson; Leila Storr, b. 1909, 1958 m. Edward McGarel-Groves; Winifred Storr, b. 1911; Jane Storr, b. 1916; Eliabeth Storr, b. 1918, m. Ian Spence), Elizabeth Honoria Blake, Margaret Phyllis Blake. Above Charles William Joseph Henry Blake, 5th Baron Wallscourt was married Ellen Mayo, daughter of Joseph Mayo. Literature by Rudolf Massini, 1953; Oxford Dictionary of National Biography in 2004; Stefan Hess. Above data copyright by www.thepeerage.com.

STANYAN, ABRAHAM (1669 ? - 1732), diplomatist, elder son of Laurence Stanyan of Headley, Middlesex. 1702, he was appointed secretary to the Earl of Manchester at Paris; 1705, as envoy to the Swiss cantons, taking with him bills of exchange upon the bankers of Genoa for the allied forces in Italy. Stanyan at once hastened to Neuchâtel; Stanyan returned home in February 1709, but was soon back again in Switzerland, and was in 1710 with a mission to Piedmont and 1712 at Milan. 1716 - 1717 appointed envoy to Vienna. 1719 - 1720 ambassador to the Porte in Constantinople, succeeded Edward Wortley Montagu; member of the Kit-Cat Club, Stanyan was on friendly terms with Pope. Abraham's younger brother, Temple Stanyan (d. 1752), appointed secretary under Viscount Townshend, 1719 he was appointed clerk in the room of his brother, and numerous diplomatic letters addressed to him from Paris during the embassy of Sir Luke Schaub; he left a daughter Catherine (d. 1801), who married Admiral Sir Charles Hardy the younger. Above Charles Edward Montagu, 1st Duke of Manchester, d. 1722, educated at Cambridge, envoy to Vennice, ambassador to France. Sir William Trumbul d. 1716, was English envoy at Tangir. Lord Cobham, on a secret mission to Vienna to the Emperor Charles the Sixth; with General Cadogan and Sir Luke Schaub (he was secretary to Richard, lord Cobham, who was English ambassador at Vienna in 1715) were sent to Vienna to negotiate the Barrier Treaty. 1714, Cobham and Stanhope went together on an embassy to Vienna. Viscount Cobham = Richard TEMPLE, b. 1675, son of Richard Temple senior, 1706 Major-General, Field Marshal in 1742, Envoy to Vienna 1714-1715, Constable of Windsor Castle, 1716-1723; created Baron Cobham, 1714; created Baron Cobham and Viscount Cobham, 1718; 1749, the Barony of Cobham of Stowe, Buckinghamshire, England.
Admiral Sir Charles Le Hardy (1714 or 1716-1780) was the son of Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Le Hardy and Elizabeth Burchett. In 1749 he married Mary Tate and in 1759, following her death, he married Catharine Stanyan (see: Abraham Stanian, British Ambassador in Switzerland and Abraham's younger brother, Temple Stanyan d. 1752). The couple had three sons and two daughters. Sir Charles Hardy died at Spithead, leaving his estate at Rawlins, Oxfordshire, to his eldest son, Temple Hardy. By Catharine's death in 1801, only Temple survived of the three sons. Hardy's brother, Josiah, was a merchant and Governor of New Jersey. Captain Temple Hardy / Charles Temple Hardy (1765 – 1814) was an English naval officer active during the French Revolutionary Wars, in the capture of the Cape Colony in 1795. He was a son of Admiral Charles Hardy, at Rawlins, in Oxfordshire. The will, left his possessions to his wife and to his two unmarried sisters, Clare and Rachael Emilia. Rawlins, in Oxfordshire - Rawlins House, in Adderbury, close to Banbury, in Oxfordshire, north of Oxford.
In Concise (Suzanne Jean SCHAUB lived in the canton of Vaud between 1830 and 1866. In Concise, Vaud, close to Grandson, Cortaillod, south-west of Neuchatel; north of Lausanne, ca 45 km), in the Vaud canton - 14 km north of Demoret / Démoret (Démoret in the canton of Vaud - ca 30 km north of Lausanne and Cully, 9 km north of Moudon). Chavornay (Duflon) is 18 km west from Demoret (Schaub). L'Abbaye (Breguet) is ca 18 km west-south-west of Chavornay (Duflon).

The Schaub family in Switzerland - details: Sebastian SCHAUB, b. 1705, wife Elizabeth TSCHUDI, had Jacob, Elizabeth, Hans Heinrich b. 1735, Sabastian, Jr b. 1738, and Anna b. 1739. Hans Schaub b. 1700 in Ormalingen, d. 1760; Hans Jakob Schaub b. 1725 in Ormalingen, d. 1785; Heini Schaub b. 1728 in Ormalingen; Hans Schaub b. 1729, Ormalingen; Martin Schaub b. 1730, Ormalingen; Catharina Schaub b. 1734 - Ormalingen. Johann Jacob Frey b. 1648 in Baregg, Knonau, Zurich, Switzerland, husband of Anna Maria Schaub(en) b. 1649 in Langensoultzbach, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France, daughter of Matthias Schaub and Ursula Lange. Matthias Schaub from Langensoultzbach, Bas-Rhine, France. Lucas Schaub b. 1690, d. 1758, father of Hans Heinrich Schaub, by Carl Theodor Ekelöf and Magnus Ljungkvist. Hans Heinrich Schaub b. in Sissach, Switzerland in 1681 to Bastian Schaub and Maria Kirsteiner. Hans Heinrich married Ursula Horand and had a child. Sebastian Schaub 1704-1733, in Switzerlamd 1704 to Hans Heinrich Schaub and Ursula Horand. Sebastian married Elisabeth Tschudi and had 3 children, died 1733 in Sissach, Basel, Switzerland. Hans Heinrich Schaub b. 1681. Hans Heinrich Schaub b. 1695 d. 1745. Sebastian Schaub b. 1715 in Sissach + Elsbeth Tschudin. Anna Maria 1751-1820 m. to Martin SCHAUB 1742-1826. Johannes 1728-1818 m. 1749 to Anna KESSLER 1724-1804 had Anna 1749, Maria 1751, Hans Jakob 1756-1828, Elisabeth 1758, Anna Barbara 1760, Johannes 1766 m. 1792 to Catharina MEIER 1771-1792 with children: Hans Jakob 1792 m. 1821 to Anna LUEDIN; above Johannes b. 1766 m. second time in 1800 to Elise NEFZGER: Johannes 1801 + Barbara SCHWOB, Martin 1802, Martin II 1804 m. Barbara HEID, with children: Luise 1837, Martin 1841-1889 + 1869 to Elisabeth ERB 1845-1924 with children: Lina 1872 died 1923, Auguste 1876, Luise 1877, Elisabeth 1811.

As an independent director of the Noblessner was elected nobleman A. Shaub / A. Schaub / А. В. Шауб, co-owner of two St. Petersburg industrial enterprises, acc. to: M. N. Baryshnikov, Noblessner: Formation of Financial and Industrial Group in St. Petersburg in the Early Twentieth Century, ed. 2013 - this article is devoted to the research of the formation of financial and industrial group Nobel-Lessner in St. Petersburg in the early twentieth century. It should be noted that for the Nobel interest is important activities of his brother (cousin acc. to me) - Gustav Schaub, owner of the mechanical production company in Estonia and director of the Society Volta in Revel (company, also co-operated with the Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, specialised in the production of dynamo maschines and electricity motors, and in 1917 its authorized capital amounted to 2,000,000 rubles) and Director of the Company called Karl Winkler in St. Petersburg. Society Volta supplied also the plant Noblessner in Revel / Tallinn.

The Tallinn plant Volta / 'Volta tehas', was one of the largest enterprises of the Estonia, specialized in the production of electric motors of different types and capacities. It was in Tallinn, street Teestuze; historical Volta factory was founded in 1899. On April 15, 1899 Joint Stock Company Volta, had shareholders: Карл-Вильгельм Лутер / Carl Wilhelm Luter / Charles William Luther, Кристиан Лутер / Christian Luther, Girard, Кристиан-Бертольд Роттерманн / Christian Berthold Rottermann, Rosen and Ingmann and the Riga Commercial Bank (former German company AEG). Joint Stock Company Volta has acquired land in Revel and began construction of the plant, received its name from the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta; the plant began work on January 5, 1900 and was originally produced electric motors, generators, lighting systems, including equipment for the Tallinn power station. Generators produced at the Volta, gave the first electricity for homes of Tallinn in 1913. Before the revolution, the plant employed about a thousand people; In the summer of 1903 Carl Wilhelm Luter, during a trip to Berlin, died aged forty-four. Carl Wilhelm Luther - the eldest son of Alexander Martin Luther / Александр Мартин Лютер, the founder of a furniture factory, famous not only in the province of Estonia; after graduating from Riga Polytechnic, he worked for several years in St. Petersburg, after which he returned to his hometown. In Revel, son of the founder of a furniture factory, Luther was not only the owner of the enterprise, but also led the technical management of production; 1899, together with his younger brother Christian, Carl founded the electro-mechanical factory Volta, becoming its director; he is the author of Charles Luther Public House in Revel, 1904.

Василий Васильевич Шауб / Wilhelm Schaub / Wilhelm Johann-Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub, 1861 - 1934. Vasily Schaub / Wilhelm Johann Christian, Russian architect, also being built in Moscow, Saratov, Yekaterinburg. Son of Василии Иванович Шауб (1834 in Göttingen, d. 1905 in St Petersburg, Russia) / Wilhelm Karl Albert Emil Schaub. Göttingen is a university town in Lower Saxony. Grandson of Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub (b. ca 1800 ?).

Probably Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub come from Johannes b. 1766 m. second time in 1800 to Elise NEFZGER, who had child Johannes 1801 (Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub) + Barbara SCHWOB.
Wilhelm Johann Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub was father of Woldemar Schaub and Gustav Schaub. Brother of Amalia Marie Julie Wasmer (1862 Petersburg - 1935 Berlin, wife of Richard Julius Wasmer); Alexander Schaub (1866 - 1934, husband of Emma, father of Boris Schaub; Wera Kudrevich / Wiera Kudrewicz and Alexander Schaub junior) and Heinrich Wilhelm Schaub. All above data acc. to Karin Lindsalu Heermeyer at geni.com, his mother Julia Maria Schaub nee Zeh. Above Gustav Schaub, b. ca 1885? husband of Sophie, father of Sophie younger. Brother of Woldemar Schaub who was husband of Waleska Schaub / NN nee Walewska?
Hans Jakob 1768-1827 m. Elise MEYER and Verena WALLISER had: Verena 1794-1849 + Rudolf SCHAUB 1778, Hans Jakob 1797, Hans Jakob 1798 + Anna Barbara EHRSAM 1806 with children: Johan Jakob 1829 (Johann Jakob Schaub b. 1828 in Itingen, 1 km near by Sissach), Anna Barbara 1829, Johan Jakob 1831-1890 + Anna Margaretha TSCHUDIN b. 1845 with children: Anna Maria 1867, Anna Barbara 1868, Johan Heinrich 1869, Johan Heinrich 1870, Anna 1877, Rudolf 1883; Rosina 1833, Anna Barbara 1835, Johan Rudolf 1837 + Anna Maria BOLLIGER 1839-1907 with children: Arnold 1880; Johan Rudolf 1837 + Elisabeth TSCHUDIN 1841-1879 with children: Johan Jakob 1860, Rudolf 1862, Elisabeth 1863, Emil 1865 + Regula STAUFER had Jakob Ewald 1891-1913; Wilhelm 1867 + Elisabeth KYBURG had Johan Wilhelm 1891-1912, Ernst 1896-1918; Albert 1869, Maria 1873 + Alexandre CEPPI; August 1876, Emilie 1879; Johannes 1839-1911 + Anna Margaretha GISIN 1837-1872 had Johan Jakob 1858 + Elise GENTSCH with Elisabeth 1885, Anna Barbara 1859, Johannes 1861, Elisabeth 1863, Johannes 1864-1923; Johannes 1839-1911 + Verena BUSER had Arnold 1873, Verena 1878, Arnold 1886; Ursula 1845, Johannes Heinrich 1849 + Emma FLUBACHER had Johan Heinrich 1873-1919 + Sophie WAGNER, Karl 1875.
Around 1750, the baker, Johann Jakob Schaub, bought the Inn zum Engel in Basel, and in 1801, the son-in-law of Johann Jakob Schaub, Martin Leutenegger. Above baker is maybe Johannes 1728-1818 m. 1749 to Anna KESSLER 1724-1804. Conrad Schaub was born 1843, in Oberglatt county - 13 km north of Zurich, Switzerland, to Solomon Schaub and Susanna Maag. Solomon was born 1805, in Switzerland; Conrad Schaub became a civil engineer in southern Germany, Worms; married Maria Anna Alker in 1867. They moved back to Switzerland in 1869, and Karl Conrad jr. was born to them in 1869, Zurich. Descendants of Johannes Friedrich Schaub b. 1717 in Buss (?), Switzerland, and died 1801 in Bethania, N.C. He married DESERTE MARIA SCHUMAKER in 1743 in Marienborn, Germany.
Heinrich Schaub b. 1802 in Sissach, close to Basel; Swiss politician in the Basel canton 1832, 1838 und 1850, 1869 to 1870.
Jakob Schaub b. 1862 in Gelterkinden, 4 km east of Sissach, south-east of Basel; editor and printer, Basel, Zürich, in Sissach.
Johann Jakob Schaub b. 1828 in Itingen, 1 km near by Sissach.
Others in Switzerland: Otto Schaub (1886–1955), Samuel Schaub (1882–1962), Walter Schaub b. 1885 in Sissach; d. 1957 in Bottmingen, near to Basel, Swiss politician. Schaub family in Ferenbalm / Les Baumettes, is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland, 25 km east of Neuchatel, ca 20 km south-east of St. Blaise, and ca 22 km north of Fribourg.

Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchâtel, Suisse, 21 km north-east of Concise (Schaub family), and 14 km south-east of Neuchatel, 19 km north-west of Fribourg; probably in the 18th cent. in Saint-Aubin were the Schaubs. Luke (Lucas) Schaub, come from Bâle / Basel was born 1690 and died in London, 1758; received an education in Basel and in Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchâtel to learn the French language, after law school; Abraham Stanian, British Ambassador in Switzerland gave him various missions; also, Lord Cobham - British Ambassador in Vienna, take Schaub with him. In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy.

François / Françoise Duflon from Riex (near by Cully in the Lavaux; the Lavaux is a region in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, in the district of Lavaux-Oron; the Lavaux at northern shores of Lake Geneva; village Forel = Lavaux, north-east of Lutry) and Villeneuve was born in 1831 in La Tour-de-Peilz, where his father was a teacher. La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km. The Demontet family - in Villette in the Vaud province. Villette on way from Lutry and Cully. Cully is near to Riex. The Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel and La Chaux-de-Fonds - is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuchâtel. Also St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne (St-Aubin-Sauges is 6 km north-east of Concise where the SCHAUB family lived in the canton of Vaud between 1830 and 1866), Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, Tavannes, north of Neuchatel. La Chaux-de-Fonds 15 km north of Neuchatel.


Originally Prussian, Abraham Louis Breguet began his career as a watchmaker but also a physicist.

His son Louis-Antoine Breguet. His ancestry was French but his family were Protestants so they fled to Switzerland after Edict of Nantes in 1685.
He met
Abraham-Louis Perrelet and Xavier Gide.

In 1795 Breguet returned to Paris. Circa 1807 Breguet brought in his son, Louis-Antoine (born 1776) as a business partner, and from this point the firm became known as Breguet et Fils. He sent his son to London to study with the great English chronometer maker,

John Arnold.


Abraham-Louis Breguet died in 1823 and it was carried on by Louis-Antoine to 1833 (he died in 1858), and after the business continued under Abraham-Louis' grandson


Louis François Clément Breguet born on 22 Dec. 1804

in Paris.



Louis Francois Clement Breguet work in the early days of

telegraphy, educated in Switzerland. Louis François Clément Breguet

was a French physicist, "1835 and 1840 he standardized the company product line of watches, ... and diversified into scientific instruments, electrical devices, recording instruments, an electric thermometer, telegraph instruments and electrically synchronized clocks

(Masson, Antoine Philibert and Louis Breguet in 1841 ed. 'Memoire sur l'induction', Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris, 4 (3), p. 129-152; Masson describes the toothed wheels that functioned as an interrupter).

With

Alphonse Foy, in 1842 he developed an electrical needle telegraph to replace the optical telegraph system ... and a later step-by-step telegraph system in 1847 ... manufactured the rotating mirror Fizeau-Foucault apparatus ... and 'spark coil'

(archaically known as an inductorium or Ruhmkorff coil after Heinrich Ruhmkorff)

is a type of electrical transformer used to produce high-voltage pulses ... were widely used in

x-ray machines, spark-gap radio transmitters, arc lighting and quack medical electrotherapy devices from the 1880s to the 1920s ... lighting Geissler tubes ... Tesla coils...".

Alphonse Foy informed Morse that his system would not be accepted in France. He also requested Louis Francois Breguet (b. 1804), grandson of Abraham Louis Breguet to produce an electrical telegraph with needles in France. The resulting Breguet - Foy telegraph used two needles. It was first tried in 1842. In 1842 tests were made with optical telegraph at night. In 1845 test of electrical telegraph was made along the railway route, the Breguet two - needle telegraph, too.

As a result the Breguet equipment was installed in 1845 on the Paris-Rouen route. Breguet replaced his telegraph also called the French telegraph, which was standard equipment on French railways and L. Breguet in 1851 had in Paris a fourth floor added to his building for this work.

Breguet cooperated also with Chambrier, V. Foy, the French government (dial telegraph in 1845), the Telegraph Company in 1863 (electric telegraph - Breguet System, late 19th century), in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s with Wood, Edward George b. in Clerkenwell, Islington, January 1812, d. 1896 from Cheapside, City of London, who was friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist (galvanic telegraph, Crossley's Telegraph in Halifax), d'Arlincourt (transmitter);
Breguet patented a Telegraph Communicator - Breguet Alphabetical Type, circa 1870; manufactured the telephone transmitter (Boudet, Laborde, Breguet, Ader, Du Moncel, and others) and telephone receivers (Bell, Breguet, and others).
Note: Winnie Buller b. in Bacton, Norfolk, receives pilot's license from Breguet School at Douia, France.

In Russia, St Petersburg - Moscow electrical telegraph line was established as the first; in 1853 a line to Kronstadt, 1854 to Warsaw. The Russian state telegraph network of 11000 km was constructed by Siemens - Carl Siemens - in the period 1853 - 1855. 1863 to Tbilisi in Georgia upon the initiative of Grigola Orbeliani, d. 1883. 1860 to Sweden from Russia.

"...The first electromagnetic telegraph created a Russian scientist Paul L. Schilling in 1832. ... Paul Schilling also developed the original code in which each letter of the alphabet corresponded to a specific combination of symbols that might appear with black and white circles on the telegraph ... the electromagnetic telegraph was built in Germany - Carl Gauss and Wilhelm Weber (1833), in the UK - Cooke and Wheatstone (1837), and the U.S. patented electromagnetic telegraph S. Morse in 1837. ... In Russia, the P. L. Schilling continued B. Jacobi, built in 1839 writer telegraph...".

In 1874, Pärnu - Kuressaare telegraph line was building. At first the two times a week between Kuressaare and Pärnu were transported mail. Telegraph to continent was set up in 1875. The first line at Hiiumaa Island was built by the Government of the Navy, ca 1854, this service was expensive and slown. The big change in the transmission of messages in the history came when it started to use electric telegraph by a German physician Samuel Thomas von Sommer; it have not found practical use; In Tallinn, the Russian scientist, electronic technician, Schilling in 1832 constructed an electromagnet powered telegraph; 1837, Cooke and Wheatstone patented telegraph which was introduced in Paddington; 1837 was designed by American Samuel Morse an electromagnetic telegraph, which became the forward points, had a paper tape machine. By 'wiki.wifi.ee/index.php/Telegraaf'. Estonia can the beginning of the development of telecommunications in 1855 when the first telegraph from Petersburg via Narva to Tallinn was put to work, with the Morse telegraph device; in 1857 Tallinn - Pärnu to Riga; Telegraph opened in Pärnu to Haapsalu with a branch line in 1859 to Tallinn; 1863 was built telegraph Tartu - Valga to Riga; 1864 Tartu - Narva - Jõhvi; 1866 Rakvere was post office; 1867 Pärnu - Viljandi telegraph; in 1872 Võrru; 1875 Pärnu - Kuressaare; 1883 between Tallinn and Pärnu new line linking the Märjamaal open telegraph; 1900 in Pärnu a wide range telegraph; all telegraph were used Morse-type telegraph devices and Hughes high-speed type; the longest telegraph cable was built in 1898 between Pärnu and Kihnu, Saarema Island; 1914 the First World War, continued development of the telegraph, but in the meantime begun to evolve rapidly new phone. 1875, the final decision on the issue of Saaremaa telegraph, taking Pärnu, Kuressaare, Virtsu, Kärdla telegraph line; 1875, G. Schmidt, managing Pärnu - Kuressaare route building intermediate stations Lihulas, Virtsus, Vahtna, Illikulaiu; Kuressaare and Pärnu base stations were set up in 1875. 1906, the city telephone network was a state monopoly, to set the phone on the island port of Roomassaare - Oskar Kesk. 1908, in Saaremaa, Julius Sander, chaired the meeting where it was decided to install telephones in rural houses. The Roomassaare Port had the first electric power plant in 1912.

Electrical Power Base in Estonia started in 1882, when the Tallinn F. Wiegandi factory (later Ilmarine) and the Narva Kreenholm Factory set up the first generator lighting; 1885 Drümpelmanni metal factory in Tallinn and mentioned Kreenholm (Dvigatel wagon factory in Tallinn); 1893 started work of two generators with a total capacity of approximately 200 kW in a cement factory in Kunda; The first public power station founded in 1907 in Pärnu, the power was 100 kW, it operated a steam engine; on the right bank of the Pärnu River power plant has not survived, but is still the building, which was built and opened in the 1911; this was followed by Tartu, Viljandi, Valga and Võru city.

The Pärnu city council decided to build the plant on 16 February 1907; building itself was built by the city by the total cost of 65,000 rubles. In early June began to pull the power lines, and on 20 October 1907 began producing electricity in Pärnu; city street had 69 light bulb, thus it was at the forefront of the whole empire; as early as in 1908 were built power plant additions (see on my grandfather Jerzy Konstantynowicz / Marian Stankiewicz / Marian Konstantinovich in Parnu 1908/1909 to 1912):
batteries provided power during peak periods; electric lights brighten the beach and on 29 September 1910 the council decided to build a new power plant (completed in autumn 1911); as early as in 1912 in Pärnu electric street lighting had bulbs to 355, before the war, 425. It used for heating the wood chips and milled peat. Estonian electrical networks, of Pärnu, is very interesting, the power station was constructed with two subsea cables through the Pärnu River, as the city's street lighting network was located on one side of the river, and the other side was the power plant.
Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau or Paulina Julia Elisabeth / Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (or Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth, 1847-1896) b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern, was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau / Adolph (ALF), Jacob Constantin (1851 - 1925 in Pärnu, Baron of Livonia, and the marshal of the district magistrate in Parnu). The first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. She was sister of above mentioned Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar. Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau (burial in Pärnu; born 1774, d. 1814) and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. Above named Adolf Pilar von Pilchau in 1899 served magistrate of Pärnu; became a Viljandi church curator; 1902 he became also an economic Livonia president; 1905 arrived in Tallinn; 1906 Pilar von Pilchau moved to Riga. 1908-1918 he was the marshal of the Livonian knighthood, 1912 he was elected to the Baltic provinces of Russia as a representative member of the Supreme Council, to share life in Riga and St. Petersburg; 1916 in Tartu, Riga.

Paul L. Schilling / Baron Pavel L'vovitch von Schilling / Schilling von Kannstadt / Schilling von Cannstatt b. 1786 in Tallinn and died 1837 in St. Petersburg, diplomat, electrical engineer and inventor, the Baltic German origin, who built a pioneering electrical telegraph.


Sir Charles Wheatstone b. 1802, an English scientist and inventor: the stereoscope Playfair cipher for an encryption technique ("...it was used by the militaries of several nations through at least World War I, and is known to have been used during World War II by British intelligence services. It was initially resistant to cryptanalysis...", acc. to Marks, Leo, Between Silk and Cyanide. New York 1998), Wheatstone bridge, telegraph; in 1835 he lectured on the system of Baron Schilling, and the five-needle telegraph was similar to that of Schilling; the Breguet telegraph was similar in many ways to the Wheatstone model. It was simply built and adhered to basic engineering principles.

In 1917, after Russian revolution, cryptographers took the counterrevolution side. Soviet Government used both tsar and revolutionary ciphers. In 1921, a special department was founded by the government, for exploitation of ciphers. Andrei Andreevich Markov gave a classification of ciphers which do not propagate distortions. Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond investigated the complexity of the discrete logarithm problem. Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903‑1987), graduated of the Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1925, acc. to Valentin A. Nosov.
By 1860 large codes were in common use for diplomatic communications, and cipher systems had become a rarity for this application. The invention of telegraph and radio pushed forward the development of cryptographic protection of telecommunications, acc. to https://www.cryptochallenge.com/home/history.
The British scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone b. 1802, developed the Playfair Code, a table system that was easy to use.
Friedrich W. Kasiski developed a cryptanalysis method in 1863. In 1883, the French teacher and writer Auguste Kerckhoffs set forth six basic requirements of cryptography. He formulated procedures for long-term diplomatic codes. In 1917, the Americans formed the cryptographic organization MI-8, with Herbert Osborne Yardley as the director. The ADFGVX system was put into service by the Germans near the end of World War One. This was a cipher which performed a substitution, fractionation and then transposition of the letter fractions. It was broken by the French cryptanalyst, Lieutenant Georges Painvin.

Acc. to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I_cryptography, "Ernst Fetterlein was in the Tzarist Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1896, and solved German, Austrian and British codes. He was eventually made chief cryptographer. ... 1917 he fled to Britain, and was recruited to Room 40 in June 1918 to work on Austrian, Bolshevik, and Georgian codes. The Russians used an overly complicated version of the Vigenere Cipher... The French Army employed Georges Painvin, and Etienne Bazeries..., on German ciphers...".

"General Bonch-Bruyevich was close to leading generals who, in 1917, were instrumental in engineering the abdication of the Tsar. Certainly influenced by his Bolshevik brother, he contributed much to the poor military planning. Some of the spies who operated around the Minister of War (who himself may have been maneuvered by the Germans) later participated in revolutionizing and, in a concealed fashion, in the German operation with Lenin. ...

Some of the salient events are described by W. K. Korostowetz, Lenin im Hause der ... (Berlin: Kulturpolitik, 1928), esp. Chapters VII and VIII: and Mikhail D. Bonch-Bruyevich, Petrograd, Erinnerungen eines Generals (Berlin: Verlag des Ministeriums fur nationale Verteidigung, 1959), Ch. 5-9.
W. K. Korostowetz / Korostowiec / Korostowetz was an official of the Petrograd Foreign Office and specialized in communications intelligence. He was related to many high-ranking officials and aristocrats, and his information is, on the whole, dependable.

General Bonch-Bruyevich, brother of Lenin's comrade, had many counter-intelligence assignments. A liberal during the war, he later joined the Bolsheviks and became something like the premier soldier of the Red army. The information by the two authors is largely corroborative".

The Korostovetz family:
Alexandra K. Sluchevskaya, was the youngest daughter of the poet K. K. Sluchevsky / Konstanty Slichevski. She was born in St. Petersburg in 1890.
Her mother was Agnes F. Snetkova. Agnes F. did not belong to the nobility. 1896 to 1903 in St. Petersburg, first at the Nikolayev street, 7 then on the Fontanka, 127; Alexandra Konstantinovna Sluchevskaya after the death of her elder brother Constantine, in 1913, married Vladimir Konstantinovich Korostovets, its close relative; Vladimir K. Sluchevsky graduated from the Law Faculty of St. Petersburg University; Vladimir Konstantinovich Sluchevsky was hired by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and served under P. N. Milyukov. Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov, father of the writer Vladimir Nabokov (К. Д. Набоков next of kin with В. В. Набоков), was on friendly terms with Konstantin Konstantinovich Slichevski / Sluchevsky. Vladimir Konstantinovich and Konstantin Konstantinovich Slichevski / Sluchevsky and V. D. Nabokov were members of the Law Society at St. Petersburg University. Brother of Vladimir Dmitrievich - Konstantin Dmitrievich Nabokov served in the Foreign Ministry with nephew of K. K. Sluchevsky - I. Ya. Korostovets / Ivan Yakovlevich Korostovetz (1862-1933), Russian prominent diplomat, scholar, author of books on the history of China; The Pfalz-Fein family, was in close kinship with the family Nabokov. Korostovetz Konstantin b. 1857 died 1912, his brother Lieutenant General Ishmael V. Korostovetz / Ismail Vladimirovich Korostovetz (Tallinn, where the last Governor-General before the revolution was Ishmael V. Korostovetz). Education: Page Corps 1877, captain Guard 1885, Major-General 1904; lieutenant general 1912. Nicholas Sluchevsky (1882-1920), Power Engineer / energy engineering profession, son of the poet K. K. SLUCHEVSKY; Nicholas was born in a noble family Kapitonovna Olga nee Longinov and Konstantin Konstantinovich (1837-1904) Sluchevsky; Nicholas's mother came from a wealthy family; father was a famous poet. 1911 he was married. Korostovetz Ivan Yakovlevich (1862-1933). Korostovets Michael, Vadim and Natalia. Korostovetz Lidia, landowner, she decided to go to the Cheka, and a few days later was shot; Along with her was shot her son, Anthony K. Korostovetz, 24-25 years old, just graduated from university. Ancestry Sluchevsky with family Korostovetz three times were affinity for the last century. Kirill K. Korostovetz married Valentina Fyodorovna Buhmeyer; Valya Elizabeth Skuling - Korostovetz living in England; Rall family was very friendly with family Korostovetz as Catherine Rall studied with Lydia Alexandrovna Sluchevskaya, niece of the poet, in Switzerland. CYRIL Korostovetz KONSTANTINOVICH / Korostovetz Kirill Konstantinovich b. 1885 Petersburg, d. 1961; of the nobility, participated in Russian - Japanese war. In 1915 he was sent to England, where oversaw the construction of the first five icebreakers for Russia after 1917, to Russia has not returned; died in London.

Ivan Yakovlevich Korostovetz (1862-1933), Russian diplomat, from the Poltava province; A graduate of the Imperial Alexander Lyceum in 1884; the Asian Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 1890 in Beijing, 1894 in Rio de Janeiro, 1896 Lisbon; 1899 Port Arthur, 1900 Tianjin, 1913 Korostovetz was appointed ambassador to Persia, 1915 - June 1917 he was a member of the Board of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Emigrated to Finland. Lived in exile in Berlin. From marriage to Alexandra V. Gordanov, had children: Olga, Flavia and Vadim.
Ismail Vladimirovich Korostovets / Ishmael Vladimirovich Korostovetz / Измаил Владимирович b. 1863 died 1933 in Poznan (the Gernet family, too); General and Senator, Governor of Estland, graduated from the Corps of Pages 1884, Lieutenant-General in 1915, as vice - governor of Courland 1903-1905 and governor of Estonia 1907-1915; 1915 he was appointed a senator for the Department of Heraldry, he emigrated to Poland, lived in Poznan. Brother of above Ishmael: Korostovetz Konstantin / Коростовец Константин Владимирович b. 1857, died after 1912. Education: Page Corps 1877, captain Guard 1885, Major-General 1904; lieutenant general 1912.
Ludmila Korostovetz (1794 - 1883), married to the famous traveler, Admiral P. I. Rikord, Petro Rikord / Pyotr Rikord b. 1776, Russian admiral, explorer, scientist, diplomat, writer, shipbuilder, from Toropets in the Pskov province, now Tver region, father Johann Ignatievitch Ricord / Johan, Jean-Baptiste Ignatievich Rikord, from Nice, after in Poland in 1772 major in the Russian service. 1843 P. I. Rikord was promoted to admiral, 1850 appointed chairman of Marine Scientific Committee, an honorary member of the Imperial Moscow University, the State Department of the Admiralty.
Vladimir Konstantinovic Korostowec / W. K. von Korostowetz, Polnische Auferstehung; Publisher: Berlin, Verl. f. Kulturpolitik, 1929. Vladimir K. Korostovetz b. ca 1880 ? (V. K. Korostovtsev, a former official of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, at the Ministry he did not enjoy the sympathy, until 1930 he lived in Berlin (in Poland 1919); then met with an Englishman Mound Gregory, a wealthy man who was interested in politics; Mound Gregory was a Catholic and a monarchist; invited Korostovtsev to England to write anti-Soviet themes and generously funded its publication; Korostovetz published in London monthly review 'Whitehall Gazette and St. James Review'; since 1930 Korostovetz started a violent propaganda in England; he hated Russian more than the Bolsheviks),
his wife Alexandra K. Sluchevskaya b. 1890 - her father Sluchevsky Konstantin (1837 - 1904), Russian poet, writer, translator; his son Nicholas and his sister Olga; Konstantin Sluchevsky was born in St. Petersburg, 1837. Descended from the nobility of the Chernigov province, son of Constantin Afanasevich Slichevski 2nd b. 1793, Colonel, St. Petersburg police chief, Constantine Afanasevich 2nd began his military career with the rank of captain at the age of 19 years, participated in the war with Napoleon. Constantine, originally followed his father, was educated in the First Cadet Corps, 1855 after graduating stood in Gatchina, and will later be transferred to Tsarskoye Selo; Several years studying in Paris, Berlin and Heidelberg, where in 1865 he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy; a member of the Board of the General Administration of Press. In 1870, Konstantin married Olga nee Longinov 1849-1921, who came from a wealthy family; died on September 25, 1904.
Александра Константиновна Случевская has unknown mother; but her father was Константин Константинович Случевский b. 1837 - 1904, father's ex-wife Ольга Капитоновна Лонгинова. Husband of above Alexandra Konstantinovna Sluchevsky that is Vladimir K. Korostovetz / Владимир Константинович Коростовец (born ca 1880?), from unknown father! Maybe his father: Korostovetz Konstantin Vladimirovich b. 1857 died after May 1912 (his brother Lieutenant General Ishmael V. Korostovetz / Ismail Vladimirovich Korostovetz, in Tallinn, where he was the last Governor-General before the revolution). Education: Page Corps 1877, captain Guard 1885, Major-General 1904; lieutenant general 1912.

"...Another significant mistake of the Germans was to be excessively systematic in sending daily routine official reports to naval units and even to individual ships by radio. For example, a detailed radio message sent by the Germans in the first hour of each day with the new reencryption key contained about 10% of the information needed to decrypt it. Often within 30 minutes - almost always within 90 minutes - either the Russians or the British had the new key worked out and then passed it on to the other. Even in 1916, when the German Navy introduced a new codebook with new words and phrases, the later edition kept the same alphabetical order as the replaced version, which allowed the Russians to interpolate unknown locations with those already known. The ultimate success of this cryptanalytic operation can be attributed, on the Russian side, to the efforts of Captain Rengarten, Fetterlein-Popov, and the cryptanalysts of Shpitkhami / Shpitgamn. ... Following on these early efforts, it was decided that a more systematic effort at cryptanalysis was needed. Therefore it was decided to concentrate the cryptanalytic effort in the Baltic at the Shpitkhami / Shpitgamn radio intercept station. For this purpose, six officers who know the German language well and had experience in cipher work were selected. At the head of this operation the Naval General Staff placed ... E. Fetterlein".
Ernst Fetterlein was from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and he assigned to the 'Black Cabinet', as the Shpitkhami / Shpitgamn cryptanalytic group was known; here was a group of the naval officers: captain Nepenin and cpt. Rengarten. The main task was still discovering the daily key which served to reencrypt the German code, and British Navy Headquarters also worked closely with the Russian Naval Headquarters in this efforts. All material published by the Russians was sent to the British, that within an hour of intreduction of the new FEK into operation by the Germans, the Russian or British side would report it immediately to their counterparts.
All above acc. to: Cryptolog. April 1984, NSA, 2012 declassified.

Adrian / Andrian Nepenin Ivanovich, b. on October 21, 1871 in The Great Luke / Wielkie Luki and died on March 4, 1917 in Helsinki / Helsingfors; he was Vice - Admiral, the last commander of the Imperial Baltic Fleet; the founder of naval intelligence and communications; in service since 1889. He graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1892. Captain 1st rank - 1911 and since 1911, the Chief of Staff of communication for the Baltic Sea Fleet; 1911 - 1914 the chief of the communications service of the Naval Commander of the Baltic Sea headquarters. Rear Admiral on December 23, 1913 (30 July 1915). Founder on July 17, 1914 and the first chief (A. I. Nepenin as chief of the Baltic Sea Fleet Communications and Intelligence Service) of the Baltic Sea communications, organized for the Baltic Fleet aviation exploration and effective service of decoding of German radio messages. When A. I. Nepenin, on July 13, 1914 was appointed chief of defense of the sea fortress of Emperor Peter the Great , captain 2 rank M. P. Davydov, by order of August 18, was ordered to start execution responsibilities of the Chief of communications.
On August 6, 1916 - Vice-Admiral and Commander of the Baltic Fleet. During the February Revolution in Helsingfors, Vice Admiral A. N. Nepenin joined the revolution happening, recognizing the power of the State Duma. Nepenin arrested Finnish Governor-General Franz Albert Zane / Zein. On March 2, Nepenin supported Nicholas II abdicated the throne. On March 4, 1917 was issued order number 302: "...On behalf of the new Government and the Free Great Russian officers once again urge for calm and unity with the team and strictly prohibited the shedding of blood, ... Russia needs a victorious war against a foreign enemy". On March 4, 1917 Nepenin was killed in Helsingfors port by unknown persons. After him was Andrew S. Maximov b. 1866 d. 1951, Russian Vice - Admiral, 1915-1917 he was head of the mine defense of the Baltic Sea, after the February Revolution of March 4, 1917 elected to the sailors of the Baltic Fleet as commander - in this post was to June 2, 1917; September 1917 - Chief of Naval Staff of the Supreme Commander, after the October Revolution as a senior inspector of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic in 1918. And it is important to note that the radio issues were not organizationally united under a single leadership in Russian Navy until 1917: were in charge of different heads, shipboard radio was headed by mine specialists and a navy coastal radio stations were part of the Communication Services of fleet, headed by the Chief of Communications; these positions in the Baltic Fleet occupied Senior Lieutenant Ivan Rengarten and captain Adrian I. Nepenin: I. Rengarten was recognized in the Navy authority on radio, both in the technical and tactical aspects of the use of radio communication in the Navy; Nepenin, had no special training in radio matters; between Rengarten and Nepenin existed oral agreement. In the winter of 1911-1912 the headquarters of the Baltic Fleet was organized the shore stations involving ships wintering in Libau. In June 1912 the flagship radiotelegraph officer Rengarten put forward the idea of the special reconnaissance campaign in areas of combat training of the German fleet to gather information about the organization of radio and radio specifications of the German ships. The flagship radiotelegraph senior lieutenant A. M. Shchastny wrote in a report on the radiotelegraph of Naval Forces of the Baltic Sea for 1911. To solve this problem was chosen cruiser 'Hercules', and was developed a wide-range reconnaissance receiver on this ship. In Kilkonde, a signals intelligence missions have begun to tackle on September 8, 1914, in Gange, on the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, and on November 12 - the third - the lighthouse top at Dagerort / Dago. Were later installed in Windau, in Hapsal / Haapsalu and elsewhere of Baltic coast.

Acc. to I. I. Rengarten we read on a number of important additional information about the activities of Russian radio intelligence service in fall of 1914. Thus, in early October 1914 at the headquarters of the fleet were found approaches to disclosure of existing German ciphers, and in the second half of November 1914, fully decrypted code 'gamma - alpha', introduced on October 7, 1914, that led to a successful reading of the German fleet ciphers, and were read so well many previously adopted radiograms. The Baltic Fleet initiated the establishment of a special coastal radio station that would resolve problems of intelligence signals, with support and guidance of the Naval General Staff. In February 1915, the Minister of Marine decided to organize the Southern District of the Baltic Sea stations, with three officers (chief radio, 2 assistants) and 50 privates. In the spring of 1915 this station was organized on the southern coast of the Gulf near Cape Shpitgamn. Order of the Commander of the fleet number 308 of March 19, 1915, appointed as chief, Lieutenant P. A. Kolokoltsov. Later, in July 1915, P. A. Kolokoltsov replaced V. P. Przhilentsky / Przylencki, who served in the office until 1917; during February - April 1915 on the radio were appointed Lieutenant D. P. Izmalkov, V. I. Markov, O. O. Proffit and I. M. Yamchenko. According to experts in the field of radio intelligence, the radio station has successfully solved all the tasks assigned to it. It should be noted that in the decryption Bureau, with naval experts also participated representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In July 1915, were appointed Y. Pavlovich / Павлович and Б. Орлов / B. Orlov. And in early 1916, when appeared the first serious problems with deciphering of the German radio messages, caused by the introduction of new ciphers and a new signal book, here was specially sent one of the leading cryptologist E. Fetterleyn, with co-operation of the British radio intelligence service, sharing the most confidential information on signals intelligence and cryptanalysis. A documents suggest about such contacts with specialists of the French decryption service, by the beginning of the campaign in 1915; introduced on March 8, 1915 the new German code gamma - alpha was discovered two days later, a work headed by the radiotelegraphic officer I. I. Rengarten.

Ernst Constantin Fetterlein was born in St Petersburg in 1873 d. 1944, was a Russian cryptographer. The son of Karl Fedorovich Fetterlein, a German-language tutor, and Olga Fetterlein, née Meier. "She was almost certainly Jewish and so Ernst can certainly be counted as of Jewish origin". Above named Karl was a German-language instructor at the Saint Petersburg Military-Judicial Institute and director at the Imperial Public Library ca 1900.

Carl F. Fetterleyn or Karl Fedorovich Fetterlein born 1828 in Riga and died on 16.06.1902 in Gapsal / Haapsalu / Hapsala / Haapsal, Estonia (check Pushkin and von Gernet and Dunkel Baltic German families); was librarian; son of Prussian actor, until 1858 he studied at Tartu University, arriving to St. Petersburg, 1859 began teach at the 1st military Gymnasium / 1st Cadet Corps, to 1878.

The Pavlovsky Military School, since 1880. The friend of Schilder and M. Korf (for collecting materials about the life and reign of Nicholas I), also S. N. Urusov and I. D. Delianov. Actively participated in the work of F. and N. K. Schilder on collecting materials on the reign of Alexander I. He was closest assistant of M. A. Korf; the friend of Vladimir Stasov.
By L. A. Shilov for the National Library of Russia, 2011-2013. Ernst Constantin Fetterlein in 1896 joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and became the chief cryptologist. Ernst was a cryptanalyst under Tsar Nicholas in his 'Black Cabinet' and reached the equivalent rank of admiral. During World War I, he was known as Ernst Popov; he solved German, Austrian and British codes. In 1917, Ernst Constantin Fetterlein fled to Western Europe with his wife on board a Swedish ship. He contacted the British and French intelligence services and on 9 March 1918 a letter to the Director of Naval Intelligence, Rear-Admiral Reginald Hall, the British naval attache in Helsingfors / Helsinki, from Captain W. H. Cromie in Petrograd, described Fetterlein as 'a cipher clerk in the Russian Foreign Office for twenty-five years' who came 'highly recommended'. Fetterlein began work for the British intelligence in June 1918; he was recruited to Room 40 to work on Georgian, Austrian and Bolshevik codes. After the end of World War I, he worked for the Government Code and Cypher School - worked on Soviet Communist traffic; his brother, P. K. Fetterlein, also worked for the Government Code and Cypher School.
See: Victor Madeira, 2004; Ralph Erskine, 2004; Stephen Budiansky, 2000; Michael Smith; Thomas R. Hammant; David Kahn and Budiansky, 2000.
Acc. to: A. V. Sinel'nikov, 'Codes and Russian revolutionaries': By the beginning of the World War I Russia had the strongest in the world decryption service, and some of its employees as a result of all the troubles were after October 1917 in the Entente countries. But we know that in the early 1920s, the Russian section of the British decryption service taken Ernest Fetterleyn, since 1897 leading cryptanalyst for the Committee of tsarist Foreign Ministry, in reading a diplomatic correspondence of hostile states. His superior was V. Sabanin.

A note on the Gernet family from Estland / Estonia:

Natalie Praskowia Rehbinder b. 1796 died 1862, her father Peter Woldemar Rehbinder b. 1757 d. 1823; her husband Alexander August von Gernet b. 1786 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia and died on October 5, 1865 in Lehhola. Lehola is a settlement in Keila Parish, Harju County in northwestern Estonia, 15 km south-west of Harku, and 18 km west of Saku. His father Carl Gustav von Gernet b. 1747 died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia.

Brothers of above Aleksander Gernet: Georg Gustav von Gernet 1780 - 1846, Wilhelm Adolf von Gernet 1792 - 1867, Karl Johann von Gernet 1776 who died on November 8, 1857 in Lauenhof, Podrala, Valdamaa / Valgamaa County, Estland / Estonia.

Son of above Karl Johann Gernet: Karl Jakob Rudolf von Gernet 1826 died April 20, 1912 in Hapsal / Haapsalu, Estonia. His brother: Magnus Friedrich von Gernet 1824 died October 22, 1909 in Reval / Tallinn, Estonia - and his son:
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet was born 1864 and died in 1944. Rudolf Jakob von Gernet 1864 - 1944, and his mother Katharina Kitty Helene Amelie von Gernet (nee von Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt) 1833 - 1909, near by the Pilchau Pilar family. Richard Adolf von Gernet of 1863, known as Adolf, or Adolph. He was born on 14 April 1863 in Sellenkull / Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km, and south-west of Lehola. He was a graduate of the cathedral school / 'Domschule zu Reval' (a German-language institution, but it was closed in 1893) 1876 - 1881, and Dorpat in 1881-1886. He was a noted metallurgist after 'M. Inst. M.M.' that is the 'Institute of Mining and Metallurgy'. Adolf von Gernet worked in 'Privatlaboratoriums von Dr. Werner Siemans' in Berlin by Erik Thomson, where he was made ​​head of this laboratory of Werner von Siemens. In 1889 he built a gold wash in Yekaterinburg in the Urals. In 1892 he was representative of the company in America. Around 1895 he followed his brother Rudolf to South Africa where he was a Director of the 'Central Rand Gold Mine Ore Reduction Works'. He patented a process for extracting copper, which became known as Siemens-Halske electric precipitation process later. He presented a paper before the 'Society of Chemists and Metallurgists' in Johannesburg on electrical precipitation; von Gernet, representing the firm of Siemens & Halske, of Berlin, introduced the process in the Transvaal, and for several years it was extensively used. In the 1890s he studied with John Hays Hammond off the coast of Cape Town, the gold content in the sea water ('investigations off the coast of South Africa, not far from Capte Town, to determine the gold content of sea water in that place'). There was a 'Von Gernet Copper Company', but it was liquidated in October 1905. In 1898 he became the first Russian Vice Consul in Johannesburg. In 1901, he traveled through Peru and Bolivia. Later he was in Brussels. Acc. to me he back to Estonia / Russia 1906 ? - to 1917 ? He died on January 4, 1942 in Dingolfing, Bavaria. Adolph von Gernet married in 1898 Leonilla princess of Mestscherski with whom he had a daughter, Alexandra von Reitzenstein (1900-1965). Above Rudolf Jakob von Gernet 1864, as Rudolf. He was born on 30 December 1864 in Sellenkull, Poenal, Laanemaa, (Sellenkull = Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km and south-west of Lehola) Estonia. A doctor, who was latterly appointed by the Boer authorities to superintend the hospital, by James Francis Harry St. Clair-Erskine Rosslyn. Rudolf Jakob von Gernet, migrated to South Africa in the late nineteen nineties together with his wife Olga Antoinette Vera von Dehn.

Here in the text below I hid a certain curiosity of family history Konstantynowicz, one of the interesting facts on the life of our ancestry, the Gernet and the Pilar family / von Pilchau Pilar:

Rudolf von Gernet was the first boss - the Commodore Club - of the Estonian Marine Yacht Club, which was founded in 1888 (Eestimaa Meri Jaht-Klubi or Эстляндский морской яхт-клуб) and which began to operate in Haapsalu (address: Veskiviigi port, Holmi No 14, Haapsalu). The club's Admiral, an honorary position, was His Imperial Highness, The Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovitch. Rudolf died on 18 February 1893. He was living in Kiideva / Kiwidepäh, a village in the Ridala Parish (Jula Dunkel b. 1840 from the Ridala Parish, Lääne County and her father Kustas Dunkel b. 1814 from Haeska, 7 km east of Kiideva (Gernet) and south-east of Haapsalu). Dr. Rudolf Gernet of Kiideva / Kiwidepäh that is Friedrich Rudolf Hermann von Gernet b. June 26, 1857 in Polve, Waimel, Võru, eastern Estonia and died on February 18, 1893. His son Ludwig Richard von Gernet born in Hapsal (Haapsalu), but his two daughters were born in Sompa (Sompäh) / Сомпа - east of Rakvere, eastern Estonia.


At margin on the history of the Yacht Club in Pärnu (Pärnu Sail Club, 1908 - the Pärnu Yacht Club):
it was proposed by a Russia Navy officers, led by Chief of Harbor, Dmitri Lukhmanov / Luhmanov on June 21st, 1906. Dmitri Lukhmanov was elected to be the first Commodore, three yachts were registered - Nora, Pai and Anna in 1907. On March 28th, 1908, William Bett was elected Commodore (acted Dmitri Lukhmanov and Pilar von Pilchau, Baron, Country Marshal of the Livonian Knighthood, the owner of the Audru / Audern, estate - 8 km west of Parnu).

Protestant Cemetery, Rome: Stone 1202, inf. on death in Neapol, 1896: Cecyl Mariano born = native Pilar Pilchau (? - Cecilia / Cecylia Mariano Pilar von Pilchau died 29th December 1896 in Italy, Neapol). She was born on January 21, 1847 in Audern, close to Parnu, Livonia. Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Charlotte Julie Pila von Pilchau; Ada Pilar von Pilchau (Helene Bertha Johanna Adele von Gruenewaldt 1853-1889); Theodor Gustav Otto Peter Pilar von Pilchau; and Hilda Pilar von Pilchau. We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano - a church history professor at the University of Naples. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor of the University of Naples. Relatives: Adolph (ALF), Jacob Constantin von Pilar Pilchau (1851 - 1925 in Pärnu, Baron of Livonia, and the marshal of the district magistrate in Parnu); and Helene Bertha Johanna von Adele Gruenewaldt (1853-1889, nee Pilchau von Pilar, married Walther Gruenewaldt). That is on Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847–1896), from Italian cementery. The first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com) Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar. Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

Gorki was living on Capri Island (Lenin and Dzierzynski were here). Capri is close to Sorrento, ca 13 km on west; south of Napoli / Neapol where was living MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani - was an Italian philosopher and historian; student of Augusto Vera; his two wifes from the Pilar Pilchau family of Audern and Parnu. From Capri to Napoli: kilometers 32, bearing: SW.

Data on Мариано / Mariano Mariani (born in Capua, ca 35 km north of Napoli): his book: 'Il fatto cooperativo nell'evoluzione sociale', Bologna, 1906. The Mariani family genealogy:

A. in FLORENTIA: Palace of La Giostra was never finished, after the death of the last of the family of dell'Antella the old palace passed to the Biagi, and then to the Delia Stufa, it now belongs to Signor Mariani. B. Bartolomeo Mariani, provost of Sant'Angelo, canon of Rieti.

C. Below data under copyright by geni.com:

1. ALESSANDRO Mariani, b. 1853, Cetona, Siena, Tuscany (north of Roma), Italy; son of DOMENICO Mariani and VIOLANTE Buoni (VIOLANTE Buoni, b. 1824, daughter of SILVESTRO Buoni and CATERINA, wife of DOMENICO Mariani, mother of SABATINO Giovanni Battista Mariani [SABATINO Giovanni Battista Mariani b. 1849 in Cetona, Sienna, Tuscany; husband of SAVINA Saracini and ROSA Basili, father of DOMENICO Mariani], ALESSANDRO Mariani and NATALE Mariani), husband of ANNUNZIATA Baglioni, father of RAFFAELLO Mariani (this RAFFAELLO Mariani, b. on November 25, 1882 in Cetona, Sienna, Tuscany, son of ALESSANDRO Mariani and ANNUNZIATA Baglioni, husband of CESIRA Roghi, father of CORRADO Mariani and ANNA Mariani; copyright by MASSIMO Cinelli on January 24, 2012 at geni.com); brother of SABATINO Giovanni Battista Mariani and NATALE Mariani; Copyright by: MASSIMO Cinelli in 2012 at geni.com. 2. DOMENICO Mariani, b. 1817 in Chianciano Terme, Sienna (north of Roma), Tuscany, Italy; he was son of GIUSEPPE Mariani and MARIA DOMENICA Canapini, husband of VIOLANTE Buoni. Brother of LUIGI Mariani; copyright by MASSIMO Cinelli at http://www.geni.com/people/GIUSEPPE-Mariani/. 3. GIUSEPPE Mariani b. 1747 / 1801, son of GIOVANNI BATTISTA Mariani and ANNA Finocchi Balestrieri?; husband of MARIA DOMENICA Canapini, father of LUIGI Mariani and DOMENICO Mariani, brother of ANGIOLA Mariani and FRANCESCO Mariani. 4. GIOVANNI BATTISTA Mariani b. 1719 / 1779, husband of ANNA Finocchi Balestrieri?; father of ANGIOLA Mariani; GIUSEPPE Mariani and FRANCESCO Mariani. 5. Above GIUSEPPE Mariani father of LUIGI Mariani and DOMENICO Mariani, brother of ANGIOLA Mariani and FRANCESCO Mariani. 6. Above GIUSEPPE Mariani, son of GIOVANNI BATTISTA Mariani and ANNA Finocchi (Balestrieri?), husband of MARIA DOMENICA Canapini, father of LUIGI Mariani and DOMENICO Mariani, 7. Above LUIGI Mariani b. 1802, son of GIUSEPPE Mariani and MARIA DOMENICA Canapini, husband of MADDALENA Grinchi and ASSUNTA Mariotti; father of ASSUNTA Mariani; CAROLINA Mariani; SANTI Mariani; PIETRO Mariani and MARIA DOMENICA Mariani; brother of DOMENICO Mariani. And on above Santi Mariani: b. on November 11, 1843 in Cetona, Siena, Tuscany, son of LUIGI Mariani and MADDALENA Grinchi, husband of MARGHERITA Basili, father of ENRICHETTA Mariani; brother of ASSUNTA Mariani; CAROLINA Mariani and PIETRO Mariani, half brother of MARIA DOMENICA Mariani. We know about Agostino MARIANI, b. 1809 in Borgotaro, Parma, Italy, brother of Antonio MARIANI b. 1816 (by GMS in 2009 and by Anderson) and second brother b. 1805 / 1820?!. And next branch: Adamo Mariani, b. between 1709 and 1769, husband of Crisandra, father of Gaetano Mariani and Rosa Mariani. This Gaetano Mariani, b. 1775, d. 1854, father of Pasquale Mariani (no other data); Giuseppe Cesar Mariani (private inf.) and Filippo Angiolo Giuseppe Mariani (no other inf.). Copyright by Tina Rossi on March 4, 2009 at geni.com.

Raphael Mariano, wrote in International Journal of Ethics, No 4, 1894. MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, an error which no administration has yet to be corrected; b. in Capua, on September 5, 1840 - d. Florence, 1912; was an Italian philosopher and historian; student of Augusto Vera, took philosophy and the history of religions; professor of Church History at the University of Naples 1885-1904; oriented towards the interpretation of Hegel, as a philosopher can be placed together with his teacher in the trend established in the second half of the nineteenth century that called orthodox Hegelianism, that 'philosophy must be ensured by religion'; Benedetto Croce, responds harshly to the arguments proposed by Mariano on the 6th number of 1908 the 'Criticism. Magazine of Literature, history and Philosophy'; 1864 in a debate on the the death penalty, as his teacher Augusto Vera. The hometown of the philosopher, Capua. Italian Encyclopedia (1934) by Guido Calogero: MARIANO, Raphael, scholar of philosophy and the history of religions, born in Capua 1840, died in Florence in 1912. From 1885 to 1904 he was professor of church history at the University of Naples. Follower of Hegelianism in southern Italy, was in fact animated by a tendency of Eclectic, which on the one hand drew him to the Christian faith and the other left him between Catholicism and Protestantism; among his writings are: Lassalle ..., The individual and the state, The return to Kant and neo-Kantians, Buddhism and Christianity, Francis and some of his most recent biographers, Judaism, paganism, Roman Empire; The conversion of the pagan world to Christianity; Christianity in the first centuries; Pope, the clergy and the Church in Italy; Around the Church's history.

Georg Lukács in 1936 wrote 'Eulogy for Maxim Gorky: A Great Proletarian Humanist', that: '...The last great writer of the European galaxy of realists is dead. And with him died the first great classic writer of Socialist realism. ... however, Gorky’s style differs fundamentally from that of Tolstoy. Gorky inherited Tolstoy’s broad view of the world, ... of which Hegel spoke, and which results in the world also taking a 'reasonable view' of such men...'. 'Hegel, Freedom and the Ideological Roots of Soviet Foreign Policy', by IGOR LUKES: "...In the preface to the Science of Logic, Hegel wrote, 'If it is remarkable when a nation loses its constitutional theory ... it is certainly no less remarkable when a nation loses its metaphysics'. In this article, Mr. Lukes examines the Hegelian notion offreedom and traces its development in the writings of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Lukacs. ... On November 7, 1917, reports Gorki, both Lenin and Trotsky were already poisoned with the venom of power, and this was 'evidenced by their shameful attitude toward freedom of speech, the individual, and the sum total of those'. ... Maxim Gorki, Untimely Thoughts, ed. New York, p. 83. Hegel, Phenomenology, p. 377. ... The new leaders, as the Romanov government before them, 'seize and drag off to prison all those who think differently'. Hegel noticed that antiquity saw wisdom and virtue in living 'in accordance with the customs of one's own nation'. Lenin, on the other hand, came to impose his will upon it. Gorki writes: 'The working class cannot fail to understand that Lenin is only performing a certain experiment on their skin and on their blood, that he is striving to push the revolutionary mood of the proletariat to its furthest extreme and see - what will come of this?' Life, in all its complexity, warns Gorki, is unknown to Lenin, who is not without the psychological traits of a Russian nobleman. The anarchy does not disturb Lenin; he has learned from his books how to raise masses on their hind legs. 'The working class,' concludes Gorki, 'is for Lenin what ore is for a metalworker ... What does Lenin risk if the experiment should fail?' ... Gyorgy Lukacs was a true philosopher and also a brilliant practitioner of an important art: survival in Stalin's Russia as well as in Nagy's government. His Hegelian roots are well known; some of his works are quite serious, honest, and scholarly. Sadly, however, an equally voluminous part of his production is less serious...".

Pilar von Pilchau family was owner of Enivere, a village in Martna Parish, Lääne County, in western Estonia, north-east of Kiideva and Haeska; a village on the south-east of Haapsalu, also famous Karjaküla / Karjaküll, Haeska, and Palivere.

Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau (1841 - 1918), was mayor of Haapsalu in 1878.
In 1936 the Commodore was Voldemar Vau,

and the Harbor Master Mr. A. Jansen.

Richard Ernst Adam von Gernet, Fridrichovic, that is son of Friedrich von Gernet and Katheerin von Gruenewaldt, was born on 17.8.1878 / 29.8.1878 in Kiwidepäh and d. on 1.7.1944 in Hamburg; and his wife: Jul. Marg. Bar. Maydell b. on 22.6.1882 in Mitau.


Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870. He returned to independent Estonia in 1923. Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough. Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia. Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland. Baron Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau b. 1851, nickname Alf, b. in Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa. His wife Julie Olga Eugenie von der Pahlen born in Pleskau or Pskow / Pihkva in 1865, her mother Helene Charlotte Louise von der Pahlen nee von Toll 1833 - 1910, and her grandmother Olga Karoline Olga von Toll nee von Strandman 1796 - 1861, her brother Karl Gustav von Strandmann 1787 - 1855, and her sister Wilhelmine Charlotte von Ungern-Sternberg nee von Strandmann 1785 - 1813. The son of above Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau was Adolf Constantin Theodor Baron Pilar von Pilchau born in Sauga, Pärnumaa in 1885; the daughter Olga Marie Hildegard Bertha Pilar von Pilchau b. 1886 and her sons Nikolaus Eduard Roderic Adolf and Friedrich Adolf Walther Konstantin. Olga's Marie Hildegard Bertha Pilar von Pilchau husband: Charles Wilhelm Eduard von Lillenfeld b. 1880 in Kehtna, Rapla County, Estonia. The sister of above Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau was Johanna Sophie Konstanze von Keyserling nee Pilar von Pilchau 1856 - 1925.

The father of Adolf Pilar von Pilchau was Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, Baron, born and died in Audru / Audern, 1814 - 1870. Grandfather Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814, has brothers:
1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830

(Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801.
Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. 1767 in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jõgisuu). He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.
Jõgisoo (Jõgisuu) ca 3 km south-west of Kullamaa, south-east-east of Haapsalu, Läänemaa caunty. But we know about different Jöggis, ca 5 and 1/2 km south from Saue, and south-west of Saku, also ca 7 km south-east of Keila and east of Lehola.
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik
north - east of Tallinn or rather
south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremõisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757),

2. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jõgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and 3. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - died 1819 in Reval / Tallinn. They has stepfather Gotthard Johann II Zoege Reichsgraf von Manteuffel 1717 - 1753, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremõisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757. Recorded in service 1780, above Yegor Maksimovic exactly one year later was promoted to sergeant. Received his primary education at home, with the rank of lieutenant was transferred to Narva Infantry Regiment; next to the Vyborg Infantry Regiment; Yegor Maksimovic Pilar participated in a battle with the Swedes under Nyslott; 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811. Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar: Major Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 (1769?), Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774, Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

Above named Adolf Pilar von Pilchau in 1881 rented Sauga in Pärnu County, Estonia and took out a lease production of potato vodka under the name 'Audru'. Acc. to Wikipedia, the political career he started in 1876 in Pärnu region as the parish judge; 1878 the supervision of the district judge and the Pärnu / Pernau city councillor in 1879; he was elected a member of the Livonian Noble Corporation in 1882, and in 1899 he became a church curator of Livonia, Pärnu and Viljandi; 1902 he became also an economic Livonia president. In 1884 married to Julie Olga Eugenie / Jenny von der Pahlen born in Pleskau in 1865; Julie Eugenie von der Pahlen was daughter of the Pskov governor, Konstantin Magnus von der Pahlen; their four children: Adolf Konstantin Theodor von Pilar Pilchau 1885-1958, Olga von Pilar Pilchau, Friedrich von Pilar Pilchau 1888-1914 and Andreas von Pilar Pilchau; 1891 - 1906 they moved to more spacious home close to Parnu. 1905 Adolf Pilar von Pilchau was in Petersburg; 1906 relocated to Riga and Livonia, and he moved to Riga; 1908-1918 he was the land marshal of the Livonian knighthood to carry out economic and administrative reforms, 1912 he was elected to the Supreme Council from the Baltic provinces of Russia as a representative member, to share life in Riga and St. Petersburg; 1915 the Russian soldiers of Pavel Rodzjanko raided his house in Pärnu; 1916 he was living in Tartu and Riga. In April 1917, he performed his duties for the last time in St. Petersburg. After 3 September 1917 in Riga he participated in negotiations with the German occupation authorities to restore the power of knighthood, which failed. In July 1918, he resigned from the office. On 12 April 1918 it was sent a joint petition of Estonia, Livonia, Courland nobility on the creation of the Duchy, and on 22 September 1918 an independence was recognized by the emperor and the Baltic Duchy was formed in November 1918 - he was the regent of the United Baltic Duchy in 1918. On 3 January 1919 Adolf Pilar von Pilchau escaped on a ship from Riga to Stettin, and he lived in Berlin. 1923 returned to Estonia but his estate in Pärnu had already been nationalized. Removed to Tallinn, died 17 June 1925, and was buried in Audru.


Genealogy of Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau / Пилляр Роман Александрович / Роман Людвиг Пилар фон Пильхау / Ромуальдас-Людвикас Адольфович Пилляр фон Пильхау. Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau or Roman Pilar von Pilchau / Roman Pilljar / Romuald Pilar von Pilchau / Romuald Ludwig von Pilar Pilchau, born 1894 in Mickuny close to Wilno / Vilnius. 1905 to September 1910 - Vilnius secondary school, followed by Zurich in real school (1910 - 1911), where he graduated in 1911. In September of the same year, he continued study in Kuressaare Gymnasium. When German troops occupied the Saaremaa, Pilar von Pilchau evacuated to the Yaroslavl Province.
Some details of the genealogy of Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau or Roman Pilar von Pilchau:
History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives in Estonia: Saue, Ohtu, Harku, Nomme, Saku, Uksnurme, Lehola, Tallinn and the Harjumaa district: Troubetzkoy, Sedykh from Kazan, Gernet from Estonia. The Baltic German families in Estonia: Schilling von Cannstatt / Schilling von Canstatt /  Schilling von Canstadt, von  Pillar-Pilchau, Gernet, Rehbinder, Toll, Croy, Weiss.
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremõisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757. Recorded in service 1780, above Yegor Maksimovic exactly one year later was promoted to sergeant. Received his primary education at home, with the rank of lieutenant was transferred to Narva Infantry Regiment; next to the Vyborg Infantry Regiment; Yegor Maksimovic Pilar participated in a battle with the Swedes under Nyslott; 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811. Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar: Major Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 (1769?), Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774, Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.
Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871 (that was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia, father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, after Major of the Russian army) in Wilno; his son Stanisław Caunt Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska

(from Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806),

she died on 28 Jan 1898, Wilno; her son Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, born 1860, married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec, he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierżyński; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937.

Caunts Pilar von Pilchau of the Wilno province: Stanislaw owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, his wife Januszewska Zofia - relatives of Feliks Dzierzynski. His father - Aleksander (1871). And unknown: Fiodor Pilar von Pilchau (1835 - died ?). Major of the Russian Army in 1859, Czeczelnik, Olhopol and Balta = Józefgród, under command of colonel Kozlianinow.
The Vilnius Bernardine Cemetery, Lithuania (genealogia.okiem.pl), 1. Zofija Pilar fon Pilchau (? - 1898); 2. Wilhelmina Matulaitis Mackiewicz died in 1962 at the age of 95, good Bolshevik, was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, her daughter Aldona died in 1986, widow executed by firing squad Janisie Bruninsz, she lived more than 85; Aldona's son - Volodar (Darik) died in 1990; her daughter Aldona (Ada), the Lithuanian writer, lives in Vilnius. Tombs of the Matulaitis family are at the Vilnius cemeteries: Wilhelmina Idalia Marozzeti. 3. Pilar von Pilchau: Alexandra von Pilar Pilchau, died 25 October 1901 and her sister Wilunia 1866-1872, died Jan. 1, 1872; Pilar Kulwinska Joanna, died in 1876. Izabella Pilar von Pilchau Kulwinska, died in 1891, aged 83. Zofija Pilar von Pilchau died January 28, 1898 (sister of buried in the same cemetery Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena, mother of Felix Dzerzhinsky, deceased in 1896); Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, judge of the border in the county of Vilnius, died in 1871 (grandfather of Roman Pilar). Pilar Pilchau Henryk, 1818 - 2.VI.1876.

From Mickuny / Mickūnai of the Becu family and the Pilar Pilchau property (near by Terlecki, Ozieblowski, Januszewski, Dzierzynski and Pilsudski families), to Zalesie / Zalesse / Залесье of the Oginski family - close to Smorgon / Smargon / Smorgonie - is ca 60 km to south-east.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century the property Mickuny belonged to August Becu (1771-1824) - Professor of Medicine at the Imperial University of Vilnius (he was in Scotland 1803 - 1804), the second husband of the Salome / Salomea Slowacki, the mother of the famous poet Juliusz Slowacki (he was next in Switzerland in the years 1834-1835). Probably about 1815 Mickuny / Mickūnai became the property of Alexander Pillar von Pilchau / Pilar Pilchau, then judge of the district of Vilnius. Alexander Pillar, in Mickuny in 1826 built a new chapel. In the mid-nineteenth century Mickuny / Mickunai belonged to Stanislaw Pillar, the son of Alexander. 1923 owner of Mickuny - next Alexander Pillar. But his brother, Roman Pillar (1895-1937) before World War I, began to study law at the University of St. Petersburg, where he was soon involved with the Bolsheviks activity of Felix Dzierżyński.

See: Baron Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau b. 1851, was a Baltic German politician, regent of the United Baltic Duchy (1918). Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1851 - 1925, b. in Audern (Audru), Pärnumaa, died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland.

Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born on 8 June 1768 and his cousins and closest next of kin:
Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein; фон Людер / Luder d. 1857; Екатерина Николаевна Кудашева / Kudashev, b. 1811; Дунина / Dunin, b. 1799; 1798 m. to Иоганн Густав Юст / Iust; 1766 born in Халлик, Иван Крутов / Krutov / Krutow; Иоганна Агнета Гессе / Hesse b. 1779; Мария Цецилия фон Бекю / Bekiu; 1798 m. to Иоганн Дитрих Бенджамин Альтхан; Сукни (Suckni) / Sukni d. 1838; фон Рамм / von Ramm, b. 1779; фон Мореншильдт b. 1811; Наталья Николаевна Карпова / Karlow; Михайловна Езерская / Jezierski, died 1919; фон Штааль b. 1843; Васильевна Чулкова b. 1855; Домудовская / Домудовски; фон Эссен / Essen b. 1847; Раиса Митрофановна Филиппова / Filippow d. after 1932; Беренд фон Мореншильдт d. 1861; Симсен; 1801 Франц Герман Экбаум; 1801 Фридрих фон Руктешель.

On the Dziershynski / Dzierzhynsky / Dzierzynski family:
"...I say that not only Slovatsky, but Roman Pilar, and Dzerzhinsky on this stone had sat and dreamed himself of liberty, equality and fraternity. ... Roman's mother, Helena Pilarowa / Helena Pilar. She lived deep in old age. Halina Radkiewicz, a resident of Mickuny remembers it well. Pilar Helena, the wife of Count Alexander. The Pilar count's title is not used. Von Pilchau survived on the tombstones of the cemetery. I wrote not Pilhau, but Pilchau. A very decent family. Alexander, has three names, but only use the first name. Helena Joanna nee Krzywiec. Alexander and Helena were married in 1890. In 1894 (or 1895), was born their first-born, Roman. And then gave birth to his younger brothers. It is common in human memory that was still two. Well, Roman had three brothers. The youngest was named Marian, Marys ... All the boys were very well, very capable, with the exception of the latter. Marys / Marian Pilar Pilchau was a child of bad health, mentally ill and died at the age of ten years. The boys were brought up in the spirit of patriotism, a Catholic, even though their father, Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, was a Lutheran. The Lutheran, but two of his houses gave for the use of the Roman Catholic Church rectory. In education the greatest influence has mother, Helena Pilar, loved by all three sons. It's true, Roman Pilchau von Pilar was definitely under the influence of his uncle, Felix Dzerzhinsky. Because it was a family. The sister of Dzerzhinsky's mother, Zofia Januszewski, married to Stanislaus Pilar of Mickuny. Stanislaw Pilar - the father of Alexander, the grandfather of Roman. ... The Pilars then were not wealthy, but still Helena sent Roman Pilchau Pilar to study in Switzerland. Nothing helped. He came back. Then he went in the other direction, to Russia, to Petrograd, where he studied law. From Dzerzhinsky not departed. Halina Radkiewicz a long time worked in a school as a teacher. Conducted historical museum. And all of this museum was from Pilar Helena, mother of Roman. They were together in good contacts. Pilar gave her the souvenirs. Halina Radkiewicz all this gave to the school... Old, historic photographs from the nineteenth and early twentieth century, signed by famous photograp names in Vilnius / Vilna, FLEURY, and the last letters written to his mother by Roman. ... On July 20, 1926, news of the death of the Iron Felix went around the whole of Russia, and soon the world. With a significant delay (26 July 1926) also reported on the Cracow 'Time': "He died suddenly in Moscow, one of the most famous actors of the Bolshevik revolution and the most prominent of Lenin Soviet governments, Felix Dzerzhinsky, of Polish origin. He was a man uncommonly clever...". The sudden death of Felix Dzerzhinsky aroused a wave of rumors about unnatural character. ... about suicide. A murder or poisoning. Conducted the autopsy showed a general slowing of the blood vessels, and death due to heart aneurism. The ruling was signed by a few most prominent Moscow doctors and professors. ... the French Prime Minister, Edouard Herriot in 1922, visited Moscow and Warsaw. In Warsaw, met with Jozef Pilsudski, which also spoke about Dzerzhinsky... The niece of Winston Churchill, a young English aristocrat, sculptress Clare Sheridan in October 1920 went secretly to Soviet Russia to sculpt Lenin and Dzerzhinsky. When the family learned of her intentions, she became enraged. Winston Churchill said that he would not talk to her. Clare returned to England. In 1921, in London wrote the book 'Russian portraits', and seven years later in New York, '... truth'. In her memoirs, Dzerzhinsky appears to be extremely interesting, handsome man... The second wife of Pilar Roman was supposedly Polish woman exceptionally beautiful. Pilar had with her two children (born 1927 and 1932). In Moscow, the Pilars often were in the company of the Wilno girls. Apolonia and Bronislawa Kozlowski. ... Bronisława Kozłowska (document dated March 30, 1967). She came from a peasant family. She was a few years younger than Pilar (born December 9, 1898). What's been doing in Vilnius during the First World War ... In 1918, she met members of the Bolshevik illegal organization. It was the family of Joseph Lickiewicz. He was a shoemaker, he worked at home, had three sons - John, Mieczyslaw and Stefan. Also met Elena and Anna Drabowicz. ...met a young Vilnius residents, Joseph Adamowicz, Stanislaus Kobak and Albina Ejdukiewicz, the daughter of Francis Ejdukiewicz / Eidukevičius ... June 20, 1919, after the treatment... Jan Lickiewicz, Joseph Adamowicz / Adasiek, Roman Pillar / Pilar Pilchau, the son of Alexander ('Romuald'), Constantine Kiernowicz and Albina Ejdukiewicz, the daughter of Francis. At the end of 1919 in December as a first was transported to exchange Roman Pilar and Constantine Kiernowicz. ... Kiernowicz Constantine was born in 1887 in Vilnius. He came from a working class family. He was a good carpenter. From early youth sympathized with the revolutionary movement... In 1905 he was a board member of the carpenters union in Vilnius. Soon was among the Polish socialists, ... It is known, however, that since 1918, after returning from Russia Roman Pilar and Kiernowicz were a close associate. He and Pilar will be a delegate to the congress of the party. In 1922 Kiernowicz acted in Minsk GPU, so again, along with Pilar. He worked there until 1930. And suddenly in 1931 Kiernowicz is already in Rostov-on-Don, works there as an ordinary carpenter. In 1937, Constantine Kiernowicz is arrested and charged with espionage to a foreign country (Poland) ... Shot him in Rostov on September 11, 1938. On March 28, 1937 or May 16, 1937 was arrested Roman Pilar? ...after all, in the years 1915-1917 he studied law at the University of Petrograd (earlier studies in Estonia and Switzerland). Particularly puzzling mistake is the birthplace of Roman Louis Pilar / Roman Ludwik Pilar Pilchau. Sources of Soviet special services provide Vilnius. Lithuanian encyclopedias, on Romanas Liudvikas Pileris that was born in Poland, in Łapy (Bialystok province). The year of birth. The sources of Soviet secret police: 08/08/1894. The Lithuanian Soviet encyclopedias: 08/08/1895. I believe to the Lithuanian Soviet encyklopedia. Bialystok lie near by Krzywice - a family estate of Louis Roman mother's: Pilar / Pilarowa Helen (nee Krzywiec). Roman Pilar, shot on September 2, 1937 and was buried in Kommunarskie NKVD headquarters in Moscow. The nephew of Felix Dzerzhinsky, spy since 1920, and later from 1935 the Soviet general. The head of the NKVD in Saratov, who speaks five languages ​​fluently (including German). ... Kiernowicz was removed in 1930 from Minsk. Earlier, a year after the death of Dzerzhinsky, was killed in unfortunate circumstances, Joseph Opański, which Pilar worked together. JOSEPH OPAŃSKI (aka Juozas Opanskis). Born in Onikszty in Lithuania. He joined the Bolshevik Party in Petrograd in 1916. He met there at that time a student Pilar. In 1918 Opański returned to Lithuania, where, together with Pilar formed the Bolshevik party structure. In 1921, Felix Dzerzhinsky sent him together with Jonas Gruodis to Minsk. Opański Joseph died in 1927, in a car accident. ARTHUR Nowicki (aka Kazys Naujokaitis). He was about a year (or two) younger than Pilar. Born in 1896 in the village Auszkadary in Lithuania. He came from a peasant family. Doctor. He studied medicine at Dorpat, where he met Roman Pilar. In May 1917 Nowicki was in Minsk, where he drew the revolutionary movement. In 1918, in Minsk. Nowicki - Naujokaitis - Nowickij working within the structures of the GPU in Minsk, moved to Novosibirsk, then to Tashkent. In 1934 arrives to Saratov. It is not known whether Pilar pulled him there, whether it was the opposite. In 1937 he was arrested, August 21 - shot. ... (Others figures) A close associate of Dzerzhinsky - Stanislaw Pestkowski, Soviet agent and diplomat. In the great purge, Bolesław Przybyszewski (son of writer Stanislaw Przybyszewski). ... November 7, 1988 published an article of 1919, when Pilar Pilchau Roman came at the hands of Polish legionnaires. During the exchange of political prisoners was given him to sign a document that he has no pretensions to the Polish Foreign Ministry. He signed, and shortly afterwards, when Pilar worked in the Soviet Union, reported to him a man from Poland, and pointed him to the last sentence in the document, in which he - Pilar - undertook to submit the information to the Polish intelligence. ... Who was born August 8, 1894 in Vilnius and was arrested on 28 March 1937 in Saratov, or - who was born on August 8, 1895 in Łapy, in the province of Bialystok and was arested in the Saratov May 16, 1937? The text of Danguoli Repšiene (written in 1988), say to us, on a document confirming Roman Pilar death. On what basis Roman Pilar in 1957 was rehabilitated? ... The Lithuanian Soviet Encyclopedia, Vol 3, ed. 1968, given the date of death of Roman Pilar / Romanas Pileris - September 2, 1937 and the similarly specified, where he died - in Moscow. As published in Vilnius, 1978, by the same publishing house Mintis, in Volume 3, the date of death - September 2, 1937. There is also a word that Pileris was rehabilitated...".

All above according to Alwida A. Bajor.
And details:

Alexandra von Pilar Pilchau, died October 25, 1901 and her sister Wilunia, died January 1, 1872;

Pilar Joanna nee Kulwiński, died in 1876.

Izabella Pilar von Pilchau Kulwiński, died in 1891, aged 83 years.

Zofija Pilar von Pilchau died January 28, 1898 - she was sister of Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena, mother of Felix Dzerzhinsky, who died in 1896.

Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, Judge of the district of Vilnius, died in 1871 - he was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar!
Father of Roman Pilar, died Oct. 12, 1939.

Александр Карл Пилар фон Пильхау born 1802, in Wilno / Вильнюс, was married to Ионна Станиславовна Кульвинска / Joanna nee Kulwinska daughter of Stanislaw Kulwinski
(Kulwiński with the Bończa coat of arms was living in 1819 in Wilno; Kulwiński Antoni, 1810-28 in Wilno; and Kulwinski in Jaminy, close to Augustow, Russia 1759-1800; in Suwałki; from 1584 in Kulwy in the Wilno province).
His mother Maria Cecylia von Bécu / Мария Цецилия фон Бекю and father Магнус or Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born 1768. His grandfather Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау born 1734, married 1756 in Tallinn / Ревель, to Катарина Хелена фон Таузас. Place of living: Халлик and Йоггис; Hagar / Hallik in Tamsalu, Estonia, county of Laane-Viru, south-west of Rakvere - eastern Eesti.

Bécu: Augustas Ludvikas Bekiu / August Ludwik Becu / August Ludwik Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno, his father - Jan Ludwik Bécu, in 1775 noble family, mother Karolina nee Hein.

August Ludwik Bécu owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816,
and has two daughters: Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872, m.

Teofil Januszewski, brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki.

August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki, when Juliusz Slowacki aged 8. August Ludwik Becu was sent in 1803 - 1804 from (Russia) the Vilna University to Scotland (UK) to investigate smallpox vaccination.

Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814, has brothers:
1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830 ( Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremõisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757), 2. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jõgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and 3. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - 1819 in Reval / Tallinn. They has stepfather Gotthard Johann II Zoege Reichsgraf von Manteuffel 1717 - 1753, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

On October 12, 1826 in Mickuny consecrated a chapel built by Alexander Pilar. The ceremony was attended, among others, by Juliusz Slowacki with his sisters Hersylia and Aleksandra Becu.

Romuald Roman baron Pilar Pilchau, Sept. 1905 in Wilno, Zurich, Аренсбург / Arensburg in the Лифляндская губерния / Livland government, Даниловo / Danilovo in the Jaroslav government.

Above Arensburg:
Аренсбург / Arensburg in the Лифляндская губерния / Livland. Johanna Apollonie / Polly Pilar von Pilchau 1820, died in Arensburg, lived in Orriküll or Oriküla, ca 55 km north-east of Parnu. Reinhold Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1781, died 1860 in Arensburg (Kuressaare), Ösel (Saaremaa), his father Georg Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau 1748 died 1804 in Kergel (Kärla), Ösel (Saaremaa). Grandfather died in Hafik - Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau (1720 - 1771). Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau 1841 died 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal). His children: Annette Luise Pilar von Pilchau in Haapsalu (Hapsal), 1881, but next child Marie Dagmar Pilar von Pilchau born in Lääne County in 1887, and Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau in Kuressaare (Arensburg), Saaremaa, in 1887. Hedwig Luise von Sass nee Pilar von Pilchau 1818 - 1852 from Sandel (Sandla), Ösel (Saaremaa), died in 1852 in Arensburg (Kuressaare). On the Stadtschule in Arensburg is a book.
Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau 1841 - 1918, his sons: Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau b. 1887 in Kuressaare (Arensburg), Saaremaa, Estonia, and next son Karl (Charly) Alexander Pilar von Pilchau b. 1871 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, and them sister for example Marie Dagmar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1881 from Sternberg, Lääne County. Pilar v. Pilchau, Reinhold Friedrich, Landmarschall, born in Wolde (Ösel) in 1781, and died in Arensburg 1860.
Pilar Roman / ПИЛЛЯР РОМАН АЛЕКСАНДРОВИЧ (РОМУАЛЬД ФОН ПИЛЬХАУ) in Arensburg / Аренсбург on Saaremaa Island, September 1911 to March 1917. Ösel-Wiek was also known as Osilia and Rotalia - modern Saaremaa and Läänemaa. Famous persons: 1813 - 1816, Reinhold Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Peter von Buxhoeveden; Alexander von Nolcken; von Güldenstubbe; von Ditmar; Nolcken, von Aderkas, von Loringhoven, von Ekesparre and 1906 - 1919 Axel Baron Buxhöveden, last Swedish Landmarschälle. The Baltic Provinces are formally transferred to German authority by Russia in 1918 following the Treaties of Brest-Litovsk and of Berlin. Power is transferred to a new council for the island on 18 November 1918. The von Gernet family was in Harju County, more in Lehole, Kostivere, Salajõe and Vaemla. The Baltic German historian Axel von Gernet (1865-1920), or Konrad Axel von Gernet from Sallentack (Salutaguse / 2 km east of Kohila, 19 km south-east of Saku), Raplamaa, Estland, died 1920 in St. Petersburg. He was writing on the history of Arensburg. His wife Magdalene Marie Olga Freiin von Tiesenhausen b. 1868. His son Wilhelm Oskar von Gernet b. 1900 from St Petersburg. His brother Moritz Nikolai Oswald von Gernet b. 1867 in Sallentack (Salutaguse); and his father Adam Oskar von Gernet b. 1834 - 1908, from Tallinn. Author Gernet, Axel von, 'Forschungen zur Geschichte des baltischen...', ed in Hannover, on Teutonic Knights, Harju area in Estonia. Johanna Apollonie (Polly) Pilar von Pilchau b. 1820 - 1880 in Arensburg. Her father Reinhold Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1781 - 1860. Grandfather Georg Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau 1748 - 1804, great-grandfather Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau 1720 - 1771. Hedwig Luise von Sass nee Pilar von Pilchau 1818 - 1852 in Arensburg (Kuressaare), Ösel (Saaremaa), Estland. Her father Reinhold Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1781 - 1860. Reinhold Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1781 - 1860 in Arensburg (Kuressaare), Ösel (Saaremaa), Estland. Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau 1841 - 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia. His son born February 28, 1887 in (Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau) Kuressaare (Arensburg), Saaremaa, Estonia. Louise Christine von Rehbinder / Luise Christine von Rehbinder b. circa 1764 and d. on March 24, 1827 in Narwa / Narva; she has four husbands: Wilhelm Droßmann, Otto von Rehbinder, Georg Gustav von Ditmar and Carl Gustav von Gernet; her father! - Woldemar Heinrich von Rehbinder, b. circa 1706 and d. on June 17, 1775 in Arensburg / Kuressaare in Saaremaa and her grand-father acc. to Reet Laherand: Karl Wilhelm von Rehbinder b. ? died ca. 1745 and her grand-mother Anna Elisabeth nee von Poorten, d. 1720.
Several genealogical family connections between families Rehbinder and Gernet, and Arensburg, Saku and Lehola in this configuration: on 6 March 1865 between the Lord Captain Alezander Gernet / Alexander Gernet (Alexander August von Gernet 1786 - 1865, born and died in Lehhola / Lehola; his wife died in Lehola - Natalie Praskowia Rehbinder 1796 - 1862) - as owner of the property in the Harri / Harrifchen or (Harju County or Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, it is situated in northern Estonia, on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland) Harjumaa county, Keila parish, close to Lehola - and the farmer Tönnis Elling concluded agreement on the sold on 20 April 1865. And agreement between Gernet and the farmer Karel Keippar on the site Wanna Iürri, as owner of the property in the Harri / Harrifchen close to Lehola. Captain Alexander von Gernet and the farmer Hans Limberg on the site Old (?) concluded decreed, as owner of the property in the Harrifchen / Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, close to Lehola. Konrad Axel von Gernet b. 1865 in Sallentack / Salutaguse - ca 19 km south-east of Saku, Raplamaa, died February 5, 1920 in St. Petersburg; his son Wilhelm Oskar von Gernet was born in St Petersburg in 1900; his daughter Magdalene Charlotte Sperrlingk nee von Gernet was born in Tartu / Dorpat in 1896. His father Adam Oskar von Gernet (1834 - 1908), grandfather Hans Moritz von Gernet (1775 - 1860) and sister of the grandfather - Auguste Luise von Rehbinder (von Gernet) b. 1772 - 1851: her husband Johann Bernhard / Ivan Vladimirovich von Rehbinder (1760 - 1819); father of this husband: Woldemar Heinrich von Rehbinder b. 1706 - died 1775 in Arensburg (Kuressaare), Saaremaa, and grandfather of this husband: Karl Wilhelm von Rehbinder b. 1685.


Julian Bulhak
and Aldona Dzierzynski Kojallowicz Bulhak at the Bobruisk region


Now we back to Feliks Dzierzynski:

Besides Felix Dzierzynski was still six sons and three daughters. The youngest brother, Witold, died in childhood. Stanislaw, a biologist and manager of the court, death at the hands of marauders in 1917. Wladyslaw, was a famous neurologist and psychiatrist. Captured in 1942, shot in Zgierz. Casimir, who was killed with his wife in 1943. Fifth of the brothers, Ignatius / Ignacy Dzierzynski, died in 1953, at the age of 73. The younger sister, Jadwiga - we do not know anything more than that she died in 1949. Aldona who was always support for Feliks Dzierzynski. Aldona, whose son was adjutant of Jozef Pilsudski!

Aldona nee Dzierzynski was living in the Bobruisk district, near by Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński b. 1817, who was brother of Edmund Dzierzynski b. 1829 or (date of birth is mistake maybe) Эдмунд Руфин Иосифович Дзержинский / Edmund Rufin Iosifovich Dzierzynski, b. on 15 May 1838, died in 1882 (he was born in Oszmiany / Oshmiany / Ошмяны, the Wilno government / Виленская губ.).

Wanda had died as a result of an inadvertent shot, but acc. to Hedwig Żukowska, neighbor of Dzierżyński and future wife of General Sosnkowski, shot gave Felix. Feliks Dzierzynski basic education received at home. So the first teachers of Felix was his father and sister Aldona. The situation changed in 1883, when their father died (1882), Edmund. Aldona was sister of Witold Dzierżyński, Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska, Stanisław Dzierżyński, Kazimierz Dzierżyński, Feliks Dzierżyński. Acc. to Andrzej Hennel in 2010.

Stalin still a few years after the death of Feliks Dzierzynski, given to him the Trotsky name.

Hit in a table, and scissors ... - Polish proverb says. A biography of Felix Dzerzhinsky, written by Sylvia Frolov, will be released in August 2012 in the Cracow publisher 'Znak', said in 'New Poland: Social and political and literary monthly', No 2 (138) in February 2012, by Helena Shimanskaya. But two years later, Onet.pl on 26 January, 2014, wrote that Sylwia Frolov '...expected that my book will trigger a sharp controversy. From the very beginning I had to deal with such reactions...'. "Dzerzhinsky. Love and Revolution", by Sylvia Frolov is an attempt a new look at one of the most terrifying person of the first half of the twentieth century. Broadcast prepared by Bartosz Panek on 31.01.2014, at Polish Radio SA show more on the life and choices of Felix Dzerzhinsky, and how it is perceived in Russia today, which was attended by Sylvia Frolov and sovietologists - prof. Andrzej de Lazari and Dr Łukasz Jasina (historian, who recently returned from Moscow). 'Dzerzhinsky. Love and Revolution' ed, on 2014/01/13 and 2014-01-14, by Sylvia Frolov.

Aldona Dzerzhinskaja - at first marriage Bulhak, second Koyallovich. Her husband Bulhak / Bulhac didn't like Feliks Dzierzynski, and removed out him from the Aldona Dzierzynska - Bulhak home. Aldona Bulhak later moved to Vienna / Wieden in Austria. Her husband was a millionaire. In 1945, after the war, she lived in Vilna. Then moved to permanent residence in Poland, where he lived in Lodz. There is evidence that during the trial of the officers in 1949 petitioned to the Boleslaw Bierut for Sila - Nowicki, her relative.

In the 30's of the 20th cent. Jadwiga (she worked in the Commissariat of Railways) Dzierzynska was repressed. Stanislav Dzierzynski was killed in 1917 in a family Dzerzhinsky home. Kazimierz Dzierzynski / Casimir during the war fought as a partisan in the Baranovichi area. Was issued by the German traitor and executed along with his wife. Ignacy / Ignatius Dzierzynski was related to Unszlicht. Wanda was accidentally killed at age 14. Feliks Dzierzynski was arrested in Warsaw in April 1908. 1909 exiled to Siberie, village Bielskoje / Бельское, then Suchowo / Сухово and Tasiejewo / Тасеево, the Jenisiej government / Енисейская губерния, escaped November 1909 and moved to Capri Island in Italy to М. Горьки / Gorki; 1910 back to Poland, March 1910 in Cracow / Краков, married to С. С. Мушкат / Muszkat. In February 1911 closest to Lenin. In January 1912 back to Warsaw, September arrested; 1914 - 1916 prisoner, Moscow prison 1916 to 1 March 1917.

Alexei Maximovich Peshkov / Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в b. 1868 d. 18 June 1936, known as Maxim / Maksim Gorky or Макси́м Го́рький; born in Nizhny Novgorod, Gorky was brought up by his grandmother; he wrote under the pseudonym Иегудиил Хламида / Jehudiel Khlamida. 1892, he was working in Tiflis for the newspaper Кавказ / The Caucasus; 1899, he was associating with the Marxist social-democratic movement; 1906, the Bolsheviks sent him on a fund-raising trip to the United States; 1906 to 1913, Gorky lived on the island of Capri, to support the work of Russian social-democracy: Anatoly Lunacharsky in 1908, Bogdanov and Vladimir Bazarov; In 1921, he hired a secretary, Moura Budberg (Capri close to Sorrento, ca 13 km on west; south of Napoli / Neapol where was living MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, on September 5, 1840 - d. Florence, 1912; was an Italian philosopher and historian; student of Augusto Vera; his two wifes from the Pilar Pilchau family of Audern and Parnu. From Capri to Napoli: kilometers 32, bearing: SW). In August 1921, when Nikolay Gumilev, his friend was arrested by the Petrograd Cheka, he obtained an order to release Gumilev from Lenin personally, but in October 1921, Gorky returned to Italy, to 1928 living mostly in Sorrento (near by Capri); visited the USSR several times after 1929, and in 1932 Joseph Stalin invited him to return. Above Maria Ignatievna Budberg / Мария or Мура Игнатьевна Закревская-Бенкендорф-Будберг / Maria Moura Ignatievna Zakrevskaya-Benckendorff-Budberg, as Countess Benckendorff, Baroness Budberg born 1891 died 1974, daughter of Ignacy Zakrzewski / Ignaty Platonovitch Zakrevsky b. 1841, a Russian nobleman and diplomat. Above Мария Игнатьевна / Maria Будберг / Budberg / Закревская / Zakrevskaya, b. 1893 in Charkow, d. 1974, daughter of Игнатий Платонович Закревский and Мария Николаевна Закревская, wife of Johann / Hans von Benckendorff, and Nikolai / Lay von Budberg and Алексей Максимович Пешков / Максим Горький, by: Henrik Manitski on January 25, 2012. Above Ignacy Zakrzewski / Игнатий Платонович Закревский b. 1839, son of Platon Zakrevsky and Анна Ивановна Закревская, 1804 - 1882, Son of Aleksei Zakrevsky and Варвара Ивановна Закревская. Maria Moura Ignatievna Zakrevskaya-Benckendorff-Budberg was double agent of OGPU and British Intelligence Service. She first married Count Johann von Benckendorff, a high-ranking Russian diplomat, in 1911. To Autumn 1917 Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff worked in the Russian Embassy in Berlin where she became acquainted with British diplomat R. H. Bruce Lockhart. They owned the mansion Jendel in Jäneda, in Estonia where he was shot dead in 1918; 1918, she was arrested in a suspicion of spying for England and transferred to the Lubyanka prison. Bruce Lockhart, tried to vouch for her; they were lovers; Lockhart was expelled from Russia soon after, Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff was released as well under the condition that she would cooperate with the intelligence service; then she met Maxim Gorky as secretary and wife of Gorky, with a few interruptions from 1920 to 1933; 1920 she met H. G. Wells and became his mistress, renewed in 1933 in London, where she emigrated. Later, she was married to Baron Nikolai von Budberg-Bönningshausen, as a double agent for the Soviet Union and British intelligence. Her older half-sister, Alexandra Alla Ignatievna Zakrevskaya b. 1884, married Baron Arthur von Engelhardt before 1909, was the great-grandmother of Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 2010. Above Sir Robert Hamilton Bruce Lockhart, b. 1887, journalist, secret agent, British diplomat in Moscow, Prague; Bruce Lockhart joined the British Foreign Service and was posted to Moscow as Vice-Consul. At the time of his arrival in Russia, (copyright by Wikipedia) "...he was invited to turn out for Morozov a textile factory team that played their games 30 miles east of Moscow – the manager of the cotton mill was from Lancashire, England. Bruce Lockhart was Acting British Consul-General in Moscow when the first Russian Revolution broke out in early 1917, but left shortly before the Bolshevik Revolution of October that year. He soon returned to Russia at the behest of Prime Minister Lloyd George and Lord Milner as the United Kingdom's first envoy to the Bolsheviks in January 1918 in an attempt to counteract German influence. Lockhart, on his return, was also working for the Secret Intelligence Service ... Moura Budberg, the widow of a high-ranking Czarist diplomat Count Johann von Benckendorff, became his mistress. ... Later, Bruce Lockhart spoke out for Arthur Ransome, ... recommended official assistance to bring Trotsky's secretary, Evgenia Petrovna Shelepina, to England; she later married Ransome ... In 1918, Bruce Lockhart and fellow British agent, Sidney Reilly, were dramatically alleged to have plotted to assassinate Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin. He was accused of plotting against the Bolshevik regime ... he escaped trial in an exchange of 'secret agents' for the Russian diplomat Maksim Maksimovich Litvinov". Above Lieutenant Sidney George Reilly, b. 1873, known as the Ace of Spies, was a Jewish Russian-born adventurer and secret agent employed by Scotland Yard, the British Secret Service Bureau and later the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS). Above named Benckendorff, Johann Hans Ulrich von Nathanael 1882 - 1919, born in Jäneda of Alexander Benckendorff (Alexander Christoph Karl Otto Benckendorff b. 1888 in Jendel / Jäneda; son of Alexander Gustav Konstantin von Benckendorff, from Jendel [1846 Warrang (Varangu), d. 1910 Jendel] and Margarethe Ottilie Karoline Emilie von Bremen); studied at the Empress Catherine Imperial Lyceum in St. Petersburg; nicknamed Ivan / Jan / John, was one of the best students of his course, 1908 he was assigned to work in the Russian foreign ministry, and a little later was appointed state councilor. 1909 directed the work of the Russian embassy in Berlin, which was before World War I, Russia's most glorious representation abroad. 1910 he was promoted to secretary of the embassy. In the same year died Alexander Benckendorff and Johann became the new owner of the mansion in Jäneda. 1911 Maria Zakrevskajaga / Maria nee Zakrzewska married Johann in Berlin. From this marriage was born a son Paul and daughter Tatiana. When World War I broke out, they left the Russian embassy in Berlin. Johann joined the army as a volunteer, and he was appointed staff officer of the Russian Northern Army Headquarters (Brujewicz / Bruevich here!). In 1917, when the collapse of the state, Benckendorff was went to retire. He decided to bring his family to the province; 1918 April, the wife Maria, was in Petrograd, and the grace of Maria's adventures got divorced; 19 April 1919 Benckendorff, Johann Hans Ulrich von Nathanael was murdered in Jäneda but unknown circumstances (July Tomson Memories). The Jäneda lady of the manor, the legendary Maria Zakrevskaja - Benckendorff - Budberg, come from the eminent lawyers, the Russian Prosecutor-General and Senator from 1894-99, Earl Ignati Platonovitsh Zakrevski family (Berjozovkaja - Rudka mansion in Ukraine). Maria was the fourth and last child in the family, he was born in 1893 in Kharkiv; after the death of his father in 1905, the family moved to St. Petersburg. Maria Zakrevskajaga / Maria nee Zakrzewska / Mura received his education from the home teachers, mastered English, French, German, and Russian; in 1910, when she was called to her sister Anja to Berlin, where the husband and brother of Plato / Platon Zakrzewski were the Russian Embassy officials. Maria Zakrevskajaga / Maria nee Zakrzewska / Mura will soon be presented to the Secretary of the Embassy - Johann von Benckendorff, who immediately fell in love; 1911 the wedding was held, and soon the two children born in the family. Maria Moura Ignatievna Zakrevskaya-Benckendorff-Budberg / Mura life was both in Berlin and St. Petersburg, where they had a flat; close to British Embassy staff, with fun trips to the Jäneda manor; 1914 the outbreak of the war did not change Mura's life, though husband was in the army; The situation changed after 1917 bolshevik coup, as many of the familiar fled the country, were killed or found themselves in the front lines of the civil war. 1918 re-moved to the Johann von Benckendorff Jäneda family home. Mura remained in Petrograd care for his sick mother. In March of the same year, he met Bruce Lockhart from the British Embassy in Moscow; it was six months of meeting with a passionate love story which has been reflected in the literature as a movie. 1918 Lockhart was arrested, in August 1918 on charges of organizing an assassination of Lenin and was sent out of the country. Maria Moura Ignatievna Zakrevskaya-Benckendorff was also at some time in jail. Her mother died, and the outbreak of war between Russia and Estonia, which cut off the opportunity for children to come. Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff was released as well under the condition that she would cooperate with the Bolshevik intelligence service, and in 1919 Gorki fell in love with her at first sight. They became close people for many years. 1921 managed to escape to Estonia to kids. Estonian authorities and the Baltic German nobility saw her as a Bolshevik agent. Mura lack of citizenship, should have been sent back to the red Russia; in order to get an Estonian passport, she signed a fictitious marriage to Budberg Nicholas, Baron, who got the money for citizenship. 1922 fresh couple left Estonia to Berlin, where they parted - Baron Budberg traveled to South America, but the Lady Budberg went to Gorki, who lived in Germany and Italy. 1926 marriage Budberg was separated. Baroness Budberg with Maksim Gorki lived in Germany and Italy; as a writer Gorky did not speak any foreign languages; 1929 again Mura met science fiction writer Herbert George Wells. They had begun dating in 1920, when the Wells visited Russia - Wells was already in love with her; in London they lived in the same house, even. In London she began to organize the lives of children in their new homeland, 1933 a son, Paul, and daughter Tania was supposed to arrive in 1934. 1946 Welss died at the age of 76. Mura life began a new era at Cromwell Road. Above Johann von Benckendorff or Hans Ulrich Nathanael von Benckendorff, b. 1882 in Jendel (Jäneda - south-west of Rakvere, and south-east of Tallinn), Lääne-Virumaa, in Estland; d. on April 19, 1919, not in 1918 - in Jendel / Jäneda. He was son of Alexander Gustav Konstantin Benckendorff, from Jendel and Margarethe Ottilie Karoline Emilie von Bremen; his wife above Мария Игнатьевна. Her son Paul von Benckendorff and Tatiana / Tania. He was brother of Hermann Julius Konstantin von Benckendorff; Alexander Christoph Karl Otto Benckendorff; Gerhard Paul Konstantin, Anna Margarethe, Paul Boris - by Henrik Manitski in 2012. His father: Alexander Gustav Konstantin von Benckendorff, from Jendel, b. 1846 in Warrang (Varangu - north of Rakvereca 18 km), Väike-Maarja vald. Died 1910 in above Jendel (Jäneda - ca 65 km east of Saku). Grandfather Gustav Hermann Christoph Benckendorff and Marie von Löwenstern. Above Gustav Hermann Christoph Benckendorff b. 1815 in Gilsenhof / Kiltsi, Väike-Maarja vald. Great-grandfather

Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff and Elisabeth von Rehbinder. Above Dorothea Helene Margarethe Elisabeth Rehbinder was daughter of Gustav Wilhelm von Rehbinder and Sophie Christina von Rehbinder and granddaughter of Arend Wilhelm von Rehbinder.

Above Алексей Максимович Пешков / Максим Горький b. 1868 d. 1936, son of Максим Савватьевич Пешков and Варвара Васильевна Пешкова. Father of Максим Алексеевич Пешков and Екатерина Алексеевна Пешкова, by: Peter Trefilov on January 25, 2012. "The sudden death of Gorky's son Maxim Peshkov in May 1934 was followed by the death of Maxim Gorky himself in June 1936. Speculation has long surrounded the circumstances of his death. Stalin and Molotov were among those who carried Gorky's coffin during the funeral. During the Bukharin trial in 1938 (one of the three Moscow Trials), one of the charges was that Gorky was killed by Yagoda's NKVD agents", by Wikipedia.

Few details on Feliks Dzierzynski: In the autumn of 1887 Aldona Dzierzynska drove with brother Feliks Dzierzynski to Vilna, where he successfully passed his exams and was accepted into the first class of the first Vilna school, where he studied until 1896. Feliks Dzierzynski lived with his grandmother Казимира Янушевская / Kazimiera Januszewska on the street Poplavsky 26. To her sister, Aldona Bulhak, he wrote soon after appointed People's Commissar of Internal Affairs: "I can not explain you only by letter. One truth, I can tell you, I'm still the same, as I was, although for many do not have the name much terrible then my one". This terrible name ... seems that the word 'soldier' (judging from the letters) becomes his favorite word. There is nothing surprising in the fact that Dzerzhinsky - man without education and profession - was the creator of the powerful intelligence services. Sixteen teenager, he went to the revolution. A prison, penal servitude and exile became his habitat. In cases of Polish and Lithuanian Social Democrats, Dzerzhinsky traveled almost the whole of Europe, learning the art of secrecy, the working methods of the secret police of different countries. Cheka became unique in the history of punitive body, align arrest, investigation, trial, punishment and a special right - shoot in good conscience. Dzerzhinsky descended from an ancient noble family, he was the absolute as an aristocrat, in the family called his - little Raphael. But from his ancestors, he did not inherit a single drop of aristocratic refinement. With Lenin, in 1906 he met in Stockholm. Author: Александр ГРИГОРЕНКО / Alexander Grigorenko. And now very interesting inf. about Italy, Capri, Genoa, Swiss Alps and visit to the Jungfrau / Jungfraujoch - ca 55 to 60 km east of Saanen, cantons of Valais and Bern in Switzerland. Gorki / Gorky was constrained not to return to Russia and went straight to Italy, on the blessed island of Capri. There Dzerzhinsky, Chaliapin, Lunacharsky and Bunin, Plekhanov and Stanislavsky came to visit him. In Berlin in 1906, Lenin and Gorki were not only on political conversations and when Lenin arrived at Capri, they went to the Naples Museum and Pompey. Thus, on Capri originated literary and political center, which included people who belong to extremist parties: Lopatin, Plekhanov, Lunacharsky, Bogdanov, Vladimir Lenin, Dzerzhinsky - and this is not a complete list of names. On 1909, 15 January Dzerzhinsky on verdicts of the Warsaw Court of Justice was denied the rights of state and condemned to exile in the Yenisei province. November, escape from exile; 1910 January - The Party send Dzerzhinsky in Italy; January - February, Dzerzhinsky acquainted with Maxim Gorky in Italy on Isle of Capri; March 1910 Dzerzhinsky directs illegal party work in Krakow. 1911, May - June, Dzerzhinsky with Lenin and Inessa Armand in Paris. From a Feliks Dzierzynski letter to А. Э. Булгак / Aldona Bulhak, Berlin on March 1, 1910: "...I have traveled around the world. That's really a month I went to Capri; I was in the Italian (in Genua like Frautchi?) and French Riviera, Monte Carlo ... then admired the Swiss Alps - the mighty Jungfrau and other snow-capped giants ... So wonderful world! ... and I have to come back again with tops in the valley, in the hole. A couple of days will be in Krakow, where settled on a permanent basis...". We remember now about trip of Lenin and Krupska: east of Montreux, it was the same way like Lenin and Krupska [from Montreux (with Clarens, here Konstantynowicz, Breguet, Rey, Duflon, Kropotkin, Bakst), Villeneuve, to Aigle - 11 km south of Villeneuve (Duflon), then tens of kilometers along the river Rhone (to south and south-east), stay in Loiche - les - Bains / Leukerbad - ca 29/34 km south-east of Gstaad, Saanen and Turbach (Fraucci or Frautchi - Artuzow), walk down through the Gemmipass - 28 km south-east of Gstaad, in the mountains of the Bernese canton - 30 to 40 km east of Saanen and Turbach (Frautchi), visit to the Jungfrau / Jungfraujoch - ca 55 to 60 km east of Saanen, again stay at Izentale (or Iseltwald) on Brienzersee - 60/70 km east-north of Saanen, next the way back into the Canton of Geneva (back home on west from Spiez, Saanen, Villeneuve, Montreux or from Chateau d'Oex, Montbovon, Les Avants to Montreux some on a railway)]; Jungfrau is one of the main summits in the Bernese Alps, situated between the cantons of Valais and Bern in Switzerland. Together with the Eiger and Mönch, the Jungfrau forms a massive wall.

Details on above Frautchi in Russia now:
Eduard Esterling / Edward Easterling / Эдуард Эстерлинг and Elena Shtaal / Елена Штааль has 4 daughters: Odilla / Одиллия, Alwina / Альвина, Berta / Берта and Sharlotte / Шарлотта; Berta Esterling / Берта Эстерлинг married August / Avgust Didrikil / Август Иванович Дидрикиль, and they has daughter Augusta nee Didrikil / Августа, son Edward Didrikil / Эдуард, next Maria / Мария, Pawel / Павел, Eleonora / Элеонора, Nina / Нина and Olga / Ольга; above Augusta nee Didrikil / Августа Августовна married Christian son of Petr Frautchi / Христиан Петрович Фраучи. Виктор Христианович / Viktor Frautchi son of above Christian Frautchi / Христиан Петрович Фраучи, b. 1902; next son Rudolf / Рудольф Христианович has 3 children: younger son Herman Frautchi / Герман died in camp in 1938. Daugter Ludmila / Людмила died. Viatseslav son of Rudolf / Вячеслав Рудольфович - lived in Moscow. Христиан Петрович Фраучи / Christian Frautchi has 6 children: Artur Frautchi / Артур Христианович - his branch living in Moscow; Eugenia nee Frautchi / Евгения Христиановна - now in Riazan; Nina / Нина Христиановна - in Vladimir; Rudolf Frautchi / Рудольф Христианович - has 2 children: Mila / Мила - died, and Wiaczeslaw Rudolfowicz Frautchi / Вячеслав Рудольфович, Wiera / Вера Христиановна - in Moscow, has daughter (85 aged in 2009, Ela / Эла Иогановна), Wiktor / Виктор Христианович - son Ilia / Илья - in Homel / Гомел (in Homel his children and grandchildren), but Denis / Денис (with daughter Ioana / Иоанна) and Ivan / Иван Викторович in North Osetia and next in Kazan - has daughter.

Jadwiga Edmundowna Dzierzynska, 1871 - 1949, summer 1916 near by Feliks Dzierzynski, in hospital of the Moscow governement prison, in 20s of 20th cent. working with brother of Feliks Dzierzynski; 1949 died in Moscow. Jadwiga Genrichowna Dzierzynska, Jadwiga daughter of Henryk Dzierzynski, relatives of Feliks Dzierzynski, b. 1900, died ?; she was working in Moscow in Soviet institutions. Wife of Feliks E. Dzierzynski, Zofia daughter of Zygmunt Lichyj?, nee Lichowa. 14 years no change surname to Dzierzynska. Dzierzynski Fiodor Janowicz, b. 1947. Grandson of Feliks Dzierzynski, he was younger son of Jan Dzierzynski, son of Feliks Dzierzynski. Engineer. Ryzow Vadim Vasilievich, 1917 - 1962, witness for L. F. Lichowa and Feliks Dzierzynski. He was working in Moscow. Dzierzynski Kazimierz Edmundowicz 1875 - 1943, born in Iody, the Wilno county, studied in Germania, working in Lublin, 1935 in Dzierzynowo. Dzierzynska Lucija / Lucea Wilhelmowna, 1887 - 1943, wife of K. E. Dzierzynski, brother of Feliks Dzierzynski. German wife. 1941 working for German in Iwieniec. Catholic. Nagotko Kazimierz son of Jozef Nagotko, next of kin with Faliks Dzierzynski, living in Tiesnowo, the Iwieniec area, his wife Anna; died in 1944 from hands of Polish; a cementery of Kamien. Kazimierz and Teresa Nagotko were living after 1944.

Dzierżyński family settlements in assets of Oziembłowo (later named Dzierżynow) and were neighbours of the Rutkowski family from Podgórze - owners of the property. These families maintained close contacts, as Karol Adam / Charles Adam Rutkowski and Edmund Dzerzhinsky, the owner Oziembłowo. Witold Rutkowski son of Charles Adam and Kazimierz Dzerzhinsky son of Edmund Dzierzynski came together to Warsaw during the study. Kazimierz Dzerzhinsky joined the Academy of Veterinary in Dorpat (Tartu, now Estonia). He came therefore to Dzierżynow, and to Warsaw on the Technical School of Wawelberg and Rotwand. He lived in lodgings with Witold Rutkowski, but he was arrested and then he went to Germany, in Frankfurt am Main, then moved to Karlsruhe. Rented apartment with a family of Italian origin - Schiotti. He fell in love with the daughter of the owners Lucy Schiotti and married.

Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Jelnica and Szabany, south-east of Minsk or Nowy Dwor close to Sluck!? His mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749; grandfather: Florian Stanislaw Bulhak (b. ca 1700? or 1730, 1681 and 1741; he was son of Mikołaj Bułhak and Katarzyna ... or Marianna; husband of Krystyna; father of Florian Bułhak, Józef Bułhak, Jan Bułhak, Wincenty Bułhak, Ignacy Józefat Bułhak / Ignacy Jozafat Bułhak, Jerzy Onufry Bułhak and Władysław Bułhak) and grandmother Krystyna Ciekawianka (above Josafat Ignatius Bulhak b. April 20, 1758, d. February 25, 1838, Greek Orthodox priest, Uniate bishop of Pinsk (1787-1795), bishop of Brest (1798-1828), Bishop of Lithuania (1828-1833) and Archbishop of Polotsk (1833-1838), in 1817-1838 the Metropolitan of Kiev. Above Jozef Bulhak, the Uniate bishop of Pinsk and Turow, abbot of the monastery of the Basilian in Suprasl). Great-grandfather Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670 (husband of Katarzyna ... and next - ? - Marianna Bułhak; father of Florian Stanisław Bułhak), m. to Marianna Imielinski - Prawdzic; estate Kosmowicze from Radziwill. His parents: Benedykt Bulhak (b. ca 1640?) and Eufemia Protasewicz. Benedykt was from Konstanty Bulhak and Anna Zablocki, acc. to aordycz.republika.pl. Above Eufemia Bułhak (Protasewicz - Jastrzębiec) b. ca 1650 was mother of Mikołaj Bułhak, Jerzy Piotr Bułhak and Szymon Bułhak - by: Urszula Ewa Skarżyńska in 2007. Benedykt Bułhak circa 1630 / 1650 - 1698, son of Konstanty Kazimierz Bułhak and Anna, husband of Eufemia, father of Mikołaj Bułhak; Jerzy Piotr Bułhak b. ca 1665 / 1675 and Szymon Bułhak b. ca 1660 / 1680?; 1686 Nowogrodek, owner of Ostrówka close to Mir, Janowszczyzna near by Iwieniec, Nowodwórek, Osipowszczyzna, Nacz, Puszcza Moszukowska, Domatkanowicze close to Kleck, Połoneczka by Dzwieja. Above Mikołaj Bułhak b. circa 1670 / 1695?, son of Benedykt Bułhak and Eufemia, husband of Katarzyna and Marianna, father of Florian Stanisław Bułhak ca 1695 - 1745? (his sons: 1. Florian Bułhak circa 1730 / 1750? - 1806, his mother Krystyna, husband of Helena Bułhak, father of Jan Antoni Franciszek Bułhak [ b. 1795 and d. in Worończa, 1866, husband of Julia, father of Karolina Karpowicz; Antoni Bułhak; Walery Antoni Stanisław Bułhak; NN Bułhak (his wife Aldona nee Dzierżyńska, by Urszula Ewa Skarżyńska); Barbara Bułhak and Helena Kiersnowska (wife of Aleksander Kiersnowski, mother of Adam Kiersnowski and Karol Kiersnowski) and one other] and Maciej Bułhak; 2. Józef Bułhak 1723 - 1783; 3. Jan Bułhak 1719 - 1779; 4. Wincenty Bułhak 1720 - 1780? owner of Michałowo close to Stołowicze and Kroszyn in the Nowogrodek county, served for Maciej Radziwiłł from Połoneczka - his son Gabriel??; 5. Ignacy Józefat Bułhak; 6. Jerzy Onufry Bułhak and 7. Władysław Bułhak).

Aldona Kojallowicz Bulhak nee Dzierzynska, 1870 - 1966. Her husband Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856 - his father Rudolf Jerzy Bulhak 1824-1894; grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789. Great-grandfather Jerzy Onufry Bulhak. Children of Jerzy Onufry Bulhak: Chryzostom Stanisław Bułhak, Beata Bułhak, Krystyna Bułhak, Ostroberta Bułhak and Julian Bułhak.
Acc. to Дрозд Дмитрий wrote on Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski (of Bulhak in 1867-1913);

somewhere in 1890, the estate Bluza (Bluza close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family) from hands of Sophia Prosor / Zofia Prozor - Swietorzecka / Sventorzhetski, owned in those places. The Prozor family was near by to Malkiewicz - Horodecka Izabela. Probably not Lisowski but the Lipovskii / Lipowski family.

The case on Ignacy (?) Bulhak on transferring it out to them: Kamionka or Matseevich from Lipovskii in 1861.

There are the Case of the redemption of the land at Мацевичи / Matsevichi of Bulhak in 1867-1913 (Mateevichi, south of Ugodino, near by Kamienka / Kamionka; west of Talka, and south of Marina Gorka; or Macevichi or Macawiczy close to Sinialo, and Koroliszczewiczi - south-east; inf. of 2010 from http://forum.vgd.ru/post/45/). Marina Gorka / Mar'іna Hill, a center of Pukhavichy region. 1866-1913 Bulhak was guardian of Sventorzhetskaya.

Aldona Dzierżyński, oldest sister of Feliks Dzierzynski, 1892 married to Gedymin Jerzy Bułhak (died 1908), lived in the Bobruisk district and Wilno; second husband Artur Kojałłowicz, and moved to Lodz / Łodz, to her daughter Maria Staszewski. Her next of kin Władysław Siła-Nowicki. Jadwiga Zawadzki was her cousin. All acc. to: http://aordycz.com/. Aldona who was always support for Feliks Dzierzynski. Aldona, whose son was adjutant of Jozef Pilsudski!

Details on the Dzierzynski family: Róża Dzierżyńska b. 1835 m. Burzyński. Felicjan Jan Dzierżyński b. 1830, m. Róża Łucja Szembel, he died in 1904; his children: Józef Bernard Dzierżyński 1863 - 1910, Adam Dzierżyński 1871 - 1932 + Wanda Nekanda-Trepka, Ewa Wiktoryna Dzierżyńska 1872 - 1928, Antoni Dzierżyński 1874 - 1942, Jan Albin Dzierżyński 1877 - 1958, Felicjan Bonifacy Dzierżyński 1878 - 1927.
Tomasz Justyn Dzierżyński b. 1822, m. Paulina Skibicka, d. 1859.
Acc. to http://www.aordycz.com/descendenci/dzierzynski.htm; address aord@aordycz.com; by Anna Ordyczynska: JAKUB DZIERŻYNSKI married BARBARA TALMONT and married SYRTOWT. Child of JAKUB is ANTONI JAKUBOWICZ DZIERŻYNSKI, b. 1755 d. 1816. Children of JAKUB and BARBARA TALMONT are: WAWRZYNIEC, ROCH and MARIANNA. ANTONI JAKUBOWICZ DZIERŻYNSKI married KONSTANCJA ADAMOWICZ, children: IGNACY JAN, JÓZEF JAN H. SULIMA DZIERŻYNSKI, b. 1788 d. 1854. JÓZEF JAN H. DZIERŻYNSKI married ANTONINA OZIEMBLOWSKA. Children: RYSZARD EDWARD WINCENTY b. 1817, ONUFRY ANTONI MODEST b. 1818 m. MAZURKIEWICZ, BERNARD LEONARD b. 1819 d. 1879; TOMASZ JUSTYN b. 1822; d. 1859 m. PAULINA SKIBICKA; ANTONI MIKOLAJ b. 1823 d. 1865; ANNA b. 1827, EDMUND b. 1829, in Dzierżynowo, d. 1872, m. HELENA JANUSZEWSKA, daughter of JANUSZEWSKI and KAZIMIERA JANUSZEWSKA; FELICJAN JAN 1830 - 1904; JÓZEFAT b. 1831 d. 1954; LEOKADIA b. 1833 and RÓŻA b. 1835 m. BURZYNSKI. RYSZARD EDWARD WINCENTY DZIERŻYNSKI was born 1817, married COLETTE OSTROWSKA. Child of RYSZARD and COLETTE OSTROWSKA is EUSTACHY. Children of EDMUND and HELENA JANUSZEWSKA are: WITOLD b. 1867; ALDONA b. 1869, Kojdanów (Dzierżynowo) d. 1966; JADWIGA b. 1871, Kojdanów, d. 1949 m. KUSZELEWSKI; and samples only: KAZIMIERZ b. 1875, Dzierżynowo, d. 1943 in Dzierżynowo, m. LUCY SCHIATTI (Kazimierz Dzerzhinsky joined the Academy of Veterinary in Dorpat / Tartu, now Estonia. He came therefore to Dzierżynow, and to Warsaw on the Technical School of Wawelberg and Rotwand. He lived in lodgings with Witold Rutkowski, but he was arrested and then he went to Germany, in Frankfurt am Main, then moved to Karlsruhe. Rented apartment with a family of Italian origin - Schiotti. He fell in love with the daughter of the owners Lucy Schiotti / LUCY SCHIATTI and married); FELIKS d. 1926, Moskwa; IGNACY b. 1879, Dzierżynowo d. 1953; WLADYSLAW b. 1881, Stołpce, d. 1942, Zgierz. FELICJAN JAN DZIERŻYNSKI was born 1830, and died 1904. He married RÓŻA LUCJA SZEMBEL. Children of FELICJAN and RÓŻA SZEMBEL are: ANTONINA, MICHAL b. 1862; d. 1867; ADAM b. 1871 d. 1932 m. WANDA NEKANDA TREPKA; EWA WIKTORYNA 1872 d. 1928; ANTONI b. 1874 d. 1942; JAN ALBIN b. 1877 d. 1958; FELICJAN BONIFACY b. 1878 d. 1927 and JÓZEF BERNARD 1963 d. 1910. ALDONA DZIERŻYNSKA was born 1869 in Kojdanów and died 1966. She married GEDYMIN JERZY BULHAK, son of RUDOLF and ANIELA OSTROMECKA. He was born 1856, and died 1908. She married second time to ARTUR KOJALLOWICZ. Children of ALDONA and GEDYMIN are: EDMUND 1894 - 1896, RUDOLF b. 1895 d. in Minsk, HELENA b. 1896, ANTONI JERZY b. 1898 m. JUCHNIEWICZ; MARIA b. 1900 m. MIECZYSLAW HARYSZEWSKI and second time m. JERZY STASZEWSKI; HELENA b. 1901 d. 1904. Child of ALDONA and ARTUR: RUDOLF KOJALLOWICZ. FELIKS was born 1877, married ZOFIA ZYGMUNTÓWNA MUSZKAT. She was born 1882 in Warsaw, died 1968 in Moscow. Child of FELIKS and ZOFIA MUSZKAT: JAN b. 1911. IGNACY DZIERŻYNSKI born 1879 in Dzierżynowo, and died 1953. He married STANISLAWA SILA-NOWICKA, children of IGNACY and STANISLAWA: OLGIERD and WANDA JÓZEFA. JAN ALBIN DZIERŻYNSKI was born 1877, and died 1958. Children of JAN ALBIN: JANINA and JERZY WITOLD DZIERŻYNSKI. JAN DZIERŻYNSKI born 1911, has children: TEODOR, and junior FELIKS. Acc. to http://www.aordycz.com/descendenci/dzierzynski.htm; address aord@aordycz.com; by Anna Ordyczynska. Her roots: Piotr Ordyczyński + Anna Danuta Stankiewicz from Leżajsk.

Gedymin Jerzy Bułhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierżyński, died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanisław Bułhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bułhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozłowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Słuck. And his grandfather Mikołaj Bułhak b. 1670, m. to Marianna Imieliński; estate Kosmowicze from Radziwiłł.

Aldona Kojałłowicz Bułhak nee Dzierżyńska, 1870 - 1966, acc. to http://www.geni.com/people/. Her son Antoni Bułhak b. 1898. His wife Wanda Bułhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and Maria Juchniewicz nee Piłsudska, b. 1873. She was daughter of Józef Wincenty Piotr Piłsudski, b. 1833; and her brother was Józef Klemens Piłsudski b. 1867.
The second son of above Aldona: Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895.
Sister of above Aldona: Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska / Hedwig / Jadwiga Kuszelewski (1871 - 1949) + Konstanty Kuszelewski - Prawdzic (1857 - 1922). Her son: Jerzy Kuszelewski, 1895-1939.

Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895, his brother Antoni Bułhak born 1898; about Antoni Bułhak by Małgorzata Wojciechowska in 2010 at http://www.geni.com/people/: Antoni Bulhak died after 1970, was one of the aides of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski and husband of Wanda Kadenacy, niece Marshal (mistake?). After the invasion of the Germans in Poland in September 1939, taken from Warsaw to its assets in the Suwalki region: Pilsudski wife - Alexandra / Aleksandra Szczerbinska and her daughters, her sister and their cousin Anna. Jozef Klemens Pilsudski + Aleksandra Szczerbinska has daughter Jadwiga Jagoda Pilsudska with her husband Andrzej Jaraczewski has daughter Joanna Jaraczewska, married to Janusz Onyszkiewicz / Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz born 1937. Zofia Kadenacy nee Piłsudski, b. 1865 was sister of Józef Klemens Piłsudski; her husband Bolesław Kadenacy (1845 - 1918), her daughter Wanda Kadenacy + Antoni Bulhak, b. 1898 (mistake?), the aide-de-camp of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski.

We need check this genealogy!
Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas and Aldona, the house Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898; married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska. The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.
Above named Zawołoczyce, here was Bernardine filial chapel in the village, like Chromce (near Bobruisk), Dubrowna (near Minsk), Dukora (Svislach), Łahojsk, Szaciłki (Berezina); the monks served parishes in Borosowszczyzna, Ratutycze, Ustercha. Zawołoczyce that is Заволочицы, Zavalochycy, Zavolochicy, Zavolochitsy close to Simanavichi; west of Glusha, ca 38 km west of Bobruisk / Bobruisk.
Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833 died 1902, + Maria Billewicz died 1884; daughter Zofia Zula Pilsudski Kadenacy, b. 1865, d. 1935; her husband Boleslaw Kadenacy died 1918; his son Czeslaw Kadenacy, b. 1896, grandson Tadeusz. Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833 died 1902, + Maria Billewicz has 12 children, among others Helena Piłsudski b. 1864 d. 1917, Zofia Kadenac b. 1865 + Bolesław Kadenac, Bronisław Piłsudski, Józef Piłsudski, Adam Piłsudski / Адам Гинятович Косьчеша Пилсудский b. 1869, Kazimierz Piłsudski, Maria Juchniewiczowa b. 1873 + Cezary Juchniewicz, Jan Piłsudski, Ludwika Majewska b. 1879 + Leon Majewski, Kacper Piłsudski b. 1881, Piotr Piłsudski, Teodora Piłsudska, Piotr.
Antoni Bulhak (Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, son of Gedymin Jerzy Bułhak, and Aldona nee Dzierżyńska, his brother Rudolf Kojałłowicz; his wife nee Juchniewicz), b. 1898:

1. Zofia Kadenacy nee Piłsudski, b. 1865 was sister of Józef Klemens Piłsudski; her husband Bolesław Kadenacy (b. 1845, his father Jan / Ivan Kadenacy; Boleslaw married Zofia Pilsudski; he died 22 Jan 1918 in Vilno; Jan Kadenacy b. 1811; wife of above Boleslaw: Zofia Pilsudski 1865-1935), her daughter Wanda Kadenacy + Antoni Bulhak, b. 1898 (mistake?);

2. Antoni Bułhak b. 1898. His wife Wanda Bułhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and Maria Juchniewicz nee Piłsudska, b. 1873 (d. 1921, her mother Maria Piłsudska nee Billewicz). She was daughter of Józef Wincenty Piotr Piłsudski, b. 1833; and her brother was Józef Klemens Piłsudski b. 1867.

Among the Poles, who got a Japanese visa, in winter, at the turn of 1940 / 1941, and recorded arrive in Vancouver were only two families with Polish passports: Anthony George Bułhak with his wife Wanda in 1940 and James Kaliski with his wife and children in 1941. Probably Bulhak when traveling by train in Soviet Union used the false passports. It is known that the Polish Embassy in Tokyo asked for a re-issue of passports; he came from a noble family.

Jan / John Bułhak, his uncle, the father of Polish landscapes photography. Jan Brunon Bułhak (1876–1950) or Jan Bułhak was born 1876 in Осташин Мурованый / Ostaszyn (Асташын, close to Liubaniczi, south of Dolginowo and Serwacz, ca 28 km south-east of Nowogrodek, 11 km north-east of Woroncha / Woroncza). Осташин Мурованый / Ostaszyn Murowany from 1922 to Otton Żywicki. Here was living Jan Bulhak / Ян Булгак, son of Валериан Булгак, Walerian Bulhak; he sold the estate to Грабовски / Grabowski (18th cent. to the beginning of the 20th. cent.) after 1900. Jan Brunon Bułhak's parents were Walery Antoni Stanisław Bułhak - Syrokomla b. 1842 in Ostaszyn (he was brother of Karolina Karpowicz, Antoni Bułhak, NN Bułhak, Barbara Bułhak and Helena Kiersnowska; son of Jan Antoni Franciszek Bułhak b. 1795 in Woroncza, and grandson of Florian Bulhak b. ca 1740, great-grandson of Florian Stanisław Bułhak from Mikolaj Bulhak and Katarzyna or Marianna) and Józefa née Haciska - Roch (b. 1848 in Miratycze, daughter of Władysław Dachnowicz Haciski - son of Tadeusz Dachnowicz Haciski - and Anna Haciska), landowners in Ostaszyn. In the village of Worończa (Woroncha, Варонча) there are four graves of Jan Bułhak's ancestors - 27 km south-east of Navahrudak / Nowogrodek. Jan Bulhak from 1897 to 1899, studied literature, history and philosophy at Jagiellonian University, Kraków. Back home, he lived in the village of Peresieka (Пярэсека) near Minsk, where he inherited a manor after his great-uncle's death (brother of one's grandparent or uncle of one's parent). Пярэсека, Минская область / Pereseka, close to Czurylawiczi, Kaikawa, ca 16 km soth of Minsk core; 7 km south-west of Karaliszczawiczi / Koroliszczewiczi / Koroliszczewicze - here Konstantynowicz family, and ca 8 km south-west of Nowy Dwor - Bulhak?; north-west of Dukora - Moniuszko. In 1901, he married a cousin, Hanna Haciska. After his father's death (after 1905), he sold the manor and bought a mansion from Radziwill in Belitsa, near Minsk. Belitsa, near Minsk - 3 km south-east of Samachwalawiczi, 7 km west of Kaikawa, ca 12 km south-west of Koroliszczewiczi and ca 3 / 4 km west of Peresieka. Jozef Proszynski was living in Koroleszczewicze, died 1790, married Elzbieta Brygida nee Janiszewska / ? Januszewska.

The family of Aleksander Brujewicz or Bonc - Bruievicius of the Boncza arms lived in Zbyszyn or Sbychin near to Tschetschewitschi since 1876 / 1880, 39 km SE away from Miezonka; he lived next door Gresmer or Greszner family ca 1896, and Mr Witold Bulhak home.

The Bulhak noble house of the Syrokomla arms, verified in Minsk A.D. 1802, possessed also in the government of Minsk: Matewitschi = Maciejewicze i.e. Macevicy, and Zuki, Budzilowka and Kondratowicze.

West of the Berezyna river, and close to Bobruisk / Bobrujsk stronghold - the Bulhak, Konstantynowicz, Szostak, Dzierzynski, Tatur, Czajkowski families:
The Konstantynowicz family: Вязовница that is Wiazownica / Viazovnica, west of Swislocz (see Szostak family), north - east of Osipovichi; west of Berezyna river; south-east of Grodzianka (see Marian vel Jerzy Konstantynowicz); and Фортуны - here lived (also Чайковский Петр Николаевич, Чайковская Раиса Петровна / Raisa Czajkowska and the Томкович / Tomkowicz family) parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz (grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich): Константинович Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county. Gorochovka / Gorochovo, south-west of Bobrujsk / Bobruisk, ca 20 km, close to Fortuny: north-west of Gorochovka, and south of Glusha, close to Gorochovka, Rimovcy, Spornoje; east-south-east of Simonovichi (see: Bulhak family). Snustik / Снустик - east of Pukhavichy and Maryina Gorka, and west of Gradzyanka, and south-east of Turin / Turyn (Bulhak family) in the Igumen / Ihumen county / Игумен.

The Bulhak family: Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk. Acc. to Дрозд Дмитрий wrote on Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski (of Bulhak in 1867-1913); somewhere in 1890, the estate Bluza (Bluza close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family) from hands of Sophia Prosor / Zofia Prozor - Swietorzecka / Sventorzhetski, owned in those places.

The Prozor family was near by to Malkiewicz - Horodecka Izabela. Probably not Lisowski but the Lipovskii / Lipowski family. The case on Ignacy (?) Bulhak on transferring it out to them: Kamionka or Matseevich from Lipovskii in 1861. There are the Case of the redemption of the earth at Мацевичи / Matsevichi of Bulhak in 1867-1913 (Mateevichi, south of Ugodino, near by Kamienka / Kamionka; west of Talka, and south of Marina Gorka; or Macevichi or Macawiczy close to Sinialo, and Koroliszczewiczi - south-east; inf. of 2010 from http://forum.vgd.ru/post/45/). Marina Gorka / Mar'іna Hill, a center of Pukhavichy region. 1866-1913 Bulhak was guardian of Sventorzhetskaya. Кухтичи close to Uzda - west; near by Rakosziczi, Siemienowiczi, east of Stolbcy, Stolbce; west of Marina Gorka. Inf. of the village said that Bulhak won it by cards, although rely on a information can not be. According to villagers, they remember it about Bulhak. In the 1897 census, the village had already been in 16 houses. 1867-1913 I. Bulhak (?) or Bulgak purchased (1861) from Lipovskii, villages Kamionka or Matseevich. Насыцк near by Talka, south-east of Marina Gorka, north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze, near by Kamienka / Kamionki. And above Камионки or Kamienka close to Talka, north-west of Osipovichi.

Блужа-Городно д. Блужа Пуховичского р-на north-west of Talka, west of Lapichi, south-east of Marina-Gorka; Булгак Борис Николаевич b. 1907 in Macevichi / Мацевичи, the Puchovichi region / Пуховичского р-на, prisoner 1930. Булгак Василий Петрович b. 1916 in Wilno / Вильно. Shoot 1938. Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи, south-west of Osipovichi, close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo; killed 1933. Булгак Виктория Адамовна b. 1900. Булгак Владимир Владимирович b. 1900 in Станково / Stankow, Дзержинский р-н. Булгак Галина Дмитриевна d. 1931. Булгак Гектор Каземирович b. 1910 Могилевская обл.; Борки - Borki close to Sbyschi / Zbyszyn of Brujewicz and close to Tschigirinka of Bulgak / Bulhak family, close to Kolbowa. Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937. Булгак Иван Цезарович b. 1907 in Borki / Борки, Бобруйского р-на; close to Zbyszyn of the Brujewiczs; d. 1939. Булгак Мария Ипполитовна b. 1899 or 1897, Horodaj or Gorodai. Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесничи of the Копыльского р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937. Булгак Станислав Антонович b. 1901 in Несвиж / Nieswiez. Булгак Степан Степанович b. 1893 in Луки / Luki close to Stolbce; d. after 1933. Булгак Феликс Адольфович b. 1895 in the Siedlce government / Седлецкая губ., Lukow / Луков; d. after Nov. 1937. Булгак Эдуард Владимирович b. 1907 in Stankow / Станково, the Дзержинский region.

Матевичи / Мацевичи / Matewitschi / Maciejewicze i.e. Macevicy (inf. about location above), and Zuki, Budzilowka and Kondratowicze. Budzilowka / Будзиловка in the Беломльская волость / Bielomlskaja volost; Zabrodok / Забродок and Beresniewka / Бересневка to the Bulhak family / Булгак. Беломльская волость was in the Berezina parish / Березинский church. Biegoml / Bjagolm is north of Borisow. But Бересневка is also in the Боровицкий сельсовет, the Kirov district / Кировский район - south of Kliczew; Krasny Brzeg south of Dobosnia / Dobysna.

Before death of his mother, Felix Dzierzynski lived with his aunt, the Baroness Sophie von Pilchau Piller, who lived with grandmother Januszewska. Felix recalled on her property where met once on the occasion of Christmas four generations of Dzierżyńskich and Januszewski. In 1897 there was already dead of his sister Wanda; From four brothers, Stanislaw Dzierzynski, a student of the St. Petersburg University, lived with two younger brothers Ignatius and Wladyslaw, students in high school in St. Petersburg, Kazimierz at a mechanical factory in Warsaw (m. to Lucy Schiotti / LUCY SCHIATTI). Two sisters:

Aldona Dzierzynski married to Bułhak / Bulhak and lives in some assets near Bobruisk / Bobrujsk, the husband's property;
Kuszelewski, Hedwig's husband was landowner in Poniewieski district / Poniewiez. Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas Bulhak and Aldona Dzierzynski / Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898; married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska / Maria Pilsudski. The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.

Vilnius journalist ALWIDA Bajor, pointed out that was connections Mackiewicz, Katrutia Matułajtis, and Baltic Germans family of Roman von Pilchau with Felix Dzerzhinsky. Матула́йтис / Матулайтис / Матулевич / Matulaitis / Matulewicz were from Лугине / Luginie close to Mariampol / Мариямполе. Wilhelmina Matulaitis nee Mackiewicz was sister of Antoni Mackiewicz d. 1914; he was father of Jozef Mackiewicz / Józef Mackiewicz b. 1902, a Polish writer, novelist and political commentator; opposed communism, anticommunist by nationality. Mackiewicz died in exile. His older brother Stanisław Mackiewicz was also a writer. Józef Mackiewicz was the son of Antoni Mackiewicz and Maria née Pietraszkiewicz (her father Franciszek Ksawery Pietraszkiewicz b. 1814, Cracow?. His father Adam Pietraszkiewicz, born ?) originally from Kraków / Cracow, a Polish noble family; Jozef was born in Saint Petersburg. Stanisław Mackiewicz, a political publicist and Prime Minister of the postwar Polish government in exile from 1954 to 1955; and Seweryna Mackiewicz, mother of Polish writer Kazimierz Orłoś. In 1907 his family moved to Wilno. Above Antoni Mackiewicz b. ?; his father Bolesław Mackiewicz.

Now we back to Roman Romuald baron von Pilar Pilchau / Пилляр Роман Александрович: after the victory of the February Revolution of March 1917, he was Secretary of the Board of Danilov Peasants' Deputies. In August, to October 1917 cadet in Moscow. From October 1917 on underground work in the German army occupied Lithuania. Was arrested, until April 1918, was imprisoned! In April 1918 he was one of the leaders in Vilna. In January 1919, a member of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee and the Secretary of the Lithuanian-Byelorussian Republic. In February, to April 1919, was treated in hospital. In May 1919, after the capture of Wilno by the Polish troops, was arrested and sentenced to death, but miraculously survived! In December 1919 on the exchange of prisoners, he arrived in the Russia. In April 1920, Cheka of Western Front; In October 1920 - March 1921 was on illegal work in Upper Silesia (Germany); March 1921, Cheka / GPU. December 1921 Assistant Chief, and July 1922 - December 1925 the first deputy of the chief of the counterintelligence of GPU / OGPU. Genoa Conference (1922); 1924-1925 along with Artuzov involved in developing and implementing major counterintelligence operations Trust and Syndicate-2. In November 1929 North Caucasus region; November 1932 Central Asia, December 1934, the NKVD chief in Saratov region. 16/05/37 dismissed, on the night of 16 May 17, 1937 arrested. Accused of being a Polish secret service intelligence spy, 02/09/37 shot.

On the Dzierzynski and Ozieblowski families:
in Ozemblovschizna on 1830 September 22, baptized Jozef Tertia Dzierzynski / Joseph Terciusz Dzierzhynski, parents: Jozef Dzerzhinsky and Antonina nee Oziemblowski / Ozemblovski, Dzerzhinsky. God-father Jan Terletskii / Jan Terlecki, cornet of the Polish troops, and god-mother Josefa Voyninoy. Jozef Dzerzhinsky 1788-1854 and Antonina Dzerzhinska - grandparents of Felix, but their daughter Jozefa (Leokadia Kornelia b. 1833 in Ozemblovschizna) apparently lived shortly. Recipients Wojciech Wojna, Anna Gorbatovskaya, Sigismund Shalevich, Vasilevska, Xavier Kazakevitch, Wilhelmina Gorbatovskaya, Jan Terletski / Terlecki, Valeria Gorbatovskaya, Joseph Gorbatovsky / Horbatowski, Frantiska Kukilevna. In Bobruisk church: 1889 Henry and Mary nee Ludvika Dzerzhinska Wolski, 1889 Henry and Ludvika Dzerzhinska Wolski, 1889 in the Bobruisk Roman Catholic parish church - Ryszard Edward Vincent Dzerzhinsky and Colette / Nicoleta / Koleta Lozovskaya Dzerzhinska, but we know about Dzierżyński Ryszard Edward Wincenty b. 1817, married to Ostrowska Colette.

Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński was born 1817, his parents: Jozef Dzierzynski / Иосиф Дзержинский b. 1788 died in 1854, and Антонина Озембловская / Antonina Oziemblowska b. 1788;

her children: Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński b. 1817, Onufry Antoni Modest Dzierżyński b. 1818, Bernard Leonard Dzierżyński 1819 - 1879,
Tomasz Justyn Dzierżyński 1822 - 1859,
Antoni Mikołaj Dzierżyński 1823 - 1865, Felicjan Jan Dzierżyński 1830 - 1904, Józefat Dzierżyński 1831, Leokadia Dzierżyńska 1833, Róża Dzierżyńska 1835, born in Oszmiany / Oshmiany / Ошмяны, the Wilno government / Виленская губ., Эдмунд Руфин Иосифович Дзержинский / Edmund Rufin Iosifovich Dzierzynski, b. on 15 May 1838, died in 1882.

Grandparents of Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński born 1817: Antoni Jakubowicz Dzierżyński 1755 - 1816, and Konstancja Adamowicz. He came from Jakub Dzierżyński, Mikołaj Dzierżyński / Derzinskis d. 1703, and from Mikołaj Dzierżyński / Derzinskis.

Wanda Schonthaller-Dzierżyńska 1920-2011 - daughter of Major Dzierzyński.

And about Jozef Oziemblowski / Ozieblowski + Aniela Zdrojewska: children - Boleslaw Ozieblowski, Michal, Maria Moszynski, Stefania. Dieriewno / Derevno located close to Ozemlovo / Ozemblovschizna. A church in Dieriewno / Derevno / Деревно: there was baptized Felix Dzierzynski and buried his father Edmund Rufin Dzierzynski, his sister Wanda, his brother Stanislaus d. in 1917.
Edmund Dzerzhinsky born 1829 in Dzierżynowo, married to Helena Januszewska, died 1882. Helena Januszewska born 1849 in Joda and married to Edmund Dzerzhinsky, she died on 15 Jan. 1896 and buried in Vilnius. Feliks Dzierzynski b. 11 September 1877, his father Edmund Dzierzynski b. 1829, mother Helena Januszewska b. 1849, died in 1896, her parents: Ignacy Januszewski born 1804 and Kazimiera Januszewska born 1806; parents of Edmund Dzierzynski: Jozef Jan Dzierzynski b. 1788 and Antonina Oziemblowska.
Others: Dzierżyński Witold, 1887-19.XI.1892. Krzywiec nee Żyromski, Aleksandra, 1828. Pilar von Pilchau nee Bielawski, Marja / Maria Bielawska.

Ebba Emilie Pilar von Pilchau b. 1866, her parents: Olga Marie Emilie von Staal and Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilchau von Pilar. Above Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 in Padis / Padise, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland / Estonia and died in 1862, and grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 from Jöggis / Jõgisuu, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland).

The family history of the Konstantynowiczs in Tsarist Russia, in Viljandi, Tallinn, Parnu / Parnawa, Riga / Ryga, Moscow, Petersburg, Ufa, Miezonka, Hapsal / Haapsalu, Vana-Karjaküla or Alt-Hohenhof, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti. With others families: Melik - Beglyarov or Melik-Beglarov, Demonets / Demonet or Demontet, Breguet, Brown, Wilde, Nikitin, Katenin, Gruzinski, Bagrationi, Drzewiecki, Orlov-Denisov, Martynov, Paszkowski, Kalinowski, Zarako Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Horodecki, Zbieranowski, Szostak, Nobel, Masson, Hacker / Hakker, Kammer, Briling, Vologdin, Azbelev, Benckendorf or Benkendorf, Pushkin, Kropotkin, Chikin, Bakst, Trubecki / Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy / Troubetskoi, Beklemishev, Rosenberg, Wittgenstein, Dadian-Mingrelsky / Dadiani Mingrelskij, Radziwill, Piottuch-Kublicki, Soltan, Oginski, Japaridze, Rosen, Gernet, Rehbinder, Schilling, Nakachidze, von Zarnekau, Yurievsky, Duke of Oldenburg, Nikoladze, Maipariani or Maypariani, Saparov, Armand, Diseren, Duflon, Rey, Paat / Paats, Karamyan.

Above Karyakyula / Vana-Karjaküla / Alt-Hohenhof, is an aristocratic mansion in northern Estonia in the Harju county. This manor changed their owners very often: Glenn (von Glehn), von Gernet (von Gernet), Pilchau / Pilar von Pilchau, Koskyuly (von Kosküll), von Krause (von Kraus / Krauze), von Hueck, von Kluge / von Klugen.

Some inf. on the Pilchau family:
Karl Gustav Pilar von Pilchau 1751 - 1802 born in Wait (Vaida), Rae vald, Harjumaa, Estland and died 1802 in Weissenstein (Paide), Järvamaa, Estland. His wife Johanna Christine Charlotte Pilar von Pilchau nee von Patkul 1751 - 1828; above Weissenstein (Paide), Järvamaa, ca 75 km south-east of Saku.

Gustav-Adolf Pilar von Pilchau 1841 - 1918, in 1878 in Haapsalu;

Rudolf von Gernet (1826 - 1912), in Haapsalu was chief of the Yacht Club. Hedwig Elisabeth von Gernet (nee von Patkul; her mother Juliane Charlotte von Wrangell, and her father Jakob Johann von Patkul) b. 1792 - 1867 with her son Karl Jakob Rudolf von Gernet 1826 - 1912.


Catherine Elisabeth von Gernet (1829 - 1896).
Above Vaida: 1708 Hans Heinrich Tiesenhausen, 1718 Georg Pilar von Pilchau, 1760 Jakob Heinrich Lilienfeld, 1789 der Howen, von der Pahlen, Ungern-Sternberg, 1894 Woldemar Rosen, 1901 Paul Ungern-Sternberg. Above Vana-Karjaküla: 1726 Nikolai Golovin, 1732 Abram Hannibal, 1743 Johann Mrakisch, 1747 Catharina Elisabeth Glehn, Maydell, 1756 Karl Gottlieb Gernet, 1771 Marie Juliane Pilar von Pilchau, 1776 Friedrich Wilhelm Uexküll-Güldenband, Zange, Koskull, 1817 Rosenmüller, 1818 Johann Martin Krause / Krauze, Klugen, Hueck.

Vardi: 1689 Hans Heinrich Rehbinder, 1716 Karl Friedrich Mengden, Bellingshausen, Otto Heinrich Rehbinder, 1731 Schwengelm, Schönberg, Klugen, Kotzebue, 1844 Gottlieb Rosen, 1855 Georg Pilar von Pilchau.

Georg Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1819 - 1882, born in Märjamaa Parish, Rapla County, Estonia. Georg Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau / Егор Максимович Пиллар, b. 19 March 1767 d. 1830, landlord of Kirna and Reopalu and he was married to Johann Agneta Hessega (1779-1847) and were born: Alexander von Pilar Pilchau (1804-1866), a Russian soldier, Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau (1808-1817), Helene von Pilar Pilchau (1811-1855), Nicholas Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1815-1887), the landlord of Kirna, Georg Jakob von Pilar Pilchau (1819-1882), the landlord of Vardi. Above Reopalu located north of Viljandi. Kirna close to Reopalu.

Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау born 1757 and died 1783, her father Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1734 d. 1801; her brothers and sisters: 1756 in Халлик, born Иоганна София Пилар фон Пильхау 1757 in Халлик, Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау, Вильгельм Фридрих Пилар фон Пильхау 1761, София Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, Анна Доротея Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, in Халлик, Oтто Густав Пилар фон Пильхау born 1763, Юлиана Шарлотта Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1764, in Халлик, Мария Луиза Пилар фон Пильхау Крутов b. 1766, Георг Людвиг or Егор Максимович Пилар фон Пильхау born on 19 март 1767, Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау 1768, Катарина Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1769, Анна София Пилар фон Пильхау 1771, Иоганна Кристина Пилар фон Пильхау 1772, Якоб Иоганн Пилар фон Пильхау 1774, Рейнгольд Адольф Пилар фон Пильхау 1775, Рейнгольд Вольдемар Пилар фон Пильхау 1777, Ульрика Генриетта Пилар фон Пильхау 1780, Каролина Амалия Пилар фон Пильхау 1780.


Carl Jacob Rudolph von Gernet, b. October 22, 1826 in Neuenhof and d. on April 20, 1912 in Hapsal (Haapsalu), Estonia;
his father Karl Johann von Gernet; his brothers Richard von Gernet and Magnus Friedrich von Gernet.

1886 in Hapsal = Haapsalu, Estonia;
1860, 1867, 1868 in Newenhof, Nissi, Harju;
and 1824 in Neuenhof, Voru / Vorun, Estonia; 1857, 1858 in Reval; and 1859 in Sellenkull.
Sellenkull = Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu, 27 km. And south-west of Lehola. Seljaküla is a village in Oru Parish, Lääne County, in western Estonia; Lääne County / Ляэнемаа / Lääne maakond / Läänemaa / Western land / Wiek (Pastorat Poenal - Nurme 38 street - is in Taebla Municipality, Lääne-Nigula Parish, east from Haapsalu).

Sergey Gernet / Сергей Павлович Гернет / Sergei Gernet:

a midshipman in the 1st Baltic Naval Depot. Sergei Pavlovich Gernet born 1859 and d. 1918; his father: Paul Bernhard Friedrich Gernet b. 1819 d. 1860. His son: Eugene S. Gernet b. in Kronstadt on October 31, 1882 d. on August 8, 1943 in Spartacus village, Pavlodar area, Kazakhstan. The captain of the 2nd rank in 1917. During the Russian-Japanese War, in the defense of Port Arthur 1904, during the First World War he served in the Black Sea 1916. Then he served in the Soviet Navy. In 1918 he commanded the squadron in Novorossiisk. Arrested in 1938, he died in exile.

Below about Carl's / Karl's children: Frederick Gernet b. 1738 d. 1789, Christian Gernet b. 1740 d. 1819, Carl Gustaf Gernet b. 1747 d. 1812.

And some details of above named Sergei Gernet / Сергей Павлович Гернет born 1859 died 1918, a top member of 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company from St Petersburg and Moscow and about his family:

His father Paul Berngard / Пауль Бернгард Фридрихов Гернет / v. Gernet Paul Bernhard b. 1819 d. 1860.

Son of Sergei was born on 31 October 1882 in Kronsztadt / Кронштадт, Evgenii / Евгений died 1943. His grandfather: Frederick Wilhelm / Fridrich Wilhelm / Фридрих Вильгельм Гернет born 1783 died 1857.
And great-grandfather Christian Wilhelm Gernet b. 1740 d. 1819, and his father Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791.

On Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791 (Карл Готлиб Иоахимов Гернет son of Ioachim Georgiev von Gernet / Иоахим Георгиев Гернет b. 1648 d. 1710 and was grandson of Георгий Гернет / Georgij von Gernet);

Karl Gotlib sons: Fridrich / Фридрих Гернет / Eberhard Friedrich von Gernet died 1789, was born on November 26, 1738 in Lehhlola / Lehhola / Lehola in Estonia and died on July 29, 1789 in Ohtel / Ohtu, Estonia (Ohtel / Ohtu - only 3 km south - east of Lehola, near to Keila, and ca 15 / 13 km to Uksnurme);
next son born 1740 Christian Wilhelm / Христиан Вильгельм Гернет died ca 1819, born in Lehhola, Estonia - his sons: 1. Hans Moritz von Gernet born 1775 died 1860 (his son Adam Oskar von Gernet 1834 in Reval - 1908 in Reval - and his son: Moritz Nikolai Oswald von Gernet born 1867 Sallenstad - d. ?) and 2. Otto Heinrich von Gernet (1780 Reval - 1848) and 3. Frederick Wilhelm / Fridrich Wilhelm / Фридрих Вильгельм Гернет born 1783 died 1857;
and next son born in 1747 Karl Gustaw von Gernet / Карл Густав Гернет
(Carl Gustav von Gernet born in Waikna and died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia with son Karl Iogann / Carl Iohan von Gernet - Waikna / Vaikna that is support manor of Koluvere manor, Kullamaa Parish in Läänemaa County; 38 km east of Haapsalu and also east of Kiideva, north-west-north of Parnu, 70 km circa. Note: Jula Dunkel b. 1840, from Ridala Parish, Lääne County, Estonia - her father Kustas Dunkel b. 1814 from Haeska, 7 km east of Kiideva (Gernet) and south-east of Haapsalu, about 23 km west of Vaikna)
died 1812 and his son:
1776 Karl Iogann Gernet / Гернет died 1857 and his son: 1824 Fridrich Magnus / Фридрих Магнус Гернет died 1909; and his son: b. 07 August 1878 Adam Richard Ernst / Адам Рихард Эрнст Гернет died 1944;

about above Adam R. E. Gernet: Cushima 1905, 1910 Nikolaevskaya Morskaya Akademia, 1913 captain 2nd class, 1939 in Germany;
the brother of Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700: Wilhelm Henrich / Вильгельм Генрих Гернет born 1703 died 1772 - his son:

1741 Hristophor / Христофор Вильгельмов Гернет died 1794 - sons of Hristophor:

1782 Reinholdt / Рейнгольд Христофоров Гернет d. 1832 and 1791 Ferdinand / Фердинанд Христофоров died 1852; 1795 Hristophor Hristophorovich / Христофор Христофорович Гернет died 1865 - and his son: 1835 Aleksandr / Александр Христофорович Гернет d. 1893 - and his children: Natalia / Наталья Александровна and Vladymir / Владимир Александрович Гернет b. 1870 d. 1929 - his wife and daughter: Elena Alekseevna Zerebko-Rotmistrenko / Елена Алексеевна b. 1864 d. 1937, daughter b. 1899 in Odessa, Nina Vladymirovna Gernet b. 1899 d. 1982 - about Nina: her son Erik Michailovich Rausch-Gernet / Эрик Рауш - Гернет, her husbands: Michail Sale / Михаил Салье b. 1899 and from 1923 married to Michail Rausch-Traubenberg / Рауш фон Траубенберг b. 1904.

Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin b. 1892, was a Swedish businessman and inventor of encryption machines. Born of Swedish parents in Azerbaijan; father Karl Wilhelm Hagelin worked for Ludvig and Emanuel / Emmanuel Nobel in Baku (Karl Hagelin was closest advisor for Emmanuel, because Wilhelm Hagelin, his father, had been employed by Ludvig Nobel as a manager of the St. Petersburg factory; 1899, Karl Hagelin was called back to St. Petersburg, like Emmanuel's closest technical advisor), and next was an investor in the Arvid Gerhard Damm's company - Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, established to sell rotor machines, acc. to Wikipedia.

See: Smith, Francis O. J., The Secret Corresponding Vocabulary..., ed. in Portland; Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System..., ed. in 1948; Damm Arvid G., Aktiebolaget Cryptograph, ed. 1922; Boris C. W. Hagelin became first a director and later the owner of the Cryptograph Company, next the Cryptographe Technik and then the Crypto A. G. in the 1960s.
Crypto AG is a Swiss company specialising in communications and information security. With headquarters in Steinhausen ... Crypto AG was established in Bern by Russian-born Swede, Boris Hagelin. Originally called AB Cryptoteknik and founded by Arvid Gerhard Damm in Stockholm in 1920, the firm manufactured the C-36 mechanical cryptograph machine that Damm had patented.
After Damm's death ... Cryptoteknik came under the control of Boris Hagelin, an early investor

(1921, Boris Hagelin developed his first cipher machine whilst working for crypto-company Damm in Sweden; 1935 he produced a fully mechanical machine under his own brand name A. B. Ingeniorsfirman Teknik in Sweden).

It was the first of a long line of mechanical cipher machines. Shortly before WWII, he developed the M-209 for the American Army. After the war the company moved to Switzerland where they traded as Hagelin Cryptos.
Acc. to: http://www.cryptomuseum.com/crypto/hagelin/), and during the War essentially operated in the United States ... In the early 1950s, it was transferred from Stockholm to Zug (close to Luzern / Lucerna) ... and was incorporated in Switzerland in 1952.

Crypto AG has a sister company, InfoGuard AG

(InfoGuard AG, a member of 'The Crypto Group', has specialised in providing comprehensive information security for more than 130 countries), acc. to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crypto_AG.

Boris Hagelin had created the 'Hagelin-machine', a encryption device similar to the German 'Enigma'

(Charles Babbage, b. 1791, an English polymath, had recommendations from James Ivory and John Playfair, achieved notable results in cryptography, 1850s Babbage broke Vigenere's autokey cipher; Friedrich Kasiski, a Prussian infantry officer, made the same discovery some years later. The Enigma was an electro-mechanical rotor cypher machine used for both encryption and decryption, from the early 1920s on. Enigma was developed by Arthur Scherbius dating back to 1919. Enigma-A was offered for sale in 1923. The Swedish textile engineer Arvid Gerhard Damm, used his experience gained with Jacquard weaving machines for construction of an automatic ciphering machine and applied for a patent in 1919 for his rotory system.

But Rintu Nath, 'Dream 2047', June 2013, vol. 15, No 9, A chronicle of cryptography:
In 1918, the German inventor Arthur Scherbius and his close friend Richard Ritter developed a cryptographic machine called Enigma. Scherbius patented his cipher machine in 1918. Enigma was contained in a compact box measuring only 13,5 - 11 - 6 inches. Encryption using Enigma was based on polyalphabetic substitution method. Security of the encrypted message was based on the secret key.

1921, Boris Hagelin bringing support from the Swedish Nobel family, "...improved the cryptograph and in 1925 succeeded in getting the Swedish Army to use his Swedish product, the new prototype B-21, instead of the German Enigma". 1927 Hagelin became the owner of Aktiebologat Cryptograph. "...The B-21 had a lamp field similar to that in Enigma. In a new compact version, the C-35, the lamp field was replaced by a printer, which produced the ciphered text at a speed of three letters per second. To improve the operating comfort, the C-35 was connected to an electric typewriter, which the U.S. company Remington had just introduced. The C-35, as small as a telephone, became very successful. More than 5000 units were sold...". Hagelin in Switzerland, where in 1948 he founded Crypto AG in Zug, during the Cold War produced a ciphering unit, the TC-52, used for the red telephone line between the White House and Moscow).

The Hagelin machine was used on the side of the Allies in World War II. These included the Vatican, as well the governments of Iraq, Iran, and Libya. ... Acc. to: J. Orlin Grabbe - copyright in 1997 under J. Orlin Grabbe at web page: http://orlingrabbe.com. By Wayne Madsen, Covert Action Quarterly 63, 30 Jan 1999: "...For decades, the US has routinely intercepted and deciphered top secret encrypted messages of 120 countries. These nations had bought the world's most sophisticated and supposedly secure commercial encryption technology from Crypto AG, a Swiss company ... All the while, because of a secret agreement between the National Security Agency (NSA) and Crypto AG, they might as well have been hand delivering the message to Washington. ... The cover shielding the NSA-Crypto AG relationship was torn in March 1992...".
A. G. Damm edited the first a brochure in April 1917, he was the founder of the Company in 1916 (or 1915 by Boris Hagelin), with Wahlberg as the A. B. Cryptograph. See: General Cartier, Francois, Secrecy in Radiotelegraphy.

Estonians were also active on radio-intelligence before the Second World War. Olev Õun was a phenomenal decipherer, "...and had managed to break the latest code of the Red Army during the Polish campaign in September 1939. Unfortunately, no materials are available to support or argue the words of that high-ranking Finnish intelligence officer ... German military attache in Tallinn, Colonel Horst Rsing, evaluated the Estonian radio-intelligence against the Soviet Union as more successful than the Finnish one ... Andres Kalmus was a highly competent technical expert in radio intelligence, while Olev Õun was a talented Estonian cryptanalyst".
Arne Carl-August Beurling, b. 1905, was a Swedish mathematician and professor of mathematics at Uppsala University. "...In the summer of 1940 he single-handedly deciphered and reverse-engineered an early version of the Siemens and Halske T52 also known as the Geheimfernschreiber (secret teletypewriter) used by Nazi Germany in World War II for sending ciphered messages ... Beurling's great - grandfather was Per Henric Beurling b. 1758 / 1763, died in 1806, who founded a high quality clock factory in Stockholm in 1783". See: Lars Ulfving, The Geheimschreiber Secret. Arne Beurling and the success of Swedish signals intelligence, edited by Bo Hugemark, Probus Förlag, Stockholm 1992.
"...Swedish intelligence services in the modern sense of the word had indeed been already established in the beginning of this century. The armed forces intelligence service had increased in 1905, during the Union crises, and in the First World War. The General Staff and Naval Staff of that time both had their own signals intelligence and cryptographic units. ... The first successful attempts to break foreign cipher traffic were made in spring 1933, when they succeeded in breaking the cipher then used by the OGPU (later the KGB). These breaks into foreign military ciphers were probably the first to be made in Sweden after the First World War".

Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin b. 1892 in Adzhikent, the Elizavetpol province, now Azerbaijan, was Swedish entrepreneur, inventor of encryption devices. Developer electromechanical encryption units, (rotary machines) of Arvid Damm and mechanical cipher machines.

Founder of the Swiss company Crypto AG / Crypto A. G., which specializes in information and telecommunications security.
Above named the Elizavetpol Province / Yelizavetpol quberniya, and above Ganja / Gənce, 1804 to 1918 was called Yelizavetpol, 1935 renamed Kirovabads.
His father, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin worked as a manager in an oil company in Baku Nobel. 1899, Carl Hagelin was appointed director and moved with his family to St. Petersburg. 1915, Boris Caesar Wilhelm Hagelin began his career in Vasteras in the Swedish electrical company ASEA, supplier of equipment for the Nobels.

Being interested in the encryption business correspondence, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin and Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel were an investors of the AB Cryptograph Company, in the production cipher machines developed Arvid Damm, like a rotary machine Electrocryptograph B-1. Boris Hagelin in 1922 was appointed to represent their interests in the company. 1925 when Damme moved to Paris to collaborate with the telegraph companies (Breguet-Brown), Boris Hagelin headed the firm.
After the death of Arvid Damm in 1927 and the death of Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 died in 1932 - a nephew of Alfred Nobel, control of the company passed to Hagelin. In 1934, the French General Staff began to develop a pocket Hagelin cipher machine.

Acc. to: http://www.branobelhistory.com/ under copyright by The Centre for Business History in Stockholm and branobelhistory.com, we read:

"...Karl Wilhelm also known as Karl Vasilievitj Hagelin was born in St. Petersburg in 1860. His parents Wilhelm Hagelin (1828-1901) and Anna Lovisa Eriksdotter (1818–1870) ... In 1861, the family moved to the Volga where his father worked for a period as a second engineer on passenger boats and towboats. ... In autumn 1870, he started at the Givochini boarding school in Nizhny Novgorod ... In 1875, thanks to a recommendation from family friend A. I. Sandström, he was accepted into the design workshop at the shipbuilding factory belonging to D. P. Shipov in Kostroma. He received his first real assignment working on the designs for a motorboat, ... and two smaller steamers ... he was employed as a mechanic at the Kaukaz & Mercury shipping company in Astrakhan, where he worked on preparing boats ... he met two Swedes, N. Qvarnström and master mechanic Westvall, with whose recommendation he was able to secure employment as a mechanic in the instrument workshop at the Nobel paraffin factory in Baku. Hagelin’s first working day at Robert Nobel's factory was on 4 April 1879. ... During his initial period in Baku (1879-1883), Wilhelm ... assisted chemist E. Tell ... When engineer Alfred Törnqvist returned from his trip to the USA and started setting up a new paraffin factory, Hagelin was given a job as a draughtsman. ... he decided to apply to the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. In order to pass the entrance exams, he took private lessons from engineer A. B. Lambert in mathematics, physics and chemistry. After two years in Sweden, he wrote to Branobel's managing director, J.G. Crusell, explaining his desire to return to Russia and take up his position again. ... Ludvig Nobel invited Hagelin to St. Petersburg. Wilhelm was given a post in the technical laboratory where he experimented with chemical processes for production of light oil fractions. ... In 1891, he was first promoted to technical director and then office manager in Baku. ... In 1900, he was recalled to St. Petersburg to replace M. J. Belyamin as the company's chairman of the board ... In 1906, he was appointed Swedish consul general in St. Petersburg (1906-1911). ... In spring 1917, Hagelin travelled to Baku, continuing onboard the K.W. Hagelin motorboat to Astrakhan ... Wilhelm left Russia and spent a year abroad, but in July 1918 he was back for a shorter visit ... The remaining directors M. Belyamin, G. Nobel and A. Belonozhkin tried at numerous meetings to solve the burning issue of how the company's trading rights and authority could be protected. Hagelin's last attempt to enter Russia via Constantinople failed and on 3 July 1920 he was forced to return to Stockholm. ...

he, together with Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, joined the Aktiebolaget Cryptograph company under the management of Arvid Gerhard Damm (where Wilhelm's son, Boris Hagelin, also worked for a time).

In 1923, Karl Wilhelm Hagelin was elected as an honorary member of the Swedish Society of Engineers...".

Acc. to: Boris Hagelin, The Story of the Hagelin-Cryptos, Zug 1981.

Boris Hagelin was born in 1892, in Adschikent, a small summer resort. His father was a Swede, who had been born in St Petersburg in 1860. He was manager of the Nobel Company's oil fields in Baku. He had joined the company in 1879, director in 1899. Boris was living in St Petersburg 1899 to 1904. His first job, the supervision of the construction of an electric power station on one of the Nobel oil fields in Baku. Nobels had ordered the equipment from ASEA in Vastraos.
"...Emanuel Nobel was very generous towards me and financed the establishing of a small engineering office in Stockholm. During my stay in the USA I had acquired some inventions, which I developed which made me financially independent. The decisive turning point in my life came, however, when Emanuel Nobel entrusted me with the supervision of a small company which he had begun to finance in 1921 - the A.B. Cryptograph. This company was founded in 1915 with the objective to develop and manufacture ciphering machines invented by the Swedish engineer A. G. Damm. In 1925 I assumed the management of the company as well as the development of saleable products. This was a fascinating task although I did not have any knowledge of cryptography. Mr. A. G. Damm died in 1927. In 1932 the A. B. Cryptograph was liquidated and replaced by the A.B. Cryptoteknik. A.B. Cryptoteknik manufactured only mechanical and electro mechanical ciphering machines. After World War II the need for ciphered telegraph transmission became obvious. In order to be able to work without the interference of the Swedish Government - ciphering machines were at that time considered war material - I decided to move to Zug, Switzerland. I first collaborated with the Swiss inventor Dr. E. Gretener, but later established a small independent laboratory. CRYPTO AG was in corporated on May 13, 1952, and had at first just one employee. My Swedish activities were transferred to CRYPTO AG, and since the name 'Hagelin Cryptos' had already become well known before i World War II the enterprise grew so fast that in 1966 a new manufacturing and administration building was built in Zug - Steinhausen".
Damm also constructed purely mechanical machine which printed both the plaintext and the ciphertext. Four of these machines were sold to Japan. Finally Damm invented a system with rotors, i.e., alphabet permutating wheels. The best-known machine using rotors was the German ENIGMA.
Damm aimed to interest the large telegraph companies in his machine. After 1921, Damm's interests in cipher machines were concentrated in the field of radio telegraphy: Marconi, Telefunken, TSF and Western Union.

Piotr Wodziński, a year ago (2011, Merkuryusz), after reading the 'three very interesting books' published an article 'Not only Enigma', wrote Mariasz in March 2012 at http://mariasz.salon24.pl/397497.
"These books are: Chapman, 'Japan in Poland's Secret Neighbourhood War', Ken Kotani, 'Japanese Intelligence in World War II', McCay, Bengt Beckman, 'Swedish Signal Intelligence'.
The thing applies to the pre-war and wartime cooperation of the Japanese, Polish, Finnish, Estonian and Swedish intelligence. Directed against the Soviets. In this cooperation, information obtained from radio intelligence played a key role".
See: http://merkuryusz.com/nr_09.html - "...The secret protocol of the Ribbentrop - Molotov Pact and the Soviet preparations for the invasion were not - for the Polish secret services - any secret. Could not be. A specialized publications of Japan report that the imperial SIGNIT broken in June 1939, the 4-digit code of the Soviet army, 4 digit code of border guard and 3-digit code of Air Force. Soviets changed their Army codes after the Battle of Nomonhan ... as the Battle of Chalchyngol, after September 16 , 1939, implemented the new five-digit code OK40, which, however, already in September 1939 was broken by the Estonian secret services. ... the Polish radio-intelligence was a part of a very effective anti-Soviet network - exchange information on a mass scale with the services of the Japanese, Estonian, Finnish and Swedish ... What's more, our radio-intelligence was regarded as the best part of this network. This surely, we were learning Japanese ... (after September 1939 two of our cryptographers has been employed by the Japanese services and worked during the war in Tokyo). When the Swedes turned out about technical assistance to the Estonians, they directed their to our secret services, pointing that they are the most professional...".
See : http://konstantynowicz.info/17_wrzesnia_1939_agresja_sowiecka/tajny_zalacznik_pakt_ribbentrop_molotow_23_sierpnia_1939/index.html

Arvid Gerhard Damm d. 1927, was a Swedish engineer and inventor. He designed a number of cipher machines. Damm was originally a textile engineer, and worked as an engineering manager in a textile factory in Finland.

Edward Hugh Hebern b. 1869, was an early inventor of rotor machines, devices for encryption. Acc. to 'On the history of cryptography in Russia', by N. N. Tokareva, Sobolev Institute of Mathematics: P. L. Shilling, and V. I. Krivosh-Nemanich, were the first in cryptography and cryptanalysis in history of Russia.

Vladimir Ivanovich (Кривош-Неманич) Krivoch Niemanich / Nemanjic b. 1865, polyglot and cryptographer, thanks to the knowledge of many languages, was enrolled in the University of St. Petersburg in 1886, he studied at the Sorbonne, served as an interpreter for the Admiralty, was sent to Paris to study foreign experience in matters of censorship; until 1911 he worked in the Special Naval General Staff of the paperwork for the management agents; he became the first Russian cryptographer, learn more in France at that time; after the February Revolution in 1917 returned to St. Petersburg, makes notes for Lenin himself; Lenin ordered to enroll Krivoch Niemanich in the newly created People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, to translate (look for the Nieciejewski family from the Berezina parish); he was arrested on charges of bribery of nobles for missing abroad and spent six months in prison, but back to work as a translator for Military control - then known as intelligence and counterintelligence of Bolsheviks under the control of the former Tsarist General M. Bonch - Bruevich;
after the revolution, he collaborated with Soviet cryptographic service, was again arrested but next release and was working for a new counterintelligence; died 1942 in Ufa.



The main events in the history of the Russian telegraph:

W. Siemens established company 'Trading house of Siemens and Halske' in St. Petersburg for repair and construction empire Russian telegraphs, in 1853. 1870 the Russian army started building the military telegraph parks. 1877 telephones appears in Russia but in the Russian army experiments on telephone made in 1878. L. Dyuflon and Dizeren in St. Petersburg established the Electrotechnical workshop on 1892, June 27. On 1896, December 14, L. Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and A. V. Konstantinovich in St. Petersburg established The Factory of electromechanical structures when Tesla received a British patent on the design of the spark gap - rotating strap. 1898, K. F. Siemens, W. Siemens, A. V. Gvineria and A. Y. Rothstein in St. Petersburg established the Russian joint stock company of electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske'. 1899 were starting experiments on radio in Russian War Department. 1902 (1901), the Plant of electromechanical structures reorganized into a joint stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co', DECA. 1904, Captain 2nd Rank A. A. Remmert appointed head of business wireless telegraphy in the Marine Department. The Telefunken, JSC Russian Electrotechnical plants 'Siemens and Halske' and A. S. Popov agreed on the establishment in St. Petersburg 'Branch for wireless telegraphy system'. 1905, Naval Department made a contract with JSC Russian electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske' for delivery to the Navy 24 stations of the 'Telefunken'. Open the radio station in Revel, 1913. 1915, L. E. Gabrilovich established in Petrograd, the Universal Russian company of radio - telegraph, radio - telephone and electric devices (VRKR). 1916, stopped activity of JSC Russian electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske'. 1917 April, 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', DEKA, now as 'акционерное общество Заводов электромеханических сооружений'.

Acc. to: T. V. Alekseev, ed. 2010:
In the first of these stages, which lasted until the beginning of the 1890s, created small workshops for repair and installation works, as well as the production of simple parts. The priority of this case belonged to the German entrepreneur V. Siemens who in 1853 founded in the Russian capital firm called 'Trading House of Siemens and Halske' were performed under a government orders a series of telegraph lines. The Russian government to conclude a long-term contract with the company for the construction of new telegraph communication lines, and the company itself became known as a company for 'building and repairing the Imperial Russian Telegraph'. At the beginning of 1868 in private house on the 1st line of Vasilievsky island in St. Petersburg opened a mechanical workshop, for co-production of the telegraphs. Mechanic N. K. Geisler in 1874 in his apartment opened small electromechanical workshop; here was repairing telegraph 'Belle Black' and also master L. H. Josef in 1884 start to produce a small - wire switches. The second stage of the formation of the electrical industry in St. Petersburg was due to the introduction of the new customs tariff in 1891. First in a series of these enterprises, was 'Siemens and Halske'; N. K. Geisler in the mid of 1890s sets of commercial communication with the American company 'Western Electric' building in 1895 - 1896 in St. Petersburg a Branch of the Western Electric - telephone and telegraph plant. In 1896, a new venture 'electro-mechanical plant of N. K. Geisler and Co'; it was already employs 100 workers after a contract from January 5, 1897 between Geisler and the American company. In the capital of the Russian Empire there was 'a large triple enterprises': Siemens and Halske, Geisler and L. M. Erickson, determined by the position on the market of wired and later radio communications.

In November 1892 established 'general partnership' of the Dyuflon and Constantinovich to 'use of electricity and mechanics to industry, to the railway, military, naval and aeronautical affairs and the private use'.

Its founders became a Swiss citizen and Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and engineer A. V. Konstantynowicz, who acted as representatives of the interests of two French companies: Sotter, Harle and Co and (electrical machinery, dynamos, motors) 'E. Gabrielle and N. Angenolt' / 'Е. Габриель и Н. Ангенольт' (incandescent lamps). Production activities based in St. Petersburg workshop and imported from France.
At the end of 1895 on the island in St. Petersburg land has been purchased, on December 14, 1896 has opened a new plant, electromechanical plant of facilities. In 1897, for the purpose of capital expansion general partnership was converted into a limited partnership 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co'.
It should be noted that founded in 1899 'Telephone ... plant of K. Lorenz', proprietor was a German citizen O. V. Treplin. In 1900, the industrial crisis has pushed the idea of ​​corporatization and owners association like Dyuflon, Constantinovich and Co. In September 1901 the general meeting of shareholders of the new company, approved its name 'Joint Stock Company of Electromechanical installations', the former partnership of Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co, as well as the size of the authorized capital in the amount of 750 thousand rubles.

The cooperation 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company with security agencies, primarily by the Navy Ministry / the Ministry of the Sea, in terms of delivery of products for radio-military industry began in 1912

(General Jan Jacyna b. 1864, son of Alexander and Natalia nee Hejnarowicz, the College of Engineering at Kronstadt and the St. Petersburg Military Academy of Artillery, Major-General in 1911, married to Wiktoria Ossowiecki; he served in a "Main technical committee" of the Navy Ministry in St Petersburg since 1891; 1901 - 1917 member on "the board of directors of government armouries" of the Navy Ministry and next of the War and Navy Ministry in Petersburg; then he was near to problems of war industry in Russia, especially during the First world war; since 1915 he co-operated with "Military - industrial committee" composite of war industry's representatives.
Acc. to me, the cooperation 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company with the military intelligence and counter-intelligence security agencies, under the Ministry of the Sea / the Navy Ministry, had started before 1912 because the genealogy of the Konstantynowicz ancestry point out long and strong connections with the Imperial Russian Army and Russian military intelligence since the seventies of the nineteenth century and when they served in tsarist Georgia / Sakartvelo but especial at the turn of the 20th century - it was the tsarist military technology intelligence at the beginning of the 20th century; this connections fade away probably at the end of the 20th century?
Anyway it relate to Poland only, and not to our easterly neighbours, e.g. Russia and Belarus. This is exciting subject for our family and to historians for the sake of connections with a couple of intelligences, and also it's the example of a genealogical tree on which based the important military structure of communist Poland for 50 years. Very broad, general information on these reciprocal connections was published for the first time in 2003 at my websites after researches ongoing 10 years and it was possible just after complete destruction of previous political system. Particular families of our ancestry didn't know mutually each other and they didn't know general image of this military genealogy up to 1995 (in piece) / 2003 (better in detail). This strange configuration in the genealogy and surprising family relationships give evidence to military service of somebody from our Konstantynowicz family in Soviet Union),

and in June of this year also as a result of fire damage of electromechanical Plant company N. N. Glebov and Co, located in St. Petersburg, had started contracts with the Maritime Office on delivery of dynamos for radio stations. Shareholders decided not to rebuild the plant and the stock company transfered orders to the 'Electromechanical installations' - Duflon and Konstantynowicz. In the company of Glebov head of the test station was electrical engineer V. P. Vologdin. He signed in April 1912 contract with the captain of the port of Kronstadt to make a machine for high frequency power. After a fire at the plant Glebov, Vologdin passes in the 'AO electro-mechanical installations', where he became chief of the technical office. Since then, the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz transformed into a supplier of the main generators of naval power stations that immediately affected the results of its production and financial activities.
Besides, to expand the range of equipment for military radio, management begins with 1912 active search for foreign partners for the organization and production activities in this market. In July 1912 it acquired the right of representation of the French company 'Compagnie Generale Radiotelegraphique', CGR and offered military and maritime authorities a number of products of this company. On April 23, 1913 signed an agreement on cooperation with the French radio company 'Societe Francaise Radio-Electrique', SFR. 'AO Electromechanical structures' becomes 'the sole representative of this company to operate its wireless telegraphy apparatus produced in Russia', and in the same 1913 proceeds to own wireless telegraphy equipment workshops.
The Board of 'Electromechanical facilities', expand the range of equipment for military and naval authorities on the dynamo engines, dynamo - electric power and other equipment, in the spring of 1915 commissioned a new factory building. And in the summer of 1915 again petitioned to the mayor of Petrograd on the construction of two new buildings.

In 18th cent. we have the first connection of the Trubecki family to Glebov: mother of Nikolai Trubetskoy was Maria Yakovlevna Glebova.
In the 19th century the director of the Moscow branch of the Imperial Russian Musical Society, Prince Mikolaj / Nikolai Trubetskoy / Nikolaj Pietrovich duke Trubecki / Nikolai Petrovich Trubetskoy, with the first wife countess Liubov Vasilievna nee Orlov - Denisov, has a daughter Sofia Nikolajevna Trubeckaja married Glebov, she b. 04 November 1854 died 7 September 1936. Sophia married to Vladimir Glebov, the wedding was July 2 , 1878. Vladimir Glebov b. 1848 and died ca 1926; his father Pyotr Glebov 1813 - 1883 and grandfather Glebov Mikhail Petrovich 1789 - 1852; great-grandfather Pyotr Glebov born ca 1760 ?
The 'Glebov plant' really was the only Russian electromechanical company in Petersburg. Nikolai N. Glebov b. 1864 was owner. Nikolai Glebov b. at Mologa County, the Yaroslavl Province; a member of the State Council of the Russian Empire, a member of the Central Committee of the Constitutional Democratic Party, engineer, entrepreneur, organizer of power engineering and electrical companies; inventor. Friend of Shakhovskii and Vernadsky / В. И. Вернадски
(Konstantynowicz next of kin - see below).
His father Nicholas A. Glebov 1824 - 1869. His brother Andrei Glebov born 1858 married to daughter of Mikhail Kutuzov Musin-Pushkin. Above Nicholas A. Glebov / Nikolai A. Glebov was son of Andrei Glebov b. 1786 and a grandson of Nikolai Glebov b. 1755 who had brothers: Sergey Glebov, Pavel Glebov, Dmitry Glebov born in 1766; all they had father Nikolai Glebov born ca 1730? Varvara Nikolaevna nee Lodyzhensky 1838 - 1921, pianist, daughter of Nikolai Lodyzhensky, she was mother of Nikolai Glebov b. 1864. The elder brother Andrei Glebov 1858 - 1895 was engineer. Nikolai Glebov b. 1864 graduated from the St. Petersburg Institute of Communications in 1887, became a partner of his elder brother, graduated Electromechanical Institute in Paris, specializing in electrical engineering. Founded in 1904 an electrical company 'Glebov and Co.' in Petersburg and in Moscow. At this plant as head of a test station in 1907 worked V. P. Vologdin. In 1913 it was bought by Russian electrical corporation 'Dynamo' from Moscow. Nikolai Glebov was the owner of the electricity company 'Electron'.

On above Vernadsky:
Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky b. on February 28 / March 12, 1863, Saint Petersburg;
his mother, Anna Petrovna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Anna Konstantynowicz daughter of Piotr Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms, was a Polish noblewoman.
In the summer of 1917 came to his estate in Ukraine. The founder and first president on October 27, 1918 the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Was a professor and rector in 1920 - 1921 Tauride University in Simferopol. The Vernadsky family arrives in Petrograd and headed a radiochemical laboratory, but on July 14, 1921 Vernadsky / Wernadski was arrested and taken to jail; The next day, he was being accused of spying, Vernadsky was released. Karpinski and Oldenburg sent a telegram to Lenin and Lunacharsky, and after Semashko / Siemaszko, Kuzmin and Lenin ordered the release of Vernadsky. Vernadsky participated in the creation of the Radium Institute. 1922 to 1926 worked abroad in Prague and Paris at the Sorbonne, and Institute Curie, which investigated for a new radioactive element - return in 1926. In those days, many wondered - how he survived in the years of repression? In the summer of 1935 Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky went abroad to Carlsbad and he worked in Paris, London, Germany - met with her daughter Nina b. 1898 in marriage Toll, In the years of repression Vernadsky resigned from all administrative posts.
From 1927 until his death served as Director of the Biogeochemical Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In the summer of 1940 on the initiative of Vernadsky began research of uranium for a nuclear energy. Since the beginning of the war was evacuated to Kazakhstan.



The father of Baron Pavel L'vovitch von Schilling /
Schilling von Kannstadt / Schilling von Cannstatt
- Louis Joseph Ferdinand Schilling was a lieutenant or colonel in the Russian army. His sister married in 1780 by Christoph Count Benkendorf / Benckendorf / von Benckendorff. The grandfather, Karl Friedrich, Baron Schilling von Cannstatt.

Anna Juliane von Benckendorff (under copyright by geni.com, Freiin Schilling von Canstadt) b. ca 1746; her husband Christoph Ivanovich von Benckendorff b. 1749 and her sons: Alexander Konstantin Karl Wilhelm Christoph Christophorowich Graf von Benckendorff (b. 1781 / 1782 - died 1844, Russia's military commander, General of Cavalry, chief of police, Chief of III separation Office 1826 - 1844; brother of Constantine Benckendorff and Dorothea Lieven) and Konstantin Christophorowitsch Graf von Benckendorff b. 1785; and her granddaughter - Sophia von Benckendorff b. 1825; her father Karl Friedrich Freiherr Schilling von Canstadt b. 1697, and grandfather Ludwig Friedrich Freiherr Schilling von Canstadt b. 1654; her brother Ludwig Joseph Ferdinand Freiherr Schilling von Canstadt b. 1753, who has son Paul Ludwig Schilling von Canstadt b. 1786 - d. 1837 (Emperor Nicholas visited him to ask to see the telegraph experiments, he presented his telegraph in 1833 in Berlin; 1835, he again traveled to Western Europe).

In 1835, Baron Pavel L'vovitch von Schilling introduced his needle telegraph. "...In Germany and Russia, where in 1837 he had suggested concrete telegraphic transmission lines, his ideas were largely ignored" but Tsar Nicholas I decreed on 19 May 1837 the construction of a 30 km stretch of electrically operated telegraph line from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo, which was not realized because Schillings death.
History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives in Estonia: Saue, Ohtu, Harku, Nomme, Saku, Uksnurme, Lehola, Tallinn and the Harjumaa district: Troubetzkoy, Sedykh from Kazan, Gernet from Estonia. The Baltic German families in Estonia: Schilling von Cannstatt / Schilling von Canstatt /  Schilling von Canstadt, von Gernet, Rehbinder, Toll, Croy, Weiss.
Note at margin:
Schilling von Cannstatt / Schilling von Canstatt / Schilling von Canstadt: Julius Karl Otto Baron von Schilling b. 1831 in Orgena / Orina, Järva - Jaani - south-west of Rakvere, Järvamaa in Estonia; his wife Elsbeth von Benckendorff Lowenwolde born 1843 Varrangu - south-west of Rakvere, and her father was Gustav Hermann Christoph von Benckendorff b. 1815 in Gilsenhof / Kiltsi, Väike-Maarja vald - south of Rakvere, Lääne-Virumaa, Estland. Her grandfather Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff b. 1784 and great - grandfather Hermann Johann von Benckendorff b. 1751 from Wiborg (Viiburi, Выборг / Võborg, Viipuri, Viborg), Karjala-Soome / Karelia.

Georg Wolther Baron von Schilling b. 1834 in Orgena, Järva-Jaani, Estonia. The noble Schillings / Schilling family moved to Estonia / Estland from Courland (Kurland). Karl Gebhard von Schilling began his service in the Russian army, married to Helene Charlotte von Römer of Müüsleri / Seinigal and Orina / Orgena - 2 km north-east of Jarva-Jaani (Orina, Järva-Jaani vald / Ярва-Яаани, Ярвамаа, Эстония). See: http://www.balticconnections.net/ Müüsleri (Seinigal by German) is a village in the rural community Kareda - ca 80 km east-south of Saku, close to Jarva-Jaani.
Pauline Amalie Sophie von Schilling b. 1806 in Reval / Tallinn, Estland / Eesti, her mother Anna Juliane von Rosen b. 1770.

Johann von Benckendorff or Hans Ulrich Nathanael von Benckendorff, b. 1882 in Jendel (Jäneda - south-west of Rakvere, and south-east of Tallinn), Lääne-Virumaa, d. on April 19, 1919 in Jendel / Jäneda. He was son of Alexander Gustav Konstantin Benckendorff, from Jendel, by Henrik Manitski in 2012: b. 1846 in Warrang (Varangu - north of Rakvereca 18 km), Väike-Maarja vald. Died 1910 in above Jendel (Jäneda - ca 65 km east of Saku). Grandfather Gustav Hermann Christoph Benckendorff, b. 1815 in Gilsenhof / Kiltsi, Väike-Maarja vald; great-grandfather Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff b. 1784 in Gatchina, owner of Warrang / Varangu, Löwenwolde /Liigvalla and Jendel /Jäneda. Note:

Count Alexander von Benckendorff / Aleksandr Khristoforovich Benkendorf, b. 1781 or 1783, d. 1844, was a Russian Cavalry General and the head of the Gendarmes and the Secret Police in Imperial Russia. His brother Konstantin von Benkendorff was a general and diplomat, and his sister Dorothea von Lieven a socialite and political force in London and Paris. He was the first Chief of Gendarmes and Executive Director of the Third Section from 1826 to 1844. His family possesed Schloss Fall / Keila-Joa from 1827 or 1837 and in 1830s Meremőisa / Merremois / Meremoisa, close to Keila-Joa. His relatives: Gertrude Margaretha von Benckendorff nee Staël von Holstein, wife of Georg Christian Benckendorff and Otto Wilhelm von Essen. This Georg Christian von Benckendorff b. 1754 died 1790 in Hamina, Finland. He was son of Johann Michael Ivanovich von Benckendorff d. Reval, was born 1720 in Reval /Tallinn; and he was grandson of Johann IV von Benckendorff b. 1659 in Riga and d. 1727 Riga. Above Johann Michael Ivanovich von Benckendorff was father of Christoph Ivanovich von Benckendorff; Katharina Christina von Brevern; Hermann Johann von Benckendorff; Georg Christian von Benckendorff and Johann / Иван Иванович von Benckendorff, by Peter Trefilov in 2010. Johann Michael Ivanovich Benckendorf b. 1720 d. 1775, his parents: Johann Benckendorf b. April 26, 1659 d. June 17, 1727 and Clara von Schulz / von Schultz d. 1731. Above Johann Michael Ivanovich Benckendorf / Ivan Johann Benckendorf Ivanovich - Lieutenant-General, chief commandant of Revel, the grandfather of the famous A. H. Benckendorf. Born in 1720, he came from an old noble family of Franconia that in the XVI century moved to Livonia. Father of Christoph Ivanovich Benckendorff b. 1749
(father of Alexander Konstantin Karl Wilhelm Christoph Christophorowich von Benckendorff b. 1781
[his children: Anna Aleksandrovna von Benckendorff; Maria Aleksandrovna Wolkonski; Sophia; Anna - copyright by Peter Trefilov, Alla Povod and Henn Sarv];
Natalie Marie Elisabeth /Мария Христофоровна Schewitsch; Konstantin Christophorowitsch Benckendorff; Katharina Alexandra Dorothea /Дарья Христофоровна von Lieven);
Katharina Christina von Brevern; Hermann Johann Benckendorff
(father of Sophie Christina Gertrude von Helffreich; Katharina Juliane Dorothea Stael von Holstein; Paul Friedrich Benckendorff
[Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff / Павел Ермолаевич Бенкендорф b. 1784, born in Gilsenhof / Kiltsi of landlords Johann Hermann von Benckendorff and Christine Elisabeth von Brevern; in the Army in 1802, 1813 was elected by the Estonian Provincial Assembly; 1818 he was a member of the Estonian knighthood; 1833 - 1841 he became civilian governor of Estonia. Married 1805 Helene Dorothea Margarethe Elisabeth von Rehbinder 1788-1856; were born: Christiane Wilhelmine Sophie von Benckendorff (1806-1863), married Karl von Baranoff, Gustava Magdalena Marie von Benckendorff (1811-1892), married Otto Gustav von Lilienfeld, Gustav Hermann Christoph von Benckendorff (1815-1883), chief of the Estonian knighthood, Christoph Karl Gustav von Benckendorff (1817-1842), Gotthard Alexander Konstantin von Benckendorff (1819-1851). Above named Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff married Elisabeth von Rehbinder that is Dorothea Helene Margarethe Elisabeth Rehbinder was daughter of Gustav Wilhelm von Rehbinder and Sophie Christina von Rehbinder and granddaughter of Arend Wilhelm von Rehbinder, burial in Reval, b. 1638 - 1696, d. ca 1711; son of Wilhelm Christoph von Rehbinder, d. ca on September 28, 1703; son of Wilhelm von Rehbinder. Some details at margin: Johanna Sophie von Toll nee von Rehbinder 1740 - 1801, her father Otto Magnus von Rehbinder from Kockora / Kokora - 40 km north-east of Tartu / Dorpat, and her grandfather Arend Wilhelm von Rehbinder, and great-grandfather Wilhelm Christoph von Rehbinder b. ? - died ca 1703, her husband Christian Wilhelm von Toll, and her children: Johann Wilhelm Baron von Toll and Adolf Friedrich Baron von Toll. Von Toll family, the noble family of Baltic Germans, had the title of baron, from Reval now Tallinn in the province of Estonia (Эстония), Russian Empire and Dorpat now Tartu. The Toll family estate: 20 km south-west of Jarva-Jaani, Vodja is a village in Kareda Parish, north of Sargvere, and north-east of Sarevere; in Järva County, Estonia (Vodia / Veisenshtein / Wodja. Above Schilling von Cannstatt / Schilling von Canstatt / Schilling von Canstadt: Julius Karl Otto Baron von Schilling b. 1831 in Orgena / Orina, Järva - Jaani - south-west of Rakvere, Järvamaa in Estonia; his wife Elisabeth / Elsbeth von Benckendorff Lowenwolde born 1843 Varrangu - south-west of Rakvere, and her father was Gustav Hermann Christoph von Benckendorff b. 1815 in Gilsenhof / Kiltsi, Väike-Maarja vald - south of Rakvere, Lääne-Virumaa, Estland. Her grandfather Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff b. 1784 and great - grandfather Hermann Johann von Benckendorff b. 1751 from Wiborg (Viiburi, Выборг / Vőborg, Viipuri, Viborg), Karjala-Soome / Karelia. Gustav Hermann Christoph von Benckendorff (1815-1883), chief of the Estonian knighthood];
Theodor Benckendorff and Magdalena Elisabeth von Brümmer);
Georg Christian von Benckendorff
(father of Helene Margarethe Sophie; Katharina Margarethe Elisabeth / Kattinka; Marie Katharina / Maschinka)
and Johann /Иван Иванович von Benckendorff
(father of Pauline / Полина Ивановна Бенкендорф; Sophie / Софья Ивановна Хрущев; Aleksandr / Александр Иванович Benckendorff; Владимир Иванович Бенкендорф).
Eldest son of Johann Michael Ivanovich Benckendorf b. 1720: Christoph Ivanovich Benckendorff / Christopher Benckendorf Ivanovich 1749-1823 - General of Infantry, the military governor of Riga. From this son were born two sons, Alexander (cavalry general, a member of the State Council) and Constantine (Adjutant General), daughter Daria was married to a member of the Council of State H. A. Lieven. Above Benckendorf Ivan Ivanovich / Johann Michael 1720-1775 married Sophia Elizabeth nee Lowenstern, 1777 with the Court; from this marriage were born four sons, of whom the senior Christopher - entered military service in 1760, in 1762 was already an officer of the Count Chernyshev troops and took part in the final affairs of the Seven Years' War. His wife - Anna Juliana nee Baroness von Schilling Canstadt 1759 - ca 1830, she was a childhood friend of the Empress Maria Feodorovna; from this marriage were born two sons, Alexander (cavalry general, a member of the Council of State) and Constantine (Adjutant General), daughter Daria was married to a member of the Council of State H. A. Lieven.

Major-General of the gendarmerie
(counterintelligence and being the successor in office of Benkendorf; General Dubelt / Dubbelt, Staff Commander of the Corps of Gendarmes 1835-1856)
Leonti V. Dubbelt / von Dubelt was owner of the factory Kuvshinovo, Tver region; he enjoyed high confidence and patronage of the king. Von Dubelt, Leonti Vasilyevich / Leonti Wassiljewitsch Dubelt (b. 1792 died 1862), born into a family of Vasily Ivanovich Dubbelt by his wife - Mary Grigorievna Shperter vel Medina Celli, Princess;
his brother Peter, Colonel.
Von Dubelt is the German noble family from Livonia since the beginning of the 18th century.
Ivan Dubbelt entered the Russian service. His sons, Vasily and Mikhail Dubbelt.
Above Leonti V. Dubbelt married Anna Nikolaevna Persian nee Mordvinov in 1818.
In marriage, had two sons:
Nicholas / Nikolai (1819-1874)
and Michail / Michael (1822-1900).
Michael Leontievich Dubbelt or Dubelt was Lieutenant-General (1897). Dubbelt / Dubelt Michael or Michail Leontievich who was born February 8, 1822 in Kiev, Russian cavalry Major General, he was commandant of the Tiflis Alexandropol / Aleksandrapol fortress 1887-1890. His first wife Nataly / Natalia Puszkin / Natalja Aleksandrovna Pushkin since 1853, born May 23 / 4 Jun 1836 in St. Petersburg, was the daughter of Alexander Pushkin, poet. This son - M. Dubelt in 1860, lost above named Kuvshinovo factory in gambler to hands of Peter Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1826 died 1880, the leader of the provincial nobility.

Prince Troubetzkoy in 1869 sold it to Michael Gavrilovich Kuvshinov; his father Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804 and his grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy born 1760: daughter of Alexander Gruzinsky - Princess Darejan or Daria Aleksandrovna Gruzinskaya died 1796, was married to Prince Pyotr Sergeyevich Troubetzkoy / Piotr Sergiejevich Trubeckoj (1760-1817) with four children, including Sergei Petrovich Troubetzkoy (29 August 1790 - 22 November 1860) who was one of the organizers of the Decembrist movement and was a freemason.

Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin b. May 26 / 6 June 1799 in Moscow, Russian poet; his paternal grandfather, Leo / Lev A. Pushkin was artillery colonel; father - Sergei L. Pushkin (1767-1848), a Pushkin's mother was a granddaughter of Hannibal. Brother of the poet - Lew vel Lev born 1805.
Nikolai Leontievich / Nicholas (1819-1874) was also Lieutenant-General (1864), commander 1852 - 1856 Belarusian Hussar Regiment.
Brother of Leonti Vasilievich - Peter V. Dubbelt (born 1794 in Mogilev, Belarus now), the Adjutant in 1822-26 of General N. N. Rajewski.
A cousin of Leonti Vasilievich - Ivan M. Dubbelt (born 1805, Riga), served in the Estonian Jaeger Regiment, took part in suppressing the Polish uprising of 1863-64.
His son Evgenii / Eugene I. Dubbelt, served from 1861 in Tiflis / Tbilisi.
The Uzkoje  estate that was otherwise Uzkoje village, situated 15,5 km S-W-S of  Moscow core in  the suburbs of the capital i.e. 9 km from boundary of urban housing in 1917, and there are nowadays Litovskij bulvar Str. and Jasnogorskaja Str. near by Vitcevskij forest and also Tschertanovka river.



Boris Siemionovich Jacobi / Moritz Hermann von Jacobi b. 1801 died 1874, St. Petersburg, invented a number of instruments for measuring the electrical resistance - voltagometrom.
In 1895 Russian scientist Alexander Stepanovich Popov demonstrated the device, detector, which was designed to record radio waves generated by the storm front - first radio receiver suitable for the implementation of wireless telegraphy. In 1899, "Popov has designed an improved version of the receiver of electromagnetic waves, where the reception of signals - Morse code - was carried out on the headphones operator - radio operator".


Watch maker, William Brown was dad of Edward Brown (born abt 1829). He was a watch maker, too. William Brown b. ca 1800, acc. to me; here was mistake - 1819. Elizabeth Brown maybe was a wife.

On the Clerkenwell district in London:

Izydor Jakub Gudak / Isadore Jacob Gudak / Irving John Good / I. J. or Jack Good b. 1916, a British mathematician who worked as a cryptologist at Bletchley Park with Alan Turing; from a Polish-Jewish family in London. His father Mosheh Oyved / Morris Edward Good or Moshe Oved alias Edward Good b. in Poland in 1885 - 1958, was a watchmaker, artist, sculptor (also from Jacob Epstein and Ben Uri; friend of John Ringling), the owner of a jewelry shop (Cameo Corner in Museum Street near the British Museum; on cameos, antique watches and clocks; Jewish ritual objects), poet, Zionist and the founder of the Ben Uri Society / Ben Uri Gallery / Museum in London, a Yiddish writer, a dealer in antique jewellery. He learnt the trade of a watches ca 1900, but in 1902 or 1903 emigrated to England. Mother Sophia Polikoff. Mosheh Oved / Moshe Gudak in London set up an antique jewellery shop. Sophia Polikoff was born in Russia and came to London at age eight with her parents. Morris and Sophia met in London. The Cameo Corner was founded in 1908 in New Oxford Street (No 1, close to Kingsway Str., and ca 1700 meters to west-south-west of Clerkenwell in London, by the Theobalds Road to the west) by Moshe Oved and in 1939 moved to its permanent home in Museum Street, Bloomsbury (1200 to 1400 meters to the west of Clerkenwell). Cameo Corner was the principal centre for the sale of jewellery in London for the first half of the twentieth century.

On the other side of this mirror, in 1904 Sir Charles Hardinge, the British ambassador in St Petersburg, discovered that a servant had been offered 1000 pounds to steal the embassy's main cipher. And after 1917, the Okhrana became the first modern intelligence service to make one of its major prorities the theft of foreign ciphers. Dmitri Aleksandrovich Bystroletov, Hans or Andrei, born 1901, the son of a Kuban cossack mother and novelist Aleksei Tolstoy, conquest for the OGPU in Prague in 1927, a codenamed Laroche from the French embassy. Acc. to The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of ..., by Christopher Andrew, Vasili Mitrokhin.

In 1902, Vladimir Lenin moved the publication of the Iskra (Spark, issues 22 to 38) to London at 37a Clerkenwell Green. At that time Vladimir Lenin resided on Percy Circus, less than half a mile north of Clerkenwell Green. In 1903 the newspaper 'Iskra' / 'Iskry' was moved to Geneva.

In summer 1904 - Lenin and Krupskaya / Krupska left Geneva for longer holiday; Lenin and Krupskaya settled first in Lausanne, then changed it to Montreux in 1904 (Kropotkin, Konstantynowicz), the starting point of a multi-week trip to the mountains, chose the wildest trails, climbed into the wilderness, away from people; their journey was very interesting: from Montreux (with Clarens, here Konstantynowicz, Breguet, Rey, Duflon, Kropotkin, Bakst), Villeneuve, to Aigle - 11 km south of Villeneuve (Duflon), then tens of kilometers along the river Rhone (to south and south-east), stay in Loiche - les - Bains / Leukerbad - ca 29 / 34 km south-east of Gstaad, Saanen and Turbach (Fraucci or Frautchi - Artuzow), walk down through the Gemmipass - 28 km south-east of Gstaad, in the mountains of the Bernese canton - 30 to 40 km east of Saanen and Turbach (Frautchi), visit to the Jungfrau / Jungfraujoch - ca 55 to 60 km east of Saanen, again stay at Izentale (or Iseltwald) on Brienzersee - 60/70 km east-north of Saanen, next the way back into the Canton of Geneva (back home on west from Spiez, Saanen, Villeneuve, Montreux or from Chateau d'Oex, Montbovon, Les Avants to Montreux some on a railway; the railway from Montbovon to Chateau d'Oex opened on 19 August 1904 and then Gstaad since 20 December 1904), where before returning to Geneva, Lenin and Krupskaya lived in a guest house near lac de Bret (Lac de Bret, Puidoux, Suisse - close to Riex, Cully, 5 km north-east of Cully, ca 15 km east of Lausanne, and 9 km north-west of Vevey; see: Breguet and Duflon, Diserens) in company with Bogdanov; the walk had beneficent effect on Lenin; the nerves came back to normal. How long the journey took for Lenin? It can be answered accurately; their tour began in early July 1904 and lasted nearly two months. Montreux and Vevey nearby well known in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. Stayed here Tchaikovsky, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Gogol, Vyazemskij, Stravinsky, Diaghilev. Somewhere nearby, in the mountains, held secret meetings of Lenin in 1904 (mountains east of Montreux to Saanen).
Alyaksandr Malinovsky / Aliaksandr Alyaksandravіch Malіnoўskі / Alexander Alexandrovich Bogdanov / Malinowski / Werner / Maksimov, b. 1873 in Sokółka, Grodno Governorate, Russian Empire (now Poland), of Belarusian ethnicity, a doctor, economist, philosopher; 1901 to 1904 he lived in exile in Vologda, 1904 to 1907 he supported Lenin's Bolshevik fraction; during Lenin's Swiss exile between 1905 and 1907, Bogdanov was the representative of the Bolshevik Central Committee in Russia. Bogdanov and Lenin met in Switzerland in the summer of 1904 and entered into an alliance, to 1909. First wife - Natalia Bogdanovna nee Korsak 1865-1945, second wife - A. Smirnov. Sister Anna Lunacharsky (1884-1959) - writer and an interpreter, the first wife of A. V. Lunacharsky.

Lenin and Stalin met in London in the Crown and Anchor pub (The Crown Tavern, 50 m east of Lenin 'Iskra') in 1903. But at this time people from 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company and around the Armand family were involved in 'left' activity:
Nikolaj Romanowicz Brilling who elaborated aeroengine with two opposite pistons when acted as chief in DEKA factory (Duflon either Duflou or Dufflon & Konstantynowicz) in Zaporozhye 1916 - 1918; Brilling i.e. Briling, b. 1876, Russian and Soviet expert of aeroengines after completion of the Moscow Polytechnic, twice under arrest due to distribution of Lenin's 'Iskra', 1907 doctor in field of engines.
At least of 10 December 1908 Inessa Armand wanted to attend the First All-Russian Women's Congress in St Petersburg with her sister-in-law, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz / Константинович. Inessa / Инесса Елизавета Федоровна Арманд was lover of Lenin since 1909 or 1910, but according to 'Correspondence of Lenin and ... organizations. 1903-1905 years', Volume 3, the first book, we know that Lenin sent a cliche of 'Iskra' / 'Sparks' at Dyuflon / the Duflon office address in Yekaterinburg (p. 332, here also name of Konstantynowicz!) in 1903.

"Inessa Armand. Revolutionary and Feminist" by R. C. Elwood, p.74 - Inessa was on her honeymoon with Lenin who showed up in Copenhagen without his wife Krupska. Inessa spent the time with her sister-in-law Anna Konstantinovich / Константинович, whom she apparently visited in Leipzig during the month of August 1910. After the events in Prague in 1912 around Lenin gathered clouds. In Paris, he literally did not allow the passage of political opponents. And Ulyanov family moved to Krakow / Cracow. Inessa went from Paris to Krakow later and arrived there accompanied by his former pupil Георгий Сафаров / George Safarov. This young man, aged 21, was married and his wife was in good companionship with Inessa; history is silent why Valentina Safarova did not go with her husband in Krakow and stayed in Paris. Michael Pearson: Inessa favored men younger than herself, an allusion to Vladimir Armand; the fact was that at that time Lenin had problems with the publication of 'Pravda', edition which was in Russia; british explorer R. C. Elwood based on a detailed analysis of the text of messages from Inessa to Alexander writes that her husband at her request send Inessa three thousand rubles for the publication of this newspaper; the first issue of 'Pravda' was published May 5, 1912 with a resolution adopted at the Prague conference. But Lenin was not happy with the result. Newspaper editors did not want to obey him, some of Lenin's articles are generally not published and openly ignored the decision of the Prague Conference on the establishment of the Bolshevik Party.

The last of the Breguets, "... looked around for someone suitable to make a partner and continue the Firm after his time. He knew a first-class mechanician in Clerkenwell named Edward Brown, who was induced to go to Paris to look after the factory. Eventually he became a partner, and later the owner and the head of the Breguet Firm. Edward Brown died, aged 66, in 1895, and was succeeded by his two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired, ... 1920. Thus Monsieur Henry Brown became the Head of Breguet's Firm ... The general information I have gained by consulting certain books such as ... Mr. Hull, of the Firm of Messrs. Le Roy, in London, Mr. Henry Brown ... and his son, Mr. George Brown... Mr. Desoutter, of London, who has made a life- long study of Breguet's work...", acc. to THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES, ,BREGUET 1747 - 1823', BY SIR DAVID LIONEL SALOMONS.
The Brown family and others in Clerkenwell:
James Brown, at 24, Noble-street (south-east, ca 1200 m from Lenin 'Iskra'), Clerkenwell (Barbican) in 1828, and at 3, Newcastle place, Clerkenwell-close (900 m south of Lenin 'Iskra'). The Baume Brothers, Importers of Geneva Watches, at 9, Ashley street, Northampton square, Clerkenwell, and at Aux Bois, Canton of Berne, Switzerland. BROWN Sophia b. 1859 in Clerkenwell, London, parent James Brown.

Antoine-Louis Breguet drove the prestigious business into bankruptcy. "His son, Louis-Clement Breguet, eventually took over. He invented the first electric clocks but decided to leave and concentrate on electric telegraphs and telecommunications. The business was sold to the English watchmaker, Edward Brown".


In 1870 Louis Francois Clement Breguet transferred the leadership of the company to
Edward Brown; he collaborated with Heinrich Ruhmkorff, George Daniels and Professor Thomas Engel,
and he met
Alexander Graham Bell
and obtained a license to manufacture Bell telephones for the French market.

He had one son

Antoine b. 1851 and he was grandfather of

Louis Charles Breguet, aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer.

The great-grandson of Louis François Clément Breguet:
Louis Antoine b. 1851 d. 1882, was the last of the Breguet family to run the business.

So he took on noted English watchmaker Edward Brown of Clerkenwell to look after the Paris factory. London-born Edward Brown became the factory manager, his partner - 1870 - and, after Breguet's death, the owner and head of the company. His sons Edward and Henry Brown headed the firm into the 20th century. By Michael Weare at http://clicktempus.com/turning-points-in-time-breguet: under Brown and his descendants, Breguet remained a niche Parisian watchmaking boutique for the next century. Edward Brown died in 1895, and was succeeded by his

two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired in 1920.

Thus Henry Brown became the Head of Breguet's Firm. The watching making firm continues to market itself under the name of 'Breguet'. The electrical instrument business trades first under the name of

'Breguet fabricant' and from 1881 - 'Maison Breguet'. The Brown family owned the Breguet watch brand for 100 years, five years longer than the Breguets. The complicated watches were built by the

Joux Valley's leading watchmakers

including the Victorin Piguet workshops.

1881 'Maison Breguet' that is Maison Breguet SA was the name given to the Breguet family business after it had sold off to Edward Brown in 1870 and reorganized by 1881. It manufactured electrical instruments, telegraphs, telephones, and industrial engines. It continued to operate in Paris until 1898 when its factories were moved to an industrial area in northern France, acc. to http://dssmhi1.fas.harvard.edu/emuseumdev/
Address: 1881 at 81, boulevard Montparnasse in Paris, next at rue Didot in Paris, and after 1898 in Douai.
Louis Charles Bréguet, 1880 - 1955, was a famous French aviator, airplane designer, and industrialist, engineer, pilot, acc. to http://perso.wanadoo.fr. Louis Charles Breguet, his great-grandfather Abraham Louis Breguet. In 1905, Louis, his brother Jacques and Charles Robert Richet began construction of a gyroplane - prototype helicopter. 1907 the prototype made its first vertical take-off the pilot to a height of 50 cm. In 1905, he received an engineering degree, and the brothers began working in the family business for the production of electric motors and dynamos machines. Louis Clement decided to switch to the telegraph and communications.

Antoine Louis Breguet, Ecole Polytechnique, specialist of an electric motors, led the Breguet House, rue Didot; died very young, when Louis was only two years. Louis Breguet, an engineer at the Douai plant of Breguet House, interested in flying machines, assisted by Professor Charles Richet, a friend of his father, and by his brother Jacques, born in 1882; he went to work at the electrical engineering firm of his father, chief engineer of the Breguet House; in 1909, he learned to fly himself, acc. to: http://www.mae.ncsu.edu. In 1905 he was working gyroplane on a project.


Above named

Louis Charles Breguet b. 1880 in Paris died 1955,

was a French aircraft designer and builder, one of the early aviation pioneers. In 1902, Louis married Nelly Girardet, the daughter of

painter Eugene Girardet.

In 1905, with his brother Jacques, and Charles Richet, he began work on a

gyroplane / helicopter. In 1912, Breguet constructed his first hydroplane.
Louis-Clement's grandsons,

Louis and Jacques Breguet

were France's aircraft pioneers, from the 1917 'Breguet 14' fighter-bomber helped turn the tide of war on the western front. Louis Breguet was one of the co-founders of Air France in 1933.
Engineer Louis Franzevich Dyuflon / L. Duflon, a Swiss 'Breguet' Company representative (he was very young, only aged 23), was Stefan Drzewiecki friend (the Polish family from the Volhynia government), and circa 1884 was searching of the structure of a dromoskop. Dyuflon sometimes was invited to have breakfast with Drzewiecki. Drzewiecki (Drzewiecki Stephane lived after in France: 5, rue Gustave-Zede, Paris) occupied luxury apartment in the house No 6 at Admiralty Seaside. In the evenings, the usual Drzewiecki guests were brothers
Paul and Peter Solomonovich Martynov
(Lyubov Orlova-Denisova married to Nikolai Trubetskoy, she b. 1828, d. 1860. Her brother Fedor / Fiodor born 1802 or 1806 with wife from the

Nikitin family.

 Sister of above Lyubov nee Orlova-Denisova married Trubetskoy: Nadiezda / Nadjezda / Nadine Orlov-Denisov married to

Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin,

he born ? and died before 1868, Major-General, ataman Orenburg Cossacks - his parents: father Andrew / Andrej Katenin 'youngest' b. 1768 and d. 1835, wife -
Irina Lermontov. His grandfather Fedor Katenin and his great-grandfather Ivan Nikitich Katenin d. 4 December 1723. Mother of above named
Michail Andreevich Katenin - Irina Lermontov / Lermontow b. 1771 d. 1818. His brother Alexander A. Katenin, b. 1800 Kluseevo or Polovtsov in 1803 with wife Barbara I. Vadkovsky from Jan Wadkowski family. Above Michael / Michail Andreevich Katenin daughters: Mary or Maria
[Prince Nikolaoz / Nikolai Ilyich Gruzinski b. 7th August 1844, Governor of Vilno 1899 and Vice-Governor 1896 - 1899,

married in 1868 to Princess Maria Mikhailovna Katenin

- daughter of Colonel Mikhail Andreivitch Katenin, and Countess Nadejda Vasilievna, second daughter of General Count

Vasili Vasilievitch Orlov-Denissov.

He d. 1916, having two sons and four daughters: Prince Mikeli / Mikhail Nikolaievitch Gruzinski, b. 1886, a govt. official in Minsk in 1914, m. daughter of

Ivan Bzhozovskii / Jan Brzozowski;

Princess Mariami / Maria Nikolaievna, first wife of Andrei Alexeivitch Tregubov; Princess Nadina Nikolaievna / Nadejda Nikollaievna, married second time to

Lieutenant-General Alexei Mikhailovitch Kauffman, cdt. Grodno Hussars of the Guard, third son of General Mikhail Petrovitch Kauffmann, Engineer-General of Russia, d. at Warsaw, 30th October 1901;

Princess

Anastazia / Anastasia Nikolaievna Gruzinskaya,
1917 - she emigrated to Dvinsk / Daugavpils in Latvia,
where she participated in the Greek-Catholic movement
]
and Sofia d. 1908 married
Martynov. At margin: Martynov Dmitry M. born 1760 and his brother Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich b. 1774, d. 1839 or after 1840; a wife of above Martynov Solomon Mikhailovich: Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya / Elzbieta Tarnowska daughter of ?, Polish - but we know only Michal Tarnowski b. 1782 d. 1831 and his parents Jan Jacek Tarnowski b. 1729 and Rozalia Czacka - she b. 1783, d. 1851; her children: Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich 1815 / 1816 - 1875 / 1876 who in 1841 killed Lermontov in a duel, his family related to Kolirovsky and Romeiko - Hurko (Polish); Michael Solomonovich 1814-60;

Ekaterina Martynova Solomonovna

married Rzewska (Polish) / Rzhevskij Michal; Dmitry Martynov Solomonovich b. 1824 and died 1909; Elizabeth; Natalia b. 1819; Julia married Gagarin, b. 1821; also Pawel and Peter Solomonovich Martynov - friends of Stefan Drzewiecki, Polish nobleman but about Pawel and Peter no any inf.; above named Sofia d. 1908 and married ca 1880 to Viktor Martynov / Wiktor Martynow b. 1858 d. 1915 -

his father, Nikolai Martynov Solomonovich b. 1816

and his grandparents: Solomon M. Martinov and Elizabeth M. Tarnovskaya b. 1783)
,
engineer Breguet (Louis Antoine Breguet that is Antoine Breguet b. 1851 - died 1882, was engineer and his son

Louis Charles Breguet
b. 1880, d. 1955, was aircraft manufacturer

and was a French aircraft designer and builder, one of the early aviation pioneers who - in 1905, with his brother Jacques Breguet - began work on a

gyroplane, the forerunner of the helicopter,

with flexible wings - like Igor Sikorsky and prof. Bothezat; Jacques Bréguet that is probably Mr Breguet who was the

engineer of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', company representative, Swiss citizen and friend of Stefan Drzewiecki;

Louis and Jacques Breguet, of the famous clock- and watch-making family, were interested in aviation from an early age and on 19 September 1907, they, in cooperation with Professor Charles Richet, created the first helicopter
),

Dyuflon,

botanist professor Poiret / Poireau / Poirot,

K. E. Makovsky (Konstantin Yegorovich - that is son of Георгий or Юрий - Makovsky, b. Moscow in 1839 and died in Petrograd / St Petersburg on 30 Sept. 1915, painter, 1891 had become a member of the newly formed

'St Petersburg Society of Artists'
),

and the pretender to the Serbian throne, prince Karageorgievich, who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion (Arseny Karageorgievich b. 1859, d. 1938, who served until 1916 at the Russian military; the son of Serbian Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic and Princess Persia; was educated in Paris lycee and graduated from the 2nd Konstantinovskoye Military College in 1888; wife 1891/2 - 1896 of above Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich: Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev; her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; her grandfather

Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826, her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804;

her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817; her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731 died 1812
).

In 1892, Swiss citizen,

L. F. Dyuflon / Duflon built in St. Petersburg plant for the production of electrical equipment

and opened in St. Petersburg 'Electrical studio'. In the same year 1892 he concluded a cooperation agreement with Moscow businessman of the

Breguet Company branch

- A. Konstantinovich / Apollon (Apollo, Palemon, Apolon) Konstantynowicz /  Константинович son of Wasyl / Wasilij Константинович, the owner of the technical office
.

Together they take on more complex projects, and soon

the company taken the first military orders.

Since 1896 the enterprise was owned by trading house, after by co-operatives and in 1901 it was transformed into a corporation.

1895 

The third company in Russia in terms of the
electronic products supply. Created 8 June 1901 by converting the firm 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' (Дюфлон, Константинович и Ко., ДЕКА) based in 1892. Founded in 1893 as a factory of electrical installations by 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz / Константинович'.
Founders: Swiss citizen of French origin, Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon / Дюфлон, his Swiss friend
Yu Dizeren

(Jean Dizerens or Disserens / Diserens / diSerens from Switzerland; they were aristocrats who fled from Paris to Switzerland - Cully in Vaud, Lutry and Lousanne - during the Fr. Revolution, where they first settled in Lutry;

they were originally Italian noble family with last name diSerens or Diserens.
Also L'Abbaye, is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, town from where the Breguet family came to Paris; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne.

The Schaub family (see: Tallinn Volta, Urban, and loan bank in St Petersburg with the Nobels, near by the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Stock Society in Petersburg, Zaporoze and Moscow) in the Vaud province in Switzerland in 19th cent.: 1. Concise north-west shore of Lac de Neuchatel and south-west of Neuchatel, ca 15 km north of Démoret, Vaud, Suisse (2. Démoret, Vaud, Suisse is located 12 km north of Mouden); 3. Neuchatel. Key note!
Chavornay (Duflon) is 18 km west from Demoret (Schaub). L'Abbaye (Breguet) is ca 18 km west-south-west of Chavornay (Duflon).

The father of above Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon / Luis Edouard / Louis Eduard Anton Duflon / Lun Eduard Anton Duflon, who was born 1861, a Swiss citizen - was probably Francis Dyuflon / Frances Duflon / François Louis DUFLON b. approx. 1824 (1831 ?). His wife was Jeanne Louise Susanne CUÉNOUD born 1826; her next of kin from families: Mercanton, Jenny, Milliquet. Her parents: François-Louis CUÉNOUD and Jeanne-Françoise CHAMPRENAUD (Jeanne-Françoise CHAMPRENAUD b. 29.03.1792 in Grandvaux, the Vaud province in Suisse; died in 1864). Mother of Jeanne-Françoise CHAMPRENAUD: Jeanne-Louise RICCARD was born approx. 1757. Father of above Jeanne-Françoise CHAMPRENAUD: Jean Pierre Champrenaud. Father of above François-Louis CUÉNOUD: Jean David Cuenoud (Jean-David CUÉNOUD born 24.09.1774 in Grandvaux, Vaud province, Suisse and died on 13.02.1816 in Lutry, canton of Vaud, Suisse; maried to Jeanne Abetel on 14 August 1795 in Lausanne of Vaud province in Suisse).

Riex from Lutry 5 km distance only and east of Lausanne, 10 km.

Duflon, Marc born on 29 June 1913 in Chavornay, died 1980 (?) or 1989; Marc Duflon was studying a classic College of Montreux and in the gym. of Lausanne; he joined the Faculty of Theology; a parents of Marc Henri Duflon 1913-1989: Oscar Duflon 1888-1971 and Maria Décosterd 1886-1976 (more inf. by http://gw.geneanet.org/rchollet?lang=en&m=N&v=decosterd), grandparents: Jules Henri Duflon b. 1859 and Céline Chollet 1868-1909 (see: http://www.chollet.ch/Genealogy/index_E.html). His children: Jean Marc Duflon and Serge Duflon married to Meier, acc. to: http://gw.geneanet.org/. Chavornay is located ca 27 km north of Lausanne. Jules Henri Duflon b. 1859 or Henri DUFLON m. in 1888 to Céline CHOLLET. Céline CHOLLET b. 1868 in Cully, Vaud, (Cully, 9 km east of Lausanne / Lozanna) Suisse. Her mother Rose FOREL and father Samuel CHOLLET from Jean CHOLLET and Jeanne FAUQUEX, acc. to: http://www.gen-gen.ch/DUFLON-CHOLLET/Celine/1310990.

The Duflon family nest in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland is to the west of Lausanne: Aubonne and Morges, where Duflon family was living in the 17th cent. - 18 km west of Lausanne.

The DUFLON family 1745 - 1815 was living in Riex of the Vaud province / Vaud canton, Switzerland / Suisse.
CHAMPRENAUD in 1748 also was living in Riex, Switzerland / Suisse. Riex close to Lavaux in Switzerland. CHAMPRENAUD in 1822 was living in Villette close to Lutry, too.

CUÉNOUD in 1774 in Grandvaux close to Lutry and Riex.

Disserens / Diserens / diSerens from Switzerland in Cully in the Vaud province, Lutry and Lousanne.
Samples only on the Diserens and Monnet / Monet families in the Vaud canton: Pierre David Diserens b. 1712 in Lutry, Vaud, Switzerland; Louise Montet b. 1712 in Lutry, Vaud, Switzerland; Jean Louis Diserens b. 1735 in Vaud, Switzerland; 1734/35 Savigny, Vaud, Switzerland; Jean Francois Diserens b. 1737 in Vaud, baptism in Savigny, Vaud; Pierre Louis Diserens 1742 in Vaud, 1742 Savigny, Vaud, Switzerland; David Diserens b. 1745 in Vaud; Jeanne Louise Diserens baptism 1747 Savigny, Vaud, Switzerland; Jean Daniel Diserens b. 1750 in Lutry, Vaud, baptism Savigny, Vaud; Jeanne Marguerite Corday in Lutry, Vaud, m. 1792 in Savigny, Vaud, Switzerland; Jean Ethienne Francois Diserens baptism 1794 Savigny, Vaud, Switzerland; John David Diserens b. 1796 in Canton De Vaud, Switzerland. Savigny located 7 km north of Cully, and Lutry, north-east of Lausanne. Monnet Melanie in Lausanne now, MONNET GILBERT in MORGES, Monnet R. in Lausanne; Monnet Stéphane in Mi`ege; Monnet-Seitz in Pully, Vaud. Miege is a municipality in the district of Sierre in the canton of Valais in Switzerland, south-east of Saanen and east of Villeneuve. Pully in Vaud close to Lausanne and Lutry.

Marie Elisabeth DUFLON b. 1690 in Riex, District de Lavaux and married in 1714 in the Canton de Vaud. The Duflon surname has ancienne origin: de Fluvio. Surname DEMONTET dit TAVERNEY in 1646 was in Corsier sur Vevey of District de Vevey in Canton de Vaud. The DEMONTET family was near by DUFLON in 17th century. Barbara or Varvara Demonet or maybe DEMONTET from Vaud province was daughter of Carl de Monet's that is DEMONTET or Charles Demonets / Monnette or Demonsi.

Villette in the Vaud province. Cully is near to Riex. Villette or Lavaux close to Lutry and Cully. All on east of Lutry and east of Lausanne / Lozana. Vaud is the third largest of Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size. It located in the French-speaking western part of the country.
See http://www.gen-gen.ch/CUÉNOUD-CHAMPRENAUD/Jeanne-Fran%c3%a7oise/1232358)

and Moscow engineer A. V. Konstantynowicz / Константинович. In December 1895 they bought land in Lopukhinsky Park in St. Petersburg to build its own plant.
Lots of houses No 7 and 8 at Pavlov Street (Lopukhinsky road or lane Lopukhinsky in 1887 has got a common name, Lopukhinsky Street) in St Petersburg in 1895 bought L. F. Dyuflon / Duflon / Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon and his companions Y. K. Dizeren / Yu Dizeren and (inf. about first names, father's name of Apollo(n) Константинович and middle names need to be check, on Yu = Y. K., L. F. = Louis Edward, A. = A. V. / A. W.) A. V. (A. W.) Konstantynowicz / A. Konstantynowicz for the electrical company (since 1922 the Petrograd State Machine-Building Plant 'Electric'; in 1923, the factory designed the first Soviet welding generator).

The site houses No 9 and 12 Pavlov Street got the Prince of Oldenburg.

The house No 14 in 1909 - 1910: factory building for 'The Russian Society of the wireless telegraph and telephone', in 1923 created Central Radio Laboratory - here was located the center of the main domestic radio industry (L. Mandelstam, N. Papaleksi, D. Rozhanskii, V. P. Vologdin).

A note dated September 21, 1895 from the Ministry guarantees that the plant 'will be to have a free hand for quick ... execution of its most difficult and painstaking work...'.
Domestic firm 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' (Константинович) which was a representative of the French 'Sautter and Harle', under a contract of December 4, been making 11 sets of electric winches for battleship's elevators and to additional elevator for 'Rurik', winches ordered directly to firm 'Sautter and Harle' (the 'Rurik'-I keel was laid in the Baltic Works in St. Petersburg, May 19, 1890).
Fuller was an order given in March 1905 to the company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' immediately by 24 portable electric fans of 300 m / hr. 'Navarin' / Наварин, based on the British Trafalgar-class battleship, was built in St. Petersburg, 1889 to 1896;
in September 1893, as planned 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' factory was appointed date of move of 'Navarino' to Kronstadt for completion of equipment and accessories.
To build a 'Громобой' / 'Stormbreaker' ship in the new dock of the Baltic plant started on June 14, 1897, and on December 7 of that year this new cruiser called 'Gromoboi' was enrolled in the fleet; guns delivered from the Obukhov plant, and a winches from 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz company'.

1896
In December 1896 at Lopukhinsky Street in St Petersburg, now -
Copyright by http://rdp4v.livejournal.com/1449841.htmlAcademic Pavlov Street No 8, opened the first-born in St. Petersburg electrotechnical industry, the electromechanical plant facilities owned joint-stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' (Дюфлон, Константинович и Ко., ДЕКА), a large role in which played the French capital. The 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' office was situated at Aptekarski Ostrov in St Petersburg, now Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University is also located on the island. The Lopukhinsky road or lane Lopukhinsky in 1887 has got a common name, Lopukhinsky Street, also found writing Lapuhinskaya; lots of houses No 7 and 8 in 1895 bought the L. F. Dyuflon and his companions Y. K. Dizeren and A. Konstantynowicz / Константинович for the electrical company.  Alexander Stepanovich Popov, pioneer in the invention of the radio was associated Google map of old Duflon and Konstantinovich plant in St Petersburg at Medikov Street. Copyright by http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=576093&langid=5 with the island; on March 24, 1896, he demonstrated transmission of radio waves between different buildings in St Petersburg and he demonstrated ship-to-shore communication over a distance of 6 miles in 1898.
From the report of the Vologda city council member, F. N. Ovechkin, we know about question on the electric lighting in the city of Vologda in 1896 when the owners of the electromechanical plant of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', addressed to the Chief of the province a proposal to build in the city of Vologda electric lighting.
Nelly Bogorad in a newspaper 'The St. Petersburg Rush Hour' in 2002 was writing 'The Case Dyuflon will live': "In December last year the plant, 'Electric', the sources of which were enterprising Frenchman and a Pole, created in 1896 by joint-stock company 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', has got 105 years old. But the big date, ... at the company was not mentioned. ... It was the culmination of a period of confrontation of the two shareholder groups, each pursuing its own interests. ... Both groups of shareholders began buying shares in the factory ... in the course of privatization got a 60 % stake. ... Member of the Board of Directors of JSC 'Plant Electric' Andrey Stepanenko, representing a major shareholder, ... explained why he and his colleagues have undertaken to preserve the enterprise. ... As noted by Mr. Stepanenko, ... is not more than four years to modernize and reconstruct capital assets, depreciation is not less than 70 - 80 % ... and Mr. Stepanenko and his comrades are waiting for the expansion of welding equipment in the U.S., Germany, Sweden and Finland".

1897
Founders: Swiss citizen of French origin, Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon, his friend Swiss Yu Dizeren and Moscow engineer A. V. Konstantynowicz / Константинович. In December 1895 they bought land in Lopukhinsky Park in St. Petersburg to build its own plant with name 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz, Dizeren and Co'. In 1901 it was transformed into a corporation.
Service of lighting in Irkutsk proposed 'Erikson' and the firm 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz', the Russian electric company 'Union' and General Electric Company and other contractors but on December 10, 1901 City Council received an offer from the Universal Company.
The new plant, received the name 'Plant of the electromechanical Structures', was opened 14 December 1896.

At the beginning of 1897 the company was renamed in partnership, and in 1901 the plant has been transformed into joint-stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.' (DECA), with a capital of 750 thousand rubles.

1901 

The third company in Russia in terms of the
electronic products supply. Created 8 June 1901 by converting the firm 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' based in 1892. Founded in 1893 as a factory of electrical installations by 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz'.
Founders: Swiss citizen of French origin, Louis Edward Anton Dyuflon, his friend Swiss Yu Dizeren and Moscow engineer A. V. Konstantynowicz / Константинович. In December 1895 they bought land in Lopukhinsky Park in St. Petersburg to build its own plant.
The new plant, received the name 'Plant of the electromechanical Structures', was opened 14 December 1896.

At the beginning of 1897 the company was renamed in partnership, and in 1901 the plant has been transformed into joint-stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.' (DECA), with a capital of 750 thousand rubles.

DEKA founded in 1901 on 08 June, as the transformation of the company Duflon and Konstantinovich / Константинович, which was founded in 1892 by Luis Edouard son of Frances Duflon / Louis Eduard Anton Duflon son of Francis Dyuflon or Lun Eduard Anton  Duflon, born 1861, a Swiss citizen and Polish engineer - technologist Apollon W. Konstantinovich, the Russian citizen. In December 1895 they bought the land in Lopuchinski Park in St. Petersburg. This factory was opened December 14, 1896. At the beginning of 1897 the factory turned into the Association and soon the 'Deca' began to receive government contracts, in particular for electrical equipment for naval artillery.
Louis E. Dyuflon was graduated of Zurich Polytechnic and starting as an engineer at the factory of electrical products, he soon became the official representative of the French electrical company of Breguet / Brown in Russia, where he met with the engineer Apollo Konstantinovich / Константинович - a representative of the same company in Moscow. Edward Brown from London became a partner, and later the owner and the head of the Breguet Firm; Edward Brown died, aged 66, in 1895, and was succeeded by his two sons Edward and Henry, of whom Edward retired in 1920.

In 1901, the 'Deca' plant becomes a joint stock company DEKA. Capital 750 thousand rubles. In 1913 radio - agreement with French company SFR and it becomes a branch ot the SFR in Russia.

In the second half of 1901 Беклемишев, Михаил Николаевич / Beklemishev, Michael N. was sent to Paris for equipment to  Copyright by http://qrok.net/9442-podvodnyj-flot-rossii-chast-1.htmlRussian submarines with co-operation with Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company: a main engine - petrol four-cylinder engine of the Otto-Deyts 160 hp, it was enough fuel reserves to 30 hours. The motion of the water provided the electric motor of 70 hp and battery power capacity of 1900 Ah and were made ​​in Philadelphia, USA. Equipment ordered factory 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' from St. Petersburg. The submarine torpedo boat No 113 was built during the winter 1901 and summer 1902. However, the assembly of the battery to plant 'Dyuflon' delayed until late autumn, did not meet the contractual terms (accumulators and batteries were manufactured in 'Deka' plant after 1908); 1903 - it was finished making the submarine motor.

Above Беклемишев, Михаил Николаевич / Beklemishev, Michael N. was born on September 26, 1858 in the Alexinsky district of Tula province. 1879 graduated from the Technical College of the Navy Department, next taught at the School of Mine, graduated from the mechanical department of the Naval Academy. 1901 Горюнов Иван Семёнович / I. Goryunov, I. G. Bubnov and Beklemishev performed work on the development of mechanisms of weapons and electronics. Beklemishev was sent to the United States. In 1935 he was arrested by Soviets again and released. Gorjunov Ivan Semenovich b. 1869, scientist, naval military educator, designer of the mechanical part of the first Russian submarine 'Dolphin', Major-General. His son Nikolai Goryunov b. 1890, 1920-1927 the chief engineer of the ship's port of Sevastopol, was arrested in 1929 and executed in 1930.

Also tests of the Valentin Vologdin radio oscillator at the battleship 'Andrew' was successful; Marine Office was made an order for another twenty radio stations, which include a new power supply antennas. Order execution was entrusted to the plant by 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' for twenty ships. All of them are installed on warships of the Navy, have shown high efficiency.

1904 - 1907 
The beginning of a Duflon Company in Switzerland and France in 1904 (L. F. Dyuflon from 1908 resided in Switzerland). Within a few months in Russia and in
1901 / 1907 the beginning of the DEKA Joint Stock Society (Duflon,  Konstantynowicz & Company JSC). In this years a business started to operate in Aleksandrovsk / Zaporoze when DEKA JSC bought land in order to changeover of activity (see December 1915) in 1907 at address: Zaporozje, Motorostroitelej 15. On 15 November 1907 the City Council of Alexandrovsk allocated land for the construction of the brothers Moznaim / Moznaimov iron foundry and machine factory but this factory was bought by joint-stock company 'Deca' from Moznaimov in 1915 and reconstructed for the production of aircraft engines; today, the 'Motor Sich', one of the most famous in the global avia industry (the Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz Company manufactured Salmson engines, Gnome, Ron - a production under license and by 1917 the production of the engines in all Russia reached 700 per month; about 250 were collected from the western parts; the Decka Company began to produce engines in 1913). Until December 1915 it made agricultural machinery and tools to perform different machining, cast iron and copper.
 

The "Credit Lyonnais" Bank in Geneva has got records, assessments and accounts for the Swiss country with reference number DEEF 30136  relating to "Duflon, Konstantynowicz & Company", that is  "Company of the Electromechanical Factories of Constructions" called DEKA of 1904 - 1916; researched in 1921.

The DEKA Company produced agricultural machineries and tools, various machines, a cast iron; the factory in 1907 - 1911 (iron foundry) cast copper pieces and iron equipment. Ukraine organized a Celebration Committee in 2007 on the occasion of the one hundred anniversary of the "Motor Sich" CompanyDEKA Joint-Stock Company.

The joint stock Copyright by Moikrewni.pl. Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константинович details.company 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Polish and Lithuanian roots. Copyright by Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константиновичfrom St Petersburg and Moscow was co-property of our Mscislau branch of the male-line descendants of Dominik Konstantynowicz and our old ancestry:

Apollon (Apollo, Apellon) Wasylewicz Konstantynowicz / Константинович who b. ca 1862 - son of Wasilij Константинович / Wasyl Konstantynowicz who was born ca 1840. The wife of Apollon was Anna Armand, oldest - Anna nee Armand was born on 19 August 1866 in Moscow - daughter of Evgenii / Eugeniusz Armand - Eugene born about 1842.

Wasilij / Wasyl Constantinowitz / Konstantynowicz, was general of the Russian Army,
and Leon Bakst (1866 - 1924) is our far kinsman: his relatives, families  TretyakovBarsak, Klyachko and Manfred. His grandfather Baxter, probably English (mother side), acc. to http://www.leon-bakst.com/ - Collection Constantinowitz. Leon Bakst always lived with his family in St. Petersburg. Leon Bakst had two sisters, Sophia and Rose, and brother Isaiah.
April 28 in 1866 Leon Bakst was born in Grodno. His grandfather was a tailor in Paris and ca 1876 came to Russia, to St Petersburg. In 1878 Leon Bakst won a drawing contest at school and after he decid to leave college. When his grandfather died, his parents divorced. Kanaev, his friend, found him a job with Albert Benois, Alexandre Benois, K. Somov, W. Vroubel, D. Filosofov and his cousin S. Diaghilev. Alexandre Benois has friend - Count Benkendorf; Count put him in touch with Gran Duke Vladimir; Duke was President of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. 1903 Leon Bakst married L. Gricenko, widow of a painter, the daughter of P. Tretyakov. 1914 thanks to Count D. Benkendorf's support, Leon Bakst was elected as a member of the Academy of Fine Arts.

The Benois family (look above):
Evdokya Dmitrievna Horvath was born in St Petersburg in 1902, and married first in 1921 to Cecil Lewis, second time to Cedric Williams. Williams lived in Chelsea; she was the daughter of the military engineer General Dmitri Horvath, the second of six children of General Horvath and his wife Camilla Benois. Dmitri Horvath was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov, and was connected to the Baltic aristocracy through his mother, Baroness Maria Pilar von Pilchau. Camilla Benois, a member of a distinguished family of artists, sculptors, architects and musicians, was herself a talented artist and sang and played the piano. In 1902 Tsar Nicholas II had appointed General Horvath, his distant cousin, to be General Manager of the Chinese Eastern Railway and consul general in Harbin, Manchuria. Acc. to (Copyright in 2005) The Independent, by Ian Axford and Tamara Breus. Albert Nikolayevitch Benois / Альберт Николаевич Бенуа, b. 1852 was a Russian water-colorist. Albert was the elder son of architect Nicholas Benois. Albert's daughter Maria married the Russian composer, pianist and conductor, Nikolay Tcherepnin. Acc. to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Benois. Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois / Alexander Benois, b. 1870, Saint Petersburg, was an artist, art critic, historian, preservationist. Acc. to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre_Benois. His mother Camilla / Камилла Альбертовна Кавос, and then Бенуа, was the granddaughter of Catterino Cavos. His father was Nicholas Benois, a Russian architect. Benois's son, Nicola Benois / Nikolai Benois, born 1901. Alberto Giovanni Cavos was a director of the Venice theatre. His son Catterino Albertovich Cavos / Catarino Camillo Cavos b. 1775, settled in Russia in 1798, after the fall of the Republic of Venice and was an Italian composer. Acc. to http://www.rootschat.com/forum/. His son Alberto Cavos / Albert Katerinovich Kavos b. 1800, was a Russian-Italian architect. Alberto's children: Caesar Cavos, Constantin Cavos and Camilla Cavos b.1828, married Nicholas Leontievich Benois, children: Camilla Nikolaevena Benois b. 1849, married Mathew Edward Edwards, Ekaterina Nikolaevna Benois, Albert Nikolaevich Benois, Leon Benois, Nikolaj Nikolaevich Benois, Yulij, Louise, Alexander Benois - watercolour artist. Benois family was descended from French confectioner Louis Jules Benois, who came to Russia in 1794 during the French Revolution: Louis Jules Benois b.1770, married to Ekaterina Andreevna Groppe. Son: Nikolai Leontievich Benoi b. 1813. By williamscdr - Copyright, from www.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Was married to Camilla Albertnova Cavos b. 1827. Daughter: Camilla Nikolaevna Benois b. 1849 married Mathew Edward Edwards. Copyright by RootsChat.Com.

Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922; daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Katharina Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau / Kitty Ekaterina Nikolajevna Pilar von Pilchau
(see: http://www.geni.com/people/Magnus-Wilhelm-Pilar-von-Pilchau/ on Katharina Kitty / Ekaterina Nikolajevna / Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau nee Koudaschew / Кудашева, b. 1811, daughter of Николай Данилович князь Кудашев / Danilovitch Kudashev; she was wife of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Hermann Napoleon von Hoyningen-Huene; was mother of above Maria Pilar von Pilchau, Nikolai, Elisabeth Lizine Shuvalova, Theodor Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau; all copyright by Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina. Above Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of Ottilie Gustava von Lüder, Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau, acc. to: Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina. Above Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. Above Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734, was father of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau, Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau; was brother of Dorothea Charlotta Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau. Acc. to Peter Trefilov and Bernard von Schulmann);
wife of Leonid Nikolaevich Horvath / Леонид Николаевич Хорват; she was mother of Dmitri Horvath (was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov) / Дмитрий Леонидович, Владимир Леонидович Хорват, Екатерина Леонидовна Хорват, Любовь Леонидовна Хорват and Ольга Леонидовна Хорват; sister of Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau, Elisabeth Shuvalov, Theodor / Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau. All above acc. to Peter Trefilov on July 25, 2009, under copyright by geni.com.
See:
http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Pilar_von_Pilchau. Adolf Pilar von Pilchau: 1899 magistrate of Pärnu; he became a Viljandi church curator. In 1902 he became also an economic Livonia president. In 1905 the Livonia Council send Adolf Pilar von Pilchau to Petersburg to ask Emperor for help, on 14 December 1905 arrived in Tallinn; 1906 Pilar von Pilchau moved to Riga. 1908-1918 he was the marshal of the Livonian knighthood. In 1912 he was elected to the Baltic provinces of Russia as a representative member of the Supreme Council, to share life in Riga and St. Petersburg. In 1915 the Russian soldiers raided his house in Pärnu, destroyed furniture and broke the porcelain collection, by Rodzjanko. 1916 in Tartu, Riga. On February 28th 1917, was a small dinner party. Prince and Princess Kourakine, Countess Kotzebue - Pilar von Pilchau and her daughter, Baron and Baroness Schilling and some other guests were invited. Suddenly the kitchen was full of soldiers come to search the house. The Countess Kleinmichel has been arrested and taken to the Duma. Some of the newspapers have declared that the Countess was an intimate friend of Alexandra Feodorovna, but that is untrue. Madame Narishkine, nee Countess Toll, was arrested likewise, but after a conversation with Kerensky, she was set at liberty. On the Countess Kotzebue - Pilar von Pilchau: Paul Demetrius / Pavel Ewstafijewitsch Graf von Kotzebue, was father of Louise Christine von Rönne; Olga Anna Pauline von Rosen; Marie Agnes von Baggehufwudt and Alexandrine Mathilde / Alix Pilar von Pilchau. Above Alexandrine Mathilde (Alix) Pilar von Pilchau von Kotzebue daughter of Paul Demetrius von Kotzebue and Wilhelmine Elisabeth Gräfin von Kotzebue; she was wife of Theodor Kotzebue - Pilar von Pilchau and mother of Dmitri, Katharina (Karin) von Hoyningen-Huene and Alexandra Pilar von Pilchau. Sister of Olga Anna Pauline von Rosen. She was owner of Ravila / Meks / Mecks; Ravila Manor close to Kolu, ca 33 km south-east of Saku; also von Rosen, von Uexküll, von Detloff, von Manteuffel, Countess Alexandra Mathilde Kotzebue / Alexandra von Kotzebue - Pilar von Pilchau / Countess Alexandrine Mathilde Kotzebue-Pilar von Pilchau 1849 Reval - died 1943 in Schalkau, Wartheld. Above countess Olga Anna Pauline von Kotzebue of Kotzebue-von-Pilar-und-von-Pilchau, born 17 Nov 1842 in Tiflis, d. 1931 in Reval / Tallinn.

Ebba Emilie Pilar von Pilchau b. 1866, her parents: Olga Marie Emilie von Staal and Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilchau von Pilar. Above Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 in Padis / Padise, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland / Estonia and died in 1862, and grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 from Jöggis / Jõgisuu, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland). Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922; daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Katharina Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau / Kitty Ekaterina Nikolajevna Pilar von Pilchau. We know about Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia; his wife Aline Annette von Essen (was born 1847); his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 - 1862); grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau (1777 - 1847), great-grandfather Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau (1734 - 1801), from Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau (1709 - 1752).

Above Dmitry A. Benkendorf / Benkendorf, Dmitriy Alexandrovich / Mita, born 1845, died 1917 or 1919; in 1910 became chairman of Academy of Fine Arts. State Councillor; in 1882-94 Secretary of the Embassy in Berlin, and later a member of the Council of the Russian Bank for Foreign Trade, the 'Russian Society of Sea, River ... and warehouses', 1903 - the Mariupol Mining and Metallurgical Society; amateur painter, graphic artist. His brother, Alexander, 1848-1915, Lieutenant General.

Note on the family of Dmitry Benckendorf / Dmitriy Benkendorf (Mita) born in 1845. Benkendorf Dmitriy Alexandrovich nickname Mita, died 1917. His brother, Alexander Alexandrovich Benckendorf, 1848 - 1915, was lieutenant-general. We now check data on his father: 1. ? they were sons of Alexander Benckendorf (1819 - 1849), the Guard lieutenant. Portrait of Steuben. 2. or they were next of kin with the Nikolai Kropotkin: his brother Peter D. Kropotkin; from Peter / Pyotr Kropotkin, b. 1771 d. 1826 and Praskovja A. Gagarin b. 1770 d. 1850, were children: 1800 - Tatiana Kropotkin Musin-Pushkin, 1801 - Dmitry Petrovich Kropotkin, 1802 - Nicholas P. Kropotkin and 1805 - Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin died 1871 - father of famous theorist of anarchism. Near by to the Benkendorf family! Children of above named Dmitrij / Dmitry Kropotkin: 1826 Peter D. Kropotkin, 1830 Nikolai Kropotkin next of kin with Benkendorf and 1832 Ivan D. Kropotkin.

We remember about Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died in 1885, prominent physician in St. Petersburg, populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. to 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin; he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison; he died in prison at Kara; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz daughter of Jan / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz;
Wiktoria - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899/1900.

Prince Peter Kropotkin b. 1842, Moscow, died 1921; theorist of anarchism, a historian, from princes of Smolensk province, his father, Prince Alexei Petrovich Krapotkin (1805 - 1871), Major General, owned estates in the three provinces; his mother, Catherine N. Sulima was a direct descendant of Cossacks Ataman - Ivan Sulima. Above Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, b. 1805 and his father Pyotr Kropotkin b. 1771 and mother Praskovja A. Gagarin b. 1770.
Pyotr Kropotkin b. 1771, has father Nikolai Alexeyevich Kropotkin b. 1742 d. 1795,
and grandfather Alexey Kropotkin.

We back to the Benckendorf or Benkendorf family:
Alexander Benkendorf (1800 - 1873) in 1826, retired with the rank of lieutenant of the Guards, settled in Vinogradov, in 1859 bought the oil mines on the Apsheron Peninsula near Baku, founded the oil company 'Benckendorf', in 1865 he was in Moscow; his children:
a. Maria Benckendorf b. 1833 d. 1887 - her husband Nikolai Kropotkin b. 1830 and his brothers Peter D. Kropotkin 1826, and Ivan D. Kropotkin 1832; and her child Dmitri Kropotkin, b. 1857 d. 1902.
b. Above Alexander Benkendorf born 1800 d. 1873 (probably father of Dmitry Benckendorf / Dmitriy Benkendorf (Mita) born in 1845 that is Benkendorf Dmitriy Alexandrovich nickname Mita, died 1917 - you look on Bakst and Apollon Konstantynowicz). Father of Alexander: Ivan Benckendorf b. 1765 d. 1841, and grandfather: Johann Michael Ivan Benckendorf b. 1720 d. November 18, 1775, came from Johann Benckendorf b. April 26, 1659 d. June 17, 1727.
Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin b. 1805 died 1871 - father of famous theorist of anarchism Prince Peter Kropotkin b. 1842, Moscow, died 1921; theorist of anarchism. Near by to the Benkendorf family!

1924 Bakst meet Ida Rubinstein.
You can read 'Bakst and Benois: the Tobin wing', Marion Koogler, McNay, ed. by Art Museum, 1985. More at: http://search.getty.edu/gateway/. "Ballets Russes burst upon the Paris scene in 1909, introducing for the first time Russian dancers, choreographers, and designers to Continental audiences. Among Diaghilev's earliest collaborators were Leon Bakst and Alexandre Benois... The Tobin Collection contains some of the most important designs by Benois and Bakst... Goncharova, who lived in Moscow when she first met Diaghilev in 1913, represented a trend in Russian art that had developed in direct answer to the Eurocentric leanings that characterized Bakst's and Benois' designs", by Elaine Wolff, 2/26/2004, at http://www2.sacurrent.com/arts/. Copyright by 'San Antonio Current', SAN ANTONIO, TX.

Nephew of Leon Bakst that is son of his sister Rose Samuilovna Rosenberg / Samuel Rosenberg was born in Germany (Zakhar L. Manfred worked as a lawyer in St. Petersburg, during the Civil War was a teacher in the Saratov province, then in the Pskov province; Rosa Samuilovna Rosenberg - a translator, sister of the artist Leon Bakst, died in 1918) and Zachary Manfred, was historian Albert Z. Manfred (1906-1976) who born in St Petersburg (acc. to Eugene Konstantynowicz / Константинович - son of Apollon Konstantynowicz, Polish, and Anna Konstantynowicz / Константинович nee Armand, Polish roots - and his children living in Switzerland and Paris, France, that is grandchildren of Anna nee Armand, and great-grandchildren of Varvara Karlovna Demonsi / Demonets or DEMONTET; this Eugene Konstantynowicz, as a patient, was treated in Switzerland, there he became acquainted with Marusya, who cared for her uncle Leon Bakst, along with Sophia, Bertha, Paul and Emily). See: the Constantinowitz Museum in Meudon.
Meudon is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, in the département of Hauts-de-Seine. Chalais-Meudon was important in the pioneering of aviation, initially balloons and airships, but also the early powered craft (in 1880 Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs).
Klyachko, Maria Markovna (1895 - 1994), married name Constantinowitz / Marie Constantinowitz (1895 - 1994), daughter of Léon Bakst’s sister, Sophia Klyachko / Sophie nee Bakst (1869 - 1944). All information about Léon Bakst’s relatives are culled from 'My recollections of Uncle Lyova', the memoirs of Maria Klyachko-Constantinowitz and Manuscripts department, Tretyakov Gallery, fund 111, items 2632, 2636, and from Nikolai Constantinowitz, Irina Albertovna Manfred, Maria Markovna Klyachko who married a musician – a cello player Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinowitz (1890 - 1977). She met her future husband in Switzerland, when she was tending to the sick Bakst. Her two sons became architects - Nikolai and Pyotr Constantinowitz (Mikolaj Konstantynowicz and Piotr Konstantynowicz; but also is inf. about 3 children of Maria nee Klaczko / Maria Markovna Klyachko and Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinovich / Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz) and 'Collection of the Constantinowitz family' is in Paris (among correspondence of Howard D. Rothschild were letters of Constantinowitz Marie in 1976-1980; Howard Rothschild born 1907 and died 1989 in New York). Constantinowitz, Pyotr Yevgenievich (Kанстантинович / Kanstantinovich / Constantinowitz Pierre was born 1928 and address: Orée du Bois Brûlé, 78380 Bougival) and Constantinowitz Nikolai Yevgenievich (born 1931 - Nicolas, 45B Route des Gardes, Meudon). Constantinowitz, Yevgeny Apollonovich (Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz son of Apollon Konstantynowicz; born 1890 - died 1977) was a cello and piano player; he was receiving a treatment at the same resort as Bakst. And also we know about Carole Constantinowitz.
Pierre Constantinowitz, route de la Bourbonniere, Chailly en Gatinais and 13 rue des Pres Verdy, Sevres, France.

On 21st November 2013 any Russian host (© Copyright: Рене Мария Арманд, 2013 Свидетельство о публикации №213112100583) show to us at webpage http://www.proza.ru/2013/11/21/583 a research of Rene Marie Armand and we can read:
"...In 1918, as the head of mission of the Red Cross,
Inessa Armand was sent by Lenin to France in order to take out several thousand Russian soldiers
of an expeditionary corps. She was arrested by the French authorities, but released because of the threat of Lenin shoot for her the French mission in Moscow. Inessa was really part of a diplomatic mission to return to the Russia soldiers of expeditionary corps ... All three members (Dmitry Manuilsky and Jacques Davityan) of the mission really concluded under house arrest, ... and released after the Commissar for Foreign Affairs G. V. Chicherin (and not Lenin) gave France a message that French citizens in Russia could be arrested. ... I write about my great-aunt Inessa Teodorovna (patronymic Fedorovna - tribute Russian language) ... But how do you know the truth about Inese? Even in our family rarely talked about her... It was all about the conspiracy. ... Marietta Shahinian could not tell the whole truth about the relationship between the trinity Krupskaya, Lenin, Armand. ...
husband of Inna, daughter of Inessa Armand - Гуго Эберлейн / Hugo or Gugo Eberlein
and a husband of another daughter Varya - Yakov Romas / Яков Ромас. ... 'Inessa small' - so everyone called Inna, daughter of Inessa Armand and Alexander ... Sometimes in Riga, where we lived, came Варвара Александровна / Варя / Varya, the daughter of Inessa / Inez... she did not just have to go to France or Switzerland, to see mother, who was forced to live in exile. It was sure that Inessa came from a family of Protestants, and that her husband was a Catholic. ... Before the revolution the Armands had a house on the corner of the alley Granatny and Spiridonyevka, owned by husband of Inessa. And a country house - in the village Eldigino, near Pushkin, in thirties miles from Moscow. ... Inessa and her sister Renee were born in the family of an opera singer and actress Theodore Steffen and Natalie Wild. Inessa Elizabeth, the eldest, was born May 8, 1874 in Paris. His father died when a little girl grew up and she turned with his aunt in Moscow. Woman and her two orphans, gave music lessons and foreign languages, so there is nothing surprising in the fact that Inessa and Rene fluent in Russian. My grandmother Renee, sister Inez, until his death spoke in Russian with a strong accent. I kept the letters from her relatives, including from her sons. They are written in French, the native language of grandmother Renee. She studied music not in Moscow but in the Paris Higher National Conservatory of Music and Dance. ... in 1850, in the family of businessman Piter Wild / Peter Wild and his wife - the French, born daughter. Newborn named Natalie. Wilde / the Wilds were parishioners of the Church of England. ...their name sounded like Wilde. Natalie, has a pleasant and strong voice, decided to continue his musical education in Paris. Parents were unhappy, but his daughter still succeeded. Woman sent to the French capital, accompanied by Aunt Sophie / Zofia, the sister of her mother. In Paris, appeared her idol - Comedy Opera tenor, born in Lyon. Fans knew him under the name Pesce Erbanvil / Пёше Эрбанвиль. Singer was the son of the venerable French bourgeoisie, who were ashamed of relationship with the artist... The family has a birth certificate Renee Louise Justine Stephen / Рене Луиза Жюстины Стефан, my dear grandmother. ... Inessa Armand - daughter of British (?) opera singer Stephen Theodore (nee Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville) and French (?) actress Nathalie Wild, also an opera singer, and later a teacher of singing ... ... Wild Natalie was able to insist on his own. To marry, one of them had to change their faith. Theodore did that. On May 8, 1874 at 2:00 pm, in Paris, at number 63 at the Rue de la Chapelle born a girl that happy parents named Inez - Elizabeth / Inessa Elizabeth ... In the Anglican Church St. Mary the wife got a new document with the metric record of birth Inessa Elizabeth - May 8, 1874. ... Natalie and Theodore had been born next child - a daughter again. Her name Rene Justine Louise. Natalie gave birth of three daughters. The youngest, Anna, will be not just a rich man's wife, but also an aristocrat, and receive a Russian title of 'Her Excellency'. ...Tired of quarrels and lack of money, Natalie said 'yes' to the proposal of the relatives send to Moscow older girl. Six year old Ines, along with Aunt Sophie, who so shamefully failed chaperone role, went to Russia. Everything. With her father girl will never see. His mother and sister come to Moscow only ten years later, after the death of Theodore, who died at age 36. ...On October 3, 1893 the parish priest of St. Nicholas Church in the village near Moscow, Pushkino, father Ignatius Kazan made ​​wedding of a hereditary honorary citizen, Moscow guild merchant's son, Alexander Armand to a French citizen, young lady, the daughter of artist Inez Elizabeth Stephen, Anglican. ... now husband - the
eldest son of hereditary honorary citizen of Moscow: Евгении Евгеньевич Арманд / Yevgeny Armand (Trading House 'Armand and sons').
Family of millionaires. Several luxury houses in Moscow - the Old Square, in the Cash Lane on Arbat Street, on the corner Granatny to Spiridonyevka, on Vozdvizhenka. Forests under Pushkino, hunting grounds around Sergiev Posad, land near Ikshi. weaving and dyeing factories. ... Armand family was significantly higher in the material and social terms than the Wild family. Wild / Wilde were descended from a teacher from England, who arrived in Russia with the invitation of Count Vorontsov senior. The real name of them was Wilde / Уайльд, but in Russia it quickly rechristened to Wild. From my father, I have heard that one of Wilde worked for a time as a manager of Count Vorontsov, who was known to Anglomaniac. One of the descendants of the Wild amassed a sizable fortune, but his successors were less able to commerce... too much invested in real estate. Bought the land, but it did not bring quick money. Wilde conducted in the village of Pushkin, where rented a cottage next door to the house of Armand. ... Inessa first appeared in Moscow in 1880. ... Inessa when aged 17 years received a tutor diploma. However, all girls had such a document. The diploma of tutor had
Barbara Karlovna nee Demonet / Demonsi and all her daughters, girls from a family of millionaires.
And the last - Inessa Steffen not married to the son of E. I. Armand but on his grandson! ... According to one version, Paul Armand / Поль Арманд was a shoemaker who had fled to Russia from the French Revolution. According to another version, Paul died on a road and his son Alexander to get to Moscow. But it is necessary to go to the old German cemetery, were we find the grave of the first Armand who moved to Russia from France. ... Paul Armand 1760 - 1835, Marie Barbe Armand, nee Collignon 1774 - 1872, Jean-Louis Armand 1786 - 1855, Jeanne Angelique Armand 1765 - 1813, Paul Felix Armand, 06.06.1816 - 03.08.1817. The 29 year-old general Paul Armand came from Paris in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay / де Куртене. Armand was not married ... He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine. ... When Paul Armand married, he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was
trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.
No one yet suspects that family Armand and Demonet in the future intermarry. This will be the heyday of the Trade House 'Eugene Armand and his sons'. The first mention of Armand contained in the book 'History of the French colony in Moscow from 1812...' by F. Tasteven. Tasteven writes that the first Armande / Armand, who arrived in Moscow, lived in Lefortovo, then the Lubyanka. Found in the book a mention of Mr. Freda Wilde / Фридa Вильде, who lived in the early 19th century on the Arbat. They lived nearby Mademoiselle Richard, in future Madame Demons / Demonet. No one knows what the future of these three families intermarried. ... In 1812, were arrested Jean-Paul Armand and his wife Sabina, as well as members of families Demons / Demonet / Demontet and Wild. ... They have relied on weaving, building two factories in the village of Pushkino thirty miles from Moscow. ... one of the descendants of Paul Armand, Eugene Louis / Эжен Луи. He was a talented entrepreneur and intelligent man. Evgeny left a sizable fortune to his sons Eugene, Emil and Adolf. ... Eugene Louis (Louis Eugene or Луи Эжен / Евгений Иванов Арманд) became the first of Armand who strengthened the roots of the family tree in the Russian land. In 1864, having achieved considerable success in the development of the textile industry in Russia, received the prestigious international fairs of several gold medals, he petitioned the Emperor Alexander II on awarding him and
his wife (Maria Frantsova) and sons (Евгении-Франсуа / Evgenii-Francois, Адольф-Осип и Эмиль-Александр) the title of honorary citizens (April 1852).
... published this document, as well as the decree of the king... Armand were Catholics, parishioners of St. Louis church at Malaya Lubyanka in which building, together with other French settlers invested.
Eugene Louis was married in this church with a beautiful Polish - Maria Wilhelmina Pashkovskaya. Her father, Franciszek Paszkowski / Francis Paszkowski was a writer and military, during Napoleon's Italian campaign, he served as adjutant to Murat. ... Young Catholics family donated money and the Orthodox St. Nicholas Church in Pushkino.
When Armand moved to Orthodoxy, were baptized in this church grandchildren of Louis Eugene / Yevgeny Ivanovich. In the same church my grandmother Rene changed the Church of England to Orthodox in order to get married and named her Mary. But this name is never called, but gave it to her daughter (the couple had six children). ... Evgeny Armand, the eldest son, who worked in a textile factory as manager, after father's death led the family business. Evgeny married a girl from Demonets / Demonet / Demontet family, most of those family lived at the Kuznetsk bridge. Demonets have sent them son Charles (in Russia it was called Karl in German style) to study medicine, he became a prominent physician, professor of the Kharkov University. There, in Kharkov Carl and his wife, has child, Barb, in Russian - Varvara Karlovna. Marrying Eugene Armand, she gave birth to eleven children who safely reached maturity. ... For the Orthodox communion Inessa took its second name - Elizabeth. Now, according to the documents became Elizabeth Armand. Renee Louise Justine, which in the family simply called Rene. She graduated in Paris College of Music. Parisienne recently arrived in Russia had difficulties with the Russian language, which almost did not know. Therefore, in the family Armand, where the native language was still French, she immediately felt at home. ... After the wedding, Evgenii / Evgeny bought the estate near Pushkino for the two eldest sons. Alexander received the village Eldigino, Nicholas and Renee - Aleshino village, just five miles one from another. After the wedding term Inessa first child was born. He was named after his father. After Alexander Alexandrovich was born Fyodor / Fedor - Theodore. In memory of her father. After just a year and a half was born a girl. She received her mother's name. At first her family called 'Inessa small'. The next child was the Varia, named after her grandmother, Barbara Karlovna Demonets Armand. ...
In April 1897, were arrested three young men from the family Armand: Leo Emilevich, Boris, a student at Moscow University, and Евгений Евгеньевич Каммер / Evgeny Kammer, a student at Moscow Technical School and relative of Armand. Kammer older sister Mary was married to Sergei Yevgenyevich Armand, and brother had lived in Pushkin with his family. Armand's relative hired a tutor to younger children. It was in the room of Kammer gendarmes found illegal warehouse printed and manuscript editions for screen printing machine, many ready stencils, paint, stacks of writing paper. ...
Alexander E. Armand was busy from morning till night. In addition to managing the factories, it duties as a member of the Moscow City Duma, Zemstvo Assembly, a member of the Special Committee on charity beggars. Inessa decided to engage in charity. She began to visit homes in Eldigino and workers in Pushkin. ... She talked about her endeavor only to Anna his sister-in-law. Anna Armand married a Pole by the name of Konstantynowicz. Her husband Apollo, engineer, represented the interests of Russia in a major French company of Breguet for the production and trade of electromechanical structures. With his father-in-law Evgeny / Evgenii Evgenievich Armand, he was linked not only by family, but also in business relationships. He become the Chairman of the Board of JSC 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', as the head of the family clan and Alexander E., husband of Inez, was also elected one of the directors. In the same company acted Lyudvigovich Emmanuel Nobel, nephew of Alfred Nobel, who instituted a unique prize. While husbands are engaged in business, their wives are actively discussing ways to improve public life. Relatives friends began appearing at the family table... Semenovykh-Prozorovsky, Armand Maria Nikolaevna, who had married a son of the chief architect of Moscow... There is a curious picture, made ​​in 1906. At the head of the table - one of the sisters whose face is not visible. The right hand of her father - Evgeny Evgenievich, near Renee, then Inessa with Andriusha kneeling, opposite - Vladimir, and near the samovar - Anna Evgenievna Konstantynowicz. Old photo conveys a friendly family atmosphere. Of the six members of the family who were peacefully drinking tea and smiling to each other, three - revolutionaries. Inessa, Volodya, Anna ... Anna Konstantynowicz, heiress of her husband, who died in 1902, go abroad, where she became friends with the first social democratic circles, and then, following the example of Inessa, will join the Bolsheviks.

Most of his fortune she will donate to the party funds, and together with Lenin, Krupskaya, Inessa and other Bolsheviks back in the famous sealed train to Russia.

This group of people go down in history as a gang of villains who interrupted Russia's path to prosperity. But how can these people suspected of criminal intent to destroy the country?
Inessa and Anna Konstantynowicz, Alexander, Boris, Vladimir Armand who participated in the revolutionary movement, could continue measured life. But they did not allow a conscience.
... the family, who tried to reorganize society. ... loved aunt Inessa, Aunt Anna, and was genuinely happy when they returned from a long exile. Abroad will be only adult son of Anna Konstantynowicz and Apollo, and it is the only branch of the family Armand, which again take root in their historic homeland, France. All others (??) remain in Russia and share unhappiness people. ... Alexander E. wife released without scandal and even the parents explained everything. Couple immediately went to the Cote d'Azur in Nice. One could only imagine the feelings of parents and the whole family. Volodya was the youngest and most beloved son. Inessa was beloved daughter...".
Copyright by http://www.leon-bakst.com/php/famille.php?lang=ru
Inessa Armand born in Paris on 8th May, 1874. Name variations: Ines Stéphane / Eлизавета Фёдоровна / Ines Elisabeth Stephane / Elise / Elisabeth / Elisaveta / Стеффeн / Steffen / Comrade Inessa and Elena Blonina. Born Elizabeth Stephane, was daughter of Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville and Nathalie Wild; married Alexander Armand, Oct 3, 1893.

Alexandre Dumas points to Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux and Ernest Duchatelet were involved in political trials at the time but the person who shot Alfred Galois (a duel) was by the initials L. D., a member of the Society of Friends of the People (La Societe des Amis du Peuple, in France created in 1830, fighting for a republic and for political enlightenment of progressive workers. After the 1833 trial, the society ceased to exist, acc. to 2010 The Gale Group, Inc).
And after - when she was only five - Elizabeth Stephane or Ines / Inessa was brought up by an aunt - new governess and grandmother living in Moscow - around 1880. Anna Asknazi vel Askenazy was friend of Inessa Armand in Moscow of 1909 and also doctor N. N. Pechkin, Boris Armand, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Константинович who helped out financially, Natalia Emil'evna, the twin Brilling brothers-in-law, Alexander Armand.
At the age of eighteen she married
Alexander Armand, the son of Evgenii Armand, a successful textile manufacturer in Pushkino near by Moscow. At the age of 19 she knew only two languages until as adult she learned German and Polish.

Who was Inessa Armand? "Date of birth: May 8th 1874, according to Eglish Wiki, and April 26th 1874 – to Russian. Her father, a singer, is described almost identically everywhere, but her mother, Nathalie Wild, is called simply 'a comedian' in English Wiki, a 'half-French, half-English Jewish actress' in Russian. Other Russian-language sources mention only that her parents were 'actors', another one informs us that, possibly, her parents were not officially married at the time of her birth...".

Now few details about life of Inessa Armand. Source: http://creakypavillion.wordpress.com/.
Date of birth: May 8th 1874 or April 26th 1874. Her father, a singer, and her mother,
Nathalie Wild, a comedian or half-French, half-English Jewish actress. Inessa's mother, Natalie Wild, also came from a French family that had settled in Moscow, although her roots was from Franche-Comte of France. Her father was a language teacher, and the Wilds naturally came to know the Armands. Natalie back from Moscow to live with a French, Theodore Stephane, and Ines / Inessa had been born in Paris 1874, as the eldest of three girls, born four months before her parents were married. In Pushkino, the Wilds had friends.
In 1879 her father's contract with the Grand-Theatre in Lyons ended. The notices of his performances in such operas as The Thief of Baghdad, Rigoletto, and even Faust were often good. They returned to Paris, where he rejoined the Théâtre de la Gaietie, but the marriage with Natalie had become troubled, and they parted, leaving Natalie, pregnant. Natalie's mother and her sister, Sophie, visited Paris in 1879, probably to help Natalie. They took Inessa back with them to Moscow. Sophie was a tutor to various Moscow families, possibly at times to the Armands as a governess, and she and her mother educated Inessa at home. Inessa's father, by his death certificate, lived on, for six years - to 1885 - after she had left Paris in 1879. In 1889 doesn't mention her sister, Inessa appeared in Russia again.
Inessa had moved to Moscow with family and she moved directly into house of her future husband, Alexander Armand, because her aunt was employed there. In 1891, when Inessa was seventeen, her grandmother died, and mother Natalie brought her other two daughters to Russia to live in the Moscow apartment, probably near Kouznietsky-Most.
She and her sister played pianoforte; her aunt provided all her schooling and she received perfect education in Paris ? and Moscow. "Some say her aunt was forced to become a teacher to provide for her nieces", and she didn’t have a place for them to stay. Inessa and Renee just visited Armands and were acquainted with this family; next Inessa, also was a governess in Armand family.
Inessa had married when she was 19 in 1893 in Moscow. She married Alexander and her sister married into Armand family, with Boris or Nicolas. Inessa forced Alexander to marry her. Together with husband they opened a school for peasant children. She used her husband’s money for charity for prostitutes. She falls in love with his younger brother Vladimir, leaves Alexander. She never married Vladimir becasue she never formally divorced Alexander.
She became a member of a bolshevik organisation in 1904 or in 1903! In 1908 she jumped bail which her first husband Alexander paid for her, about 5000 rubles, and left Russia illegally. She joined Vladimir in Switzerland.

She met Lenin in Paris or she met him in Brussels!
Inessa Armand was to become Lenin's lover, but without her marriage and husband, she might never have been to meet Lenin.

The Armand family home was extraordinary. Originally four separate houses. Alexander's father, Eugene-Evgenii Evgenevich Armand lived with his two brothers, Emil and Adolf. Alexander's ancestor Paul was killed and Paul's son, Ivan, started a wine-import business. It was Ivan's son, the first Eugene, who founded the Armand fortunes. Alexander's father, also named Eugene, was converting from the Roman Catholic faith to Russian Orthodoxy, and Alexander, like most of his brothers and sisters, was Orthodoxy.

At least of 10 December 1908 Inessa Armand wanted to attend the First All-Russian Women's Congress in St Petersburg with her sister-in-law, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz / Константинович. Inessa was lover of Lenin since 1909 or 1910, but according to 'Correspondence of Lenin and ... organizations. 1903-1905 years', Volume 3, the first book, we know that Lenin sent a cliche of 'Iskra' / 'Sparks' at Dyuflon address in Yekaterinburg (p. 332, here also name of Konstantynowicz!) in 1903. "Inessa Armand. Revolutionary and Feminist" by R. C. Elwood, p.74 - Inessa was on her honeymoon with Lenin who showed up in Copenhagen without his wife Krupskaia.
Inessa spent the time with her sister-in-law Anna Konstantinovich / Константинович, whom she apparently visited in Leipzig during the month of August 1910. Inessa and Anna would finish the summer by attending the Conference of Socialist Women in Copenhagen. Inessa very likely was accompanied by her sister-in-law Anna Konstantinovich, rather than by Lenin during the days of the 1910 congress. On Sunday 28 August 1910 after the Women's Conference had closed, Inessa and perhaps Anna Konstantinovich attended the opening ceremonies of the Eighth Congress of the Second International using two guest tickets obtained for Armand by Lenin in Copenhagen, according to P. P. Bulanov, Moscov 1925, 75.
In 1911 Armand became secretary for the Committee of Foreign Organisations established to coordinate all Bolshevik groups in Western Europe.

Dr. Edward Reilly from Australia when was visiting Marijampole, Lithuania, in Oct. 2003, had seen the grave of Lenin's (??) son, Guards Captain Andrej Armand, who fell in Oct. 1944 as the front Lenin, Anna Konstantynowicz / Константинович and Inessa Armand in train from Switzerland, Germany, Sweden to Finland, April 1917. Copyright by http://www.pseudology.org/Bank/PlombVagon85.htm pushed towards Prussia. 


When Lenin was writing to Inessa Armand to Moscow by 16 February 1920, asked her about any products which were sent to Konstantynowicz (according to 'Lenin in his life. ...' by Е. Н. Guslarov; address of Inessa: Nieglinnaja street, house 9, flat No 6; s. 226). 

Anna Konstantynowicz, Lenin Ulyanov and Inessa / Ines Armand in a sealed train, April 1917 The coup d'etat by Lenin in 1917 Lenin and his money

The Armand noble family

Paul Armand was born probably in 1770, acc. to unpublished memoirs of David L. Armand. Paul Armand with wife Angelica daughter of Charles (1765 in Alsatia - 1813 in Moscow) and with 14-year-old son, Jean (Jean / Ivan / Jean-Louis Armand born 1786 or 1798 - died 1855 in Moscowwent to Moscow in 1812, when Napoleon was in Moscow but this family has appeared in Russia at the end of the XVIII century, an escape from the terror of the French RevolutionWhen Napoleon had to withdraw, Paul had no choice to withdraw together with the French army (author Svetlana Alexandrovna Krylatov, a descendant of the family Kurtener, during a meeting of the descendants of the merchant families in the former Merchants Club in Malaya Dmitrovka in 1990). Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan and his first wife Elizabeth Osipovna (born 1788, died 1817) called Sabina, and the second wife was Marie Barbe, born Kolinon (1780 - 1872) who had a daughter Sophia, later married a Swede from Estonia (or Latvia - the Livland government), Jozef Hacker / Joseph Hakker / Osip Hecke / Hekke.

Samples:
Hacker / Hakker / Häcker, Wilhelm Ferdinand, born in 1774, d. Riga 27. 11. 1842; his sons: 1. Ferdinand Eduard Hacker, Dorpat 4. 11. 1812, d. Riga 1877, m. in Lübeck in 1835 to Friederike Hernquist; 2. Woldemar Magnus Hacker, Riga 27. 10. 1818, d. 1888, m. in Riga 1851 to Juliane Georgine Mittmann, second married to Carolina Meyenn; his sons: 1. Julius Hacker (1852-1896), 2. Wilhelm Woldemar Hacker b. Riga in 1859, m. in Riga in 1900 to Erna Burkhard; son: Fritz Woldemar Jacob Hacker born in Riga 1903.

The COLLIGNON family in France was living in Lorraine 1835 (Meuse), Ile-de-France 1725, and in Russia 1858, in St Petersburg: Charles Collignon, engineer; Édouard Collignon - after graduating from the l'École polytechnique in 1849, in 1857 to 1862 he played an important role in the construction of railways from Saint Petersburg to Warsaw. Marie Barbe COLLIGNON (b. ca 1804 in Mercy-le-Haut, died 12 July 1883 in Tucquegnieux), married to Louis FLOSSE, born 10 April 1800, her father Joseph COLLIGNON b. 1774 in Mercy-le-Haut - his parents Nicolas COLLIGNON and Anne HURLAUX. François Collignon b. 1673, his father Hubert Collignon; Nicolas Collignon was son of above Francois; Nicolas Collignon b. 1723, his son Nicolas Collignon 2nd b. 1752, granddaughter Marie Barbe Collignon (b. 1786, d. 1831 and completely different person then above Marie b. ca 1804) - her husband François Navel.
Sabine father has name Evgen the 'first'.

Sophia was the daughter of Ivan from his second marriage and was born c. 1830, she was granddaughter of Paul that is Pavel. She married a Swede - Joseph Hekke (Hacker or Hakker) about 1850. No data about this Swede (from Eesti / Estland / Estonia). From this marriage was the oldest Maria Osipovna that is daughter of Osip / Joseph. She was born about 1851. The second child was 12 years later, and was born about 1863 - Sophia Osipovna. And about 1864 Alexandr son. When their parents died c. 1866, a guardian was appointed - uncle Evgeny 'second' Armand. He put children in his office in the Old Square and Evgeny hired a governess for the children about 1867.

In the second half of the 19th century lived with the Armand family a governess, girls Inessa and Rene Stefan, both were married to two brothers Armand, Alexander and Nicholas. Inessa Fedorovna in 1903, leaving her husband, lived with his brother Volodya and after escaping from exile in 1909, Inessa Fedorovna went to Switzerland, where she was waiting for Vladimir / Volodya.  Alexander went to Belgium, graduated on engineer to manage a factory of his father. After collectivization in 1930 he appealed to Alechinsky farm and lived until 1943.

Maria Osipovna was a musician and student of Nicholas Rubinstein (Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein b. 1835 and was a Russian pianist, the younger brother of Anton Rubinstein; with Nikolai Pietrovich Trubetskoy / Prince Nikolai Petrovitch Troubetzkoy born 1828 died 1900, was the founder of the Moscow Conservatory). Sophia, daughter of Joseph was graduated from high school. Amateurishly painted. She was  in love with the youngest of the cousins ​​- Emil, third son of Eugene / Evgeny and soon married about 1883. The Catholic Church blessed the couple. Alexandr son of Joseph, wanted to become a monk, but he went to the army, and eventually became a police officer. 


Evgeny Armand Ivanovich / 
Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand
Evgeny Armand Ivanovich / Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan and his first wife Elizabeth; was married to a Polish woman, Catholic - Mary Frantsevna Pashkovskaya / Maria Paszkowski (Пашковские) daughter of Franciszek.

She was born
1819 and died 1901


and was
highly educated, c. 1840 studied painting in France; she was a woman of strong and humble disposition.

Eugene Louis was married with a beautiful Polish - Maria Wilhelmina Pashkovskaya. Her father, Franciszek Paszkowski / Francis Paszkowski was a writer and military, during Napoleon's Italian campaign, he served as adjutant to Murat. ... Young Catholics family donated money the Orthodox St. Nicholas Church in Pushkino.
When Armand moved to Orthodoxy, grandchildren of Louis Eugene / Yevgeny Ivanovich were baptized in this church.

Maria had a tender heart. In contrast to the position of her husband, his wife was educated, and drew quite well, in France she drew the ruins of castles and really liked them; Evgeny built in a park such ruins.  

She was daughter of
general Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski
with the Zadora coat of arms
who was born 12 October 1778 in Brody - d. 11 March 1856 in Cracow, friend of general Tadeusz Kosciuszko.

It's amazing that the October Revolution in 1917, which swept the Russian Empire, allowing the reconstruction of Poland, broke out just on the anniversary of the death of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, exactly the 100th anniversary of his death, and around Lenin appeared figures of the Polish nobility, which adopted a sense of the Kosciuszko Polish patriotism.
"Instead, after the fall of Napoleon's empire in 1815 he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I in Braunau. In return for his prospective services, Kosciuszko demanded social reforms and territorial gains for Poland, which he wished to reach as far as the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east".

On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.
Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.
The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities. This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland. Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state. Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed. Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.

And now we look at the text below written in January 2014. Bogdan Konstantynowicz, the author of this website believes that we can already, after a quarter-century of research on my genealogy, give to my readers to analyse and rethink, a few comments on the role of our family Konstantynowicz and the Polish-French family Armand from Moscow, in the deep structures of political intelligence of Tsarist Russia and in the strategic network of Russia's technology military intelligence and then even of the Soviet Union.

This is the text for further discussion.

Approximately one hundred years infiltrating of the military intelligence of Tsarist Russia by Polish agents in the years around 1814 - about 1922, brought unprecedented positive effect - Polish independence in 1918. But the Polish country was destroyed completely after the events of 1939, and above all after the creation of the Soviet protectorate in 1944/1945. Jozef Pilsudski served for the military Austro - Hungarian intelligence, rose to the rank of brigadier general there / Brigadier. So he took advantage from the Germans and Austrians structure worked out into Tsarist Russia, which created artificial figures in the revolutionary socialist movement: Trubeckoj Nestor, Peter Kropotkin, Lenin Ulyanov, as well as in Russian networks of the military and industrial structures of the second half of the 19th century: electricity, telegraph, ciphers, decryption, generators, radio lamps, lighting lamps, aircraft, aircraft engines and vehicles, magneto for engines, new types of steel, electrical cables, airships, cars, radio, then television and soviet nuclear industry. At the same time, the French military intelligence expanded in Russia, by the old French families, and others: English, Polish and Georgian in Moscow and St. Petersburg. The network intelligence gone back to the Napoleonic times and the Italian Legions. Through these Cracow networks have developed for a family Trubeckoj, Kalinowski, Oginski, Konstantynowicz, Paszkowski, Armand, Demontet, Duflon, Rey, Diserens. Russian military intelligence and counterintelligence created by Baltic German families from Latvia and Estonia, went back as far to families: Schilling, Benkendorf, Dubbelt, Rosenberg, Gernet, Rehbinder, Rosen, and next a military intelligence network reached Georgia and Svaneti - Racha: Japaridze, Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Maipariani - full this system took over the Pilsudski movement from the top, among others by family Konstantynowicz from Miezonka, Moscow, Tallinn and Viljandi.

The great importance in this system of underground operation had Armand family from Moscow, next of kin with the Wild, Demontet, a Georgian families, Konstantynowicz and Paszkowski. Therefore they were relatives of Trubecki, Siedych, Rosenberg, Armand, Manfred, and had a Georgians family: Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Japaridze and Maipariani. The Russian counterintelligence climb on this system. Now appeared Spychalski family, Jaroszewicz, Zarako Zarakowski, Swierczewski, Żymierski. On the margin remained Malkiewicz and Horodecki, Szostak and Zbieranowski and Andrzejak of Lodz and many others from Estonia, Latvia, Georgia, Belarus and Russia, and Finland, and of course in Sweden: Nobel, Damm, Hagelin, Hakker. With the intelligence system Austro-Hungarian Empire and Tsarist Russia fully used the Jozef Pilsudski, in order to rebuild Polish state. Took over the structure in Lodz, Krakow, St. Petersburg, in Belarus and Moscow. Inesse Armand and Anna Konstantynowicz were planted to Lenin, not counting other Armands.

Pilsudski always spoke he has got a few or a dozen years to build and re-build the independent Polish state, because then Russia raise with knees.
It was surely Stalin who idolized the Russian imperial state. However, it succeeded smash Russia in the 1917 - 1922 and rebuild Poland in 1918.

Dominik Paszkowski
born 1783 in Brody, the Lwow province; his father Jan Paszkowski was born c. 1750 and has got the Zadora coat of arms; married c. 1770 / 1777 and Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski, general, was
his first son.

Franciszek Paszkowski, in September 1800, was assigned to the Italian Legion. He served mainly for the staff of General Wielhorski. Attached to Gen. Lapoype and served his aide; in December 1801, Paszkowski wanted to emigree to the United States. In 1801 he met Tadeusz Kosciuszko. For the next three years Paszkowski was at his side, raising considerations of the Head. He collected the materials for a biography on Kosciuszko. 1804 to 1805 Franciszek Paszkowski spent in Chalons-sur-Marne. In view of the preparations for war with Austria was reactivated on the staff of the reserve cavalry of Joachim Murat as a translator and manager (by Wężyk, was adjutant of Murat). Did not lose contact with Kosciuszko. During the War of the Third Coalition Paszkowski distinguished himself at the Battle of Austerlitz, also participated in the campaign of 1806, in November 1806, together with Murat came to Warsaw. Prince Jozef Poniatowski in December 1807, promoted Paszkowski to Colonel and Chief of Staff of the Legion, and during the General Stanislaw Fiszer stay in Paris, he served as Chief of the General Staff. March 1807, one of the adjutant of Frederick Augustus Duke of Warsaw, was awarded the Military Cross Polish (Military Virtue). 1809, participated in the battle of Zamosc; after in Krakow. In May 1812 he was promoted to brigadier general. General F. M. Paszkowski was living in Tonie located north-west of Cracow, close to Bronowice Wielkie. Among prominent holders of Tonie were: Bernard Wapowski, Sierakowski rector of the Cathedral of Wawel, after his death in 1806 village became the property of the Austrian state, since 1820, Tonie leased General Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski, followed by his nephew (Franciszek Paszkowski born 26 March 1818 in Warsaw, Member of the National Parliament of Galicia, son of Dominic Paszkowski (1783-1866) and Anna Niemojewski d. 1872, brother of Joseph Edmund Paszkowski, studied painting at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts, studied painting in Düsseldorf, in Dresden and Rome; after uncle General Francis Maximilian Paszkowski was owner of Tonie). Lucjan Rydel in the years 1901-1912 lived here with the family, and Tetmajer. Francis Paszkowski born 27 September 1853 in Warsaw, lawyer and Member of Parliament of Galicia, was the son of Joseph Edmund and Seweryna nee Stompf, brother of Leon, in 1883, published the memoirs of Kosciuszko, the next owner of Tonie.


His family:
colonel Jozef Paszkowski 1787 - 1858.


Franciszek Paszkowski
(Franciszek Jozef Wladyslaw Paszkowski) was born 1818 and died 1883, painter - who was studied painting in Rome 1839, acc. to J. Pachonski, and after was living in Cracow; here was member of the Science Cracow Association since 1848 - after 1873; his father Dominik Paszkowski was born 1783 in Brody and was brother of general Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski (b. 1778).
Jan, the grandfather of above named Franciszek - painter was living in Brody and was born circa 1750.
Father of Franciszek - Dominik Paszkowski (at a portrait) and brother (at a portrait) Jozef Edmund Paszkowski. The same Jozef Edmund Paszkowski b. 1817 and died 1861, poet and translator.

Franciszek was a nephew of general Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski b. 1778 and the nephew of Wojciech Paszkowski, who was member of the independent authorities of Galicia in 1809; also he was the uncle of Franciszek Paszkowski, lawyer, b. 1853 died 1926.

Józef Franciszek Daniel Paszkowski (?= Jozef Edmund Paszkowski)
with coat of arms of Zadora was born 3 January 1817 in Warsaw and
died 1861 in Warsaw, too;

son of Dominik Paszkowski (father was born 1783 in Brody); he was related with Stompf family, the Lasocki from Lasocin with coat of arms of Dolega,  Kulikowski, Niemojewski, Gzowski families, his son Leon Ignacy Józef Paszkowski was related with Niemojewski and Falkiewicz.
Addition: Michal Paszkowski colonel of militia, died after 1819.

Maria Paszkowska that is Paszkovski has got

three sons: Eugene / Eugeniusz the 'third', Adolph / Adolf and Emilie that is Emil Armand / Aрманд (
Eugene born about 1842, Adolph b. circa 1845 and Emilie / Emil about 1847).

All the sons had taken the house close to Pushkino factory c. 1875. T
he elder son, Eugene / Evgeny was a merchant of the first guild and trading - manufacturing advisor. His wife,
Barbara Karlovna Demonets
had 12 children,

all the sons were married and all the daughters married: it was told about
 39 grandchildren Eugene and Barbara Karlovna (all
42 cousins). His wife, Barbara Karlovna  - a woman of extraordinary kindness and care, shelter under his wing all.

On the Saparov family: among others Tatela, Kalabekov,
Sofia Paat d. 1866 from Estonia / Estland (connections to the Paats' / Paats / Päts / Paat family in the Parnumaa / Parnu district; Paats' family moved to Asuncion, Paraguay in 1894; Jaan Paats b. 1861 in Mooste, Põlva kihelkond, Võrumaa - his father Jakob Paats b. 1833 and grandfather Peeter Paats),
Markaryan, Mary Mirimanov, Vakhtang Jalalov, Sergei Teimurazovich Melik-Beglyarov d. 1905, Varvara Maypariani, Alexander Florensky (1850-1908), Tabriz, Nikolai Romanovich Karamyan d. 1930, Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, Leo Emilevich Armand (Inessa Armand - the wife of his cousin) - Leo Emilevich Armand that is his father Emily E. / Эмилий Евгеньевич and Евгений Евгеньевич / Evgeny, father in law of Inessa Armand - were brothers; in Riga one of the descendants of this family is living. Any details: Saparov Pavel Gerasimov (1820 - 1878), was married to Sophia Paat (d. 1866), children: Saparova Anna born before 1845, Saparov Gerasimos 1845 - 1869, Saparova Elizabeth 1854? - 1919 was married to Sergei Teimurazovich Melik-Beglarov d. 1905 and
Saparov Arkady 1854 - before 1921, was married to Varvara Maypariani:
children - Saparova Elena Arkadevna,
Saparova Tamara Arkadevna (b. ca 1880?) was married 1st to Ivan Iaparidze son of Constantine Japaridze / Constantin Japaridze (b. ca 1860) from the upper Racha region of Georgia (sister Agrippina, Countess von Zarnekau (b. 1855) nee Agrippina Constantines Japaridze / აგრაფინა ჯაფარიძე, გრაფინია ფონ ზარნეკაუ and parents Constantine and Melania Japaridze; father Constantine died 1860) that is Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and 2nd marriage to Leo Emilievich Armand (b. 1880) - Inessa Armand - the wife of his cousin;
Saparova Nina Arkadevna d. before 1920,
Saparova Catherine Arkadevna d. 1916 and
Saparova Maria Arkadevna.

Genealogy of the Dadiani and Japaridze - Imereti and Svaneti - Racha. History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives from Sakartvelo / Georgia,  Svaneti, Imereti.


Note:
The Melik - Beglyarov / Melik-Beglarov family from Armenia and Azerbaijan: Melik-Beglyarov Shaamir Khan Fridunovich / Shamir Fridonovich or Shemir Bey, 1808 Lieutenant, Russian service, 1821 as Chief of Staff for Commander of the Caucasian Russian Army, General Ermolov; Major-General, the translator of the Russian mission in Persia in Tabriz, descendant of an old Armenian Karabakh ancestry. Melik - Beglyarov Osip Fridunovich, 1826 - the lieutenant, in Karabakh, 1849 a colonel.
Melik-Beglyarov Gerasim - colonel of medical service, a nobleman, born 1851, the representative of the ancient Armenian Karabakh ancestry, a senior doctor of the 3rd Infantry Caucasian native militia, 1891-1897 in Elisavetpol.
Melik-Beglyarov Jason Hezekiah Luarsabovich b. 1861, graduated in 1891, the Ryazan - Kazan line and Moscow-Kazan Railway, was in that position until 1917, lived in Moscow. Paul Shamirovich Melik-Beglyarov.

Maypariani or Maipariani from Tbilisi, Georgia.

Japaridze from Tbilisi.
The Japaridze / ჯაფარიძე is a Georgian noble family, a princely one in the Kingdom of Imereti, and in Kartli, Kakheti. Under the Russian rule, the family was received among the princely nobility in 1850. 1. Dzhaparidze / Джапаридзе / Japaridze / ჯაფარიძე Prokofy b. 1880, Georgian Communist activist, as Alyosha Dzhaparidze, Alyoşa Caparidze, Прокофий Апрасионович Джапаридзе was Bolshevik Party leaders in Azerbaijan during the Russian Revolution. Born in Schardometi village of Racha, Kutaisi Governorate, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti / რაჭა-ლეჩხუმი და ქვემო სვანეთი in northwestern Georgia. In 1901 in Kutaisi. In 1904 he moved to Baku.
2. In 1882, Princess Agrippina Japaridze (b. 1855 - died 1926 or 1927) became a morganatic wife of Duke Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg (1850 - 1906) and received the title of Countess Zarnekau. Agrippina, Countess von Zarnekau nee Agrippina Constantines Japaridze / აგრაფინა ჯაფარიძე, გრაფინია ფონ ზარნეკაუ - a patron of numerous educational establishments in Russian Georgia. She taken controversial role in the secret marriage of Grand Duke George Alexandrovich of Russia.
See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agrippina,_Countess_von_Zarnekau - Agrippina Japaridze was born in the upper Racha region of Georgia, parents Constantine and Melania Japaridze. Her father Constantine died 1860, and her mother Melania moved to Kutaisi, where she 2nd time married. Agrippina was sent to the St. Nino School, where she received her education along with Olympia Nikoladze, sister of Georgian statesman Niko Nikoladze / ნიკო ნიკოლაძე / Nikolos Nikoladze. In 1876, Agrippina married a Georgian nobleman named Tariel Dadiani, with four children, Miquel, Levanti, and Nino.
Above Niko Nikoladze / ნიკო ნიკოლაძე b. 1843, public figure, was born in the village of Didi Jikhaishi, Imereti, western Georgia. After leaving St. Petersburg he went to study in Zurich 1864 - 1868. During his stay in Zurich, through Paul Lafargue he met Karl Marx. While in Europe, he briefly collaborated with Aleksandr Herzen.

In the 1880s, Kutaisi became a new location for the Hopersky Kuban Cossacks, commanded by Duke of Oldenburg, Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Holstein-Gottorp, b. 1850, was a son of Duke Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg and his wife Princess Therese of Nassau-Weilburg. On 3 August 1809, Duke George of Oldenburg, the grandfather of Constantine Petrovich, married to Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna, daughter of Tsar Paul I. Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg b. 1812 in Yaroslavl. Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Holstein-Gottorp was known in the court of Tsar Nicholas II as Duke Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg. Under command of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich, the Governor General of the Caucasus, Constantine Petrovich rose to the rank of Lt. General of Kuban Cossacks.
Duchess Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg m. 1856 to Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia b. 1831, the son of Tsar Nicholas I and commander-in-chief in 1877-1878. Their son, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia b. 1856 was commander-in-chief of the Russian Army during the First World War I.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France. Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies.

Children of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich (Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832 the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I; Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene. Ekaterina Petrovna Trubetskaya / Ekaterina Troubetzky / Troubetzkoy (nee Mussina-Pushkina; her father Pietr Klavdijevich Mussin-Puschkin b. 1768) was born 1816 and died c. 1897; her partner
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia
and with him was daughter Sofia Troubetzkoy b. 1838 in Moscow, Russia and died July 27, 1898 in Madrid
) of Russia:
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia,
Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna,
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich b. 1861 and in 1891 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie of Merenberg (relatives of the Pushkin family / Puskin/ Alexander S. Puszkin - family was near by military counterintelligence headquarters), Grand Duke George Mikhailovich,
Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) b. 1866 - freemason, and near by military intelligence headquarters,
Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich and last Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich.

Above Duke Oldenburg, Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Holstein-Gottorp, that is Duke of Oldenburg / Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg, served as an adjutant stationed on the Caucasian Front in Georgia, under command of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich, the Governor General of the Caucasus.
Above named Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel Daniel Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command. The Dadiani were respected noble family in Georgia, as a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty. Agrippina was Tariel Dadiani's second wife. Prince Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani, b. 1842, m. first to Princess Sopio Dadiani b. 1838 daughter of Prince Levanti Shervashidze of the Guria. On June 28, 1882, Agrippina divorced Dadiani. On 20 October 1882, Constantine entered into a morganatic marriage with a titleless Georgian noblewoman Agrippina Japaridze. Between 1883 and 1892 they produced six children, all of them born in Kutais, the Caucasus: Alexandra Constantinovna von Zarnekau, Countess von Zarnekau b. 1883 married in 1900 Prince George Alexandrovich Yurievsky, a son of Alexander II of Russia. In 1884, they bought a local wine cellar established by the Frenchman Shote in 1876 for bottling champagne, doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe). Above Prince George Gogo Yurievsky was the son of Tsar Alexander II and his secret mistress, Catherine Dolgorukov, the Princess Yurievskaya.
In 1885, Baron Arthur von Mohrenheim, head of the Russian Okhrana (secret police) in Paris, reported that the widowed Princess Yurievskaya had been using her money to finance a group of Russian nihilists who were attempting to kill Tsar Alexander III and his family.
Prince Viktor Nakachidze, was convicted in late 1885 for participating in a nihilist bomb plot to kill the Tsar. Prince Nakachidze had connections to Agrippina Japaridze, the wife of Constantine Petrovich, and to the Dadiani family.
Duke Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg died 1906. Grand Duke George Alexandrovich of Russia married to a local Georgian noblewoman from the house of Nakashidze, who was Agrippina's cousin. Prince Nakachidze had connections to Agrippina and to the family of Agrippina's former husband, the Dadiani family, which was then living in exile at Nice. Prince Victor Nakachidze was sentenced to death and sent to Siberia.

Details on the Dadiani family:
Prince Alexander Leonovich Dadian / Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800 in Simbirsk, Sengileevsky County and died 1865 in Moscow, adjutant, Colonel, commander of Erivan Regiment; his father Leon Aleksandrovich and Maria nee Naryshkina; Piotr / Peter Katenin reported violations to the emperor and when Emperor Nicholas I in 1837 visited the Caucasus, he removed Alexander Leonovich Dadian and ordered immediately send to Bobruisk. His wife's mother, Elizabeth D. Rosen, was next of kin with Baron Alexander G. Rosen (1812-1874) - the hero of the battle of Warsaw in 1831. His father Baron Grigory V. Rosen (1782-1841), Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, General of Infantry, Adjutant General in 1818. And grandfather Lieutenant-General V. I. Rosen (1742-1790) from his marriage to the Olympia Raevskaya Feodorovna.

Note on the Rosen family:
From Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791: Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn and died 1884 in Reval, her father - Karl Johann von Gernet 1776 Lehhola / Lehola - 1857 in Lauenhof / Lőve, Pődrala, Valdamaa, Estland; and her grandfather - Carl Gustav von Gernet 1747 - 1812, and her great-grandfather - Carl Gottlieb von Gernet b. on March 18, 1700 and died on May 4, 1791 in Lehhola; her husband - Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus / Woldemar von Rosen 1813 - 1892 and his father - Hans Wilhelm Gustav Freiherr von Rosen 1780 - 1862. Above Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus von Rosen, b. 12 Jan 1813 at Resna, m. 1844 at Hapsal / Haapsalu to Hedwig Charlotte von Gernet b. at Reval, daughter of Johann von Gernet and his wife Hedwig Elisabeth von Patkul of Habbinem. Sons of above named Hedwig:
1. Johann Wilhelm Fabian Richard von Rosen, b. at Neuenhof near Hapsal, m. at St. Petersburg to Sophie Valentine Schottländer d. 28 Sep 1912 at Reval,
2. Leo Felix Karl von Rosen, b. in St. Petersburg, m. 2ndly in 1927 at London to Magna Smith daughter of Nadeschda Kowalewskaja Smith / Kowalewski. The palace of Herrenhaus Neuenhof that is Uuemőisa mőis east part of Haapsalu at present.
The noble Schillings / Schilling family moved to Estonia / Estland from Courland (Kurland). Karl Gebhard von Schilling began his service in the Russian army, married to Helene Charlotte von Römer of Müüsleri / Seinigal and Orina / Orgena - 2 km north-east of Jarva-Jaani (Orina, Järva-Jaani vald / Ярва-Яаани, Ярвамаа, Эстония). See: http://www.balticconnections.net/ Müüsleri (Seinigal by German) is a village in the rural community Kareda - ca 80 km east-south of Saku, close to Jarva-Jaani. Pauline Amalie Sophie von Schilling b. 1806 in Reval / Tallinn, Estland / Eesti, her mother Anna Juliane von Rosen b. 1770.

Above Prince Alexander Leonovich Dadian / Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800, was married two times:
1. to Princess Nina Farnaozovna Georgia / Нина Фарнаозовна Грузинская b. 1802, daughter of Prince Gruzinsky and Princess Anne Georgian Eristov - Ksani / Аннa Эристовa-Ксанскa, making his son Nicholas (1824-1829);
2. from 1836 to Baroness Lydia G. Rosen (1817-1866), daughter of Gregory Vladimirovich Rosen (1782-1841) and Elizabeth Dmitrievna Zubov / Елизаветa Дмитриевнa Зубов (1790-1862). Children:
a. Maria (1840-1894) m. Senator Nikolai Arsenyev, b. Anton / Anton Dadian b. 1841 - 1906 who has children: Nadiezda Antonovna Dadian, Dmitry Antonovich Dadian, Alexander Antonovich Dadian, c. Leon 1845, d. Mitro 1847.

Acc. to: http://www.royalark.net/Georgia/ under Copyright © Christopher Buyers, March 2003 - August 2008.
Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani, b. 1842, m. first to Princess Sopio Dadiani b. 1838 daughter of Prince Levanti Shervashidze of the Guria.

His father: Prince Aleksandri Manuchari Dadiani
(and his grandfather: Duke of Mingrelia, fourth son of Katsia II Dadiani, Duke of Mingrelia, m. first a daughter of Prince Shervashidze; m. second to Ana Dadiani, daughter of Prince Kakhaberidze-Chijavadze; he d. after 1804, having six sons and three daughters. Above named the fourth son (he d. after 1804) of Katsia II Dadiani, Duke of Mingrelia, m. first a daughter of Prince Shervashidze; m. second to Ana Dadiani. Above Katsia II Dadiani (from List of monarchs of Mingrelia: 1758–1788 or 1744-1788) was friend of David II / დავით II (1756–1795), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, who was King of Imereti in the western Georgia. David II was the son of George IX of Imereti. With the support of Katsia II Dadiani, prince of Mingrelia, he seized the throne and proclaimed himself king on May 4, 1784. He attempted to establish a contact with Imperial Russia and to restrict the powers of great nobles. David's policy drew many leading aristocrats, including the Mingrelian prince Grigol Dadiani
(Prince Petri Nichola Dadiani, b. 1812, in Mingrelia, m. Princess Mariami Marika Dadiani, daughter of Prince Davit Gurieli, by his wife, Princess Elena, third daughter of Grigol VI Dadiani, Duke of Mingrelia - he had two sons: Prince Aleksandri Petri Dadiani b. 1843 and Prince Levanti Petri Dadiani b. 1848, m. Princess Kekela Dadiani. Western Georgia has the semi-independent prince-regent Dadian Grigol of Mingrelia / Grigol VI Dadiani. In 1803, his country was taken under direct Russian suzerainty until the dignity of Dadian was finally abolished in 1867. Nicholas Dadiani in 1867 was compelled to cede all his sovereign rights to the Tsar in exchange for 1.000.000 rubles, a grant of estates in Russia, and the title of Prince Dadian-Mingrelsky, and his brother Andrew has the name of Prince Mingrelia),
into opposition. Between 1792 and 1794, he attempted, with the Dagestan mercenaries, to reclaim the crown, but suffered a defeat and withdrew from Imereti. He died in exile at Akhaltsikhe. This is an excerpt from the article of the Wikipedia. Princess Thamar b. 1790, d. 1818, second daughter of Prince Katsia II Dadiani, Duke of Dukes of Mingrelia, married before May 1808 to General Prince Giorgi Shirvashidze / Safar Ali Bey, Prince of Abkhazia, who signed a petition for protection from Russia in 1808, having four sons and six daughters),
m. Princess Rodami Dadiani b. 1820, daughter of Prince Manuchari Mikeladze. He d. 1856, having five sons and two daughters:
1. Prince Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani, b. 1842, m. first Princess Sopio Dadiani b. 1838, daughter of Prince Levanti Shervashidze Bego of the Guria, by his wife Princess Marika, daughter of Prince Tarieli Dadiani of Mingrelia; m. second 1859 and div. 1882 to
Princess Agrafina
(Agrafina / Agryppina / Agrippina, Countess von Zarnekau nee Agrippina Constantines Japaridze / აგრაფინა ჯაფარიძე, გრაფინია ფონ ზარნეკაუ and parents Constantine and Melania Japaridze; father Constantine died 1860; Princess Agrafina Countess von Zarnekau, daughter of Prince Konstantini Japaridze b. at Radsha, Georgia, 1855; m. second, at Kutaisi in 1882 as Countess von Zarnekau by Grand Duke Peter II of Oldenburg, to Lieutenant-General Konstantin Friedrich Peter, Duke of Oldenburg, by whom she had two sons and two daughters, and she d. at Kislovodsk, North Caucasus in 1926)
daughter of Prince Konstantini Japaridze / Konstantyn Japaridze.
Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani had one daughter by his first wife, and two sons and one daughter by his second wife (on June 28, 1882, Agrippina divorced Dadiani):
- Prince Mikeli Tarieli Dadiani b. 1860,
- Prince Levanti Tarieli Dadiani b. 1864,
- Margareta Tsitsino Dadiani b. 1859 m. Prince Giorgi Niko Dadiani (b. 1855), eldest son of Prince Niko Besarioni Dadiani, Chief of Police of Zugdidi, by his wife, Princess Salomea Nino, daughter of Prince Katsia Chichua,
- Princess Nino Dadiani b. 1868 m. Prince Aleksandri Kviti Niko Dadiani (b. 1864), son of Prince Niko Bessarioni Dadiani, Chief of Police of Zugdidi, by his wife Princess Nina (b. 1835), daughter of Prince Chichua.
2. Prince Nikolaoz Aleksandri Dadiani b. 1846,
3. Prince Platoni Aleksandri Dadiani b. 1848.
4. Colonel Prince Petri Aleksandri Dadiani, 1855, served in the Russo-Turkish War 1877-1878, m. Princess Agatha Dadiani younger daughter of Prince Ioani Elizbari Dadiani, by his wife, Princess Kesaria, daughter of Prince Vameq Giorgi Dadiani. He d. at Harbin, China in 1939.
5. Colonel Prince Giorgi Aleksandri Dadiani b. 1855, Col. of Cavalry, Russian service, m. Princess Nadejda Dadiani b. 1863, nee von Traumberg, adopted daughter of General Jakov Ivanovich Jzuravskii, and of his wife, Helena Zakharovna, daughter of Zakhari Chachikishvili of Natakhtari.

Major-General H. E. Prince Nichola Giorgi Dadiani / Nikolai Georgievitch Dadianov / Bolshoi Niko, Lord of Kurdzu, b. 1764, Ambassador to Russia 1805-1806, Major Gen. Russian Army, married first time to Princess Mariami Dadiani (d. 1802), daughter of Rustami Shervashidze, Duke in Guria, and married second to Princess Kethevan Dadiani, daughter of Prince Marshania. He d. 1834, having five sons and two daughters:
1. Prince Giorgi Nichola Dadiani, b. 1795, m. Princess Varvara Dadiani (b. 1804),
2. Prince Aleksandri Nichola Dadiani;
3. Prince Besarioni Nichola Dadiani, b. 1810, m. Princess Evdukia Dadiani (b. 1810), heving one son and three daughters:
a. Prince Niko Besarioni Dadiani, b. 1830, Chief of Police of Zugdidi in 1857, m. Princess Salomea Nino Dadiani (b. 1835), daughter of Prince Katsia Chichua with children:
aa. Prince Giorgi Niko Dadiani, b. 1855, m. Princess Margareta Tsitsino Dadiani (b. 1859), elder daughter of Prince Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani, by his first wife, Princess Sopio, daughter of Prince Levanti Shervashidze, of the Guria;
ab. Prince Demeter Niko Dadiani, b. 1862;
ac. Prince Aleksandri Kviti Niko Dadiani, b. 1864, m. Princess Nino Dadiani (b. 1868), younger daughter of Prince Tarieli Taia Dadiani, by his second wife, Princess Agrafina Countess von Zarnekau, daughter of Prince Konstantini Japaridze - he had two sons and four daughters.
4. Prince Petri Nichola Dadiani, b. 1812, Supreme Tribunal of Justice in Mingrelia, m. Princess Mariami Marika Dadiani, daughter of Prince Davit Gurieli, by his wife, Princess Elena, third daughter of
Grigol VI Dadiani, Duke of Mingrelia - he had two sons: Prince Aleksandri Petri Dadiani b. 1843 and Prince Levanti Petri Dadiani b. 1848, m. Princess Kekela Dadiani.

The Lengold family, now in Serbia, Belgrade.

A son of Rose Samuilovna Rosenberg (daughter of Samuel Rosenberg, she was born in Germany) and (Zakhar L. Manfred worked as a lawyer in St. Petersburg, during the Civil War was a teacher in the Saratov province, then in the Pskov province; Rosa Samuilovna Rosenberg - a translator, sister of the artist Leon Bakst, died in 1918) her husband Zachary Manfred: historian Albert Z. Manfred (1906-1976) was born in St Petersburg. He was a nephew of Leon Bakst.
In Viljandi in 1900 'Viljandi Telephone Company' started; A. Rosenberg houses had got electric light in 1902 from a power station commissioned by Volta factory.
Viljandi has old residential architecture, among the fancy Villa Rosenberg, the house from the beginning of the 20th century. In 1937 the building was sold; was rebuilt by architect John Freshman. Here was living painter Johannes. The building is located in the old town of Viljandi heritage conservation area. Text: Agneta Land-Koskinen.
Johann / Johan Rosenberg b. 1826 - 1876 from Sulesaare talu, Suure-Kõpu mõis - 20 km west of Viljandi, close to Kopu, Viljandi County, Estonia. Kõpu is a small borough in Viljandi County, administrative centre of Kõpu Parish (his sons: Jaan Rosenberg b. 1852 - 1907, from Kõpu Parish, Tõnis Rosenberg b. 1869 from Sulesaare talu, Suure-Kõpu mõis, Viljandimaa; and Johan Rosenberg b. 1864 from Sulesaare talu, and last Mihkel Rosenberg b. 1867). His wife Kadri Soob b. 1829 from Suure-Kõpu mõis, died 1874 in Viljandi (Vil'iandi / Fellin). His father Juhhan Rosenberg b. 1796 from Suure-Kõpu mõis. His grandfather: Toni Juntsi Andres Rosenberg b. 1770 in Viljandimaa.
Rosenberg Fyodor / Fedor b. 03/01/1867 in Viljandi and d. 1934, Leningrad, Russian orientalist, the USSR Academy of Sciences 1923, the University of St. Petersburg 1889, 1902-31 of the Asiatic Museum. Pauline Rosenberg Leuska b. 1897 - burial in Lääne-Virumaa (Rakvere district), Eesti, died 1982 in Ida-Virumaa - east of Rakvere, near by Narva.

In Estonia and Latvia in the nineteenth century lived another family by the name Rosenberg. These different families do not need to have any links of kinship. Both families: Rosenberg-Manfred and Rosenberg-Siré do not have kinship one with the other, one another, acc. to me.
A note on the Rosenberg family from Estonia. Mary nee Rosenberg came from Revel, died at 50's or early 60's of the 20th cent.; her sister - Wanda Rosenberg 1881 - 1959, daughter of Eduard Rosenberg. She was born in Revel, died in Baku. German from the Baltic barons; graduated from the Institute for Noble Maidens, knew German, French, English and Russian languages​​, sometimes in Germany, France and Switzerland. In the late 90's of the 19th cent. married Mikhailov Sergei Mikhailovich from Moscow and moved to Baku. Husband was a director of the high school. In 1906 he had a son Constantine, in 1912 - Boris. In 1937 Sergei Mikhailovich was repressioned in Stalin's camps; Wanda Rosenberg / Vande Edwardovna as wife of enemy was 10 years imprisonment. 1948, Wanda E. returned to Baku. In Tallinn lived her younger sister Mary Edwardovna Rosenberg - 1949. An elder brother lived in New York, where he moved in 1925; The family of the Rosenbergs had four children. Sisters Wanda and Mary and two brothers - Peter and Nicholas, one of them was a colonel in the tsarist army.
Alfred Rosenberg died 1946 was also from Revel. Alfred Ernst Rosenberg / Alfred Rosenberg Voldemarovich, in the family where father was born in 1862 in Riga, Baltic German merchant; Woldemar William Rosenberg / Woldemar Wilhelm Rosenberg / Walter Wilhelm married to - born in St. Petersburg - Elfriede Caroline Siré, a descendant of the French Huguenots family moved to Estonia. Woldemar Wilhelm Rosenberg 1862 - 1904; his father Martin Rosenberg b. 1820 (Martin 1820-96, master shoemaker in Riga), from Valmiera / Dickeln / Dikli, now Valmiera in north Latvia, south of Viljandi - Valmiera parish, Burtnieku novads, Latvia. Johann (1781), from Dickeln in Livonia (Dikel′n / Dickeln, Vol'mar county, Livonia, Russia; or Dikļi 24 km northwest of Valmiera, north Latvia, Juris Neikens, the pastor in the village and writer, the Lutheran Church Dikļi since about 1848). Above Woldemar Wilhelm Rosenberg born in Tallinn, Harjumaa, and died 1904 in Tallinn, Harjumaa; his wife Elfriede Luise Caroline Rosenberg nee Siré 1868 - 1893, her father Friedrich August Siré 1843 - died in 1916 in Baku, Azerbaijan; grandfather Otto Ludwig Siré b. 1809 in Liepāja / Libau, Office Mitmeister at Konigsberg, Hans Heinrich Company; Liepājas pilsēta, Latvia - Lipawa in Courland. Died 1883 in Tallinn, Harju County.
The Sire family among other from France. Pierre-Paul Sire 1756 - 1809 from Jean Cyr (Sire) b. ca 1655 in St-Éloi-de-Dunkerque, Flandres, Hollande - at present France. Friedrich August Siré 1843-1916, an accountant, railway official, most recently in Baku; and his wife Louise Rosalie Fabricius 1842-1919 / Luise Rosalie Siré (nee Fabricius) - she was from Lihula, Läänemaa, Eesti; her father Johann Carl Fabricius b. ca 1812 from Pernau / Pärnu. Daughter Elfriede Luise Caroline Rosenberg nee Siré 1868 St. Petersburg - 1893 and her son Alfred Ernst Rosenberg 1893 - 1946 from Tallinn. Above Lihula, Läänemaa, Eesti, north-west of Parnu, and south-east of Haeska ca 24 km and Kiideva; south-east of Keskkula.

Note about Wittgenstein and Trubecki families:

1. Ludwig Adolf Peter zu Sayn-Wittgenstein born 1769 in Negine in the Kiev government; his wife Antuanetta Snarska / Antoinette Snarski born 1778 in Polock, her daughter Emilia Pietrovna Wittgenstein b. 1801, d. 1869, with husband Trubecki Piotr Ivanovich b. 1798, d. 1871; her children: Piotr Trubecki / Trubeckoy b. 1822, Mikolaj / Nikolaj b. 1828, Aleksandr b. 1830, Olga b. 1838 with husband Dolgorukov.
2. Mikolaj / Nikolaj Trubecki b. 1828, with his wife Liubov Vasilievna Orlov - Denisov, b. 1828 died 1860 but not 1869, for example, son: Piotr Trubecki / Piotr Nikolaievitch Trubetzkoy b. in Akhtyra 5 Oct. 1858 and died in Novotcherkask on 17 Oct. 1911, married in Moscow on 13 Oct. 1884 to Alexandra Vladimirovna Obolenskaya b. Moscow on 8 Nov. 1861, d. Authon-la-Chapelle on 14 Dec. 1939.
You see: http://de.rodovid.org/wk/Person:223460.
3. Stefania Wittgenstein b. Paris 1809, d. 1832, nee Radziwill - father Dominik Radziwill b. 1786, d. 1813; mother Teofila Morawska. Stefania was owner about 12000 km˛ that is 1 mln ha in Belarus (Miezonka...) and Lithuania. Her children: Piotr Wittgenstein b. 1831 and Maria b. 1829 with husband Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. Her husband from 1828 Ludwik Adolf  F. Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn (Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn) born 8 June 1799 in Kowno, He was first son of Ludwik Adolf Piotr / Pjotr Christianovich zu Sayn und Wittgenstein / Пётр Христианович Витгенштейн, who was born 1769 in Pierejaslawl Zalesskij either Нежин / Negine or Переяславл, and died 11 June 1843 in Lwiw / Lwow.
Mickiewicze Wielkie: in 1870 situated in the Minsk Governorate, the Slutsk district, volost Kleck, but in 1923 in the Poland, Province Nowogródek, the district of Nieswiez. Mickiewicze on way from Niasviz / Nieswiez to Klieck / Kleck. Close to Asmolawa. It was the Витгенштейн family estate as Быховщизна in 1870 (Wittgenstein - Byhovschizna). P. L. Wittgenstein to E. K. Pilyavskaya / E. Pilawska in 1886-1887. In 1887, Peter / P. L. Wittgenstein died, the son Lev Petrovich Wittgenstein; Peter L. Wittgenstein b. 1831, Vilna Province, Lieutenant-General, a military agent in France, the Russian-Turkish war, one of the richest landowners of the Russian Empire. Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county, lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk. This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh. Above Lew / Prince Lev Wittgenstein / Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn b. June 7, 1799, the eldest son of Field Marshal Count Peter Xristianovich Wittgenstein / Piotr Christianovich Wittgenstein and Antoinette Stanislavnovna Snarskii / Antuanetta Snarski / Antuaneta Snarska. He was married twice: 1. 1828 to Princess Stefania nee Radziwill, daughter of above Dominik Radziwill and Theophile Morawska; with two children: Maria or Antoinette Carolina - Stefania, and above Peter / Peter Dominic Ludwig 1832-1887, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General. 2. Princess Leonilla Baryatinskaya Ivanovna.

On the Wittgenstein and the Prince Dadian-Mingrelsky / Dadiani Mingrelskij families:

a. Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1834 died 1888, married in 1868 to Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian 1847-1919, see about Bagrationi Gruzinski / Bagration Gruzinsky family; he was child of August 1788-1874, who married 1823 to Franziska Allesina von Schweitzer, and he was grandchild of Christian Heinrich 1753-1800 (married 1775 Charlotte Friederike countess of Leiningen-Westerburg 1759-1831), great-grandchild of Ludwig Ferdinand 1712-1773, and great-great-grandchild of Casimir 1687-1741. His father Ludwig Franz 1660 - 1694. See below (point e)! 

Western Georgia has the semi-independent prince-regent Dadian Grigol of Mingrelia. In 1803, his country was taken under direct Russian suzerainty until the dignity of Dadian was finally abolished in 1867. Prince
Alexander Dadiani, colonel of the Erivan Regiment, was an imperial aide-de-camp but tsar Nicholas taken his sword from him, and have him sent off to the fortress of Bobruisk. Nicholas Dadiani in 1867 was compelled to cede all his sovereign rights to the Tsar in exchange for 1.000.000 rubles, a grant of estates in Russia, and the title of Prince Dadian-Mingrelsky, and his brother Andrew has the name of Prince Mingrelia.

Praskovya A. nee Dadiani married to Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, was born 1846 or 1847; her parents: Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800

(his father Leon A. Dadiani, his grandparents Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753 and

Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani born 1753 died 1812.

The parents of above Alexander: Peter G. Dadiani and Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja died March 19, 1780.

Parents of above Piotr / Peter: George / Egor Levanovich Dadiani b. 1683 and Sophia A. Imereti of Mukhrani b. 1691 died 1747
)

and mother of Praskovya: Lydia G. Rosen born 1816 and died 1866

(a branch from baron Vladimir I. Rosen, born 1742 died 1792 and his wife Olympia Raevskaya / Olimpia / Olimpiada Rajewska born ca 1746).

Above named Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani born 1753, died in Moscow, February of 1812, married Alexander Petrovich Dadiani b. 1753/54, died in Moscow on 26 Jan. 1811. Her father Levan Bagration-Gruzinsky, born Moscow 1739, or 1730 acc. to me! He was in 1753 married to Alexandra Yakovlevna Sibirsky b. 1728. Her grandfather Bakar I King of Kartli, born Kutaisi 1700, married Anna Eristavi of Aragvi b. 1706. Her great-grandfather Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675.
More inf.: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/georgia/bagrat10.html.

Connections to the Paats family in the Parnumaa / Parnu district and the Helme parish in the area of Viljandimaa / Viljandi County

b.
Ludwig Adolf Peter (Piotr) zu Sayn-Wittgenstein / Ludwig Adolph Peter vel Pjotr Christianowitsch, Graf zu Sayn-Wittgenstein b. 1769 in Negine in the Kiev government or in Perejaslaw-Chmelnyzkyj, d. 1843, his parents: Count Christian Louis Casimir of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg and his first wife Countess Amalie Ludowika Finck von Finckenstein. In 1798 he married Polish lady from Polock, Antonia Cecilie Snarska / Antuanetta Snarskaja / Snarski and had in this marriage 11 children.  
c.
Christian Louis Casimir of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg or Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1725 and died 6 May 1797, Rheda. He was a son of Count
Ludwig Francis zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg and his wife Countess Helene Emilie zu Solms-Baruth. He was taken captive in 1761, settled in Russia, and then serving in the Caucasus. He was married two times: to Amalie Ludowika Finck von Finckenstein and to Anna Petrovna Dolgorukova.
d.
Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg was a side line of the Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg family, created by Graf Casimir b. 1687 - d. 1741, ruled 1694-1741, for his brother,
Ludwig Francis zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1694 died 1750. Above named two brothers were sons of Ludwig Franz b. 1660 d. 1694, ruled 1684 - 1694.
e.
Ludwig Francis zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg (Ludwig Francis zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg) b. 1694 - d. 1750 and his wife Countess Helene Emilie zu Solms-Baruth b. 1700 d. 1750. 

4. Ludwig Adolf Peter zu Sayn-Wittgenstein born 1769 Negine in the Kiev government with his wife Antuanetta Snarskaja / Snarski (Polish roots) born 1778 Polock and her son Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, born 1799 Kowno, second son Stanislaw Piotrowicz Wittgenstein / Станислав Петрович Витгенштейн, born June 1800, Alexander zu Sayn-Wittgenstein born August 1803, Riga, and Georgij, Aleksiej and Nikolaj; her daughter Emilia Pietrovna Wittgenstein / Эмилия Петровна Витгенштейн b. 1801, d. 1869, with husband Trubecki Piotr Ivanovich b. 1798, d. 1871; her children: Piotr b. 1822, Mikolaj / Nikolaj b. 1828 in Moscow, Aleksandr b. 1830, Olga b. 1838 with husband Dolgorukov.
5. The director of the Moscow branch of the Imperial Russian Musical Society, Prince Mikolaj / Nikolai Trubetskoy / Nikolaj Pietrovich duke Trubecki with the first wife countess Liubov Vasilievna nee Orlov - Denisov, she born 1828 and died February 1860.
Liubov Vasilievna duchess Orlov - Denisov married Trubeckaya died 1860; a date of 1869 is error; her daughter Sofia Nikolajevna Trubeckaja married Glebova, b. 04 November 1854 died 7 September 1936; 5 October 1858 was born Pietr Nikolajevich Trubeckoj and Maria nee Trubecki / Trubeckaja born circa 1860!

Mary Trubetskaya / Maria Trubecka born circa 1840 was married to Konstantynowicz / Константинович / Konstantinovich (he was born ca 1840) before 1873, and next was living in Kazan in 1874 and she was probably from the Belarusian - Estonian branch of the Troubetzkoy princely family (Трубецкой и Эстония). I need to emphasizes that this is only a hypothesis but all genealogical and historical data lead towards the Belarusian - Estonian branch of the Troubetzkoy family. A son of Maria Trubecka - Wiktor Konstantynowicz / Victor Konstantinovich / Константинович - was living in Piotrogrod / St Petersburg in 1917 and Tallinn after 1918 but 1924 he lived in the town of Viljandi.

6. Children of the second wife Zofia Lopuchin from 1860 and Prince Mikolaj / Nikolai Trubetskoy / Nikolaj Pietrovich duke Trubecki:
among others 1862 Sergiej / Siergiej, 1863 Evgenij / Evgenii, Marija / Maryna / Marina Trubecki b. 1877 - died 1924 and Maria born 1864 - died 1926 ('the second') married Kristi or Christi

(the husband of Maria Nikolaevna Trubetskoy from April 1, 1881 became a cornet of the Guard Hussar Regiment, Grigory Christie b. 1856 d. 1911; but she was only 17? In 1902 - 1905 G. / Jerzy Christie has successfully taken the post of governor of Moscow; June 14, 1882 in Uzkoje, his son Vladimir was born, d. 1946),
Grzegorz, and so on.
Webpage 'ru.rodovid.org' is informing only about 12 children but was 13, including two sisters from the first wife and son Pietr. Polish data base inf. only about the second wife of Mikolaj Trubecki! In 2011 I was writing on 13 children. 
Some false information about countess Sofia Vasilievna Tolstoi / Sofya Tolstaya / Tolstoj concern her life when she took children of her early deceased sister Princess Lyubov Vasilyevna Troubetzkoy (1828 - died 25 Febr. 1860), on the parenting:  Sophia (1853 or 1854 died in 1936),
Peter (1858 - 1911) and
Mary 

(1860 - 1926, but here date of birth is false; Sofia Nikolajevna Trubeckaja married Glebova, b. 04 November 1854 died 7 September 1936 and Mary / Maria nee Trubecki was born in 1860 or ca 1853!
Different source inf.: Maria, born Moscow on 24 February 1860, died in Romania 1926 married on 1 April 1881 to Gregori Kristy. And next Marija / Maryna Trubecki b. 1864, died 1926 and - ? - was married to Kristi or Christi; this information is deliberately confused and mixed
!
Mary vel Maria nee Trubecki / Trubetskaja / Trubetzkaya was born ca 1853 or circa 1860
),

because the father, Prince Nikolai Petrovich Trubetskoy on 12 May 1861 married to Sophia Alexeevna Lopukhina, and from his second marriage he had ten children. For older Trubetskoy - Sophia - was Vladimir Glebov, the wedding was July 2, 1878.
So...

Some about the Tolstoy family and Golitsyn

Golitsyn Prince Alexei Borisovich 1732-1892, Major-General, his wife Princess Anna Georgijevna Gruzinskaya 1754-1779
and his daughters
: Maria 1772-1826, Princess, her husband Pyotr Alexandrovich Tolstoy 1769-1844, five sons and four daughters; and Elizabeth 1779-1853, her husband Alexander Ivanovich Osterman-Tolstoy 1770-1857, had no children.
Pyotr Alexandrovich Tolstoy 1769/70-1844, from 1797 Adjutant General, in 1806-1807 the main army chief of staff, in 1829, Chief of St. Petersburg and Kronstadt. His wife Maria Golitsyn Alekseevna 1772-1826. Children among others: Egor / Jegor 1802-1874, Lieutenant-General, Senator since 1861, his wife Princess Varvara Petrovna Troubetzkoy; and Vladymir 1805-1875, Major General, his wife Countess Sofya Orlov-Denisov.
Varvara Petrovna Troubetzkoy died February 12, 1900, marriage: Jegor / Egor / Yegor Petrovich Tolstoy b. July 19, 1802 and died March 12, 1874, child: Mary Yegorovna / Marija Jegorovna Tolstaya born 1843.
Father of Varvara - Peter Petrovich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy, b. August 23, 1793 and died August 13, 1840.
Grandparents of Varvara: Peter Sergeevich Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoy b. 1760 died 1817 and Darya Alexandrovna Gruzinskaya branch Bagration of Mukhrani from the Royal Family died 1796.
And also:
Prince Nikolai Borisovich Golitsyn b. 8 / 19 November 1794, musician, and served in the Second Caucasian war 1820 - 1832, held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, great-grandson of Field Marshal Mikhail Golitsyn and son of Lieutenant-General Prince Boris A. Golitsyn 1766-1822 and Princess Anna Alexandrovna Bagration of Georgia / Bagration Gruzinskaya 1763-1822, granddaughter of the king of Kartli - Bakara III and great-granddaughter of Alexander Menshikov. Above Nikolai Golitsyn was also personally acquainted with Chopin and Oginski - both Poles.

7. Liubov Vasilievna duchess Orlov - Denisov: her husband Nikolay Pietrovich Trubeckoj b. 1828 died 1900; his mother Emilia Wittgenstein b. 1801 died 1869; his father Pietr / Piotr Ivanovich Trubeckoj b. 1798. Prince Nikolai Petrovitch Troubetzkoy in 1861 married again to Sophia Alekseevna Lopukhin b. 1841 died 1901; the second marriage of  N. Trubetskoy had ten children that is half-brothers and sisters of  P.   Trubetskoy (younger).
Above Countess Sofya / Sophia Tolstoy, born Countess Orlov-Denisov, died November 30, 1885. When V. P. Tolstoy died on February 8, 1875, his widow Sofya lived in Uzkoje estate with favorite niece, the Countess Maria Yegorovna
b. 1843 and married Orlov-Davydov; she was the daughter of Count Yegor Petrovich Tolstoy, who was one of the owners of this estate in 1844 - 1845, and his wife Varvara Petrovna, nee Princess Troubetzkoy. When a son of G. I. Kristi - Vladimir was born on June 14, 1882 in Uzkoje, landowner of the village Uzkoje, Countess Sofya Tolstaya held his son at baptism, June 14 at a local church.
Above Sophia V. nee Orlov-Denisov b. 1817, her parents Vasily Orlov vel Orlov-Denisov b. 1775 and Maria A. Vasiliev; she married to Vladimir Tolstoy born June 13, 1805; 

sisters of above Sofia Vasilievna nee Orlov Denisov: 

Nadjezda married Michail Katenin, 

Ljubov married to Nikolaj Pietrovich Trubeckoj; brothers: 

Fiodor with wife Elizabeth A. Nikitin died 1898, and Michail with wife Tchertkova.

The Nikitin family - among others:

Boris Nikitin b. 1883 and died August 11, 1943, Russian officer of the Imperial Army, son of General Vladimir Nikitin; educated in Tiflis Military School, he served in the Kabardian Horse Regiment, on November 30, 1916 served in the Quartermaster General Staff of the 7th Army; from March 12, 1917 counter-intelligence chief of the Petrograd Military District, from June 1917 Quartermaster - General of Petrograd Staff and after head of Intelligence in Department GUGSH, from July 1917
(July 1, 1917 Boris Nikitin,
head of counterintelligence of Petrograd taken from French captain Laurent P. a telegram intercepted by Allied intelligence; their authors and recipients were Lenin, Zinoviev, M. Y. Kozlovsky, A. Kollontai, Sumenson and Hanecki; under the influence of evidence on the same day July 1, Nikitin wrote out a warrant for the arrest of 28 leaders of the Bolsheviks led by Lenin; a government collected 21 volumes of investigative materials destroyed after the October Revolution; see a memoirs of counterintelligence chief of the Petrograd Military District B. V. Nikitin, 'Fatal years', Moscov 2000, p. 85-86);
in September 1917, appointed Chief of Staff of the Caucasian Native Cavalry Corps and sent out from Petrograd; from 1918 to February 1919 the commander in Dagestan.
His father Vladimir Nikitin born 1848, Russian general of artillery, the commander of the Odessa Military District 1914, Commandant of the Pietropavlovskaja fortress 1916-1917 and he was meeting with Rasputin; the daughter of V. Nikitin, Lidia, maid of honor of the Imperial Court, was a hot fan of Rasputin, was part of his closest circle.

Kierenski / Kerensky wrote down:
"...firmly believe that the uprising of October 24-25, 1917 is coincided with a serious crisis in the Austro - German relations, coincided with Ludendorff counterattack undertaken by Lenin in July 1917. By November 15, 1917 was supposed to conclude a separate peace between Russia and Turkey and Bulgaria. Suddenly, somewhere on October 20, 1917 we received a secret message from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Austro-Hungarian, Count Czernin. The letter, which came to us through Sweden, said that Austria-Hungary secretly from Germany ready to sign peace with us. It was assumed that representatives will arrive ... for a conference of war aims, which was to open in Paris on November 3, 1917. It is likely that Ludendorff and all other supporters of the war ... found out about it before us. ... Ludendorff now ... to prevent Austria out of the war and ... on October 24, 1917 Lenin sent to members of the Central Committee, hysterical letter, which said: 'Comrades. I am writing this evening of the 24th, 1917 the situation utterly critical. It's clear that now ... Can not wait! You can lose everything!...'. On the night of October 23, 1917 the Military Revolutionary Committee of Trotsky, ... began to give orders about the capture of the city government offices and strategic facilities. Being in possession of these documents beginning of the uprising, at 11 a.m. on October 24, 1917 I went to a meeting of the Council of the Russian Republic and asked the presiding Avksentieva immediately give me a call. I was giving a speech, when I was approached by Konovalov and handed me a note. After reading it, I (said): 'I have now a copy of the document, which is sent out ... "Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies ... Ordain lead regiment on full alert and await further orders. ... For chairman Podvoisky. Secretary Antonov". ... Thus in the capital now there is a state, which in the language of judicial authorities and state law called the uprising. Actually, this is an attempt to raise the mob against the existing order and disrupt the Constituent Assembly and to disclose united front before ... Wilhelm!'...".

Stefan T. Possony, Lenin: The Compulsive Revolutionary, ed. HENRY REGNERY COMPANY, CHICAGO, 1964; Lenin's funds in Russia and the German military intelligence service.
"The extent of the funds that the Germans invested in Russia during these critical months is revealed clearly in an analysis of the Foreign Office budget for propaganda and special purposes in various countries that is among the department's secret files that were opened after the Second World War. Under a covering note dated February 5, 1918, it indicates that the funds allocated for use in Russia amounted to 40,580,997 marks, of which 26,566,122 marks had actually been spent by January 31, 1918. Of this, according to other documents in the files, 15,000,000 marks were released by the Treasury the day after Lenin assumed power in November. This means that 11,500,000 were invested in Russia before November. By any standard, this 11,500,000 was a colossal outlay for propaganda. In 1917, at current exchange rates, it was the equivalent of more than $2,000,000 or nearly 600,000 sterling. It would be useful for comparison purposes to convert these sums to modern values but it is hard to find an adequate basis. One writer, after discussion with a German currency expert, has valued 1 mark in 1917 at 40 modern Deutschmarks (in 1964) which would put the expenditure at a fantastic $130,000,000 or 60,000,000 sterling (in 1964). But even if a more conservative estimate is used, one that assumed, for example, that $10 today would buy what $1 could purchase in 1917, it would still reflect an enormous expenditure for promotion".

"General Bonch-Bruyevich was close to leading generals who, in 1917, were instrumental in engineering the abdication of the Tsar. Certainly influenced by his Bolshevik brother, he contributed much to the poor military planning. Some of the spies who operated around the Minister of War (who himself may have been maneuvered by the Germans) later participated in revolutionizing and, in a concealed fashion, in the German operation with Lenin. ...

Some of the salient events are described by W. K. Korostowetz, Lenin im Hause der ... (Berlin: Kulturpolitik, 1928), esp. Chapters VII and VIII: and Mikhail D. Bonch-Bruyevich, Petrograd, Erinnerungen eines Generals (Berlin: Verlag des Ministeriums fur nationale Verteidigung, 1959), Ch. 5-9.
W. K. Korostowetz / Korostowiec / Korostowetz was an official of the Petrograd Foreign Office and specialized in communications intelligence. He was related to many high-ranking officials and aristocrats, and his information is, on the whole, dependable.

General Bonch-Bruyevich, brother of Lenin's comrade, had many counter-intelligence assignments. A liberal during the war, he later joined the Bolsheviks and became something like the premier soldier of the Red army. The information by the two authors is largely corroborative".

Alexander = Helphand vel Parvus (from Berezyna / Berezino) and also Hanecki and Mecheslav Yulevich Kozlovsky (Mieczyslaw Kozlowski son of Julian, a Bolshevik attorney, died in 1927, was described as the chief recipient of the German money that was transferred from Berlin through the Diskonto-Gesellschaft to the Stockholm Nya Banken and thence to the Siberian Bank in Petrograd) had been working for Parvus, Sklarz in Berlin, Karinsky, Bonch-Bruyevich, Lenin, Radek, and Vorovsky; Eugenia Mavrikievna Sumenson (Eugenia daughter of Maurycy, a woman relative of Hanecki), Svenson vel Hans Steinwachs, Alexinsky / Oleksinski.

"From Berlin, Zimmermann and Bethmann-Hollweg communicated with the German minister in Copenhagen, Brockdorff-Rantzau. In turn, Brockdorff-Rantzau was in touch with Alexander Israel Helphand ... Parvus, who was located in Copenhagen. Parvus was the connection to Jacob Furstenberg, a Pole descended from a wealthy family ... alias, Ganetsky / Hanecki. And Jacob Furstenberg was the immediate link to Lenin."

"In early 1918 Edgar Sisson, the Petrograd representative of the U.S. Committee on Public Information, bought a batch of Russian documents purporting to prove that Trotsky, Lenin, and the other Bolshevik revolutionaries were not only in the pay of, but also agents of, the German government. These documents, ... were shipped to the United States ... In Washington, D.C. they were submitted to the National Board for Historical Service for authentication. Two prominent historians, J. Franklin Jameson and Samuel N. Harper, testified to their genuineness. ... The Sisson Documents were published by the Committee on Public Information, whose chairman was George Creel ... The American press in general accepted the documents as authentic. The notable exception was the New York Evening Post, at that time owned by Thomas W. Lamont, a partner in the Morgan firm. ... That the documents are forgeries is the conclusion of an exhaustive study by George Kennan and of studies made in the 1920s by the British government. Some documents were based on authentic information and, as Kennan observes, those who forged them certainly had access to some unusually good information. For example, Documents 1, 54, 61, and 67 mention that the Nya Banken in Stockholm served as the conduit for Bolshevik funds from Germany. This conduit has been confirmed in more reliable sources. Documents 54, 63, and 64 mention Furstenberg as the banker-intermediary between the Germans and the Bolshevists; Furstenberg's name appears elsewhere in authentic documents. Sisson's Document 54 mentions Olof Aschberg, and Olof Aschberg by his own statements was the 'Bolshevik Banker'. Aschberg in 1917 was the director of Nya Banken. Other documents in the Sisson series list names and institutions, such as the German Naptha-Industrial Bank, the Disconto Gesellschaft, and Max Warburg, the Hamburg banker ...".

"On November 7 at 10:45 P.M. the Second All-Russian Soviet Congress was called to order while the winter palace still was under siege. The opening of the session was delayed to provide Lenin time to speak. Since Lenin's opponents had left the soviet, the Bolsheviks functioned as the majority party. ... The Presidium consisted of fourteen Bolsheviks and seven left Social Revolutionaries who occupied the seats vacated by right Social Revolutionaries. The Kronstadt sailors who participated in the coup were mostly left Social Revolutionaries and anarchists. The left-wing Mensheviks also sat in this rump congress along with a single Ukrainian socialist. Lenin could have made his victory appearance by three in the morning after the fall of the palace, but he did not appear. Lenin was too exhausted. He went to the home of Bonch-Bruyevich, could not fall asleep, and worked on the land decree. The soviet waited until six o'clock and then adjourned. Later in the morning Lenin delivered his victory speech...".

Alexander Lvovich Parvus / Алекса́ндр Льво́вич Па́рвус / Israel Lazarevich Gelfand (1867-1924), was a Marxist revolutionary; was born to an ethnic Jewish family in Berazino; his father working as an artisan of a locksmith or a blacksmith; the family's home in Berazino was destroyed by a fire, and they moved to Odessa to Israel's paternal grandfather. Tanya Helfand was Parvus's wife, but Helphand left his first wife, Tanya, for another woman; he had left his wife and his son without plans to provide for them in the future. In 1886 first traveled from Russia to Basel, Switzerland. He returned to Russia briefly the following year, and again he would remain abroad for more than a decade. Returning to Switzerland, in 1888 Gelfand enrolled at the University of Basle to 1891, next moved to Germany, 1900, he met Vladimir Lenin for the first time, in Munich begin publishing his revolutionary paper Iskra; "...German intelligence soon estimated he would be useful in efforts against the Russian Empire". Some accuse Parvus of having funded Lenin while in Switzerland; Parvus met Lenin in Bern in May 1915 and agreed to collaboration through their organizations.

"A strange incident occurred when the Bolsheviks pulled into the Stockholm station. A series of meetings took place between Lenin and Parvus with Radek serving as intermediary.
Professor Richard Pipes describes it:
'Parvus was one of those who awaited them there (at Stockholm). He asked to meet with Lenin, but the cautious Bolshevik leader refused and passed him on to Radek. Radek spent a good part of April 13 with Parvus. What transpired between them is not known. When they parted, Parvus dashed off to Berlin. On April 20, he met in private with the German State Secretary, Arthur Zimmerman. This encounter also left no record.' This might explain why Lenin underwent a radical transformation with regard to his revolutionary strategy at some point during the journey. Just hours before leaving, Lenin told Swiss workers that 'Russia is a peasant country. It is one of the most backward of European countries. Socialism cannot triumph there immediately'. Upon his arrival in Petersburg however, Lenin shocked his listeners by declaring that a period of bourgeois democracy was no longer necessary but that Russia could move right into full Socialism, that is, dictatorship of the proletariat. 'We don't need a bourgeois democracy,' he declared to gasps from the audience. 'We don't need any government except the Soviet'."

The Armand brothers received education  in Moscow, in France and Germany, mainly in the textile business and dyeing of fabrics.
Evgenii Armand and his wife Varvara Karlovna (Barbara daughter of Karl Demonet / Carl de Monet's that is Charles Demonets or DEMONTET from Vaud province / Monnette / Demonsi Monnet) Demonets also had a very large family. Anna nee Armand was born on 19 August 1866 in Moscow and in 1869 next child Alexander. Elizabeth-Ines Fedorovna Stephane fitted in nicely with her new family:
Anna and Alexander Armand were slightly older than she, while Vladimir born in 1875, Evgeniia b. 1876 and Boris born 1878 were somewhat younger.
According to: '
French settlers in Moscow and some of the descendants: Collection', the author-composer V. Egorov, Fedosov, ed. Moscow, 2005, p. 200-210 and Copyright © Institution 'Museum of entrepreneurs, philanthropists and benefactors', powered by Vadim Tretyakov: Evgeny and his wife Barbara Karlovna nee Demonsi had 12 children: Anna (1866 - 1932), Mary (1868 - 1942), Alexander (1870 - 1943), Vera (1871 - 1942), Nicholas (1872 - 1936), Vladimir (1874 - 1875), Eugene (1876 ​​- 1920), Boris (1878 - 1920), Sophia (1881 - 1941), Sergei (1882 - 1945), Barbara (1882 - 1966), Vladimir (1885 - 1909). Vladimir Armand joined a Social Democratic propaganda group in Moscow and was arrested but his sister Anna Evgen'evna helped finance party organizations. They lived in Pushkino,  according to JoAnn Ruckman, 'Moscow Business Elite...', edit. 1984, p. 61 and by Egor Nazarenko - a great grandson of one of Evgenii Armand's brothers. They owned house in Moscow, but in summer lived in Finland
The Eugene family intermarried with the families: Demonsi-Shnaubert-Mathiesen-Bunkin-Tsitsin, Konstantynowicz / Константинович and Manfred, Kohl - Osipov, Pampel / Papmel - Mazing, Vdovin, Stepanov, Stephen, Wild, Karasev, Fedosov, Egorov, Zhurin, Pichnikovyh - Shaposhnikov - Zilina, Cardo - Sysoev, Fallen, Shapiro, Romas and others.

A details:
Schnaubert or Shnaubert Ivan A.,
Professor of Chemistry at Kharkov University, b. about 1781 in Giessen in Hesse region. He studied at the Chemical Institute in Erfurt, Jena in 1803. In 1804 he was invited to Kharkov University and was appointed professor of chemistry.
Boris Shnaubert b. 1852 in Moscow and died October 1917, a Russian engineer and architect, he served on the Moscow - Kazan Railway.
Kazan ca 1870 - 1890? Repeatedly executed orders from wealthy merchant family Абрикосовых / Abrikosov 1900 - 1904 in Moscow.
See Demonets
and Anastasia Gruzinskaya from Daugavpils.

Demontet / Demonsi / Demonets, Kazan ca 1835 - 1839.
Demonsi Carl, the son of a Frenchman,
a native of Moscow, he studied at the Kazan univ. 1837, was prof. at the Kharkov Univ., died in 1867.
Demonsi was in 1864 a Moscow merchant 1st guild and a shareholder of a plants in the Urals.

Barbara Karlovna Armand from the Demonsi family was wife of Evgeny Armand.
Her sons:
1. Aleksandr E. Armand 1870 - 1943, wife Ines Armand Stéphane - his daughters Inna, Varvara, and sons Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, Fiedor Aleksandrovich, 2. Vladimir E. Armand 1874 - 1875, 3. Nikolaj / Nicholas E. Armand and his wife Rene / Maria Feodorovna Stéphane Armand 1872 - 1936, his son a. Pavel Nikolajevich Armand 1902 - 1964, his daughter Rene Pavlovna, b. daughter Marija Nikolayevna, 4. Boris E. Armand 1878 - 1920, 5. Sergej / Siergiej / Sergey E. Armand 1882 - 1945, 6. daughters: Zofia / Sofija, Anna Evgenievna, Viera, Evgenija, Varvara, Maria / Marija.

On the Mathiesen family:
Mathiesen from Næstved is a town in a municipality of the same name, located on the island of Zealand in Denmark. The town is one hour away from Copenhagen.
Anna Henrikke Petronelle Mathiesen from Oslo, Norway. Jorgen Arthur Mathiesen 1901 was a Norwegian landowner. The Vvedensky cemetry, Moscow: Alexander Eduard Mathiesen, died October 1881.

Mazing - Korkus in Livonia, from Estonia:
Revel, Dorpat, Narva and Viru / Wierland - Varstu Parish in Võru County, and from Riga, St. Petersburg in Russia.
Motherland - the former Livonia, Estonia present. According to legend from the Swedish soldier who settled after 1630 in St. Mary Magdalene in Kayavere in Livonia.
Kaiavere - village south-west of Maarja-Magdaleena, east of Mullavere, east of Puurmani, north from Tartu / Dorpat.
Mazing / Masing Edward Wilhelm b. 1836 from St. Petersburg; Michael Masing b. 1836, Russian - Turkish war of 1877, general. From Dorpat Leonhard Masing and Ernst Masing; Otto Wilhelm Masing from Ida-Virumaa and his son Carl Gustav Theodor Masing; Carl Johannes Masing b. 1811 Rakvere, Lääne-Virumaa, Eesti. From Piirsalu, Läänemaa east of Haapsalu, connected to Mari Masing and from Roela, Lääne-Viru County, Estonia - soth-east of Rakvere; and an area south of Viljandi - Valga county; also from Iisaku, Ida-Virumaa, Eesti. Heinkople Ado Masing b. ca 1833 d. 1896 in
Raikküla mõis Lipa, Harjumaa;
from Märjamaa Parish, Rapla County in western Estonia, east of Haapsalu. Christoph Otto Wilhelm Masing; Peter Otto Christoph Masing b. 1811, from Riga; Carl Michael Reinhold Masing, general of artillery.

The Manzing / Mansing / Masing family from Revel are not Estonian, only Swedish descendants and come from Sweden.
On the Bunkin family and Shnaubert:
Carl Shnaubert, a doctor, at the beginning of the XIX century in Moscow.
Constantine Bunkin, Eng., took part in the construction of the first Soviet helicopter.
On the Tsitsin family: Natalia Tsitsin art restorer, a granddaughter of the architect Boris Shnaubert (born in 1925) and Maria - died in 1915. Boris Shnaubert died in 1917. Her father Konstantin Bunkin, engineer.
On the Manfred family:
Albert Z. Manfred 1906 St. Petersburg, his father

Manfred L. Zachar / Zakhar / Zahar, worked as a lawyer in St. Petersburg, the French language was Manfred native one. He studied in St. Petersburg.

About Pampel / Papmel:

Papmel Alexander d. 1958, in France; Papmel E., a native of Finland.

Pampel Eduard 1884 - 1952, Germany, began his career in Russia: Lessner factory in St. Petersburg 1911, then entered the factory Becker in Revel; he worked at the aerodynamic laboratory of the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute 1917, shipbuilding division Putilov factory. Plant Becker was in Revel that is Revel Shipyard BECKER & Co. / Joint Stock Company 'metallurgical, mechanical and shipbuilding plants Becker & Co.' in Reval / Tallinn. During the First World War, it had to be evacuated to Novorossiysk, where it is located on the site of a small factory Muller, Lampe & Co., after which he ever lost shipbuilding specialization. The factory made ​​machine-gun and artillery tower installation of armored trains.

Adolf and his wife, Alexandra, nee Lengold had three children: Andrew (1875 - 1884), Helen (1876 - 1958) and Margaret (1881 - 1882). They intermarried with the families of Repman, Gauthier, Doble, and others.

On the Reppman / Reppmann / Repman - surname:
Margarete Reppmann nee Neufang b. 1840, has sisters Katharina Schneider and Eva Neu, Elisabeth Stahl from Durrenbach, Germany, and next Dorothee Stoll. But the Viljandi district is core area of the Repmann / Reppmann or Repman family in tsarist Russia (all data under copyright of the host geni.com):
Mari Reinoja / Repmann nee Luik, b. 1884, her husband Hans Reinoja / Repmann from Kõo riigimõis, the Viljandi district; his daughters: Anna Repmann b. 1922, Leida Reinoja / Repmann b. 1916, and Amanda Repmann b. 1913 d. 1925 from Kõo vald ca 29 km north of Viljandi. Kai Kamm nee Repman 1833 - 1901, from Soomevere küla, died 1901 in Koksvere küla, Kõo vald. Her brothers: Jaak Repmann (1843 - 1911) from Kõo riigimõis, the Viljandi district (his son: Mihkel Reinoja / Repmann b. 1892 in Kirivere, Kõo riigimõis, Pilistvere khk, Viljandimaa - ca 40 km north of Viljandi) and Hans Repmann b. 1841 from Soomevere küla and died in Viljandi. Ado Repmann (1801 - 1859) from Soomevere küla, Kõo vald - ca 40 km north of Viljandi, his son Jaak Repmann b. 1843. Madli Repmann 1808 from Paluküla anddied in Soomevere.

Repman, Hristianovich Albert (1835 - 1917/18 or 1834 - 1917) - a nobleman, State Councillor, tutor of N. E. Zhukovsky / Н. Е. Жуковски (Nikolai Zhukovsky b. 1847, Russian mechanic, created the science of aerodynamics, professor at Moscow University), director of the Department of Applied Physics, experimenter and researcher in the field of electrical engineering.
Репман, Евгения Альбертовна / Evgenija Repman / Eugene Albertovna (1870-1937) - daughter of Repman, Hristianovich Albert, director of the 1st Moscow cooperative high school - gymnasium of E. A. Repman - Armand; she was the Armand family relatives.
Elena Albertovna Deysha / Deyshu / Георгий Песков (1885-1977) - daughter of A. H. Repman, novelist, Elena graduated from the Higher Courses for Women in Moscow, married a hydraulic engineer Adrian Deyshu Vasilyevich (1886-1952); 1917 they had a son George, 1924 emigration, Elena Albertovna had two sisters and a brother: above Eugene Albertovna (1870-1937), Olga Albertovna (1873/74-1939/40) and Vladimir Albertovich (1876/77-1953).
Others: Repman Vladimir Hristianovich (1869-1924) - Russian Soviet engineer. Repman Edward Hristianovich / Edward Khristianovich (1829-1872/76 or 1829-1876) - the owner of the guest house: Gauthier Dyufaye and K. I. Buhonov. Repman, Christian Christianovich / Репман Христиан Христианович (1843-1927, m. to 1. Бейер Наталья Емельяновна, 2. Krauze / Krause / Краузе Юлия Богдановна).

Christian Karlovic or Karlovich Reppmann / Repman / son of Karl Reppmann

(brothers of above Hristan Karlovic / Christian Karlovich Reppmann: Repman Karl Karlovich, Repman Philip Karlovic; the father of Christian Karlovic or Hristan Karlovich Reppmann / Repman: Reppmann Karl Christian, died in Montjoie or Monzhua / Manshau, his wife Straasin Anna Katarina Elisabeta born 1760; her father Straasin Iohann Mary, b. 1727, mother Maria Elisabett Buchsbaum) - his youngest son

Christian Christianovich has married two times; his second wife Krauze / Krause / Краузе Юлия Богдановна / Julia Krauss Bogdanovna or Julia Karlovna Krause / Krauze (1870-1943) from Estland / Estonia probably. Above named Repman, Christian Christianovich / Репман Христиан Христианович (1843-1927, m. to 1. Beier / Бейер Наталья Емельяновна, 2. wife Krauze / Krause / Краузе Юлия Богдановна / Julia Krauss Bogdanovna or Julia Karlovna Krause / Krauze (1870-1943) from Estland / Estonia probably).

Repman or REPPMANN CHRISTIANS KARLOVICH b. 1798 in Monzhua or Manshau, Germany now, Flamand / Flomandiya (acc. to: geni.com and vgd.ru, All Russia Family Tree, is a kind of 'Who is (and was) who in Russia' site with display of family links; Copyright by Kotelnikov S. D., Birukova L. V., 1998 - 2014. But we know about Nieder Monjou / Nieder-Monjou, НИДЕРМОНЖУ, Бобровка, 1917 – Самарская goverment), died in Moscow.

Wife of above Christian Karlovic or Karlovich Reppmann / Repman / Christian son of Karl Reppmann: Dupuy / DuPuy / noble form du Puy / du Puis / Дюпюи Констанция Константиновна (b. 1810, Moscow - 1880, Moscow; we know about Jean Baptiste Édouard Louis Camille Du Puy b. 1770, singer, born in Corcelles-Cormondrèche, Canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland, next in Geneva, Paris, Copenhagen, Stockholm);
her children: Repman Edward Hristianovich 1829-1872, Repman Arkady Hristianovich 1831-1883 + wife Marian Ingram Ivanovna, Repman Emily Hristianovich 1833-1905 (a teacher of the 2nd Moscow Gymnasium. His son Repman Vladimir Emilevich - a member of the Society of Art and Literature. Emily Hristianovich Repman has wife Adele V. Gauthier / Gouthier), Repman Albert Hristianovich 1835-1918 (wife Krauze / Krause / Краузе Юлия Богдановна / Julia Krauss Bogdanovna or Julia Karlovna Krause / Krauze 1870-1943 from Estland / Estonia probably; she was after the second wife of Repman, Christian Christianovich / Репман Христиан Христианович), Repman Adele Christianovna 1838 + Leo / Lew Burggaller husband, Repman Matilda Christianovna 1840-1913, Repman Christian Christianovich 1843-1927 (1. Natalia Beyer Emelyanovna, 2. Julia Krause Bogdanovna / nee Krauss), Repman Christianovna Ermania / Ehrmann / Репман Эрмания Христиановна 1845-1931 (husband Byukseymeyster Andrey).

Next figures:
Christian Gottfrid Reppmann, his wife Iohanna Eleonora Rudolfin.
Repman Eduard Abramovich, 1870 in Moscow, lived in the city of Orel. Arrested in 1937, was shot.

Hereditary honorary citizen (Adolf Armand!?) A. A. Armand in 1884 donated 1,000 rubles for this school, after his son Andrew Armand was a former pupil of the gymnasium. I am thinking on Adolf Armand and his wife, Alexandra, nee Lengold had three children, oldest Andrew (1875 - 1884).

Faina Nikolaevna Chatchaturian - her mother was friend of Haina / Chiena Armand, wife of younger son of Inessa Armand, Andrei Armand.

Emil E. was married to Sophia nee Osipovna Hecke (Hakker, Hacker, Hekke). They had six children: Leo (1880 - 1942), Natalie (1881 - ?), Mary (1883 -), Sophia (1885 - 1923?), Paul (1887 - 1892), Eugene (1890 -). They intermarried with the family Kindinger and others.

On the Hacker or Hakker family from Estonia:
Hacker / Hakker / Kotri Hangelaid or Gottfried Hacker or Hakker b. 1887 d. 1961; his son Gert Hacker / Hangelaid; his brother Hugo Wilhelm Eduard Hacker b. 1884; his father Wilhelm Hacker b. 1852, grandfather (Szymon) Siim Hacker b. 1817. About above named Gottfried Hacker or Hakker: engineer, Wismar Polytechnic 1909 - 1913, Lehola / Leola 1913, Kunda 1918.
Gottfried Hacker or Hakker was living in Harjumaa, Lehola / Leola in 1913.
About above Siim Hacker b. 1817; his sons: Constantin Johann Hacker b. 1859 d. on February 28, 1926 in Keila - Keila town is 5 km north-east of Lehola, Harju County, and Keila is west of Saku; Gustav Hacker b. 1854 Hiiumaa - island, west of Haapsalu, died on September 28, 1917 in Tallinn, Harjumaa (his daughter Olga-Pauline Hacker b. 1876 d. 1877).

Samples:
Hacker / Hakker / Häcker, Wilhelm Ferdinand, born in 1774, d. Riga 27. 11. 1842; his sons: 1. Ferdinand Eduard Hacker, Dorpat 4. 11. 1812, d. Riga 1877, m. in Lübeck in 1835 to Friederike Hernquist; 2. Woldemar Magnus Hacker, Riga 27. 10. 1818, d. 1888, m. in Riga 1851 to Juliane Georgine Mittmann, second married to Carolina Meyenn; his sons: 1. Julius Hacker (1852-1896), 2. Wilhelm Woldemar Hacker b. Riga in 1859, m. in Riga in 1900 to Erna Burkhard; son: Fritz Woldemar Jacob Hacker born in Riga 1903.

Lehola:
here was born in 1740 Christian Wilhelm / Христиан Вильгельм Гернет died ca 1819, born in Lehhola / Lehola as above, Estonia - and his sons:
1. Hans Moritz von Gernet born 1775 died 1860 (his son Adam Oskar von Gernet 1834 in Reval - 1908 in Reval - and his son: Moritz Nikolai Oswald von Gernet born 1867 Sallenstad - d. ?) and 2. Otto Heinrich von Gernet (1780 Reval - 1848) and 3. Frederick Wilhelm / Fridrich Wilhelm / Фридрих Вильгельм Гернет born 1783 died 1857; and next son born in 1747 Karl Gustaw von Gernet / Карл Густав Гернет (Carl Gustav von Gernet born in Waikna and died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia with son Karl Iogann / Carl Iohan von Gernet - Waikna / Vaikna that is support manor of Koluvere manor, Kullamaa Parish in Läänemaa County; 38 km east of Haapsalu and also east of Kiideva, north-west-north of Parnu, 70 km circa.
Sophia nee Armand was the daughter of Ivan Armand from his second marriage and was born c. 1830, she was granddaughter of Paul that is Pavel. She married a Swede from Estonia - Joseph Hekke (Hacker or Hakker among others from Lehola) about 1850. No data about this Swede but this family gone from Estland / Eesti / Estonia. From this marriage was the oldest Maria Osipovna that is daughter of Osip / Joseph. She was born about 1851. The second child was 12 years later, and was born about 1863 - Sophia Osipovna. And about 1864 Alexandr son. When their parents died c. 1866, a guardian was appointed - uncle Evgeny 'second'. He put children in his office in the Old Square and Evgeny hired a governess for the children about 1867.
Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan Armand and his first wife Elizabeth Osipovna (born 1788, died 1817) called Sabina, and the second wife was Marie Barbe, born Kolinon (1780 - 1872) who had a daughter Sophia, later married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hekke / Joseph Hekke (Hacker or Hakker from Estonia, but roots from Sweden or Sverige?!) about 1850. The COLLIGNON family in France was living in Lorraine 1835 (Meuse), Ile-de-France 1725, and in Russia 1858, in St Petersburg.

Samples:
Hacker / Hakker / Häcker, Wilhelm Ferdinand, born in 1774, d. Riga 27. 11. 1842; his sons: 1. Ferdinand Eduard Hacker, Dorpat 4. 11. 1812, d. Riga 1877, m. in Lübeck in 1835 to Friederike Hernquist; 2. Woldemar Magnus Hacker, Riga 27. 10. 1818, d. 1888, m. in Riga 1851 to Juliane Georgine Mittmann, second married to Carolina Meyenn; his sons: 1. Julius Hacker (1852-1896), 2. Wilhelm Woldemar Hacker b. Riga in 1859, m. in Riga in 1900 to Erna Burkhard; son: Fritz Woldemar Jacob Hacker born in Riga 1903.

In Estonia, the use of electricity began in 1882 at the Manufactory of Kreenholm, but the first public power - 108 or 100 kW and 220 V - launched November 2, 1907 in Pärnu. The first industrial power plant was built at the Kunda cement factory in 1893.

Kotri Hangelaid or Gottfried Hacker or Hakker b. 1887 d. 1961 in Germany, graduated from Wismar Polytechnical School as certified engineer, 1913 lived in LEHOLA.
Designed and built Estonian first electric power plant to Aru bog, on rented land from Kunda manor and the first high-voltage line 15 kV between different areas, which on 18 Oct. 1918 brought electricity to Rakvere. 1919 - 1939 was living in Tallinn. 1939 emigrated to Germany.

Kunda in Kirchspiel Maholm, Viru-Nigula Parish in Virumaa County, at present the Kunda Municipality in Lääne-Virumaa County. Viru-Nigula Parish - 25 km east-north of Rakvere, 13 km south-east of Kunda. "At the end of 1860s the owner of Kunda Manor John Girard de Soucanton became interested in the possibility of producing cement. Since 1893 steam engines were used for mining raw material, and a hydroelectric power station was completed at the same time (the first in all Estonia)". Gustav John Edmund Baron Girard de Soucanton, from Selgs b. 1863 in Kunda. His wife Sophie Eleonore (Ellinor) Girard de Soucanton (von Rosenbach). His grandfather from Reval, Johann Carl Baron Girard de Soucanton b. 1785. The Girard family was originally from the French countryside Languedoc - Roussillon.

Bliebernicht Johann Eduard began producing beer in 1869. He was bought in Pärnu a mechanical plant. In 1910 introduced the first electric motors.

As a young man, Evgeny Armand was a clerk - official at a German factory in Vanteevke near by Bolshevo about 1845, i
n 1853 Evgeny bought dyeing factory in Pushkino, Moscow Province, from the French owner, Favard; in 1859, Evgeny build a second factory close to this one; c. 1865 Evgeny built a house and made it his residence. In addition there were houses in Moscow, four-story office in the Old Square, at the corner Varvarka, an apartment house in the German market, the trading house on Vozdvizhenka street near the Arbat Square. They were co-owners of the Firm 'E. Armand and his sons', and two textile factories in the Moscow suburb, owned houses in Moscow and estates in the suburbs, were members of the charitable community organizations.  

A brothers Brilling, Nicholas R. and Eugene R., big engineers of engines, operating in the Soviet era and even after World War II, Nikolai Romanovich was a famous theorist, honored worker of science, the brothers were married to two sisters Armand. There were another of the next of kin, Dr. Kohl and K. Fedosov and KonstantynowiczThe middle brother, Adolph E. was, in contrast to his elder brother. Three brothers lived lavishly, but these great bourgeois clan Armand began to decline but t
he 'Evgenii Armand and Sons' Company by 1912 had two thousand employees. However, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, all Armand continued to live in Pushkino and Nicholas Vladislavovich Ivinsky was here as governor.  

1909 - 1910 

Battleships 'Sevastopol', 'Petropavlovsk', 'Poltava' and 'Gangut' were laid in June 1909 in Petersburg and the construction of new battleships required the use of private businesses: 'Kulebaki association Prodamet', 'Metal',  'Putilov', Obukhov, 'G. A. Lessner' and of course for electrical equipment, plants 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.', 'Volta', 'Universal Company of Electricity', 'Geisler and Erickson'.
Acc. to: R. M. Melnikov, 'The battleship "Emperor Pavel I" 1906 - 1925', "... the beginning of all this work (with 'Emperor Pavel I') relates to 1906, when the plants have started to implement orders in mine arms, and until 1912 the ship is in a period of buildings and testing. During this time, were made all the principal mine works, equipped with facilities, installed devices, pumps, duct, radio, floodlights, alarm systems and all electrical installations. Since 1912, the ship enters into ... fleet ... Ship's electrical systems ... the ship in 1911 taken from plants: the Baltic, Volta, Geisler, 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' and from the Kronshtadt port. ... In 1911, on the march back from Kronstadt to Revel was acceptance ... electric steering device, manufactured by the 'Volta'. ... there are two portable electric water turbines made by 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' tested in 1912 ... Two electric winches ... were installed at the ship and manufactured by 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' in 1911. ... shunt motor for polishing metal capacity of 1 kilowatt ... in 1911 made by the 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' and installed on a ship ... In 1912, from the plant of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', were two 90-cm projectors of Sotter with gilt metal parabolic reflectors. Spotlight placed on the anterior and posterior bridges on the rails, which can be rolled from side to side...".

The Ministry of the Navy ordered 32 of the fortress spotlight diameter of 210 cm of an Italian company 'Officine Galileo' for Revel at the beginning of 1914. When the war began contract was terminated, and the Castle Management Committee arranged a competition among Russian electrical engineering firms. 16 spotlights a diameter of 200 cm gave Russian branch of the Siemens - Schuckert factory in St Petersburg, and spotlights with smaller diameters (all 60) - The Company electromechanical structures (former 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz'). In the meantime, had to interrupt the test of Italian spotlight (The Officine Galileo / Galileo Workshop is an important Italian manufacturer of scientific instruments; at present - scientific instruments for satellites; located in Campi Bisenzio, in the province of Florence, 1862 by Giovanni Battista Donati, Angelo Vegni, and after Guglielmo Marconi; 1873, the production was extended to electric tools, lighting, optical instruments, periscopes, stereoscopic rangefinders) and set it on the Weems peninsula. The War Department has transferred to the fortress a spotlights to the north coast of the island Nargen and another on Surop peninsula near Marah.


Curiosity: on 28 August 1909 a robbery at a very mysterious circumstances, committed in the night of August 14 at the factory company 'L. Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' on Lopukhinsky Street. The plant was guarded by night watchmen, but from the office was stolen 5000 rubles. The money were intended for delivery to the workers. One key had got a porter, the other an accountant and no traces on the walls.
In 1910 reveals 'Aeronautic Division' of 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' in St. Petersburg to deliver a business aviation on an industrial basis.

1892 -  1910 


"In 1892, Swiss citizen, L. F. Dyuflon / Duflon (built in St. Petersburg plant for the production of electrical equipment and) opened in St. Petersburg 'Electrical studio'. In the same year 1892 L. F. Dyuflon / Duflon concluded a cooperation agreement with Moscow businessman A. Konstantinovich / Константинович / Apollon (Apollo) Konstantynowicz son of Wasyl / Wasilij Константинович, the owner of the technical office. Copyright by Encyclopedia of Russian Merchants, E-mail: okipr@yandex.ru © 2004 ОБЩЕСТВО КУПЦОВ И ПРОМЫШЛЕННИКОВ. Apollo / Apollon Konstantynowicz / Константинович with wife Anna Armand
Together they take on more complex projects, and soon the company was the first military orders. Only a few years, and its mechanisms and electrical devices are mounted on Russian shipyards, battleships and to coastal artillery batteries ... in 1896 Konstantynowicz and K. Dyuflon build a new plant and establish joint-stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and company'. The firm 'Deca' in addition to the main office in St. Petersburg, which was headed by Dyuflon opens branch in Moscow (headed by Konstantynowicz / Константинович). Soon the production of 'Deca' is widely known, and representative of JSC appear in Kharkov and Yekaterinburg / Ekaterinburg, address: Main Avenue, the Izboldin house, ... industrial regions of Ukraine, Tavria, Volga and Ural. Business are growing along with demand for high quality equipment. It is planned to open offices in Kronstadt, Revel (now Tallinn), Nikolayev and Sevastopol. For the development of new products plant 'Deca' in St. Petersburg is equipped with latest imported equipment specially purchased in France, England and America, but do not stop and his own. Beginning of the twentieth century marked ... the conquest of the air disaster. There are first guided balloons - airships and fundamentally new type of technology - the airplane. While this is not transportation, but rather fun. Undertake the construction of single-aircraft enthusiasts. ... of 1910 reveals 'Aeronautic Division' in St. Petersburg to deliver a business aviation on an industrial basis. In 1912 JSC 'Deca' is participating in the tender for the construction of airships for the military departments of Russia. The airship was constructed in full conformity with technical specifications and tested in 1913. The experiment was considered successful and commercially viable, and in the same year was founded a specialized aviation workshop as a structural part of the company 'Deca' (shareholders are thinking about such promising areas as aeronautics and aviation and aircraft engines). When the First World War broke out, JSC 'Deca' has received a loan to expand aircraft production under the production of airplanes and engines, from domestic materials. But space, material and manpower resources to carry out new plans in the Russian capital was not enough, and we had to consider options for building a new plant in the province. Among them was a small town Aleksandrovsk in Ekaterinoslav province" (Copyright 2006 - 2011 by 'Science & Technology', No 10 (53), 2010). 

The 'Duflon and Konstantinovich' Company Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8:

Evgeny / Armand Evgenii / Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, hereditary honorable citizen, counselor, chairman of the Board of the Association of woolen goods factory 'Eugene Armand and his sons'; chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company'; Maria Paszkowska / Paszkovski has got three sons: Eugene / Eugeniusz the 'third', Adolph / Adolf and Emilie / Emil Armand / Aрманд (Eugene born about 1842, Adolph b. circa 1845 and Emilie about 1847), Eugene / Evgeny was a merchant of the first guild and trading - manufacturing advisor;
his wife, Barbara Karlovna Demonets / De Monets or DEMONTET had 12 children
:
Anna (1866 - 1932) Konstantynowicz,
Mary (1868 - 1942),
Alexandr / Alexander (1870 - 1943) Armand - hereditary honorable citizen and candidate for the Board Member of the Association of woolen factory 'Eugene Armand and Sons', a board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company',
Vera / Wiera (1871 - 1942),
Nicholas (1872 - 1936) / Mikolaj Armand,
Vladimir (1874 - 1875),
Eugene (1876 ​​- 1920) that is Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, hereditary honorable citizen, counselor, chairman of the Board of the Association of woolen goods factory 'Eugene Armand and his sons', chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company',
Boris (1878 - 1920),
Sophia (1881 - 1941),
Sergei (1882 - 1945),
Barbara (1882 - 1966),
Vladimir (1885 - 1909) Armand who joined a Social Democratic propaganda group in Moscow and was arrested but his sister Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz helped finance party organizations; see: Inessa Armand and Lenin.


Nikolai Danilovich Liesienko
who represented the interests of the company in St. Petersburg
1906 - 1914,

Louis F. Duflon who lived since 1908 in Switzerland,

Alexander E. Armand /
Armand Alexandr, hereditary honorable citizen and candidate for Board Member of the Association of woolen factory 'Eugene Armand and Sons'; a board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company',

count Sergei von Gernet son of Pavel Gernet from Estland province, Von Gernet S. P., a nobleman, a retired captain and board member: the Company 'Bahmugskaya salt' / society 'Bahmutskiy salt', the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and the Company of metallurgical, mechanical and shipbuilding plants 'Becker and Co.',

Emil I. Ramseyer - Swiss citizen, the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, chairman of the Board of the 'Atlas' Society in St. Petersburg; his brother Ramseyer Y. I., Swiss citizen was also the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank and Director of the Company 'Sormovo',

count Albert R. de Gern / Gernet ? / де Герн граф Альберт Романович Earl, member of the Russian-French Chamber of Commerce, Board Member: The Russian-French Commercial Bank and the Society of the Bryansk factories; the secretary of French society 'Russian Mining and Metallurgical Union', the French agent in Russia, and member of the board of 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company.

The Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank is a creditor of the company, in affairs which were also the Nobels - Joint Stock Company 'Dyuflon, Konstantinovich and Company' (Gindin, 1997, p. 125); Swiss citizen, Louis Edward Antone (Louis Franzevich) Dyuflon opened in St. Petersburg industrial business in 1892, when he founded a factory for manufacturing electrical equipment at the Apothekary island. Since 1896, the company was owned by a trading house (then a partnership) of 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz, Diserens / Dizeren and Co'. In 1901 it was transformed into 'Dyuflon, Constantinovich and Co.' - former, electromechanical - technical facilities of the Joint Stock Company, with a registered capital of 750 thousand rubles (1500 registered and bearer shares at 500 rubles). The Society was a production partner of the Ludvig Nobel Company, including participation in its shipbuilding activities (electrical supply), as it represented the interests of Russia in France: company Sautter, Harle et Co; by 1909, the company amounted to 548,956 rubles, including the manufacture of electric motors and appliances of 327 thousand rubles, from production winders - 101 thousand rubles. On the eve of World War I, the company met with the participation in the production of electrical equipment for construction a submarine. In 1912 the plant produced its first high frequency machine for wireless telegraphy and telephony. Also made ​​of an electric pumps, fans, general-purpose motors, refrigerations. By 1913, the share capital was increased to 1.5 million rubles (1,500 shares of 500 rubles. And 7500 of 100 rubles). Assets - 4,181,995 rubles; dividend of 12% per share of 500 rubles and 3 % per share of 100 rubles. The Board consists of E. E. Armand (chairman), L. F. Dyuflon (from 1908 lived in Switzerland), A. E. Armand, S. P. Gernet, E. I. Ramsayer (a board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank) and K. F. Masson. On the eve of World War I he gave way to the director's place for L. L. Nobel, who became the representative of the interests of the family in the society. It is noteworthy that by the time E. L. Nobel became a shareholder and board member of another major company producing military products - the Company for the manufacture and sale of gunpowder, dynamite - B. I. Winner. This company will take part in the manufacture of weapons for underwater vessels. We are talking about the financial support of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank for building of ships in Revel, diesel engines, mine arms (Lessner and B. I. Winner), electrotechnic (Company Dyuflon, Constantinovich & Co.) and hydraulic (Phoenix) equipment. Noblessner as the central group of 15 individuals and legal persons owning 30 thousand shares (3 million rubles), that is: 1. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank introduced 10 thousand, 2. chairman Я. И. Утин / Y. I. Utin - 3 thousand, 3. Э. И. Рамсайер / E. I. Ramseyer (member of the Board) - 3 thousand, 4. E. L. Nobel - three thousand, 5. A. Bachmanew - 2400, and 6. others: L. L. Nobel - 1000.

Masson Ph. Charles / CHARLE Masson son of Philiberte / Antoine Philibert Masson / Masson Antoine-Philibert (name Masse by Russian language) was Vice - Chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon' in St. Petersburg (then L. L. Nobel succeed him) and a member of the Board of Nabpolts (Moscow).

His father probably:
Antoine Philibert Masson / Masson Antoine-Philibert, born 1806 in Auxonne and died 1860 in Paris, is a French physicist; "...he was responsible for the invention of the induction coil (with Louis Breguet) that bears Ruhmkorff's name. He realized tests telegraph transmission in ... Caen (in 1831, after a year of teaching mathematics at Montpellier, he moved to Caen, where he taught physical sciences at the College Royal until 1839; unaware of the discoveries of Joseph Henry or William Jenkins, Masson in 1834 observed independently the self-induction of a voltaic circuit; he described his investigation of this phenomenon and, ... demonstrated the tetanic effect of a series of rapidly repeated self-induced currents; ... Masson constructed some of the earliest induction coils). His research and publications cover areas as diverse as photometry, induction, the movement of fluids ... Antoine MASSON is the descendant of a family of cloth merchants from Burgundy. His father, Pierre Antoine Masson Fourth (the name of his wife) had studied pharmacy ... and will move to Dijon when the young Antoine just 6 years. ...In 1839, he was appointed professor of physics at the ... Ecole Centrale de Paris. With Breguet, it carries an electric telegraph in 1838 and in 1841, the first inductor to study electrical discharges in rarefied gases (in 1841, together with Louis Breguet, he described a high-tension induction coil of the type Ruhmkorff subsequently perfected ... in 1836 successfully defended a doctoral thesis elaborating Ampere's work in electrodynamics, Masson had returned to Paris and from 1841 taught physics at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand and at the Ecole Centrale ... until his death in 1860). Thereafter, the coil will keep the name Ruhmkorff coil... Masson ... establish the theory of wind instruments ("...between 1844 and 1854 he conducted an intensive investigation of the spark produced by electrical discharges through various media; ... with L. Courtepee and J. C. Jamin, he also examined ... the absorption of radiant heat and light by different substances ... he investigated aspects of electrical telegraphy, acoustics, the elasticity of solid bodies, and the discharge of induction coils through partial vacuums, as well as related chemical and physical problems").
... biography of MASSON family.
In 1830, Victor, cousin of Anthony, goes to PARIS ... publish several technical books and ... Victor Masson became the founder of Editions Masson...".

Nobel L. L. (descendant of Ludvig and Edla Nobel),
 Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel, 1874 - 1935, hereditary honorable citizen, Director of the Company 'Gear-Tsitroen' (Citroen) and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and a machine factory of Company 'Ludvig Nobel'.

Descendants of Immanuel Nobel, the younger b. 1801 and Andriette Ahlsell: Robert Nobel b. 1829, Alfred Nobel b. 1833 - the inventor of dynamite, instituted the Nobel Prizes, Emil Oskar Nobel and Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831 - is buried in the Smolensky Lutheran Cemetery in St. Petersburg.
Descendants of Ludvig and Mina Nobel: Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 d. 1932 (Branobel's second president and being interested in the encryption business correspondence, Carl Wilhelm Hagelin and Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel were an investors of the AB Cryptograph Company, in the production cipher machines developed Arvid Damm, like a rotary machine Electrocryptograph B-1), Carl Nobel b. 1862;
and descendants of Ludvig and Edla Nobel: Esther Wilhelmina Olsen-Nobel, Ludvig Alfred (Lullu) Nobel b. 1874 (Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company), Ingrid Hildegard Nobel-Ahlqvist b. 1879, Marta Helena Nobel-Oleinikoff b. 1881, Rolf Nobel, Emil Waldemar Ludvig Nobel and last Gustaf Oscar Ludvig.

Zhurnollo L. A. (Dziurnollo?), engineer and commerce adviser, factory director and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', a board member of the Society of Tver city railway,

Mr Breguet - the engineer of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', company representative, Swiss citizen and friend of Drzewiecki.

And others top members of the 'Duflon...':
Azbelev Peter Pavlovich, b. Febr. the 27, 1868 in Vologda, a retired major-general of the Russian fleet, P. P. Azbelev also was Director of the Electromechanical Plant of the Society 'Dyuflon,  Konstantynowicz and Company'; a board member of society 'Bahmutskiy salt',
Fedor Illarionovich Stupak - in 1898 he was appointed to the plant manager and in 1911 to the position of chief engineer of the plant 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' in St Petersburg (to 1916),
Valentin Petrovich Vologdin, 1881 - 1953, Valentin Petrovich was working as technical director of 'Duflon...',
Nikolaj Romanowicz Brilling, elaborated aeroengine with two opposite pistons when acted as chief in DEKA factory (Duflon either  Duflou or Dufflon & Konstantynowicz) in Zaporozhye 1916 - 1918.

Source: 'amburger' domain:
Sergius Gernet Pavlovič, b. 12.12.1859 / 24.12.1859 in Narva, Russia; education: a Seeschool, from 15 September 1875, Guard Marin Fleet from 05 January 1879; a training from 28 January 1884, merchant navy 20 October 1886, reserve 02 December 1890 as Kptn. 2 class, occupation: 'Gov. Duflon and Konstantinovič and Co.' 1912; ownership, owner of 'Tudor' Factory in Petersburg 1897; 30 August 1880 'micman', from 01/01/1885 Lieutenant, from 02/12/1890 Cptn 2 Class,

Louis Duflon Francov. born in Villeneuve, died 1930; wife Duflon, Marie Josephine. Top member of the Duflon and Konstantinovič Comp., from Swiss, Vaud district; mathematicians and ownership of the 'Duflon, Konstantinovič and Co. Mechan. Workshop', Saint Petersburg from 1893, owner of factory 08/06/1901 (Rauber, industry).

Edward Duflon / Eduard, from Swiss; owner of Duflon, Konstantinovič & Company Mechan. Workshop 1895 in Saint Petersburg. Acc. to 'amburger' we have two different figures with last name Duflon.

Emil Ramseyer Iv., born 1863 and died 1925; from Swiss, Bern, occupation: 'Gov. Peter. Loan (Učetnyj i Ssudnyj Bank) Bank' in 1917; Chrm. of the 'Atlas Petrograd'; top member of the 'Deka' that is Duflon, Konstantinovič and Co.; top member of "Volta" and Oil N. Hartmann.

The Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel, close to border on France, and area north of Lausanne and Neuchatel: La Chaux-de-Fonds is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuchâtel. It is located few kilometres south of the French border. Its growth and prosperity is mainly bound up with the watch making industry. It is the most important centre of the watch making industry in the area known as the Watch Valley. Completely destroyed by a fire in 1794; from St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne, Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, Tavannes, north of Neuchatel.

Villeneuve is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located ca 30 km east-south of Lausanne; Duflon family gone from Nimes 1584, Lutry 1852, Neuchatel, in Paris 1801 - 1877 Louis Duflon and Duflon J.-F., landlord in Bouligneux in France west of Geneve. François / Françoise Duflon from Riex (Lavaux) and Villeneuve was born in 1831 in La Tour-de-Peilz, where his father was a teacher. He attended the College of Vevey, where he was a professor; 1876 Lausanne, 1906 d'Ardon, south-east of Villeneuve. La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km.

Acc. to A. SAUTER, 'RELIEUR...', ed. NEUCHATEL and Geneve, 1899: Valais, ...societe evalaisanne des Sciences naturelles, Vice-President: M. Emile Burnat, a Nant-sur-Vevey, M. Wilczek from Lausanne and M. F. Duflon from Villeneuve.

Acc. to: The Electrician, October 16, 1885:
"...Copper and bronzes prepared under such conditions are much used for aerial telegraph and telephone lines... A Wheatstone bridge, a differential galvanometer, a battery of four cups, and a contact key complete the apparatus. ... And made upon a great number a specimens, were made in part by the writer at the workshop at Angouleme with the assistance of Messrs. X. Muller and J. Stahl, engineers of the establishment, and partly by M. Duflon, electrical engineer in the measuring room of M. Sciami, director of the Maison Breguet. These latter experiments were those made upon the bars themselves. ... Their conductivities compared with silver and pure copper are given in the ... table: silver...".

Emmanuel Nobel / Immanuel the younger b. 1801 died 1872, the inventor of underwater mines. In 1842 - 1859 he lived in St. Petersburg, where he founded a mechanical plant. Robert E. Nobel (1829 - 1896) was born in Sweden but his mother came to St. Petersburg and since 1850 he has worked at the factory of his father, after worked for many years in companies that founded together with his brothers: Alfred Bernhard Nobel b. 1833, founder of the Nobel Prizes - in Russia became acquainted with the works of Zinin and V. F. Petrushevskii / Pietruszewski in chemical engineering nitroglycerin. Ludvig Nobel b. 1831 died 1888, member of the Russian Technical Society, in St. Petersburg acted for 'Ludwig Nobel' / 'Russian diesel', in 1876 he founded with brothers Robert and Alfred and with his sons:
Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and
Carl:
Oil Industry Company / Branobel / Tovarichtchestvo Nephtanavo Proisvodtsva Bratiev Nobel in Baku. He moved with his mother Andriette and brothers Robert and Alfred to St Petersburg in 1842 where his father Immanuel had set up a factory. He bought his own smaller factory that he called the 'Machine-Building Factory Ludvig Nobel'. There, he made cannons, gun carriages, underwater mines and artillery missiles, machine tools, hydraulic presses. Together with Russian Major General Peter A. Bilderling and his brother, he built up a model factory in Izhevsk in the Urals. Ludvig and his son Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, visited Baku in 1876. In 1879, the 'Naftaproduktionsaktiebolaget Bröderna Nobel', shortened to Branobel, was formed in St. Petersburg.

Above Ludvig Immanuel Nobel b. 1831, was an engineer, m. 1st. time in 1858 to Mina Ahlsell and 2nd time in 1871. Ludvig ran the company with his sons Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and Carl. His first and illegitimate child, Hjalmar Crusell, was head of a laboratory and the closest person in St Petersburg.
Most of the people in the managerial staff were Swedes, but was also a man from Norway, Hans Olsen who came to Kronstadt to work in 1880 and met Ludvig Nobel's sons, Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859 and Carl, in the Russian capital.

Second person Michael Belyamin, born in 1831 worked with Ludvig Nobel as an engineer with management responsibilities. In 1880 he was elected as a member of the Supervisory Board of the company to 1899. His son, Michael Belyamin jr, was a mining engineer and lived in St. Petersburg until 1919. Above named Peter Bilderling, born in 1844 was from a Courlandish noble family, was promoted to the rank of major general. He was one of the members of the Branobel administration from 1885 and one of the members of the Supervisory Board of the company until he died. Ludvig’s first child was born out of wedlock in 1856. His name was Hjalmar Crusell. Ludvig married his cousin Wilhelmina Mina Ahlsell who died in 1869. Together they had the children Emanuel, born in 1859, Carl in 1862 and Anna in 1866. Ludvig later married Edla Colin and they had seven children: Mina born in 1873, Ludvig in 1874 that is Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel (1874 - 1935) was married 1901 to Mary Minnie Johnson b. 1876, Ingrid in 1879, Marta in 1881, Rolf in 1882, Emil in 1885 and Gosta in 1886. Above Emmanuel Nobel Jr. b. 1859 in 1888 - 1917 headed the company 'Ludwig Nobel' and other enterprises and he played an important role in business organizations in Russia. In early 1918, went to Sweden.

Ludwig Nobel and then his son Emmanuel, who skillfully managed the 'Branobel' till 1920, when Bolshevik Red Army invaded in Baku and nationalized the oil industry, considered Baku (Villa Petrolea) as their second home.

All above data according to http://www.branobelhistory.com/themes/the-nobel-brothers/ludvig-nobel-enters-the-fight-for-oil/ by editor@branobelhistory.com. Under copyright with statement: 'Use of Content from this Website. The Centre for Business History in Stockholm (CBHS) provides the content on this website. The CBHS invites visitors to use its online content for personal, educational and other non-commercial purposes. By using the Branobel History Website, you accept and agree to abide by the following terms...'.

Institutionalization of interest in the structure of the authorized capital of the Noblessner as the central group was as following: from 15 individuals and legal persons owning 30 thousand shares (3 million rubles) 1. the Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank - 10 thousand shares, 2. Я. И. Утин / Y. I. Utin - 3 thousand, 3. Э. И. Рамсайер / E. I. Ramseyer (a member of the Board) - 3 thousand, 4. E. L. Nobel / Э. Л. Нобель - three thousand, 5. А. А. Бачманов / A. Bachmanov - - 2400, 6. Г. И. Кольц / G. I. Kolc - 2400, 7. М. С. Плотников / M. S. Plotnikov - 1200, L. L. Nobel - 1000. The structure of the new company: Э. Л. Нобель (E. L. Nobel - director) and М. И. Шишмарев / M. I. Shishmarev - Ph. D.; from the JSC Loessner / Lessner - M. S. Plotnikov, (director) and A. Bachmanov; M. S. Plotnikov continued be a technical director and assistant direktor of the JSC G. A. Lessner; A. A. Bachmanov / Batshmanov served as a board member and managing director of the JSC G. A. Lessner. As an independent director of the Noblessner was elected nobleman A. Shaub / A. Schaub / А. В. Шауб, co-owner of two St. Petersburg industrial enterprises, acc. to: M. N. Baryshnikov, Noblessner: Formation of Financial and Industrial Group in St. Petersburg in the Early Twentieth Century, ed. 2013 - this article is devoted to the research of the formation of financial and industrial group Nobel-Lessner in St. Petersburg in the early twentieth century. It should be noted that for the Nobel interest is important activities of his brother (cousin acc. to me) - Gustav Schaub, owner of the mechanical production company in Estonia and director of the Society Volta in Revel (company, also co-operated with the Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, specialised in the production of dynamo maschines and electricity motors, and in 1917 its authorized capital amounted to 2,000,000 rubles) and Director of the Company called Karl Winkler in St. Petersburg. Society Volta supplied also the plant Noblessner in Revel / Tallinn.

Василий Васильевич Шауб / Wilhelm Schaub / Wilhelm Johann-Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub, 1861 - 1934. Vasily Schaub / Wilhelm Johann Christian, Russian architect, also being built in Moscow, Saratov, Yekaterinburg. Son of Василии Иванович Шауб (1834 in Göttingen, d. 1905 in St Petersburg, Russia) / Wilhelm Karl Albert Emil Schaub. Göttingen is a university town in Lower Saxony. Grandson of Johann Schaub or Ivan Schaub (b. ca 1800 ?). Wilhelm Johann Vassili Vassilyevitsh Schaub was father of Woldemar Schaub and Gustav Schaub. Brother of Amalia Marie Julie Wasmer (1862 Petersburg - 1935 Berlin, wife of Richard Julius Wasmer); Alexander Schaub (1866 - 1934, husband of Emma, father of Boris Schaub; Wera Kudrevich / Wiera Kudrewicz and Alexander Schaub junior) and Heinrich Wilhelm Schaub. All above data acc. to Karin Lindsalu Heermeyer at geni.com, his mother Julia Maria Schaub nee Zeh. Above Gustav Schaub, b. ca 1885? husband of Sophie, father of Sophie younger. Brother of Woldemar Schaub who was husband of Waleska Schaub / NN nee Walewska?

The Schaub family also from Geneve, Suisse. And Bâle / Basel, canton de Bâle-Ville. Luke (Lucas) Schaub, come from Bâle / Basel was born 1690 and died in London, 1758; received an education in Basel, his father, imperial notary; Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchâtel to learn the French language, after law school; Abraham Stanian, British Ambassador in Switzerland gave him various missions; also, Lord Corbham, British Ambassador in Vienna, take Schaub with him. In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy. SCHAUB, from Neuchâtel, 1868. Lina Schaub / Schwab, 1901 and was living in Bristol, England, but was born in canton de Neuchatel and married John Sidney Milton. It is believed that they died in Bern in the early 1900's; may have been living later in Canton de Friborg.
Schaub William Charles Schaub, b. ca 1812, Hessen-Kassel. His parents were Swiss: Frédéric Schaub and Marie Jeanne Oranthe, from Eptingen (Switzerland - Switzerland north, close to Basel and Olten).
Benjamin Schaub from Neuchâtel;
at present Hans-Rudolf Schaub has been appointed Chief Executive Officer of BNP (Suisse) SA, one of the four BNP Paribas Group companies. Hans-Rudolf Schaub, b. in Basel; 2001 has been appointed Chief Executive Officer of BNP (Suisse) SA, 2006 in Geneve.
Daniel Schaub of Credit Suisse Group AG.
Pierre Schaub from Suisse.
SCHAUB 1889 in the Canton of Basel, Switzerland.
SCHAUB 1862 in Freiburg / Fribourg, Switzerland.
Anna Barbara Schaub, whose parents were born in Switzerland, Barbara born 1832 in Buffalo, NY. Anna Schaub born in Wittinsburg, Baselland, relatives Jacob Schaub (b. 1680). Agnes Schaub circa 1693 from Unterschlatt, Thurgau, Switzerland. Dath in 1892 in Switzerland - Alexander Schaub. Niederhallwil, Aargau, Switzerland: SCHAUB, Jakob 1851, SCHAUB in 1877 m. Louise URECH; SCHAUB Willy 1915; 1855 on SCHAUB Jakob. Frederic SCHAUB born Mellinghen, emmigré in northern France and married Marie Louise Barbet, parents were Swiss, he was born in 1757 in the Swiss canton of Basel; married in 1784 in CALAIS parish with BARBET Marie Louise. Suzanne Jean SCHAUB lived in the canton of Vaud between 1830 and 1866. In Concise, Vaud, close to Grandson, Cortaillod, south-west of Neuchatel; north of Lausanne, ca 45 km. SCHAUB Frederick was born in 1757 in the Swiss canton, Ormalingen - south-east of Basel. Caroline SCHAUB Vienet daughter Suzanne and John SCHAUB, she died in 1894 in CONCISE. F. Vilboux - SCHAUB. Suzanne Vienet - SCHAUB of CONCISE. HENRI Vienet lived in the 1930s in the Vaud, Démoret in the canton of Vaud - ca 30 km north of Lausanne and Cully, 9 km north of Moudon. Louise Suzanne SCHAUB and James Andrews, live in Canada (Vancouver). Next of kin with Sauer family. Basel is the third largest city in Switzerland and capital of the canton of Basel-Stadt. Above named Sir Luke (Lucas) Schaub, born in Basel on 1 May 1690 and died in London.

L'Abbaye, is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, town from where the Breguet family came to Paris; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne. The Schaub family (see: Tallinn Volta, Urban, and loan bank in St Petersburg with the Nobels, near by the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Stock Society in Petersburg, Zaporoze and Moscow) in the Vaud province in Switzerland in 19th cent.: 1. Concise north-west shore of Lac de Neuchatel and south-west of Neuchatel, ca 15 km north of Démoret, Vaud, Suisse (2. Démoret, Vaud, Suisse is located 12 km north of Mouden); 3. Neuchatel.
Chavornay is located ca 27 km north of Lausanne. Jules Henri Duflon b. 1859 or Henri DUFLON m. in 1888 to Céline CHOLLET. Céline CHOLLET b. 1868 in Cully, Vaud, (Cully, 9 km east of Lausanne / Lozanna) Suisse.
Key note!
Chavornay (Duflon) is 18 km west from Demoret (Schaub). L'Abbaye (Breguet) is ca 18 km west-south-west of Chavornay (Duflon).

Above Major General Peter A. von Bilderling co-operated with Alfred Nobel, Robert Nobel, I. J. Zabelsky / Zabielski, Baron Alexandre von Bilderling, Fritz Blumberg, Michel Beliamin, A. S. Sundgren and Benno Wunderlich. Baron Peter von Bilderling born in St. Petersburg in 1844 - died at Zapolie in 1900 close to Luga, was an engineer and engineering officer of the Russian Imperial Army. He is the brother of Baron Alexander von Bilderling, the general who participated in the Russo-Japanese War. From a noble family originally German - Baltic but Orthodox, his father Alexander Grigoryevich Otto Hermann von Bilderling was lieutenant general in Engineering Corps. His grandfather George Sigismund von Bilterlings in Mitau in Courland / Jelgava in Latvia. His mother was descended from a family of Polish nobility untitled, the Doliwo - Dobrowolski / Dobrowolski with coat of arms Doliwa. Died September 25, 1900 at his home in Zapolie near Luga, where he is buried, a major in 1861 after the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy with 1st class, the Guard of the Grand Duke Nicolas, He served at the Caucasus. He was married twice 1. Sofia Vladimirovna Westman and 2nd to Natalia Alexandrovna Barantzov. His descendants migrated to Cannes and Nice. In 1872 he signed an agreement with Ludvig Nobel providing machine tools. His sons Vladimir and Peter Alexander or George and Peter, daughter Baroness Natalia Petrovna Bilderling. Well-known electrical engineer Mikhail Dolivo - Dobrovolsky Osipovich was his cousin: Michal Doliwa Dobrowolski / Michael Osipovich / Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo Dobrovolsky b. 1861 / 1862, Gatchina, Russian electrical engineer of Polish descent, in a large noble family.
Michael was the oldest child.
Grandfather Florian b. 1776 came from Poland to St. Petersburg. Michal Doliwa Dobrowolski completed the Riga Polytechnic Institute, Darmstadt Higher Technical School, where opened electrical laboratory with special attention to the electrochemistry, the preparation of aluminum. Dolivo - Dobrovolsky invited to join the firm AEG (Allgemeine Elektricitats-Gesellschaft), where in 1909 he was appointed director and served in that capacity until his death, made the induction motor, a rotor with windings in the form of a squirrel cage, 1889 was built
(after Nikola Tesla -
Acc. to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikola_Tesla Nikola Tesla b. 1856, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, the designer of the modern alternating current electricity supply system. Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering, 1884 worked for Thomas Edison. His patented induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, he is known for his high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York, the invention of radio communication, for his X-ray experiments, and for his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission - and G. Ferraris)
three-phase induction motor capacity of about 100 watts and generators; built the electrical system for the transmission of three-phase of 8500 V, the three-phase transformer, small hydro power plant with three-phase synchronous generator. Acted in St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, which opened in 1899, after 1914 moved to Switzerland. In 1918, he again went to Berlin.
And few different details: Michal Doliwo-Dobrowolski, the main engineer of Berlin company AEG, for the development of a three-phase system. Invented the three-phase squirrel cage motor. Born January 2, 1862 / December 21, 1861 in Gatchina, near to St. Petersburg. Son of Joseph Dobrowolski, grandson of Florian Dobrowolski. Great-grandson of Joseph Doliwo-Dobrovolsky born about 1750 in the Mscislaw province of Poland.

DOLIWA coat of arms to the Doliwo-Dobrowolski family in the 1st half of the 19 century from Russian hands. This family lived in the Borisov district, village Малое Стахово / Maloye Stahovo, Bielaja Luza in Zodinsk / Zodino area / Жодино, Zodino / Shodino in the Minsk government; Doliwa-Dobrowolski also in Berezyna in 1864; at the beginning of the 20th century in Sienno in Vicebsk / Witebsk area - village Kokovtsino / Kokowczino / Коковчино and Papino 18 km of Bogushevsk / Богушевск. Добровольски / Dobrowolski in Chausy / Tshausy / Czausy district, the Mohilev government, Proskowia Dobrowolski daughter of Zachary Dobrowolski m. Prokopovich, born 1913 with brother Aleksander Dobrowolski or Aleksiej b. 1916.

Zachar Dobrowolski coat of arms Doliwa, lived in village Novosielki, 2 km west of Golovientsitsy (Головенчицкая волость), 14 km west-south Chausy / Czausy, south-east of Mogilev and village Smolki / Smolka / Смолка 13 km west of Novosielki.

See on the Brujewicz family!
Children of Dmitrij Brujewicz: Michail / Michal Boncz Brujewicz and his wife Eudokia Dobrowolski daughter of Porfir / Porfirion Dobrowolski. She was born 1870, d. 1943. Michail Boncz Brujewicz b. 24 Febr. 1870 in Moscow, died 1956 in Moscow, too. Second son of Dmitrij: Wladimir Boncz Brujewicz, b. 1873 in Moscow, d. 1955 in Moscow. Wife Wiera Wieliczkina, married in Geneve, Switzerland. Wiera was born 1868. His second wife Anna Tinkier vel Tynker daughter of Semen / Zenon Tynker. Anna Tinker was the first wife of Solomon Czernomordik son of Isajew / Izak.

Above named Michael's Dobrowolski mother Olga is a daughter of Mikhail Jewrejn. Between 1862 to 1872 Michael Dobrovolsky / Michail / Michal Dobrowolski lived in Gatchina. 1872 to 1878 Odessa. 1878 - 1880 Department of Chemistry, Riga Polytechnical Institute, where he teaches in German, but were many Poles. 1881 to 1883 in St. Petersburg, Odessa, Novorossiysk. He has been worked at the Widder plant in St. Petersburg. 1883 Hesse in Germany. Here to 1884. Again in 1887 in Odessa. 1887 - 1903 worked for Emil Rathenau - AEG.
1903 - 1907 Lausanne.
1907 Berlin: electric motors, electric power consumption meter. According to the professors Krolikowski Lech and Zbigniew Woyndrowski, he came from a noble family Doliwa Dobrowolski, of the Mscislaw province, from the region of Mogilev on the Dnieper. 1772 in Russia, as the governorate Mogilev. Florian Dobrowolski born 1776 died in 1852, the son of Joseph Dobrowolski coat Doliwa, born about 1750; Florian's wife Maria Szaltuch, a daughter of Fyodor Szaltuch.

Florian Dobrowolski served in the Russian Army. 1822 - 1824 lives in Mogilev on the Dnieper. 1799 verified nobility in Mogilev. It is then an inspector of the military field post, as well as the police chief in Mogilev on the Dnieper. 1812 - 1814 the Napoleonic Wars, 1814 siege of Paris. Florian had 9 children. The youngest son is Joseph Dobrowolski. Joseph has the son Michael Doliwo-Dobrowolski. Joseph was born in August 1824 in St. Petersburg. 1854 to 1855 the Crimean War, he served in the Russian Army in the rank of colonel. Director of the Institute for Orphans in Gatchina near Petersburg. Married to Olga Jewrejn, daughter of Mikhail Jewrejn.

In 1918

Abram Ioffe

[b. 1880, son of Fedor; completion of the St. Petersburg Technological Institute in 1902] became a  head of Physics and Technology division in State Institute of Roentgenology and  Radiologythe i.e. Physico - Technical Institute where a group of young physicists worked:

B. P. Konstantynowicz,

I. V. Kurczatow = Kurchatov,

Lev Landau [son of David, born 1908 in Baku; his father was an engineer who worked in the Baku oil industry; since 1927 he continued research at the Leningrad Physico - Technical Institute],

P. L. Kapitsa [Piotr = Pyotr Kapica was born July 08/June 26, 1894 in Kronstadt; he was son of Leon or Leonid Kapica - a military engineer, lieutenant general in the Russian engineers corps, Pole with the Kapica i.e. Jastrzebiec diverse coat of arms, see:
http://www.jurzak.pl/gendyna.pl?kd=1&hb=0504

  - and

Olga Stebnicki who was daughter of Hieronim Stebnicki, Pole with the Przestrzal coat of arms, see: http://www.przodkowie.com/niesiecki/s/stebnicki/5915.php?lit=s.

  The grandson of Piotr Kapica senior; received his preparatory education in Kronstadt and next educated at the Petrograd Polytechnical Institute, "he graduated in 1918 with a degree in electrical engineering" (or 1919) on

Electromechanics Department;

he remained there as a lecturer until 1921; he went to England and there he worked with Ernest Rutherford; in 1934, Kapica went to Soviet Union] and others [quantum electronics, electromagnetic waves] - see
http://depts.washington.edu/hssexec/newsletter/1997/graham.html.


The foremost expert in the radio valves in the tsarist Russia was Michail (2nd) Boncz Brujewicz (Bonch-Bruevich b. 1888 in Orjol - d. 1940; son of   Aleksander (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich who stayed in Kiev since 1896), electrician and engineer after completion of the "Nikolai -  Ingenieurschule" in Petersburg 1914; he served in the Russian army as a professional officer, expert of electron lamps and radiolocation1915 - 1919 made a study of radio valves and organized the first production of one as chief of high - frequency's section in the Central  laboratory of War  Department in middle of 1917 (the first  broadcast valves  and valve sets appeared in Russian Air Force in 1917); director of the radio  valves laboratory in 1918 - 1920 and author of the broadcasting station's project in Moskow of 1922; his son Aleksej Bonch - Bruevich (b. 1916) was the Soviet expert of electron tubes, too.


The Physico - Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Sergei Pietrovich Kapitsa

b. February 14, 1928 in Cambridge, Soviet and Russian physicist, the son of the Nobel Prize Kapitza /

П. Л. Капица, grandson of A. N. Krylov / А. Н. Крылов, the Russian mathematician and shipbuilder, and the great-nephew of the famous French biochemist Henry Victor / Victor Henri, Krylov - on his mother side, Anna Alekseevna. The great-grandson of a geographer И. И. Стебницки / I. I. Stebnicki that is Ierome Stebnicki / Hieronim Stebnicki, the elder brother of А. П. Капицa / A. P. Kapitsa.

  Father - Peter Leonidovich Kapitsa - the famous physicist and Nobel Prize winner, mother - Anna A. Krylov, the daughter of Alexei Krylov, Russian ship builder, an expert in the field of mechanics, mathematics. Above named Krylov, Alexey / Крылов, Алексей Николаевич / Alexei Krylov b. in August 1863, 1878 he entered the Naval Academy, he graduated with honors in 1884, worked in the Hydrographic Office of P. Kolong, study of the magnetic deviation, in 1887 Krylov moved to (since 1892 the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in St Petersburg; before 1892 Duflon acted in the Breguet Company in Petersburg owned by the Brown family from London) the Franco - Russian plant, and then continued his studies at the shipbuilding department of the Nicholas Naval Academy. 1890 he remained at the Academy. According to the memoirs of Krylov, since 1887, his specialty was ship-building, the application of mathematics to various issues of maritime affairs and expanded the theory of William Froude, 1896 he was elected a member of the British Society of Naval Architects, proposed the gyroscopic damping roll. His daughter Anna, became the wife of Kapitza. Since 1900, Krylov cooperates with Stepan Osipovich Makarov, Admiral and scientist and shipbuilder.

Acc. to an Academician A. N. Krylov / Kriloff, 'My memories' on Stepan Karlovic Drzewiecki:
It was a talented engineer and inventor, with whom Krylov was friendly to April 1938.
He knew Drzewiecki in November 1878, at age 15, being at the Naval College (Admiral Gregory I. Butakov died in the summer of 1882, as a teacher of the fleet, with an architect I. G. Bubnov and Captain 2nd rank M. N. Beklemishev, cooperated on the project of submarine 'Dolphi').
Krylov met Drzewiecki many times in the technical society. In January 1886 was organized the first Electrical Exhibition. At this exhibition participated main hydrographic office, with the last sample of a compass 'de Kolong' and also participated a Parisian firm 'Breguet', with two instruments invented by the French Navy admiral Fournier: among others dromoskop. I. A. Shestakov and Main Hydrographic office was instructed to investigate these devices (I. P. de Kolong, Lieutenant N. M. Yakovlev and Krylov who met Drzewiecki). This work was later published in 'Sea collection'.

Krylov soon teamed up with the Petersburg department of the company 'Breguet', on dromoskop. Krylov then met with the engineer Dyuflon, a representative of 'Breguet', Swiss, friend of Drzewiecki.

Drzewiecki occupied a luxury apartment of the house No 6 Admiralty Street. In the evenings, guests of Drzewiecki were brothers
Paul and Peter Solomonovich Martynov, Dyuflon and botanist Professor Poirot, K. E. Makovsky and the Serbian Prince Karageorgievich,
who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion, mainly for scientific or technical topics, flying airplanes on a theory of Drzewiecki (in April 1884 he published it and the chief inspector Rear Admiral Loschinsky invited Krylov to resolve this issue). Drzewiecki acc. to his friend from Moscow, Goujon (remembering on the later system of J. Roy / Rey) and Dyuflon / Duflon, was noble, of an ancient clan of Poles, who owned large estates in the Volyn province, land in Odessa, orchard houses in Warsaw, etc. Drzewiecki had an extensive knowledge of the St. Petersburg nobility. His parents were living in Paris, where he was educated at home, at the Lycee St. Barbe, and the Central Engineering College. Among his companions was Eifel (aerodynamic research).
In 1873, Drzewiecki was at Vienna World Exhibition. When Drzewiecki moved to St. Petersburg, he turned to the famous Brouwer, at the Pulkovo Observatory and to the War Minister P. S. Rakovsky (construction of 50 boats, with the payment of 100.000 rubles for Drzewiecki). Drzewiecki, received one hundred thousand, and went to Italy.

Summer 1886 Drzewiecki went to Turkestan, to General Annenkov (the Trans-Caspian railway from Krasnovodsk to Samarkand with a huge bridge across the Amu Darya in Chardzhui).
The following summer, he went to Egypt, to Aswan. 1887 he calls Krylov to show a sketch of a submarine and gone to Grand Duke General Admiral Alexei Alexandrovich with this project to develop a submarine.
In 1888 Krylov was enrolled at the Shipbuilding Division of the Naval Academy, graduated it in 1890. At this time, Drzewiecki went to Paris. 1892 met with Krylov, on the development of the submarine, and together come to Paris. The Marine Technical Committee (boat steam engines, internal combustion engines, and then diesels) cooperated with Drzewiecki because he had an extensive knowledge of French naval engineers and brought Krylov into this world. In 1897 Drzewiecki invented a special type of destroyer for the Naval Ministry, and again asked Krylov to work with him in Paris. The project was adopted by the Technical Committee. In 1892 was the Dreyfus affair and Drzewiecki was not at home, back to St. Petersburg. Around 1905 Drzewiecki developed an original theory of propellers. 1909 to 1914 every time Krylov visited Drzewiecki in Paris, last time met with him 1925 to 1927, when Krylov was abroad for 'Neftesindikat' and 'Soviet oil'. Drzewiecki died in April 1938.
Above

Jerome Stebnicki / Hieronim Stebnicki born on 12 December 1832 in the province of Volyn, Polish engineer, cartographer and infantry general of the Russian Empire. He graduated in 1852, serve in the General Staff, since 1860 worked at the Caucasus and the Caspian region, left a description of triangulation Caucasus mountains, 1866 the head of the Military Division on the topographic of General Staff of the Russian Empire, 1867 head of the Caucasus Department, grandfather of Peter Kapitza. He made the first detailed maps of the Caucasus, after Joseph Chodzko, acc. to http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hieronim_Stebnicki.

  The Physico - Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, one of the largest research institutes in Russia, founded by Abram Fedorovich Ioffe in September 29, 1918. Located in St. Petersburg. Director of the Radium Institute was В. И. Вернадский / V. I. Vernadskij, his deputy - V. G. Hlopin. Director of the Institute 1957 - 1967 - Б. П. Константинов / Konstantinov B. P. acc. to Russian sources, but a US research show name Konstantinovich B. P. - acc. to:
Research Database, Bibliographies & Essays, Resources, HSS Publications, Committee on Education. "An interesting attempt to compare Soviet and Western research in high-energy physics is John Irvine and Ben R. Martin, 'Basic Research in the East and West: A Comparison of the Scientific Performance of High-Energy Physics Accelerators,' Social Studies of Science, 1985, 5(2): 293-341". History of Science Society: 440 Geddes Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA, 574.631.1194, 574.631.1533 Fax, Info@hssonline.org.
After him in 1967-1987 was Tuczkiewicz / Tuchkevich.

Acc. to:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ioffe_Institute we read "...Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (for short, Ioffe Institute) is one of Russia's largest research centers specialized in physics...". This Wikipedia page intentionally omits Konstantynowicz aka Konstantinov name in the list of scientists of the Institute. And "...Abram Ioffe was born in the Ukraine in 1880. After graduating from St. Petersburg Technological Institute in 1902, Ioffe went to Munich, Germany, where he worked under Wilhelm Roentgen, the discoverer of X-rays. Ioffe earned his doctorate in physics in 1905. In 1906, Ioffe returned to St. Petersburg where he worked in the Polytechnical Institute. ... Several times he demonstrated his loyalty to Russia by turning down offers of academic positions in Munich and later, in Berkeley, California. He briefly left Russia during the Bolshevik Revolution in 1918, but he soon returned and helped build up the Physico-Technical Institute. He traveled to Western Europe in 1921, collecting books, journals, and equipment for the institute. He served as director of the Physico-Technical Institute from 1923 to 1953. ... Igor V. Kurchatov, who was later put in charge of the project to build the Soviet atomic bomb, studied at Ioffe's institute during the 1930s, and Ioffe recommended Kurchatov for the position to head the nuclear project". Acc. to http://www.fofweb.com/History/ and Carlisle, Rodney P. 'Ioffe, Abram Fedorovich.' - Encyclopedia of the Atomic Age. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2001.

Above Владимир Вернадский / Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky b. 1863, St. Petersburg and died on January 6, 1945 in Moscow. His father, Ivan, according to family legend, was a descendant of Cossacks. Before moving to St. Petersburg, he was Professor of Economics in Kiev. In St. Petersburg, he served as a privy councilor. His mother, Anna Petrovna nee Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich, was a Polish noblewoman. Vladimir Vernadsky was a cousin of the Russian writer Vladimir Korolenko. Above named Konstantinov, Boris Pavlovich or Borys Konstantinovich / Borys Konstantynowicz son of Pawel Konstantynowicz, b. 1910 in St. Petersburg. Soviet physicist and Vice - President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Father Paul Fedoseevich Konstantinov / or Pavel Konstantinovich b. 1874, 1888 went to St. Petersburg, mother - Agrippina Petrovna Konstantinov b. 1876 nee Smirnov, gave birth to eight sons and four daughters; Boris in 1916 was sent to a private elementary school, where he studied until the end of 1917; In early 1918 the family moved to the home of parents in the village. In 1919 his father died. In the winter 1920 - 1921 he lived and studied in St. Petersburg. Autumn of 1924 the family moved to Leningrad. At this time, at the Physico-Technical Institute worked older brother of Boris -

Alexander Pavlovich Konstantinov (1895 - 1945, repressioned, was posthumously rehabilitated) or maybe Aleksander Konstantynowicz, who became one of the largest radio technicians, radiophysicist and create a variety of radio-electronic equipment (with Bonch - Bruevich) and contributed to the development of television - suggested a way to narrow band television signals, has developed a mosaic photocathodes for the television camera tubes of the 1930s television transmission. He was a member of the laboratory of L. S. Theremin / Л. С. Термен: an alarm systems of banks and museums. A. Konstantinov was an electrician in this protective system - 1909. In 1924 he created the radio-electronic equipment to determine the difference in longitude of Greenwich and Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, in 1928 to 1930 with his brother has developed radio - protective signaling processes of government vaults. They invented electric seismographs have been used successfully for mineral exploration.
He studied at the Physics and Mechanics of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute 1926 - 1929 and was expelled from this Polytechnic after fourth years for
the non-proletarian origin,
but was able to continue working in science through the application of Ioffe. He worked as a laboratory assistant, senior laboratory assistant at the Physical - Technical Institute, 1935 - 1937 in the department of electro - acoustics of the Leningrad Institute, (in 1937 Konstantinov Aleksandr Pavlovich was wrongly arrested and died in the dungeons of the NKVD) but 1937 - 1940 he headed a laboratory of the Research Institute of the music industry and acoustics for the needs of defense - but we need check this data.

His brother Boris Pavlovich Konstantinovich or Konstantinov was born in St. Petersburg in 1910, acc. to his autobiography, written an excellent literary language. In 1924 Konstantinov moved to Leningrad, because at the State Physical - Technical Institute of the X-ray worked his older brother, Alexander P. Konstantinov. Since 1927 he started working at the laboratory of D. A. Rozhanski as a physicist and was student of Physics and Mechanics Faculty of the Polytechnic Institute.

A few details on Boris Konstantinov / Konstantinovich:
Konstantinov Boris Pavlovich or Konstantinovich B. P. born on 23 June / 6 July 1910 in St. Petersburg and died July 1969. In 1927-35 and since 1940 has worked in the Physical - Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1957-67 director, in 1937-40 at the Research Institute of the music industry (like his brother?!). "In the 90's of last century, was opened part of the work on the nuclear problem, and as a result over the past half ten years, there are many books and publications devoted to the development of research on the nuclear problem in the USSR and Russia... There was a series of films about the secret physicists ... I. V. Kurchatov, Y. B. Chariton, Ya. Zel'dovich, A. D. Sakharov, I. E. Tamm, V. L. Ginzburg and others in the work on the atomic problem, but the role of B. P. Konstantinov reflected very sparingly. This is despite the fact that over the carried out his work, he was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, was elected to the Academy and became director Physico - Technical Institute, vice - president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, it is named after him the Institute of Nuclear Physics Gatchina and the largest chemical plant in Kirov...".
"...B. P. Konstantinov is one of the founders of the school of nuclear physicists. In 1945, the Physics and Mechanics Department opened the country's first training in the Department of Nuclear Physics (Department of Technical Physics). The first head of the department was A. F. Ioffe, but after 2 years it was headed by B. P. Konstantinov, who since 1945 has combined his academic work at PTI with teaching at the LPI...".
"The Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) is one of four nuclear physics centers within the National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' / NRC 'Kurchatov Institute'. PNPI bears the name of Academician B. P. Konstantinov ... Director of the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, vice president of the Academy of Sciences...".

At the beginning in accordance with the Decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR in 1942 which was composed of the Commissariat of Communications was formed Military restorative management for all military telephones and telegraphs and broadcasting units, radio and postal enterprises on the territory liberated from the German. B. P. Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz Borys / Konstantinov was working for this management (at the Petersburg Nuclear Institut as Head of Laboratory 1943 - 1957, for the Federal Agency for Special Construction / Spetsstroy Russia). 1951 established the Office building number 565 as a part of Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR - successor of the General Directorate of Special Construction. In 1953 in Leningrad was organized management for the construction of the air defense system. "Federal Agency for Special Construction (Spetsstroy Russia) - the federal executive body for the promotion of national defense and security organization works in the field of special construction, road building and communication engineering by military units and road-building military units of the Federal Agency for Special Construction".

References, acc. to 'Russian & Soviet Science and Technology' by Loren R. Graham, History of Science Society Newsletter, Volume 18 No. 4 (Supplement 1989):
"...An interesting article on the growth of scientific personnel in the USSR, portraying the Soviet overtaking of the United States in the number of research workers, is Louvan Nolting and Murray Feshbach's, 'R and D Employment in the USSR', 'Science', 01 Feb. 1980, 207:493-503. Nolting has also published a series of reports (Foreign Economic Reports, Department of Commerce) on the structure and organization of Soviet science and technology. A recent and valuable analysis of the political role of Soviet science by Stephen Fortescue is 'The Communist Party and Soviet Science' (London: Macmillan, 1987). ... Peter Kneen's 'Soviet Scientists and the State' (Albany: SUNY Press, 1984). Works written by emigres who previously worked in the Soviet science establishment provide special insights; these include Mark Azbel, Refusenik: 'Trapped in the Soviet Union' (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981); Mark Popovsky, 'Manipulated Science' (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979); and Vladimir Kresin, 'Soviet Science in Practice: An Insider's View,' in 'The Soviet Union Today', edited by James Cracraft (Chicago: 'Bulletin of Atomic Scientists', 1983). Three works treating Soviet industrial research from economic and political standpoints are Joseph Berliner, The Innovation Decision in Soviet Industry (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1976); Erik Hoffmann and Robbin Laird, Technocratic Socialism: 'The Soviet Union in the Advanced Industrial Era' (Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1985); and Raymond Hutchings, 'Soviet Science: Technology and Design Interaction and Convergence' (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1976). A topic of particular interest to American scholars who may wish to do research in the Soviet Union, no matter what the field, is the history of scholarly exchanges between the United States and the USSR. The most thoughtful analysis of the subject is by Linda Lubrano, 'National and International Politics in USA-USSR Scientific Cooperation,' Social Studies of Science 1981, 11:451-480. Also see Review of USA-USSR Interacademy Exchanges and Relations, Report of the National Academy of Sciences (Washington, D.C., 1977); and Yale Richmond, U.S. - Soviet Cultural Ex - changes 1958-1986: Who Wins? (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1987). ... Loren Graham, Program on Science, Technology and Society, Room E51-128, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139. Russian-language films on the history of Russian and Soviet science can be purchased from Alexandre K. Surikov, President, All-Union Corporation 'Sovinfilm,' 20 Skatertny Per., Moscow 121069, USSR". This above data © 1989 by the History of Science Society, All rights reserved.

Acc. to http://www.fofweb.com/History/ and Carlisle, Rodney P. 'Ioffe, Abram Fedorovich.' - Encyclopedia of the Atomic Age. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2001.

Piotr Leonidovich Kapitsa - physicist, a researcher at low temperature physics.

Abram Fedorovich Joffe - physicist, moved to Munich, where he took a internship with Wilhelm Rontgen, he returned to St. Petersburg, was involved in nuclear physics and in the development of lasers.
Adam Gernet born on 7 August 1878 in Kiwidepah, Roethel, Laanermaa (Haapsalu), Estonia. An Adam von Gernet was involved in the study of magnetism; an infantry regiment in Dunaburg, escape across the German lines in March 1918, by John Hiden.

1912 

blimp1912

 Only five of airships had been built in Russia before 1914 and we exactly constructed (the fifth in order) to Russian Army in the plant of DEKA an airship named "Kobchik" type "Blimp" by S. A. Nemchenko as early as 1912 (with two engines 45 hp, and length 48 m; speed 50 km/h according to "Taschenbuch der Luftflotten", 1st Issue 1914, Vol. 1 "Airships" by F. Rasch and W. Hormel, published in Germany, worked out by Thomas Heinz  http://www.internetelite.ru/aircrafts/airships.html; the picture from: http://info.dolgopa.org).

Airship i.e. an "aircraft  that consists of a cigar-shaped gas bag, or envelope, filled with a lighter-than-air gas to provide lift, a propulsion system, a  steering mechanism, and a gondola accommodating passengers, crew, and cargo. (...) NON-RIGID airships, now commonly  known as blimps, are the most common type in use. The non-rigid airship has no frame and the envelope holds its shape due to  the pressurized lifting gas inside." The DEKA company owned an infrastructure for airships i.e. a  hangar, workshops and warehouses in St Petersburg before the First world war. War,  revolution and civil war interrupted further development until 1920, when the Soviets built their first small blimp. 

June, 1912: Vote of 150 aeroplanes (140 to be built at home); November, 1912: Military trials results: 1. Sikorsky in a "Sikorsky";  2. HABER in a "M. Farman"; 3. Boutmy (BUTMI) in a "Nieuport".  December, 1912: Aeronautical school re-organised; 15 pupils  per school at a time - course made seven months. A one month course in aeroplanes, aerial motors, etc. Of the pupils, 10 to be  selected for aeroplanes. New flying school established at Tashkent  in TURKESTAN. Only in Army Aviation in March, 1913: new schools established at Moscow, Odessa and OMSK. At the end of 1913: the number of actual military pilots was 72. There was a  special volunteer corps of about 36 private aviators; total to 108 in Russia. In Navy Aviation: July, 1912 - Lieut. ANDREADI, did a  flight from Sevastopol to Petersburg.

About above S. A. Nemchenko.
In the spring of 1906 the Wright brothers offered to the Russian Minister of War a flying machine created by them. Russian military department did not respond to the letter, however, in 1908 sent to France, where the Wright brothers opened Aircraft Company 'Ariel', two officers of the Training Aeronautic Park: - N. I. Uteshev and S. A. Nemchenko. Russian officers have studied the American airplane and have made test flights as passengers and wrote a negative review. According to them, the airplane Flyer-III for military purposes was no good. Should pay attention to the achievements of other designers, especially the French. On August 24, 1908 a Petersburg newspaper 'New time' informed on the Chief Engineer's Office organized in autumn 1909 international competition of airplanes with award of 50 thousand rubles but a place of the aerodrome was also not selected.

1912 
In 1912 JSC 'Deca' is participating in the tender for the construction of airships for the military departments of Russia. The airship was constructed in full conformity with technical specifications and tested in 1913. The experiment was considered successful and commercially viable, and in the same year was founded a specialized aviation workshop as a structural part of the company 'Deca'.

1914 

1912 -  1913 
In April 1913 DECA has entered into a cooperation agreement with the French radio company 'Societe francaise Radio-Electrique' (SFR) and became a branch of it in Russia.

'Radiolectric French Company' was one of the first radiotelegraphic companies, founded by Émile Girardeau in 1910

and it supported the production of the Radiola - radio receivers. 'Dyuflon and Konstantinowicz' has entered into a cooperation with 'Sautter, Harle and Co.' from Paris and also with a factory 'Gabriel and Anzeno' (Paul Lemonnier engineer, bacame a partner in the business of Sautter, at 26 Avenue Suffren in Paris 1867. Beginning in the 1860s Sautter started the study of the use of electricity. In 1869, Henri Harle who had married into the Dolfuss family, started as an engineer. In 1890 Henri Harle became a full partner in the firm, which was now known as Sautter Harle.

The company 'Societe Sautter, Harle et Cie' was founded in 1825 in Paris as a mechanical engineering company. 1907 began production of automobiles as the 'Sautter Harle'. 1908 the company was renamed in 'Harle et Cie'. 1912 ended production of cars. Three companies have manufactured lights on the coasts in France: F. Barbier et Fenestre, Sautter-Harle / Sautter et Lemonier and Lepaute, by 'planete-tp.com'. "In order to eliminate the jerks in release, Augustin Fresnel modified the blade regulator around 1826 with the aid of the clockmaker Lepaute, by incorporating a ball regulator". Acc. to: 'en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_submarine_Gymnote_(Q1)', "The Gymnote was one of the world's first all-electric submarines. Launched on 24 September 1888 ... by Gustave Zede ... and Arthur Krebs, who completed the project. For the Gymnote, Arthur Krebs developed the electric engine ... The motor proved so problematic that it was replaced with a smaller but more powerful Sautter-Harle motor". In Tallinn the construction of the rear lighthouse was planned already in 1832. The new lighthouse acquired a Fresnel device purchased from Sautter Harle & Co in Paris.

In late 1915, the company name was changed to the 'Anciens Etablissements Sautter-Harle'. The Company produced electrical equipment: searchlight / floodlight, generators, compressors and diesel engines. The Sautter Harlé at present has name the Alsthom Company
).

They were working for Sautter - Harle / SAUTTER HARLE, founded in 1852:
Eugene Dejonc,
Émile Girardeau, born 1882, a French engineer, founder of the General Society of wireless telegraphy; 1910 he founded the radio - electric French Society SFR, in the field of radio - electricity and military telegraphy; 1915 he was assigned to education, in radio - electricity, flying officers.
Camille Charles Augustin Claudeville, b. 1868, adviser naval armament for Europe and South America, and co-operated with SAUTTER HARLE, founded in 1852, making lenticular lights, electric motors, turbo-generators and projectors.
Jean Rey / Jean-Alexandre REY b. 1861 in Lausanne / Lauzanne, Switzerland. His first wife Marie Sautter b. 1870, daughter of Louis Sautter - founder of LEMONNIER - HARLE and Co. with Paul LEMONNIER. After the death of Mary, Jean REY married another descendant of SAUTTER born VAN MUYDEN. Jean REY was the uncle of another Jean Rey b. 1902-1983, Belgian (member of the EEC Commission from 1958 to 1967 and President of the Commission from 1967 to 1970), acc. to: Christian LEVI ALVARES. Jean-Alexandre REY, the School of Mines as a foreign student 1883; 1885 he obtained French nationality as a descendant of French parents refugees in Switzerland because of religion; he received the degree 1 ranked 1886; led factories Sautter - Harle and for thirty years directing the technical work of the house Sautter - Harle (turbo - machinery); 1904 studied steam turbines; 1906 gas turbines; at thirty - five he was chief engineer of the Sautter - Harle Company; finally president of the trade association of electrical engineering, President of the French Society of Electricians - 1921. In 1901 he build an internal combustion engine generators for submarines. From 1888, he became interested in steam turbines and turbo - electric machines.

You remember that Louis François Clément Breguet / Louis Francois Clement Breguet was born on 22 December 1804 in Paris, work in the early days of telegraphy, educated in Switzerland; in 1870 Louis Francois Clement Breguet transferred the leadership of the Breguet company to Edward Brown; collaborated with Heinrich Ruhmkorff, George Daniels, Professor Thomas Engel and Alexander Graham Bell; he had one son Antoine b. 1851.

The Swiss Canton of Vaud was the area where the French-speaking family settled (Diserens or Dizeren). Among other things, it were the villages and towns: CLARENS located east from Lausanne, also Villette, Cully and Riex. Villette or Lavaux is located close to Lutry and Cully. All on east of Lutry and east of Lausanne / Lozano. Moreover, a settlements such as Corsier sur Vevey, L'Abbaye and Grandvaux. L'Abbaye, is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, town from where the Breguet family (Antoine b. 1851) came to Paris; around 30 km north - west of Lausanne. The DUFLON family 1745 - 1815 was living in Riex of the Vaud province / Vaud canton, Switzerland / Suisse.
Villeneuve is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located ca 30 km east-south of Lausanne; the Duflon family gone from Lutry of 1852 and Neuchatel, in Paris 1801 - 1877 was living Louis Duflon; Duflon J.-F. was a landlord in Bouligneux in France west of Geneve. François / Françoise Duflon from Riex (Lavaux) and Villeneuve, was born in 1831 in La Tour-de-Peilz, where his father was a teacher. He attended the College of Vevey, where he was a professor; 1876 Lausanne, 1906 d'Ardon, south-east of Villeneuve. La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km.

Michail Dobrowolski lived 1903 - 1907 in Lausanne.

In the spring of 1914 L. Bakst moved to Montreux in Switzerland. Sophia Klyachko came to stay with her brother and taking along all family.

Clarens is part of Montreux in Suisse, where the Duflon family was living. Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand, wife of Apollon Konstantynowicz from Moscow, was here with her son, Evgenii Konstantinovich, probably since spring of 1914. She acted with Lenin (on 5 September 1914 Lenin moved to neutral Switzerland, residing first at Bern, then at Zürich; on 31 March 1917 "Fritz Platten obtained permission from the German Foreign Minister through his ambassador in Switzerland, Baron Gisbert von Romberg, for Lenin and other Russian exiles to travel through Germany to Russia in a sealed one-carriage train"; from Zurich, Gottmadingen, Singen, Frankfurt and Berlin to Sassnitz, Trelleborg, in Sweden to Stockholm, at the Finland Station in Petrograd) and Inessa Armand, her friend. Anna Konstantynowicz back to Petersburg (Piotrogrod) with Lenin, Krupska and Inessa Armand in April 1917.

Sophia Klyachko met in Montreux (Clarens?) Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz son of Apollon Konstantynowicz from Moscow. 1914 all relocated to Geneve to Diaghilev; the company after (1914 / 1915 to 1920) moved to Lausanne, but Bakst removed to Paris, soon. The Klyachko family in spring of 1920 came to Paris; in Meudon is now a museum of Bakst.

The Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel, close to border on France, and from St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne, Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, and Tavannes north of Neuchatel.

Adolphe Jean Édouard WIDMER, CEO of the Society of Electrical Constructions Breguet - Sautter - Harle, married in 1930 to Jacqueline HARLÉ Lucy b. 1905, parents Frederick Augustus 'Henri' HARLÉ 1875-1961 and Jeanny Alice Lily KAMPMANN b. 1881.

Note at margin:
Jean Alexandre REY b. 1861 in Lausanne / Lauzanne, Switzerland. His first wife Marie Sautter b. 1870, daughter of Louis Sautter who was founder of the LEMONNIER - HARLE and Co.
Ambroise Samuel Joseph Rodolphe REY / Rodolphe REY, born 1866 in GENEVE, Suisse acc. to: http://gw.geneanet.org/garric?lang=en&p=rodolphe&n=rey, his parents: William REY 1821 - 1888 Professeur and Clothilde BOUVIER 1828 - 1911; Rodolphe REY married in 1892 in GENEVE to Françoise Jeanne Gabrielle BOUVIER b. 1866 from Ami Auguste Oscar BOUVIER and Louise Julie Marguerite MONOD b. 1832; siblings: Barthélémy REY, banquier b. 1858, m. 1888 in PARIS to Lucie MATTER; Jean REY, Ingénieur des Mines b. 1861, m. 1893 PARIS to Marie SAUTTER 1870 - 1895 and married in 1897 in LAUSANNE to Emma VAN MUYDEN b. 1870.
Father of above Jean Rey: William REY, Professeur b. 1821 in GENEVE, d. 1888 in CLARENS in Suisse, married 1856 in CÉLIGNY to Clothilde BOUVIER.
CLARENS - east from Lausanne, close to Montreux, Blonay and Vevey and 15 km east of Cully, 20 km east of Lutry. Clarens is a village in the canton of Vaud, in Switzerland. 1888 family Rey lived here and also: Igor Stravinsky 1878, Tchaikovsky, Paul Kruger, anarchist Élisée Reclus, the Duflon family and Nabokov.
Élisée Reclus b. 1830, known as Jacques Élisée Reclus, was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist; in January 1872 banishment from France. After a short visit to Italy, Reclus settled at Clarens, Switzerland, where he resumed his literary labours. In 1882, Reclus initiated the Anti-Marriage Movement / International Association, of which "Reclus and Peter Kropotkin were the two chief organizers. Kropotkin was arrested and condemned to five years' imprisonment, but Reclus escaped punishment as he remained in Switzerland. In 1894, Reclus was appointed chair of comparative geography at the University of Brussels", acc. to Wikipedia.

CÉLIGNY - on way from Geneve to Lausanne.
More inf. see: Christian LEVI ALVARES (Quatre siecles d'ascendance protestante: les 512 quartiers de Micheline Bruneton, ed. Jerusalem: AHVA, 1981).

! Here is some key information to the genealogy of the Konstantynowicz family:

Very strange is the origin of one of the Soviet intelligence boss, from whose started the Great Purge of 1937. Mixture of Estonia, Switzerland, Latvia and France. Pilsudski had lost Lenin, after five years of chaos in Russia, so the only way to overcome Soviet Russia of Stalin was takeover of special services, including military intelligence. Succeeded in, but in 1937, Stalin responded by and prevailed. Poles in the Soviet Union since 1937 been the main enemy!
So... Arthur Eugene Leonard Frauchi / Artour Khristianovitch Frautschi / Arthur Hristianovich Artuzov Frautschi / Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov / Арту́р Христиа́нович Фра́учи / Frauchi / Артур Христианович Артузов Фраучи, b. 1891, Tver region, died 1937, Moscow; headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service INO (OGPU, NKVD) from August 1931 to May 1935.

Romuald Ludwig von Pilhau / Roman Aleksandrovich Pilar / Пилляр Роман Александрович / Pilar von Pilhau Romuald / Пилар фон Пильхау Ромуальд Людвиг, b. 1894 - died 1937, from Estonia but Pole acc. to sources; deputy of Artuzov Frautchi / Fraucci - Artuzow 1921 to ?; 1920 special plenipotentiary of the Cheka, then on underground work in the Verkhovna Silesia in Germany, and since 1921 again in Soviet Russia, 1925 - 1930 Chairman GPU Belarus, since 1932 the OGPU envoy for Central Asia, since 1934 head of the NKVD in Central Asia, December 1934 Head of the NKVD in Saratov; 1937 shot.
Note: Pilar von Pilchau / Пиллар фон Пильхау, the first the Narva commendant Wenzel Pilar von Pilchau (1606–1675); lived in Livland / Liivimaa and Estonia; Pilar von Pilchau were owners of Vaida / Wait, Oru / Orrenhof, Meremõisa / Merremois, Raasiku / Rasik, Kääsla / Käsal, Lehtse / Lechts, Karjaküla / Karjaküll close to Saue and Saku, Vardi, Valgu, Palivere south-west of Lehola / Palvere / Pallfer and Halinga / Hallick, Uulu, Lelle, Alt-Salis, Audru / Audern, Arrohof, Haeska / Hasik close to Haapsalu (see Dunkel). One from them: Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau 1841–1918, Haapsalu 1878. Baron Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau b. 1851 d. 1925, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870; 1881 he rented Sauga in Pärnu County, Estonia; Pernau city councillor in 1879, the Livonian Noble Corporation, 1908 to 1918 von Pilchau the land marshal of Livonia, returned to independent Estonia in 1923 in Pärnu where he died.
Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough.
Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia.

Pilar von Pilchau owners of: Vaida is a small borough in Rae Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. It's located about 21 km southeast of Tallinn. Orrenhof, south of Parnu, is a place with a very small population in the region of Parnumaa, Estonia. Merremois / Meremoisa - 10 km north-west of Karjakula, and 15 km from Keila. Raasiku, south-east of Tallinn, 23 km. Rasik to von Sivers in 1843. Palifer - Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau (1761-1819), was owner of Palifer, Orks, Pall, Käsal. Orks = Polumyza Orks, Laanemaa, south of Haeska. Kütke (Kütke) close to Märjamaa, south of Saku. Lechts, outh-west of Rakvere. Schloss Felks owner Baron de Maydell. Karjaküll - Vana-Karjaküla / Alt-Karjaküll, Karjaküla is a small borough in Keila Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. Eivere / Eivere Manor, Eyefer, Paide Parish in Järva County; Eivere is a village in Paide Parish, Järva County in northern-central Estonia. Jõgisoo / Jöggis, close to Kullamaa, east of Haapsalu. Kullamaa, Kulina Manor, Viru-Jaagupi Parish, 13 km south-east of Rakvere. Kullina - Bernhard Johann von Buddenbrock. Kirna close to Järva. Vana-Nursi or Vastse-Nursi Nurtu / Alt-Nurms, south of Saku. Ravila, Meks or Mecks, south-east of Tallinn. Palvere / Pallifer, south-east of Tallinn, close to Ravila. Arrohof (Livl.).
Figures: Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau 1841 - 1918, b. in Hördel, died 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County; his son Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau (1887 - d.) - born in Saaremaa. Next son Karl (Charly) Alexander Baron Pilar von Pilchau (1871 Haapsalu / Hapsal); daughter Katharina Pauline Julie Pilar von Pilchau 1872 - 1909, her husband Viktor Konstantin Nikolai Brzezinski.

Genealogy of Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau / Пилляр Роман Александрович / Роман Людвиг Пилар фон Пильхау / Ромуальдас-Людвикас Адольфович Пилляр фон Пильхау. Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau or Roman Pilar von Pilchau / Roman Pilljar / Romuald Pilar von Pilchau / Romuald Ludwig von Pilar Pilchau, born 1894 in Mickuny close to Wilno / Vilnius. 1905 to September 1910 - Vilnius secondary school, followed by Zurich in real school (1910 - 1911), where he graduated in 1911. In September of the same year, he continued study in Kuressaare Gymnasium. When German troops occupied the Saaremaa, Pilar von Pilchau evacuated to the Yaroslavl Province. The Pilars then were not wealthy, but still Helena sent Roman Pilchau Pilar to study in Switzerland 1910 to 1911. "Nothing helped. He came back. Then he went in the other direction, to Russia, to Petrograd, where he studied law. From Dzerzhinsky not departed". All above according to Alwida A. Bajor. And different details: Roman was in Аренсбург / Arensburg / Kuressaare from September 1911 to 1918, or 1911 to 1915. Romuald Roman baron Pilar Pilchau, Sept. 1905 in Wilno, Zurich, next to Аренсбург / Arensburg in the Лифляндская губерния / Livland government, Даниловo / Danilovo in the Jaroslav government.
Some details of the genealogy of Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau or Roman Pilar von Pilchau:
History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives in Estonia: Saue, Ohtu, Harku, Nomme, Saku, Uksnurme, Lehola, Tallinn and the Harjumaa district: Troubetzkoy, Sedykh from Kazan, Gernet from Estonia. The Baltic German families in Estonia: Schilling von Cannstatt / Schilling von Canstatt /  Schilling von Canstadt, von  Pillar-Pilchau, Gernet, Rehbinder, Toll, Croy, Weiss.
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremõisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757. Recorded in service 1780, above Yegor Maksimovic exactly one year later was promoted to sergeant. Received his primary education at home, with the rank of lieutenant was transferred to Narva Infantry Regiment; next to the Vyborg Infantry Regiment; Yegor Maksimovic Pilar participated in a battle with the Swedes under Nyslott; 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811. Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar: Major Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 (1769?), Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774, Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871 (that was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia, father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, after Major of the Russian army) in Wilno; his son Stanisław Caunt Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska (from Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806), she died on 28 Jan 1898, Wilno; her son Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, born 1860, married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec, he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierżyński; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937.
See: Baron Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau b. 1851, was a Baltic German politician, regent of the United Baltic Duchy (1918). Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1851 - 1925, b. in Audern (Audru), Pärnumaa, died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland.

Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born on 8 June 1768 and his cousins and closest next of kin:
Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein; фон Людер / Luder d. 1857; Екатерина Николаевна Кудашева / Kudashev, b. 1811; Дунина / Dunin, b. 1799; 1798 m. to Иоганн Густав Юст / Iust; 1766 born in Халлик, Иван Крутов / Krutov / Krutow; Иоганна Агнета Гессе / Hesse b. 1779; Мария Цецилия фон Бекю / Bekiu; 1798 m. to Иоганн Дитрих Бенджамин Альтхан; Сукни (Suckni) / Sukni d. 1838; фон Рамм / von Ramm, b. 1779; фон Мореншильдт b. 1811; Наталья Николаевна Карпова / Karlow; Михайловна Езерская / Jezierski, died 1919; фон Штааль b. 1843; Васильевна Чулкова b. 1855; Домудовская / Домудовски; фон Эссен / Essen b. 1847; Раиса Митрофановна Филиппова / Filippow d. after 1932; Беренд фон Мореншильдт d. 1861; Симсен; 1801 Франц Герман Экбаум; 1801 Фридрих фон Руктешель.
The family history of the Konstantynowiczs in Tsarist Russia, in Viljandi, Tallinn, Parnu / Parnawa, Riga / Ryga, Moscow, Petersburg, Ufa, Miezonka, Hapsal / Haapsalu, Vana-Karjaküla or Alt-Hohenhof, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti. With others families: Melik - Beglyarov or Melik-Beglarov, Demonets / Demonet or Demontet, Breguet, Brown, Wilde, Nikitin, Katenin, Gruzinski, Bagrationi, Drzewiecki, Orlov-Denisov, Martynov, Paszkowski, Kalinowski, Zarako Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Horodecki, Zbieranowski, Szostak, Nobel, Masson, Hacker / Hakker, Kammer, Briling, Vologdin, Azbelev, Benckendorf or Benkendorf, Pushkin, Kropotkin, Chikin, Bakst, Trubecki / Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy / Troubetskoi, Beklemishev, Rosenberg, Wittgenstein, Dadian-Mingrelsky / Dadiani Mingrelskij, Radziwill, Piottuch-Kublicki, Soltan, Oginski, Japaridze, Rosen, Gernet, Rehbinder, Schilling, Nakachidze, von Zarnekau, Yurievsky, Duke of Oldenburg, Nikoladze, Maipariani or Maypariani, Saparov, Armand, Diseren, Duflon, Rey, Paat / Paats, Karamyan.
Above Karyakyula / Vana-Karjaküla / Alt-Hohenhof, is an aristocratic mansion in northern Estonia in the Harju county. This manor changed their owners very often: Glenn (von Glehn), von Gernet (von Gernet), Pilchau / Pilar von Pilchau, Koskyuly (von Kosküll), von Krause (von Kraus / Krauze), von Hueck, von Kluge / von Klugen.

Some inf. on the Pilchau family:

Karl Gustav Pilar von Pilchau 1751 - 1802 born in Wait (Vaida), Rae vald, Harjumaa, Estland and died 1802 in Weissenstein (Paide), Järvamaa, Estland. His wife Johanna Christine Charlotte Pilar von Pilchau nee von Patkul 1751 - 1828; above Weissenstein (Paide), Järvamaa, ca 75 km south-east of Saku.

Gustav-Adolf Pilar von Pilchau 1841 - 1918, in 1878 in Haapsalu;

Rudolf von Gernet (1826 - 1912), in Haapsalu was chief of the Yacht Club. Hedwig Elisabeth von Gernet (nee von Patkul; her mother Juliane Charlotte von Wrangell, and her father Jakob Johann von Patkul) b. 1792 - 1867 with her son Karl Jakob Rudolf von Gernet 1826 - 1912.

Catherine Elisabeth von Gernet (1829 - 1896).
Above Vaida: 1708 Hans Heinrich Tiesenhausen, 1718 Georg Pilar von Pilchau, 1760 Jakob Heinrich Lilienfeld, 1789 der Howen, von der Pahlen, Ungern-Sternberg, 1894 Woldemar Rosen, 1901 Paul Ungern-Sternberg. Above Vana-Karjaküla: 1726 Nikolai Golovin, 1732 Abram Hannibal, 1743 Johann Mrakisch, 1747 Catharina Elisabeth Glehn, Maydell, 1756 Karl Gottlieb Gernet, 1771 Marie Juliane Pilar von Pilchau, 1776 Friedrich Wilhelm Uexküll-Güldenband, Zange, Koskull, 1817 Rosenmüller, 1818 Johann Martin Krause / Krauze, Klugen, Hueck. Vardi: 1689 Hans Heinrich Rehbinder, 1716 Karl Friedrich Mengden, Bellingshausen, Otto Heinrich Rehbinder, 1731 Schwengelm, Schönberg, Klugen, Kotzebue, 1844 Gottlieb Rosen, 1855 Georg Pilar von Pilchau.
Georg Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1819 - 1882, born in Märjamaa Parish, Rapla County, Estonia. Georg Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau / Егор Максимович Пиллар, b. 19 March 1767 d. 1830, landlord of Kirna and Reopalu and he was married to Johann Agneta Hessega (1779-1847) and were born: Alexander von Pilar Pilchau (1804-1866), a Russian soldier, Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau (1808-1817), Helene von Pilar Pilchau (1811-1855), Nicholas Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1815-1887), the landlord of Kirna, Georg Jakob von Pilar Pilchau (1819-1882), the landlord of Vardi. Above Reopalu located north of Viljandi. Kirna close to Reopalu.
Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау born 1757 and died 1783, her father Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1734 d. 1801; her brothers and sisters: 1756 in Халлик, born Иоганна София Пилар фон Пильхау 1757 in Халлик, Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау, Вильгельм Фридрих Пилар фон Пильхау 1761, София Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, Анна Доротея Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, in Халлик, Oтто Густав Пилар фон Пильхау born 1763, Юлиана Шарлотта Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1764, in Халлик, Мария Луиза Пилар фон Пильхау Крутов b. 1766, Георг Людвиг or Егор Максимович Пилар фон Пильхау born on 19 март 1767, Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау 1768, Катарина Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1769, Анна София Пилар фон Пильхау 1771, Иоганна Кристина Пилар фон Пильхау 1772, Якоб Иоганн Пилар фон Пильхау 1774, Рейнгольд Адольф Пилар фон Пильхау 1775, Рейнгольд Вольдемар Пилар фон Пильхау 1777, Ульрика Генриетта Пилар фон Пильхау 1780, Каролина Амалия Пилар фон Пильхау 1780.

Acc. to http://www.x-libri.ru/elib/ and militera.lib.ru / Hoaxer (hoaxer@mail.ru) we can read book by Arsen Martirosyan Benikovich, born 1950, Moscow, writer, the author of many books, in the past KGB officer: 'Conspiracy marshals. British intelligence against the Soviet Union', 'June 22. True Generalissimo', 'Tragedy June 22...', 'Who brought the war in the Soviet Union?'. Now 'Conspiracy marshals. British intelligence against the Soviet Union':
"...At the ...labyrinth of extremely complex ...of the personal and political intrigues and conflicts ... we get the following picture. Due to the personal ambitions of the last German Kaiser Wilhelm II, ... during the First World War, ...secret diplomacy, ... 'Germane-norden' and 'Balticum'... and they were extremely influential in Germany, and in Russia, representatives of the ancient aristocratic families of the number pro-German Ostsee (Baltic) Barons played a crucial role in large-scale ... after February and October intrigues in Russia, ... to the head of the Russian military counterintelligence Gen. M. Bonch-Bruevich (brother of Lenin's closest aide) ... Lenin will be forced to take post by old German agent General Parsky... At the top of the 'Balticum' particularly influential position occupied high-born aristocrats, Baltic barons von Pilhau Pillar, which were part-kin of the all-powerful head of the Cheka, Felix Dzerzhinsky.
The wife of one of the leaders of society (Adolf von Pillar-Pilhau or Stanislaw Pilchau Pilar?? We know about Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia; his wife Aline Annette von Essen (was born 1847); his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 - 1862); grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau (1777 - 1847), great-grandfather Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau (1734 - 1801), from Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau (1709 - 1752). And you can look on Adolf Pilar von Pilchau - he married in Petersburg on 11 December 1884 to Julie Olga Eugenie Jenny von der Pahlen b. 1865 daughter of governor Magnus Konstantin Ferdinand von der Pahlen (1830 - 1912); their four children: Adolf Konstantin Theodor von Pilar Pilchau (1885-1958) from Sauga, Pärnumaa, Estland, Olga von Pilar Pilchau, Friedrich von Pilar Pilchau (1888-1914) and Andreas von Pilar Pilchau. In 1891 they moved to more spacious Manor, 1906 they were relocated to Riga; family lived in Tartu, Berlin, Emkendorffis, Tallinn and Pärnu. Above Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau (1851 - 1925) has father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, 1814 - 1870, from Audern (Audru), Pärnumaa, Estland, with wife Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau nee von Ungern-Sternberg born 1826) Adolf von Pillar-Pilhau - Sophia Ignatyevna Pillar Pilhau was the sister of the mother of the 'Iron' Felix - Helena Ignatievna. Sophia Ignatyevna Pillar - Pilhau maid of honor to the last Russian Empress and enjoyed great influence in St. Petersburg... Son (grandson!, acc. to different source) of Sophia Ignatievna, ie cousin of the Dzerzhinsky - Roman Adolfovich / Romualdas Liudvikas Adolfovich Pillar Pilhau was one of the prominent of the initial period of the Cheka - the Deputy Chief of counterintelligence Cheka, deputy chairman of Belarus GPU, then People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Belarus, then worked at senior positions in the Central Asia in 1937, as chief of the NKVD in the Saratov region, was arrested and executed (pay attention to his last post - in the Saratov region was larger numbers of Germans, there was even a Republic of the Volga Germans...). ... R. Pillar Pilhau was one of closest personal friends and relatives to the known leaders of the security organs Artuzov ... the number of the Baltic barons, such, for example, as Andronnikov Prince, ...he was descended from an ancient family of Baltic baron Ungern - Sternberg, paternal side - Georgian prince. Andronnikov lived for many years in Germany, where he studied and was well received in the highest aristocratic circles of Germany. Was presented to Kaiser... very close to the royal court, but also took an active part in many intrigues against the last Russian Tsar Nicholas II, including, in particular, in the murder of Rasputin ... Baron Osten Hohen / Hohen Austen. Baron in 1916 illegally arrived in Russia for organizing a pro-German 'palace coup' ... Baron Osten Hohen / Hohen Austen only a decade later, climbed to the Soviet military intelligence in 1927, and then, apparently, into it's network of agents... The head of the same 'Balticum' in Berlin was personal aide Kaiser General Count Rüdiger von der Goltz, in whose hands were concentrated most secret strands ties with Russia. And ... a secret contact with representatives of 'Balticum' in Switzerland and then in Germany, ... Dzerzhinsky in this sense was just perfect figure - enough that the head of the Cheka, and still enjoyed with Lenin himself. Despite his opposition to the Brest-Litovsk treaty... Avanessov / Avanesova same - Secretary of the Sverdlov - ... Avanessov knew Switzerland, where he graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Zurich in 1913, and where to communicate with the Germans. ... ambassador in Bern Baron Gisbert Romberg, his personal agent - Robert Grimm, is editor of top organ of the Swiss Socialist Internationalists magazine 'Berner Tagwacht', with longtime German agent (and Japanese intelligence agent), Alexander E. Keskyula / Keskyulya, also known under the pseudonym Alexander Stein ... German intelligence officer under diplomatic cover Baron Gisbert von Romberg made contact with Lenin in Switzerland in September 1914. Keskyula Stein also personally contributed to German intelligence in maintaining personal contacts with Lenin and his entourage during their stay in Switzerland ... Without these contacts Dzerzhinsky would never able to go to Germany, which was the main purpose of his secret voyage ... Alexander (Israel) Lazarevic Gelfand, better known under the pseudonym of Parvus (in the circles of "revolutionary" bandits had the nickname "elephant head of Socrates") ... Baron Rudolf von Sebottendorf von der Rose (real name Adam Alfred Rudolf Glauer) personality well known for historical literature...".

At the top of the 'Balticum' particularly influential position occupied high-born aristocrats, Baltic barons von Pilhau Pillar, which were part-kin of the all-powerful head of the Cheka, Felix Dzerzhinsky. The wife of one of the leaders of society Adolf von Pillar-Pilhau - Sophia Ignatyevna Pillar Pilhau (Adolf von Pillar-Pilhau or Stanislaw Pilchau Pilar??) was the sister of the mother of the 'Iron' Felix - Helena Ignatievna. Sophia Ignatyevna Pillar - Pilhau maid of honor to the last Russian Empress and enjoyed great influence in St. Petersburg. Zofija Pilar von Pilchau / Sophia Ignatyevna Pillar - Pilhau died January 28, 1898 - she was sister of Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena, mother of Felix Dzerzhinsky, who died in 1896. Father of Roman Pilar, died Oct. 12, 1939. Stanisław Caunt Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska (from Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806), she died on 28 Jan 1898, Wilno; her son Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, born 1860, married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec, he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierżyński; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937. The Pilars then were not wealthy, but still Helena Pilar sent Roman Pilchau Pilar to study in Switzerland. Nothing helped. He came back. Then he went in the other direction, to Russia, to Petrograd, where he studied law. From Dzerzhinsky not departed. Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, Judge of the district of Vilnius, died in 1871 - he was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar! On October 12, 1826 in Mickuny consecrated a chapel built by Alexander Pilar. The ceremony was attended, among others, by Juliusz Slowacki with his sisters Hersylia and Aleksandra Becu. In Ozemblovschizna on 1830 September 22, baptized Jozef Tertia Dzierzynski / Joseph Terciusz Dzierzhynski, parents: Jozef Dzerzhinsky and Antonina nee Oziemblowski / Ozemblovski, Dzerzhinsky. God-father Jan Terletskii / Jan Terlecki, cornet of the Polish troops, and god-mother Josefa Voyninoy. Jozef Dzerzhinsky 1788-1854 and Antonina Dzerzhinska - grandparents of Felix, but their daughter Jozefa (Leokadia Kornelia b. 1833 in Ozemblovschizna) lived shortly. Edmund Dzerzhinsky born 1829 in Dzierżynowo, married to Helena Januszewska, died 1882. Helena Januszewska / Januszevsky Helene born 1849 in Joda and married to Edmund Dzerzhinsky, she died on 15 Jan. 1896 and buried in Vilnius. Feliks Dzierzynski b. 11 September 1877, his father Edmund Dzierzynski b. 1829, mother Helena Januszewska b. 1849, died in 1896, her parents: Ignacy Januszewski born 1804 and Kazimiera Januszewska born 1806; parents of Edmund Dzierzynski: Jozef Jan Dzierzynski b. 1788 and Antonina Oziemblowska. The grandson of Zofia Pilar / Zofija Pilar von Pilchau / Sophia Ignatievna, ie cousin of the Dzerzhinsky - Roman Adolfovich / Romualdas Liudvikas Adolfovich Pillar Pilhau was one of the prominent of the initial period of the Cheka - the Deputy Chief of counterintelligence Cheka, deputy chairman of Belarus GPU. R. Pillar Pilhau was one of closest personal friends and relatives to the known leaders of the security organs Artuzov / Artuzow Frautchi / Fraucci. Roman Pilchau von Pilar was definitely under the influence of his uncle, Felix Dzerzhinsky. Because it was a family. The sister of Dzerzhinsky's mother, Zofia Januszewski, married to Stanislaus Pilar of Mickuny. Stanislaw Pilar - the father of Alexander, the grandfather of Roman.

Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service from August 1931 to May 1935.

Structure and personnel of military intelligence agencies 1934 / 1935: Statistical information management of the Red Army in August - November 1934 and Intelligence Directorate of the Red Army in November 1934 - May 1939.
Berzin Yan Karlovich / Kzyuzis Peteris Janowicz, Head of Military Intelligence from March 1924 to April 1935 and from June 1937 to August 1937. Uritzky from April 1935 - Head of the 4th Intelligence Department of the General Staff of the Red Army, June 1937 - Deputy Commander of the Moscow Military District to November 1, 1937.

Artuzow created on May 8, 1922 the counterintelligence department of the GPU. Artusov / Artuzow / Fraucci knew French. This counterintelligence department was structural unit of the GPU - OGPU, because on May 6, 1922 on the management meeting of the State Political Administration DECIDED to ESTABLISH the structure of a special unit to combat with foreign espionage; the first leaders: Felix Dzerzhinsky, Vyacheslav Menzhinsky and Arthur Artuzov. Everyone from the structure of the Swiss-Estonian and of the Polish nobility of Belarus, I have discussed. Artuzow was in years 1927-1931 - Assistant Chief of the Secret operational management. Artuzov / Artuzow - Frautchi on 01/01/1931 Deputy (Deputy Head of the Foreign Department INO OGPU) and 31 July 1931 headed Foreign department of the OGPU; when creating 10 July 1934 NKVD he headed foreign intelligence, but replaced 21/05/1935 by Slutsky and transferred to the Main Intelligence Directorate on the post of Deputy, (11th January 1937) 01/11/1937 lost this post; Corps Commissar on 21/11/1935; Artuzow / Artuzov on 13.05.1937 appointed on the registration Department and Artuzov Frauchi was arrested on the same day May 13, 1937 as part of the 'Plot of the Generals' (he was executed on August 21, 1937).
Wife of Artuzow: Inna Mikhailovna, in 1938, June 20 accused of spying for the French intelligence service on the grounds that she went twice 'under the guise of treatment' in Paris, where she was recruited; Artuzov Hristianovich Arthur was her husband, living with her from 1934. On August 26, 1938 Ulrich announced the verdict: the death penalty; first wife Lydia Artuzov Slugina escaped arrest; mother of Artuzov, Augusta Avgustovna died shortly after the arrest of Arthur Christianovich; father Christian Petrovich Fraucci / Frautchi and uncle Peter Fraucci / Frautchi died in 1923. Son Kamil / Camill was arrested in 1941; on March 23, 1938 was arrested brother Rudolph Hristianovich Frauchi, was shot by the NKVD in Butovo; the second brother, Victor Hristianovich, moved to Kazan, and became well-known professor; Artusov disagreed with Stalin in matters of Poland and Germany, has also tried to observe certain standards of conduct during the purges of the thirties.

Acc. to Jakubowski at http://antykapitalista19171959.salon24.pl/: "...When Artusov was invited on March 18, 1937 [10 days before the arrest of Jagoda] on board of directors of NKVD, ... Stalin and Yezhov, however, predicted for him a role in the play directed by a dictator ... that Dzerzhinsky passed in 1925-1926, and led his sometimes unstable politics. ... after subsequent speeches of comrades who tried to make him a scapegoat ... people who now found themselves in accused of spying on the Polish side, such as Sosnowski. In particular, Abram Slutsky, who knew too well the reality of his work... Artusov answered in speech, in which he not only criticized the moral defeat of the NKVD, but also entered into defense of his enemy - Jagoda, whose arrest was then sealed. Thus sealed his own end. In the night from 12 to 13 May 1937 Artusov was arrested. He was accused of collaboration with four foreign intelligence including Polish, subjected to torture, which he never did not apply in the investigation respecting the rule of law of Lenin, which Dzerzhinsky introduced himself. Artusov on August 21, 1937, was executed as an enemy of the people and conspirator against the revolution... In 2000, the Russian historian Theodore Gladkow published a biography Artusov 'Award for fidelity - chastisement'...".

Curiosity! 'Asymmetry. Russian roulette', by Piotr / Peter Gibowski, was prime edited on 11 / 30 November 2012; on the second page of the novel we land in Geneva AD 1927; Russian Roulette is the first part of a trilogy; from that moment begins the story, related to Poland, Germany, Russia, USA, Japan. Artusov is main figure of this story! Piotr Gibowski is psychologist, historian by avocation, the University of Warsaw, the Museum of the History of Poland popularizing history.

So...
Sebastian Rybarczyk, journalist and publicist, specializes in the history of special services, at 'historia.focus.pl/swiat/' on January 15, 2014 write about Artuzow (my webpage on Artuzow on January the 01st, 2014 and 08th January):
"...Strange that he did not defend himself, using his knowledge of the most senior (Soviet) leaders, eg, at early 20s (of the 20th cent.) he was responsible for the 'protection' of Clare Sheridan - an attractive young British sculptor, Churchill's cousin and lover of Trotsky and Kamenev, the personal enemies of Stalin...".

Clare Sheridan, born as Clare Consuelo Frewen / Clare Consuelo Sheridan, b. 1885, she was the daughter of Moreton Frewen from East Sussex and Clarita / Clara Jerome from USA; her godmother was Consuelo Vanderbilt, Duchess of Marlborough, Clare Consuelo Frewen was a cousin of Sir Winston Churchill, because her mother was the elder sister of Lady Randolph Churchill. Clare Consuelo Frewen married Wilfred Frederick Sheridan in 1910; in 1915, Clare Consuelo Sheridan moved from France to London; visiting USA, Sheridan had a love affair with Charlie Chaplin; among her friends were Lord and Lady Mountbatten, Lady Diana Cooper and Princess Margaret of Sweden; she attracted the attention of the UK Security Service after being invited to Moscow in 1920 to sculpt Lenin, Trotsky and Zinoviev, Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky and Lev Kamenev. While in Russia Sheridan had affairs with Kamenev and Trotsky, and MI5 discovered that while living in Istanbul she had taken as a lover Ismet Bey; in 1925 Sheridan moved to Algiers. In 2002: a cousin of Winston Churchill was suspected of being a Soviet spy (?) - Clare Sheridan is recounted in an MI5 file released at the Public Record Office today that describes her belief in free love.

At margin about Artuzow / Artuzov Frautchi / Frucci, the curious coincidence with the Dobrzynski family from Orsha / Orsza! Ignacy Dobrzynski son of Ignacy Dobrzynski senior / Ignatius Sosnowski - Dobrzynski / Игнатий Игнатьевич Сосновский / Добржинский, born in 1897 in Riga, d. Nov. 15, 1937 in Moscow, at the end of World War I was a member of the Polish Military Organization under the name 'Cricket', after regaining independence by Poland on 11 November 1918, he was a officer of the Polish Army; served as a lieutenant in the Second Department Intelligence of the General Staff' was head of the intelligence branch in Lithuania and East Prussia.

Acc to en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Great_Purge, on "August 11th, 1937: NKVD operative order No 00485 'On liquidation of Polish sabotage and espionage groups and organization Polish Military Organization'. On liquidation of Polish diversion-spying groups and elements of Polish Military Organization. The following groups were supposed to be repressed: former Polish Military Organization from Poland, emigrants from Poland, and members of the Polish Socialist Party and other Polish political parties. Also the order indefinitely prolonged the prison sentences of everybody suspected of being a Polish spy. The order created a new extrajudicial organ: NKVD 'dvoyka' consisting of two people: a representative of the NKVD and a representative of the Procurator-General. ... In 1937-1938, 139,815 people were sentenced in the course of the 'Polish operation'; among them 111,071 people were executed".

After arrest of Artuzow / Artuzov was a secret trial, and Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Iona Yakir, Ieronim Uborevich, Robert Eideman, August Kork, Vitovt Putna, Boris Feldman, Vitaly Primakov and Yakov Gamarnik (suicide) were accused with planning a military coup on May 15, 1937; they were executed on the night of June 11-12, 1937. Marshal Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Corps Commanders Yefimov, Eideman and Appoga were all arrested on the same day - 22 May 1937; on 24 May 1937, the Politburo passed the following resolution: '...Tukhachevsky, as participant in an anti-Soviet Trotsky-Right conspiratorial bloc ... having engaged in espionage activity against the USSR on behalf of Fascist Germany'. Between 01 and 10 June 1937, Tukhachevsky was describing the conspiratorial organization and plans for defeating the Red Army.

Robert P. Eideman / Roberts Eidemanis b. 1895 in Leyastsiems / Aahof in Valka district of Livonia; LEYASTSIEMS / Aahof, a village in the district of Gulbene (Republic of Latvia), Gulbene, is south-east of Lejasciems / Aahof. Ca 17 km. Leyastsiems / Aahof / Lejasciema ca 100 km north-west of Rezekne, ca 60 km south-east of Valmiera. Jerome P. Uborevich / Jeronimas Uborevičius b. 1896, Kovno province. Mikhail Tukhachevsky b. 1893, in battle, February 19, 1915 near the village of Piaseczno (Lomza) his company was surrounded, he was taken prisoner; sent to a camp for incorrigible fugitives in Ingolstadt, where he met with Charles de Gaulle. In September 1917, makes the fifth escape, become successful, and 18 September was able to cross the border into Switzerland. In October 1917 he returned to Russia through France, England, Norway and Sweden. Voluntarily joined the Red Army in March 1918. The first on May 10, 1937 Tukhachevsky was transferred from the post of First Deputy of the Defense Commissar to the post of Commander of the Volga Military District. On May 22, 1937 he was arrested in Kuibyshev, on May 24, brought to Moscow, 26 May, after confrontations with Primakov, Putna and Feldman gave the first confession. A week before when Artuzov Frauchi was arrested, John Dewey said about Trocky on May 9, 1937 in New York, and Dewey informed on the preliminary investigation. His speech ended with the words: 'Trotsky ... need for further investigation. We recommend therefore to bring the work of this commission to the end'. And next reported that a total of 37,761 officers and commissars were dismissed, 10,868 were arrested and 7,211 were condemned for anti-Soviet crimes.

Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi was born in the family of Swiss origin, but Italian nationality. His father Christian Frautschi came to Russia, where he was engaged in reindeer cheese; cheesemaker, a citizen of the Swiss Federation. Mother Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938, had the Latvian and Estonian roots, and one of her grandfathers was a Scot; her father Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik, her mother Bertha Esterling / Stirling / EASTERLING born 1835 d. 1891 - her parents: Edward Esterling / EASTERLING and Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland.

The family of Edward Esterling and Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland: 1. Olga Avgustovna Didrikil next of kin to Sverdlov; 2. Bertha Didrikil nee Esterling, her husband Август Иванович Дидрикиль / Didrikil; her son Edward Avgustovich Didrikil; her father Edward Esterling - his daughters Odile Esterling b. 1830 Latvia at farmhouse in Yucca / Iukka, and Bertha Didrikil born in Riga in 1835 died in 1891, Charlotte Esterling, Alvina Esterling. Her mother Elena Esterling nee Shtaal.

Acc. to 'Eesti Postimees', No 16, 28 April 1890, ed. in Tartu, we read on the Livland / Liiwimaa Landra Kollegium (Liiwimaa / Hallikukiwi = Livland) where Count Reinhold Wilhelm Jacobs and Alexander Didrikil in January 1889 and in December of the same year, and January 18th, 1890, talked that land surveyors again are working; signed in Riga, Latvia, by Baron Brnningk / Broning?

This an example only a few people with family Jakobson. Note: August Mihkelevich Jakobson / August Jakobson born 1904 in (in the village Rääma near Pernova / Parnu, Pärnu, part of north Pärnu, in Pärnumaa, Estonia) Pärnu, died in Tallinn, Estonian writer. Carl Robert Jakobson / Linnutaja b. 1841 Tartu, was living in Торма / Torma close to Ranvere or Torma ca 65 km south of Rakvere. Jakobson's father was a school teacher; Natalie Johanson his sister, and his brother, Eduard Magnus Jakobson. 1856-1859 he studied at the seminary in Valga, next in Jamburg, in St. Petersburg 1865, Jakobson participated in the Estonian Literary Society. Eduard Magnus Jakobson b. 1847 Tartu - d. 1903 Tallinn, was an Estonian graphic artist. Adam Jakobson b. 1817 Haanja - d. 1857, Carl Robert Jakobson's father. Jakobson was living in Võrumaa and the University of Tartu as a servant; Haanja is a village of Võromaa, the former parish Rõuge.

The parents of above Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov met and married in Russia; children: 1891 first child was born Arthur Eugene Leonard, the other three daughters and two sons: 1892 Maria Eugenia Bertha / Maria, 1894 Victor Alexander Rudolph, 1896 Anthonine Catherine / Nina, 1899 Vera Olga Berta / Olga, 1902 Victor Alexander Boris. All six children under the laws of the Swiss Republic "after the October Revolution continued to be regarded as citizens of the Swiss Confederation". "September 4, 1917 at the Swiss Embassy in Petrograd Arthur Eugene Leonard Frauchi also been issued for Swiss passport No. 11/ 208". Swiss Italian-born Christian Petrovich Frautschi (Christian Frautschi son of Paul or Petr Frautschi) in the estate Mykolaivka met Didrikil Augusta.
"Augusta grandfather was from Scotland. He was in Russia during the War of 1812. He studied at Dorpat, worked as notary, married Latvian woman. One of his many daughters married Estonian - Didrikilya / Didrikil. In this family was born Augusta Avgustovna".
Hereditary cheesemaker Christian Frautschi came to Russia in search of a good steady income; took a fancy to the north-western province (Estonia), for cattle, and it took two or three years; Here Christians Frauchi married to one of the four sisters of the Didrikil family, of the Estonian, Latvian, Russian, Scottish and even French blood.
One of the sisters, Olga Avgustovna, married exiled Bolshevik Mikhail Kedrov (Olga Avgustovna Didrikil - daughter of gamekeeper August Ivanovich Didrikil who served for many years to the Suvorov family, in Prozorovskaya (?) county.
Mikhail Kedrov b. 1878, Moscow – killed 1941, secret policeman and one of the builders of the Cheka; "Kedrov was reportedly extremely cruel and barbaric, even by the standards of the Red Terror ... Kedrov and his son Igor had complained repeatedly to Joseph Stalin about Lavrenti Beria, who increasingly came to control the Soviet secret police in the 1930s", acc. to Wikipedia). Kedrov in 1912 emigrated to Switzerland. Maintained contacts with Lenin, and lectured medicine at the universities of Bern and Lausanne. In 1916, on the instructions of the Central Committee returned to Russia, on the Caucasian front.
Nina Avgustovna / Anthonine Catherine / Antonina Avgustovna Didrikil / DIDRIKIL Avgustovna Nina b. 1882 - d. 1953 - married to an exile Nicholas Podvoisky / Podvoisky Ivan Ilyich.
Avgustovna Augusta - for Swiss cheesemaker.
Maria Avgustovna remained an old maid but she known the renowned journalist, the future chairman of the OGPU Vyacheslav R. Menzhinsky / Vyacheslav Menzhinsky. Podvoisky become one of the founders of the Red Army; Kedrov - one of the builders of the Cheka (December 20, 1917 was formed Russian Extraordinary Commission headed by F. Dzerzhinsky), shortly before the First World War Kedrov graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Lausanne; Menzhinsky - deputy and successor of the first chairman of the Cheka - Dzerzhinsky; Christian's Frauchi wife was interlocutor of Podvoisky, Kedrov, Ангарский / Angarskij and Klestov. In 1903 the whole family Frauchi / Frautschi moved to Novgorod province, where, moving from one estate to another, Arthur's father, together with his assistants was doing cheese. Estates - Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putyanin, Petrovskoe, Davydkina.

Samples:
Didrikil Edward son of August / Avgust Didrikil / Didrikil Jeduard / Дидрикиль Эдуард, journalist of an Agriculture newspapers, in the Pskov government in 1913.
Note at margin: Consequently, Lenin never was interested in the movement of international language Esperanto. Lenin's statement of this one have reported by E. Didrikil. Didrikil wrote among other things in 1916 in Bern on the national problem, that according to Lenin: Dreams of establishing of international language, Esperanto or Volapük is utopia. Language creating the future will not universal for all nations; the problem is the language as one of the great cultural language: English, French and possibly also Russian. Didrikil's work is the only one that notices the similarities between the ideas of Kautsky and Lenin globalization of large national language. It is a relationship of Lenin to Esperanto characterized by Lenin's sister, Maria Uljanovova in 1928 as a wholly negative attitude: Vladimir Ilich many times was very negative on the Esperanto; we talked about the language, he was a great expert of languages. Compare: Alfred D. Low, 'Lenin on the question of nationality', New York, 1958, pp. 54. E. Drezen, 'La doctrine de en Lenin practice movado por internacia lingvo, 1934; M. Kammari, see also Sennaciulo, Lenin in Bern, a report on the ethnic issue on 13 July 1913; Didrikil: Lenin in 1913 in Zurich, Geneve, Lausanne and Bern. The statement of any items that have reported E. Didrikil, in 1916 in Bern on the national problem.

Didrikil Maria daughter of Georgij Didrikil / Дидрикиль Мария Георгиевна, born 1872; served for the Armed Forces of South Russia 1919, evacuated at the end of 1920 from Novorossiysk on the ship 'Hannover'.
Didrikil, A. A., author of the Report on Public Education, ed. Moscow in 1903.
Genealogy of the DIDRIKIL family:
wife of N. I. PODVOYSKY was Nina Avgustovna DIDRIKIL 1882 - 1953, her father ДИДРИКИЛЬ Август / DIDRIKIL Avgust; her sister Augusta Avgustovna + Italian-Swiss origin Frauchi Christian Petrovich - son Frautschi ​​Artusow Hristianovich Arthur 1881-1938?; daughter Frauchi Vera Christianovna; her second sister Olga Avgustovna + КЕДРОВ / Kedrov Mikhail S. 1878 - 1941, son of a notary; son Kedrov Bonifatii Mikhailovich b. 1903, philosopher, chemist; second son Kedrov Igor Mikhailovich 1908-40, working in subjection Dekanozov, arrested in April 1939 and was shot.
The family Sverdlov: 1. SVERDLOV Michael Izrailevich / Moshe Serdlin / Mikhail Saveliev, a native of Lithuania, d. 1921, m. to Elizabeth Solomonovna d. 1900, and second time married to КОРМИЛЬЦЕВА Мария Александровна / Kormiltsev Maria: daughter 1.1. Софья Михайловна 1882-1951 or Pauline, her husband Awerbach / Averbach / Auerbach, owner of the steamship company on the Volga - her children Leopold Auerbach Leonidovich 1903-1939, literary critic and member of the Union of Soviet Writers, wife Bonch-Bruevich Vera Vladimirovna daughter of Vladimir Dmitrievich Bonch-Bruevich, second Ida Leonidovich d. 1938, Deputy of Moscow prosecutor, her husband Henryk Jagoda / ЯГОДА Генрих Григорьевич or Иегода Енон Гершонович / Iegoda Enone Gershonovich, 1891-1938, his son Garik Jagoda 1929 - ? (Ida Leonidovich Auerbach was niece of the Y. M. Sverdlov); second 1.2. Zalman or Yeshua Zolomon Movshev, PESHKOV 1885-1966, adopted by M. Gorky, went abroad in 1903 to France joined the Foreign Legion; 1.3. Yakov Mikhailovich 1885-1919, wife Claudia Novgorodtseva Timofeevna, merchant's daughter, her son Andrey Yakovlevich 1911/14 - 1969, in 1935 and in 1937 he was arrested, later he served in the NKVD, wife - Podvoiskaya Nina 1916-1996, daughter of N. I. Podvoysky (N. I. PODVOYSKY + Nina Avgustovna DIDRIKIL 1882 - 1953, her father ДИДРИКИЛЬ Август / DIDRIKIL Avgust; her sister Augusta Avgustovna + Italian-Swiss origin Frauchi Christian Petrovich - son Frautschi ​​Artusow Hristianovich Arthur 1881-1938); 1.4. Veniamin Mikhailovich 1887-1940, owner of the bank in America, 1918 he returned to Russia, arrested in 1937, shot, wife DELEVSKAYA Vera; 1.5. Sarah M. 1889-1964; 1.6. Lev Mikhailovich 1891-1914; 1.7. Herman M. 1905/08-1984, 1.8. Alexander b. 1910.

Note on Menzhinsky: he escaped to Finland, in the town of Vyborg, soon he went to Sweden, then moved to Belgium, lived in Brussels, 1908 he moved to Switzerland, where he lived for some time in Zurich, then in Geneva, toured almost the whole of Italy, came to Paris and then in 1910 moved to the U.S., where he lived for some time in New York, Philadelphia and Chicago, in the same year he returned to France, but soon six months traveling around England, since 1913 Vyacheslav Menzhinsky lived in Paris, and even managed to get employees in the private bank Credit Lyonnais (see: Duflon and Konstantynowicz).
Note on Henry Jagoda was born in 1891 in Rybinsk, Yaroslavl province. 1913 he moved to St. Petersburg, where Podvoisky met him, served for the Red Army, he chaired Podvoisky again; Artuzov had contact with both Menzhinsky and Yagoda, but the most close and intimate relationship he developed with the head of the Cheka - Jagoda: the main activities of the Special Department in 1920-1921 was the fight with the Polish espionage.

The family of Christian Frautschi had six children, and Arthur was the first. The eldest of the children, until his death remained a Swiss citizen, as evidenced by his passport, still stored in one of the Moscow archives. Above father Christian P. Frautschi b. 1860/1865 ?, died in 1923. Kamill Frautschi 1921 - 1997, a violinist; his son Alexander Frautschi 1954-2008, play guitar. The Frautschis were Swiss émigrés in Russia. Kamill's father Arthur Frautschi Artuzov, a top-ranking officer of the NKVD, as a result, Kamill spent his youth in the Gulag. Artuzov was familiar with the Bolshevik revolutionaries: Podvoisky was frequent guest in the house of Frautschi, married to sister of mother. Since 1906 Artuzov was distributing illegal literature. 1909 he graduated the Novgorod classical gymnasium and entered the metallurgical department of St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, graduated in February 1917, then worked as a engineer in Metallurgical Bureau of Professor Vladimir Grum - as metallurgical engineer. In the summer of 1927 Artuzov was appointed as 2nd Assistant of the Chief of Secret-operative OGPU, Henryk Jagoda. 1930 Artuzov was appointed deputy chief of INO OGPU USSR, and August 1, 1931 - as chief and member of the board INO OGPU USSR. The First Chief of the Directorate of the Committee for State Security, for foreign operations and training and management of the agents, of political, scientific and technical intelligence.
In 1922, after the creation of the State Political Directorate and connecting it with People's Commisariat for Internal Affairs, foreign intelligence was conducted by the GPU Foreign Department, and between December 1923 and July 1934 by the Foreign Department of Joint State Political Directorate or OGPU. Under Trilisser's management, foreign intelligence had become professionally services. Trilisser himself was very active, traveling to Berlin and Paris. Trilisser left his position in 1930, and was replaced by Artur Artuzov, the former chief of department of counter-intelligence and main initiator of the Trust Operation.

Artuzov Fraucci, Arthur Khristyanovich b. 1891, originally named Renucci or Fraucci, Frauchi. Fraucci, Artuzov is said by most sources to have returned to Russia from Genoa only on the eve of the Revolution. Acc. to: New KGB history..., by Aleln and Rachel Douglas; inf. on A History of the KGB by John J. Dziak, Lexington Books, 1987.
"John J. Dziak's Chekisty is a cut above the mediocre sociologizing about the supposedly new type of Soviet leader, to which we have been subjected by academia and the popular press since the advent of Yuri Aodropov and Mikhail Gorbachov. Its author, a senior Defense Intelligence Agency analyst who took leave to complete this project, obviously disdains the sort of adulation of Gorbachov and his entourage... Reilly had obtained a post in the Cheka, thanks to Vladimir G. Orlov, who as a Czarist official in Warsaw had handled sensitive cases of subversion and espionage, including that of Feliks Dzerzhinsky, and was now in the latter's employ. When Hill and Reilly finished their work, they escaped unscathed, Trotsky and Dzerzhinsky were greatly strengthened, Lenin lay dying, and an American intelligence network in Soviet Russia was smashed. Men from this Hill-Reilly network of 1918 became key figures in the Trust. These included Reilly himself, Reilly's friend, Boris Savinkov, and two of the men in Reilly's "anti­Bolshevik" network: Yakushev and Eduard Opperput. Russian aristocrats. Numerous Russian aristocrats, from families that had worked for a dynastic change, were active collaborators of the Trust... Among them were members of the Obolensky, Trubetskoi / Troubetzkoy, Dolgorukov, Artamonov, Shirinsky-Shikhmatov, Svyatopolk-Mirsky, and Lieven families. Prince Yuri A. Shirinsky-Shikhmatov, known as the chief ideologist of the emigre Supreme Monarchical Council, worked out the bitterly anti-Western ideology ... in conjunction with Cheka agent Yakushev. ... main Trust 'legend', was headed by Prince N. S. Trubetskoi / Troubetzkoy and Prince Dmitri Svyatopolk-Mirsky, who later became a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain, before repatriating to the Soviet Union. His father, the interior minister when Okhrana agent Father Gapon sparked Bloody Sunday, leading to the 1905 Revolution, had refused to arrest the known inciter Gapon before those events. The Soviets themselves draw attention to the aristocratic element in the Trust... we find old Okhrana agents Reilly and Boris Savinkov, together with the chief of White counterintelligence, the Okhrana's notorious Colonel Klimovich, who was one of the Trust's chief boosters among the emigration. ... Parvus, the future moneybags for the Bolsheviks and arranger of Lenin's return to Petrograd on the sealed train, first made his fortune in the Salonika-Constantinople grain trade run by Volpi's freemasonic associates. Many of the Polish Bolsheviks who played an important role in the early days of Dzerzhinsky's Cheka, had been run by Parvus. In the tiny Balkan kingdom of Montenegro, whose economy and royal house were owned by Volpi from approximately the tum of the century, the Russian military attache from 1903 to 1915 was N. M. Potapov. Out of this apparent backwater, Potapov in 1915 vaulted to the position of Quartermaster General and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Russian Army, in charge of all army intelligence. In the summer of 1917, Potapov began working openly with Bolsheviks he had known since the 1890s ... (made) the transformation of the Tsarist War Ministry into the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs. He became the first Red Army Chief of Staff. The Trust's young mastermind, A. A. Artuzov, in his thirties at the peak of the operation, was a cousin of Potapov. Originally named Renucci or Fraucci, Artuzov is said by most sources to have returned to Russia from Genoa only on the eve of the Revolution, while the Soviets' fictionalized biography of Artuzov acknowledges that he was of Italo-Swiss ancestry. When Potapov was the Trust's emissary to Western Europe in the 1920s, he supposedly fooled the Russian aristocrats abroad into believing he was the representative of an anti-Bolshevik underground. Yet, as emigre chronicler of the Trust S. L. Voitsekhovsky had to admit, it was incomprehensible, how his contemporaries, his former superiors and colleagues, could have believed in the sincerity of his monarchical views. ... The Trust of the spies and provocateurs, as the above shows, turns out to be a microcosm of a much bigger East­West complex, whose strategic outlook was best stated by the infamous Toynbee in 1974. ... Cheka chief Dzerzhinsky wore another hat, as chairman of the Supreme Council for the National Economy, which allowed him to deal directly with the Western members of this larger Trust...".
Copyright of above quotation:
EIR Volume 15, Number 3, January 15, 1988; © 1988 EIR News Service Inc., All Rights Reserved. A Fresh Look at the February Revolution. New KGB skirts history lessons... by Aleln and Rachel Douglas. "John Dziak leads the IASC's work on technology security, strategic denial and deception and countermeasures. He has served over three decades as a senior intelligence officer and an executive in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and in the Defense Intelligence Agency, with long experience in weapons proliferation intelligence, counterintelligence, strategic intelligence, global countermeasures and intelligence education. He is the author of the award-winning, Chekisty: A History of the KGB (1987), numerous other books, articles, and monographs, the most recent of: which is The Military Relationship Between China and Russia, 1995-2002 (2002), and is currently preparing a book on counterintelligence. Dr. Dziak is fluent in Russian. Dr. Dziak is co-founder and President of Dziak Group, Inc., a consulting firm in the fields of technology transfer, intelligence, counterintelligence and security, and national security affairs with clients in industry and the Intelligence Community. Dr. Dziak is an Adjunct Professor at the National Defense Intelligence College". But "... A. A. Artuzov, in his thirties at the peak of the operation, was a cousin of Potapov. Originally named Renucci or Fraucci, Artuzov is said by most sources to have it returned Russia from Genoa only on the eve of the Revolution, while the Soviet's fictionalized biography of Artuzov acknowledges that he was of Italo - Swiss ancestry. When Potapov was the Trust's emissary is Western Europe in the 1920s, he supposedly the Russian aristocrats fooled into believing abroad he was the representative of an anti-Bolshevik underground". In this quotation, however, is a mistake. Characteristic that appeared to it in the years 1987 and 1988. Recently in 1987, I started by solving puzzles and political genealogy around my Konstantynowicz family in Poland and Russia.

In the first period October 1987 - September 1989 I recognized the immediate environment of our family Konstantynowicz, maybe 200 people; unfortunately it 'coincided' with the death of my father on November 3, 1987; buried 09 November 1987.
Curiosity! The webpage 'Executive Intelligence Review www.larouchepub.com/.../eirv15n03-1988011' was founded on 21 November 1987, but EIR, Executive Intelligence Review, was ed. on January 15, 1988, vol. 15, No 3. EIR: Founder and Contributing Editor: Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. and Editor-in-chief: Criton Zoakos, Editor: Nora Hamerman. EIR is published by New Solidarity International Press Service. Executive Intelligence Review is a newsmagazine founded in 1974 by the American political activist Lyndon LaRouche. The article "New KGB history skirts lessons of the...", by Aleln and Rachel Douglas, is on "A History of the KGB" by John J. Dziak, Lexington Books, 1987, 234 pages. 'Chekisty: The KGB...' was ed. the first by 'Free Press' on 28 September 1987, and again on 01 January 1988 by this publisher. The Lexington Books edited this book in October 1987, but second publisher 'Ballantine Books' ed. on October 31, 1988.
We back to my work. Then came the period of 1990 - 2002, I met Georgia, Russia, etc, but mostly tens people of Poland and other countries has granted me accurate genealogical data, and not just about family Konstantynowicz; thanks to this I could - in 1992 - provide a working thesis of particular importance: "in our family was someone on the top of the Soviet military intelligence" , and our family Konstantynowicz moved in Tsarist Russia very close to the Russian intelligence core. The parts it turned out to be true; I am writing that only partially, because the key person was a Swiss with Italian - Estonian origin, and this man had no affinity with our family, but was created by the military system, whose my Konstantynowicz family was a part: in Miezonka, Swolna, Moscow, Estonia, St. Petersburg, Kazan, the Vaud canton and the nearby Swiss villages, Lodz, Riga. This search took me 27 years, but it took 20 years to Stalin it came up on the trail military conspiracy in May 1937 - probably as long, because the key person - Artusov surely created a Soviet counterintelligence, and next he took the position as head of civilian intelligence, then deputy head of the military intelligence of the Soviet Union. In the period February 2003 to date (31 January 2014) in 2014, communicate to all with the help of Yahoo servers in California, knowledge on the history and genealogy of the Konstantynowicz family, by using further of the factual help my readers .

Artuzov / Артур Фраучи was graduating of the metallurgical department of St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute in February 1917 with a diploma in metal engineering, went to work as an engineer to Nizhny Tagil in the Urals, and in Metallurgical Bureau of Professor Vladimir Grum / Влади́мир Ефи́мович Грум-Гржима́йло (engineer - designer in Metallurgical Bureau of Professor Vladimir Grum). Vladimir E. Grum-Grzymajlo b. 1864, inventor, engineer-metallurgist, his father, Yefim Grum - Grzhimailo was a renowned specialist of tobacco (the Department of Foreign Trade of the Ministry of Finance in 1867); mother, Margaret M., nee Kornilovich, was the niece of A. O. Kornilovich; graduated from the St. Petersburg Mining Institute in 1885, after he worked at the Urals steelworks in Nizhny Tagil, Salda, Alapayevsk; 1911-1918 - an professor of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute. In 1891, foreign trips in Sweden, Germany, France, Belgium, Austria, in 1900, in Paris. On 01 August 1915 in Petersburg / Petrograd was created the Metallurgical Bureau / Bureau of metallurgical and thermal structures / Office / Institute of design fiery furnace; his brother Grigory Efimovich Grum Grzhimailo b. 1860-1936, Russian traveler, geographer and zoologist. Артур Фраучи / Artuzov in August 1917, after returning to Petrograd from another trip to the Urals, to Nizhny Tagil, decided to leave the profession of engineer - designer in the Petrograd office and until December 1917 he worked in the Office of the demobilization of the army and navy. In Autumn 1917 (back home in October 1917) he made 'secret' trip to Italy to Genoa / Genova / Genua; why? - I don't know details on the return way: Italy - British Egipt and Iraq or from Italy to France, Sweden, Finland?
From December 1917 to March 1918 he worked as secretary of the Audit Commission of the Commissariat for Military Affairs in Vologda and Arkhangelsk.

The Fraucci-Artuzov came from Switzerland. They lived near Villenouve and Montreux. Belonged - like the family Diserens / Dizeren - to immigrants from Italy. In the former area of the Republic of Genoa, maybe even from Genoa / Genova / Genua. The figure of Artuzov is the key. The biography of Artuzov acknowledges he was of Italo - Swiss ancestry. That's just the truth. He belonged to a group of Italian and French families, who came to Russia in the first and second half of the 19th century (1879 / 1881 to 1889 important period) from Switzerland and often coming from France.
Samples only:
Another Christian Frautschi immigrated to Wisconsin from Switzerland in 1867. Hans Peter FRAUTSCHI was born in Switzerland in 1841. It is believed his father was Abraham FRAUTSCHI and his mother's name was Mary FRAUTSCHI. His Spouse's name is Katrina FRAUTSCHI born in Switzerland in 1847. Marie Magdalena Reichenbach nee Frautschi b. 1776 in Saanen, canton Bern, Switzerland - d.? Her father Christian Frautschi b. 1750. Christian Frautschi b. 1691 - Saanen; Christian Frautschi b. 1717 - Saanen; Christian Frautschi b. 1749 - Saanen died 1828 - Saanen. Christian Frautschi with wife 1846 Magdalena Eggen b. 1827. Samuel Frautschi b. 1847, d. 1918, in Cantou Bern, Switzerland, married Lena Leifer.
Renucci, born March 29, 1945 in Cozzano, Corse; Renucci, Janine (2001), La Corse. Lauranne, G. Renucci in Genova, Italy. Renucci, born July 11, 1956 in Le Creusot, ca 150 km west of Lausanne. Livorno, Renuccio / RENUCCI (1880-1947). Corsica successively was part of the Republic of Genoa for five centuries. The construction of the Montreux-Oberland Bernois rail road in 1905 connected the Canton of Vaud with Gstaad and Saanen. The Palace Hotel was opened in 1913 as Gstaad's first luxury hotel. Gsteig that is Gstaad in the Saanen District, Canton of Bern, Switzerland. The Fraucci family is very old ancestry in this valley, from the 16th century. Descendants of Johanne Von Siebenthal born 1568 in Gruben Bei Gstaad, Bern, Switzerland, and his wife MARIA FRUTSCHI married 1592 in Saanen, daughter of HANS FRUTSCHI and BENEDICTA MATTI. She was born on December 02, 1566: D. VON SIEBENTHAL, b. June 07, 1607 was married to ABRAHAM GRIESEN. Several families of Saanen/Gessenay: AELLEN, GANDER, HAUSWIRTH, JAGGI, KROPFLI, WURSTEN and ZWALLEN. The FRAUTSCHI immigrants of Saanen/Gessenay lived in Wisconsin. Christian Frautschi (was born on October 20, 1839; worked in the Rhone valley, upstream from Lake Geneva and the famed Castle of Chillon. Then he went to Geneva and spent more than two years there learning cabinetmaking from his Uncle Isaac, whom he referred to as his master. Whether this Isaac Frautschi was an uncle on his father's or his mother's side? He worked for nearly a year for a cabinetmaker named Rudolph Frautschi for a full year in Ong. Possibly these were relatives; places where he worked were Bule, Oron, Newshatel, Sion, Aigle, Ormont, Lausanne, and Neuemberg, 1861 he went to Thun), the fourth of six sons born to Abraham and Maria Magdalena Frautschi, whose maiden name was also Frautschi; two stayed in Turbachtal / Turbach. They were preceded by their Uncle Jacob 1804-1884, the brother of Abraham, and in 1852 came to America - White Mound, Wisconsin, in Sauk County.

Note on above Troubetzkoy / Trubetskoi:
Prince Никола́й Серге́евич Трубецко́й / Nikolai Troubetzkoy b. 1890 in Moscow; the son of Prince S. Trubetskoy / С. Н. Трубецко́й who was a rector of Moscow University, and his nephew Prince E. Trubetskoy known Russian philosopher. Prince Sergei Troubetzkoy b. 1862, Russian religious philosopher; Brother of the philosopher E. Trubetskoy. Sergei Troubetzkoy was born in the Moscow suburban estate Ahtyrka. His son, above Никола́й Серге́евич Трубецко́й / Nikolai Troubetzkoy in 1920 he emigrated to Bulgaria, he taught at the University of Sofia, to the development of the Eurasian ideology; was attended by P. P. Suvchinsky, G. V. Florovsky, P. N. Savitsky. In 1923 he moved to Vienna, he taught at the University of Vienna. Above named Sergei Troubetzkoy b. 1862 in Kaluga or Ahtyrka, and friend of V. S. Solovyov; parents: Nikolai Troubetzkoy b. 1828 and Sophia Lopuchin b. 1841. His grandparents: Peter Ivanovich Troubetzkoy b. 1798 and Emilia P. Wittgenstein b. 1801; and his great-grandparents: Ivan Nikolayevich Troubetzkoy b. 1760 and Natalia Meshcherskaya b. 1776; and his great-great-grandparents Nikolai Troubetzkoy and Tatiana A. Kozlovsky / Kozlowska.

Next a figure. Vyacheslav R. Menzhinsky / Wacław Mienżynski, Mężyński, b. 1874, Saint Petersburg; the security officer, the successor to F. Dzerzhinsky headed OGPU (1926-1934). A Polish noble family of the Orthodox faith: grandfather sang in chorus and father Rudolf Ignatievich Menzhinsky - State Councilor, a graduate of St. Petersburg University, a history teacher; mother, Maria Shakeeva; 1903 sent to Yaroslavl as a representative of the newspaper 'Iskra', a member of the Yaroslavl organization of the RSDLP, met M. S. Kedrov / Kedar?, N. I. Podvoisky, Didrikil Nina wife of Podvoisky.

In the history of intelligence services Artuzov Arthur Frauchi was headed counterintelligence, foreign intelligence and military intelligence, born 1891 in the village Ustinovo, Kashin County, Tver province (Dubbelt or Dubelt family in Kuvshinovo, Tver region = Russia, Tver Oblast, Kuvshinovo, close to Puzakovo; ca 120 km west of Tver), his father Christian Frautschi was a master cheesemaker in the estate of the landowner Likhachev. Frauchi father remained a Swiss citizen; mother, Augusta Avgustovna Didrikil, Latvian descent, taught him French and German, and then he taught himself English. Family of Christian Frautschi, came from Switzerland to Russia in 1881 and settled in the estate of landowner Popov, Apashkovo, Tver province, where his older brother Paul / Peter Frautschi, arrived in this region 1879, next in Yurino estate, manor Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putjatino, the village Davydkovo / Davydovo, 17 km north-west of Kashin, and north-east of Tver. Cheesemaker was working in the estate Mykolaivka, and Christian Frautschi married Augusta Didrikil, Didrikil family was of mixed origin, the Latvian and Estonian, her grandfather was a Scot; after the wedding, the young family settled in the estate at Kashin County, Tver province.
The ancestors of the Frautschi family were Italians, but they settled in that part of the country, where lived natives of Germany, village in the mountains - Gstaad, about an hour away by car from Bern and ca 2 km only from Saanen; ca 30 km east of Villeneuve; here were always Frautschi, all generation were cheesemaker; spoke a strange dialect of German; Christian Frautschi, went to Russia from this village; Christian's Petrovich daughter Nina came home in Gstaad during the holidays at summer of 1912. House was unhurt now, the house is so empty since 1912.
Elisee Reclus and Piotr Kropotkin were living in Clarens, Montreux. L'Abbaye - Breguet. Abetel in Riex, Lausanne. Morges - Duflon. Demontet - in Villette in the Vaud province. Cully is near to Riex. Villette or Lavaux close to Lutry and Cully. Ramseyer family from Neuchâtel and La Chaux-de-Fonds is a Swiss city of the district of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the canton of Neuchâtel. Also St-Aubin-Sauges north of Lausanne, Grindlachen, Bern in Switzerland; from Siebnen and Steffisburg north-east of Lousanne, Tavannes, north of Neuchatel. Villeneuve is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located ca 30 km east-south of Lausanne; Duflon family gone from Nimes 1584, Lutry 1852, Neuchatel, in Paris 1801 - 1877 Louis Duflon. Duflon in 1906 in d'Ardon, south-east of Villeneuve. Also in La Tour-de-Peilz east from Lausanne, close to Villeneuve, 15 km. The DUFLON family 1745 - 1815 was living in Riex of the Vaud province / Vaud canton, Switzerland / Suisse. M. Wilczek from Lausanne, and Michael Dobrovolsky / Michail / Michal Dobrowolski 1903 - 1907 in Lausanne. Jean Rey / Jean-Alexandre REY b. 1861 in Lausanne / Lauzanne, Switzerland. His first wife Marie Sautter b. 1870, daughter of Louis Sautter - founder of LEMONNIER - HARLE and Co. with Paul LEMONNIER. Diserens or Dizeren among other things, it were the villages and towns: CLARENS located east from Lausanne, also Villette, Cully and Riex. Villette or Lavaux is located close to Lutry and Cully. Shortly before the First World War Kedrov graduated from the Medical Faculty of the University of Lausanne.
At margin - we know about Anna Frauchi, b. 1716 in Koppigen, Bern district, Switzerland, died in 1756, Switzerland, married 1774 in Jegenstorf, Bern, Switzerland.
Didrikil Maria Gieorgievna, born 1872, in the Armed Forces of South Russia and evacuated at the end of January 1920 from Novorossiysk on the ship 'Hannover'.
Somebody in Rapperswil-Jona, close to Zurich; and Turbach ca 5 km east of Saanen. Johann Jakob Frautschi / Jacob Jacques Frautschi in 1842, used passport to travel from Switzerland between Canton Berne and Paris, living in Gessenai (Saanen/Gessenay or Saanen, east of Montreux ca 28 km, close to Versoix, near by Rougemont; and now in Schonried close to Saanen; east of Villeneuve), aged 44 years, who was native of Gesseney, who wanted to return to France, married 1843 to Elise Perrin, aged 34 years. Marie Elise Perín was born 28 May 1814, and was baptised in 1815 in the parish of Briel (Biel / Bienne, ca 35 km north-east of Neuchatel).

Summer 1904 - Lenin and Krupskaya / Krupska left Geneva for longer holiday; Lenin and Krupskaya settled first in Lausanne, then changed it to Montreux in 1904 (Kropotkin, Konstantynowicz), the starting point of a multi-week trip to the mountains, chose the wildest trails, climbed into the wilderness, away from people; their journey was interesting: from Montreux (with Clarens, here Konstantynowicz), Villeneuve, to Aigle - 11 km south of Villeneuve (Duflon), then tens of kilometers along the river Rhone (to south and south-east), stay in Loiche - les - Bains / Leukerbad - ca 29 / 34 km south-east of Gstaad, Saanen and Turbach (Fraucci or Frautchi - Artuzow), walk down through the Gemmipass - 28 km south-east of Gstaad, in the mountains of the Bernese canton - 30 to 40 km east of Saanen and Turbach (Frautchi), visit to the Jungfrau / Jungfraujoch - ca 55 to 60 km east of Saanen, again stay at Izentale (or Iseltwald) on Brienzersee - 60/70 km east-north of Saanen, next the way back into the Canton of Geneva (back home on west from Spiez, Saanen, Villeneuve, Montreux), where before returning to Geneva, Lenin and Krupskaya lived in a guest house near lac de Bret (Lac de Bret, Puidoux, Suisse - close to Riex, Cully, 5 km north-east of Cully, ca 15 km east of Lausanne, and 9 km north-west of Vevey; see: Breguet and Duflon, Diserens) in company with Bogdanov; the walk had beneficent effect on Lenin; the nerves came back to normal. How long the journey took for Lenin? It can be answered accurately; their tour began in early July 1904 and lasted nearly two months. Montreux and Vevey nearby well known in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. Stayed here Tchaikovsky, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Gogol, Vyazemskij, Stravinsky, Diaghilev.
Somewhere nearby, in the mountains, held secret meetings Lenin in 1904 (mountains east of Montreux to Saanen).
Lenin was writing from Bern to Geneva, that will be living in Montreux in October 1914, next in Zurich. Probably in Hotel 'Сплендид', a room No 53; in March 1914 Samoilov / Самойлов was in Montreux. Hôtel Splendid / Hotel Splendid, Grand rue 52, 1820 Монтре / Montreux center, 2 km south-east of Clarens, but only 50 meters to Lake and ferry. The Hotel Splendid Montreux, in front of Lake Geneva / Lac Leman, was built at the end of the 19th century and its opening was in 1904. Vladimir Lenin was here in 1908. Lenin maybe was living in Hotel Splendid in 1904? This is the Duflon family core: Clarens, Grandvaux, Chavornay, Montreux, Lausanne.

Alyaksandr Malinovsky / Aliaksandr Alyaksandravіch Malіnoўskі / Alexander Alexandrovich Bogdanov / Malinowski / Werner / Maksimov, b. 1873 in Sokółka, Grodno Governorate, Russian Empire (now Poland), of Belarusian ethnicity, a doctor, economist, philosopher; Bogdanov and Lenin met in Switzerland in the summer of 1904 and entered into an alliance, to 1909.



Electric lighting has come into use in Russia in 1880s. In the end, the concession for the construction of the first power plant in Ufa and Ufa province was signed in 1896 by a specialist of the companies: 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' from St. Petersburg and the 'Sautter, Harle and Co.' from Paris, engineer Nikolai Vladimirovich Konshin / Владимирович Коншин. Construction of the city's first power plant taken about two years, on 01 February 1898 it gave a light. The city council had to pay for it to the owner 275 thousand rubles. In July 1918 to October 1918 Konshin went through terrible ordeals, he was among the 98 hostages of Ufa. He was alive in the early 1920s.
His father probably Konshin Vladimir Nikolaevich born ?, member of the Board of the South - Eastern Railway Society and the Rybinsk Railway. Above Konshin Nikolai V. born ?, was working for the Prince of Oldenburg for the exploration of manganese around Trebizond 1887 - 1888, a member of the South Ussuri Expedition 1888 - 1890 and for the exploration of coal in the Semipalatinsk region 1890, in the Urals from 1891, built at his own expense the first power plant in Ufa 1898.

The Minsk City Council on June 28, 1894 decided on the introduction of electric lighting and the Town Council concluded an agreement with the Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz Company. According to the agreement a power station and the city's network lighting should be equipped with a steam boiler of Fiiner Gamper / Hamper from Sosnowiec, Westinghouse steam engine system, dynamos of the Baltic electric plant in Riga, lightbulbs of the Gabriel and Anzheno / Angeno Comp. from Paris, and electric bulbs of Harle factory.

On January 12, 1895 in Minsk, the first city power station started. In 1899 the plant was named 'Elvod', Minsk became the fourth city after Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kiev, where began to use electrical networks.

On the Pärnu history and power stations and electrical networks in Estonia:
One hundred years ago in Parnu earned powerhouse. "The first power that earned in 1907, on the right bank of the Pärnu River , has not survived. Its capacity was inadequate and just four years later had to build a new power plant. This building still stands today...". "It is particularly interesting that once held two submarine cable across the river Pärnu, as the network of street lighting was on one side, and the power plant - on the other".
1915, the commandant of the city Rodzyanko gave the order to blow up a number of industries and power station, too. In Estonia, the use of electricity began in 1882 at the Manufactory of Kreenholm, but the first public power - 108 or 100 kW and 220 V - launched November 2, 1907 in Pärnu. The first industrial power plant was built at the Kunda cement factory in 1893.

Kotri Hangelaid or Gottfried Hacker or Hakker b. 1887 d. 1961 in Germany, graduated from Wismar Polytechnical School as certified engineer, 1913 lived in LEHOLA.
Designed and built Estonian first electric power plant to Aru bog, on rented land from Kunda manor and the first high-voltage line 15 kV between different areas, which on 18 Oct. 1918 brought electricity to Rakvere. 1919 - 1939 was living in Tallinn. 1939 emigrated to Germany.

Kunda in Kirchspiel Maholm, Viru-Nigula Parish in Virumaa County, at present the Kunda Municipality in Lääne-Virumaa County. Viru-Nigula Parish - 25 km east-north of Rakvere, 13 km south-east of Kunda. "At the end of 1860s the owner of Kunda Manor John Girard de Soucanton became interested in the possibility of producing cement. Since 1893 steam engines were used for mining raw material, and a hydroelectric power station was completed at the same time (the first in all Estonia)". Gustav John Edmund Baron Girard de Soucanton, from Selgs b. 1863 in Kunda. His wife Sophie Eleonore (Ellinor) Girard de Soucanton (von Rosenbach). His grandfather from Reval, Johann Carl Baron Girard de Soucanton b. 1785. The Girard family was originally from the French countryside Languedoc - Roussillon.

Bliebernicht Johann Eduard began producing beer in 1869. He was bought in Pärnu a mechanical plant. In 1910 introduced the first electric motors.

1899 founded in Tallinn, electric motors and generators manufacturing factory 'Volta'. The first power plant was built in factories, for example in Narva, Kunda cement factory, a train factory in Tallinn, Pärnu in 1907. Followed by Tartu, Viljandi, Valga and Võru city. In 1907 the first public power station was opened in Estonia and Pärnu was the first city in the whole of Russia, where the streets had light bulbs. The generator operated the steam engine and the electric went to city street lighting. The Pärnu plant was ready in 1907; because it would have been cheaper to use coal to heat the plant, in 1910 this plant has been rebuilt and expanded.

Carl Wilhelm Luther born 1859 in Tallinn, d. 1903 in Berlin, as a son of the German Baltic merchant and entrepreneur Alexander Martin Luther (1810-1876) and his wife Henriette Caroline Steding (1825-1905). Carl's older brother was the entrepreneur Christian Wilhelm Luther (1857-1914), Carl Wilhelm Luther concluded in 1885, the Polytechnic of the Livonian capital Riga in mechanical engineering, working in St. Petersburg, and next he returned to Estonia; Carl was the technical director of the wood and furniture company; there were a power station, a drying system for wood; 1898, the company was the joint stock company, technical director Carl Wilhelm Luther; introduced aircraft, automobile and railway parts. In London, the export company Venesta in 1897 was founded, which had the sole distribution rights of the products in the British Empire; Christian and Carl Luther in April 1899 founded the Volta factory in Tallinn, which focused on the manufacture of electric motors and generators for the Russian market; he held the post of Director of the corporation (see Schaub). Both brothers attended the World's Fair in 1900 in Paris. Carl Wilhelm Luther was son of Alexander Martin Luther and Henriette Caroline Luther, and was husband of Sidney Frances; he was father of Winifred Luther, by Ilmar Raudmägi. Alexander Martin Luther b. 1810 in Tallinn, Harju. Son of Christian II Wilhelm Luther and Johanna Amalie Amalie. Brother of Gerdruta Carolina Paulsen; Auguste Charlotte Luther; Catharina Henriette Luther; Helene Amalie Luther; Johann Christian Luther; Leopold Luther; Moritz Wilhelm Luther and Ferdinand Wilhelm Luther, by Lasse Söderström, Raul Kalev, Epp Ehasalu. Above mentioned Johanna Amalie Amalie Luther nee Gebauer b. 1774; daughter of Johann David Gebauer, II. Above Christian II Wilhelm Luther b. 1774 in Tallinn, Harju. Son of Georg Christian Luther, II and Maria Helene. Copyright by Lasse Söderström and Ehasalu. Above Georg Christian Luther, II was born 1717 in Breslau / Wrocław, Poland.

In Viljandi in 1900 'Viljandi Telephone Company' started; A. Rosenberg houses had got electric light in 1902 from a power station commissioned by Volta factory. In 1910 the 'Inthal & Co.' power station to get electric lights downtown businesses, the first permanent cinema and residential houses in Viljandi. 1912 the city constructed a new power plant.

On the Hacker or Hakker family from Estonia:
Hacker / Hakker / Kotri Hangelaid or Gottfried Hacker or Hakker b. 1887 d. 1961; his son Gert Hacker / Hangelaid; his brother Hugo Wilhelm Eduard Hacker b. 1884; his father Wilhelm Hacker b. 1852, grandfather (Szymon) Siim Hacker b. 1817. About above named Gottfried Hacker or Hakker: engineer, Wismar Polytechnic 1909 - 1913, Lehola / Leola 1913, Kunda 1918.
Gottfried Hacker or Hakker was living in Harjumaa, Lehola / Leola in 1913.
About above Siim Hacker b. 1817; his sons: Constantin Johann Hacker b. 1859 d. on February 28, 1926 in Keila - Keila town is 5 km north-east of Lehola, Harju County, and Keila is west of Saku; Gustav Hacker b. 1854 Hiiumaa - island, west of Haapsalu, died on September 28, 1917 in Tallinn, Harjumaa (his daughter Olga-Pauline Hacker b. 1876 d. 1877).

Lehola:
here was born in 1740 Christian Wilhelm / Христиан Вильгельм Гернет died ca 1819, born in Lehhola / Lehola as above, Estonia - and his sons:
1. Hans Moritz von Gernet born 1775 died 1860 (his son Adam Oskar von Gernet 1834 in Reval - 1908 in Reval - and his son: Moritz Nikolai Oswald von Gernet born 1867 Sallenstad - d. ?) and 2. Otto Heinrich von Gernet (1780 Reval - 1848) and 3. Frederick Wilhelm / Fridrich Wilhelm / Фридрих Вильгельм Гернет born 1783 died 1857; and next son born in 1747 Karl Gustaw von Gernet / Карл Густав Гернет (Carl Gustav von Gernet born in Waikna and died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia with son Karl Iogann / Carl Iohan von Gernet - Waikna / Vaikna that is support manor of Koluvere manor, Kullamaa Parish in Läänemaa County; 38 km east of Haapsalu and also east of Kiideva, north-west-north of Parnu, 70 km circa.
Sophia nee Armand was the daughter of Ivan Armand from his second marriage and was born c. 1830, she was granddaughter of Paul that is Pavel. She married a Swede from Estonia - Joseph Hekke (Hacker or Hakker among others from Lehola) about 1850. No data about this Swede but this family gone from Estland / Eesti / Estonia. From this marriage was the oldest Maria Osipovna that is daughter of Osip / Joseph. She was born about 1851. The second child was 12 years later, and was born about 1863 - Sophia Osipovna. And about 1864 Alexandr son. When their parents died c. 1866, a guardian was appointed - uncle Evgeny 'second'. He put children in his office in the Old Square and Evgeny hired a governess for the children about 1867.
Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan Armand and his first wife Elizabeth Osipovna (born 1788, died 1817) called Sabina, and the second wife was Marie Barbe, born Kolinon (1780 - 1872) who had a daughter Sophia, later married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hekke / Joseph Hekke (Hacker or Hakker from Estonia, but roots from Sweden or Sverige?!) about 1850. The COLLIGNON family in France was living in Lorraine 1835 (Meuse), Ile-de-France 1725, and in Russia 1858, in St Petersburg.

In 1912 released the first high-frequency machine for wireless telegraphy and telephony by Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company.


When the First World War broke out, JSC 'Deca' has received a loan to expand aircraft production under the production of airplanes and engines, from domestic materials. But space, material and manpower resources to carry out new plans in the Russian capital was not enough, and we had to consider options for building a new plant in the province. Among them was a small town Aleksandrovsk in Ekaterinoslav province (Copyright 2006 - 2011 by 'Science & Technology', No 10 (53), 2010).
The third company in Russia in terms of the electronic products supply. 

We manufactured an electrical accessory and magnetos for aero engines in the  beginning of  the First world war. A SwissFrench share (since 1904) of DEKA Joint Stock Society with brand name  "Duflon in  St  Petersburg manufactured electric accessory for naval fleet of Russian army, but also  for other defensive enterprises. The Russian - Japanese war in 1904 - 05 and the First world war were  with the best years, according to http://konkretno.ru/  and shareholders had taken up the advantage of  this prosperity. Total employees rose over 3 times only in "Duflon" proper in heyday 1914 - 1916, and  the production - 6 times. The factory manufactured radio sets and broadcasting stations (see about the  Boncz  Brujewicz  family), engines for automobiles and for planes. The "Duflon" had opened a branch in  Aleksandrovsk  / Zaporozhye that later on manufactured the "Zaporozhets" cars in "Zaporozhskiy  Avtomobilnyi Zavod" (Auto Works of Zaporozhye in Ukraine)!

1915 

DEKA JSC in December 1915 bought buildings and equipment in a town   Aleksandrovsk  in order to changeover of activity. 

During the First World War the firm DECA was one of the best electrical companies in the country, was equipped with American equipment and have trained engineers, technicians and production staff. For 1914 - 1917 value of the new equipment has increased from 473 thousand to 2.5 million rubles; in 1897 one ruble = 0.774 grams gold. 

The monthly production volume in July 1914 to December 1916 increased by 6 times.

On 24 October 1917 value belonging to the plant property, plant and equipment was estimated at 5.5 million rubles

To 1917 plant was a wide-venture and had 6 major divisions: the ship and shore-based tower systems, searchlight, aviation, mechanical, magneto and telegraph technology, in which there were 17 workshops (a searchlight or spotlight is an apparatus that combines a bright light source with some form of curved reflector or other optics to project a powerful beam of light ... By 1907 it was using to assist attacks against torpedo boats, enemy ships at greater distances, were also used by battleships and were installed on many coastal artillery batteries). 

DECA paid good dividends on the market in 1913: 500-ruble share of the Company was assessed at the St. Petersburg Stock Exchange at 850 rubles

The capital of 750 thousand rubles as 1500 registered shares by 500 rubles, only in 1903 had given net profit totaled 62.1 thousand rubles. In 1913, fixed capital - 1.5 mln rubles, that is 1500 shares at 500 rubles and 7500 shares at 100 rubles; balance - 4.181.995 rubles; dividend - 12 % per share for 500 rubles and 3 rubles 12 kopeek per share for 100 rubles.

From June 1901 to October 1917 Joint-stock company 'Deca' has received about 3.5 million rubles net profit.

In June 1918 the company was nationalized. 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' in Petersburg - the number of workers in 1900 - 1910 year: 170 and in 1911 - 1917: 250 or in January 1905 - 179 workers; in January 1914 - 240; 1917 - more than 820. The factory produced an electro-mechanical equipment for the Navy of Russia.
Around the same time, i.e. in the summer of 1915, Joint Stock Company 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.' (or 'Deca') offered an airplane with a bullet with 'a four-sided feathers'. The bullet was cast from solid lead alloy, the stabilizer was made of tin. Bullets 'with feathers sided' with the other models under the guidance of Professor Zhukovsky were purged in the aerodynamic laboratory of the Imperial Moscow Technical School and received the highest rating-known scientist. The bullet 'Deka' or 'DK' has the best aerodynamic performance. In the end, that since the end of 1915 the company 'Syromyatnikov, Ovchinnikov, Shatsky & Co.' and JSC 'Duflon, Konstantynowicz & Co.' became the main suppliers of such weapons for the Russian Army, launching a large-scale enterprises in their production. Bullets, 'DK' have been designed so well that no change had existed prior to the 20s of the 20th cent., survived war and civil war. The tests took place in this time showed complete failure of an engineer V. V. Dybovsky / W. Dybowski design of bullets and a bullets from foundry of E. E. Novitsky / E. Nowicki.

Copyright by http://www.nt-magazine.ru/nt/node/7009 and 'НиТ' / 'Nauka i Technika', 8 (75), 2012 by Мороз С. Г. / Moroz S. G.

"...Our magazine printed articles about the world's first heavy bomber 'Ilya Muromets'. ... more recently the editors received archival documents that shown new light on some of the events of World War I on the unique heavy airplane of Sikorsky and enterprises of JSC 'Motor Sich', which was called in those days 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co. / Дюфлон, Константинович...', or abbreviated DECA. These materials have been provided courtesy of the Museum of the plant 'Motor Sich'... Such opportunities have factory 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.'. By the time the plant passed the reorganization and was named 'Company of electromechanical structures', but the old mark of DECA continued to be used, as has been widely known for about twenty years. Its managing director Peter P. Azbelev signed on September 9, 1915 contract with the military-technical management, taking the following commitments:
'1. Reference samples ... and the exact basis of general conditions and the annexed lists, and specifications that will be subsequently given to the Company by the Chief Military-technical management, manufacture and deliver ... a) one hundred types of Benz motors 150 HP at 16,200 rubles for the motor, and b) one hundred sets of spare parts for 1,570 rubles per set, and c) twenty additional kits to them / 12 / 15.250 per set, and d) twenty five engines like Mercedes 100-150 HP at 11,340 rubles for the engine, and e) twenty five complete sets of spare parts in 1500 per set, and e) five additional sets to them 14,000 rubles per set, and the total amount of two million four hundred and seventy three thousand (2.473.000) rubles.
2) Testing of engines produced by the supplier according to the rules that will be given to the public by the Office.
3) The company shall manufacture the aforesaid engines and spare parts for Russian factories and present at the factories for inspection and examination of the selection committee: motors of 150 HP, the first five engines and five sets of spare parts and an extra set of spare parts after ten months of the issuance to the Company of the sample, while the remaining 150 HP engines and sets of spare parts for them ... in the next delivery for the first eight months (and) the last month of 11 motors and 14 sets of spare parts. Engines Mercedes by the 100-105 HP - the first one motor, a spare parts kit and one extra set of spare parts in ten months from the date the sample ...
4) On receipt of engines and spare parts supplier undertakes at its own expense sealing and delivering them to the central warehouse near by the aeronautical school, or at one of the railway stations in Petrograd as directed by the Engineering Department, as well as to send them - if you need - to (at no extra cost to the Treasury) - on the proposals of the military department - a place as directed by the Engineering Department...'. Copyright by http://www.nt-magazine.ru/nt/node/7009 and журнал НиТ: №8(75), 2012 г.

The contract was signed from the War Department by the head of the Technical Department, Major General GVTU Bolotov.
Company Dyuflon and Konstantinovich possessed relatively large and well-equipped production facilities, in addition having major plants in St. Petersburg and Moscow, and several more branches in major provincial centers of the Russian Empire, but they were loaded with military production, and had no opportunity to place another order ... requiring the development of two new products. In search of the site for the new production ..., called attention to the company of brothers Moznaim in Alexandrovsk in Ukraine (now a city of Zaporozhye). His owners could not find the military orders... Case the brothers were not going well ... and soon the plant changed owner. On the organization a motor branch of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' in Alexandrovsk and the modernization of the company told the 'S & T' / 'Nauka i Technika' number of January 2011 ... We remind the reader only two dates in the history of the company in December 1915 signed a bill of sale, and in April 1916, had already been built new production buildings with modern - purchased in the U.S. and delivered through Archangel and Vladivostok - equipment. Next were built and other buildings, as well as construction, the specifics of which was related to the future profile of the company. ... began testing station, a large building with a spacious stand, necessary utilities, electric lighting and ventilation. Following the expansion of the plant is the largest enterprise in Russia ... and one of the best equipment ...
The first five-row six-cylinder engines, 'DECA' M-100 with parts and an additional set had to pass by the end of August 1916. It was very difficult: the German construction 'did not fit' with either adopted our technology ... or with the ... Russian and American machines. It was necessary to understand the materials used by German designer and pick up a replacement of domestic production ... the effort to 'adapt' engine 'Mercedes' to our manufacturing taken engineer Vorobyov, and the development of more powerful 'Benz' ... engineer Kireev. ... but the first step has been taken - and in August 1916 the motor 'DECA' M-100 was presented to the control tests. Major General Pniewski reported in St. Petersburg: '...the first engine made entirely of Russian materials, was set in motion and gave satisfactory results'. The plant began to implement the agreement in full. So, the issue of engines was started.
And although by the time the Office of Air Force managed to establish some order to force manufacturers to make this airplane, according to their calculation, the production of the aircraft has failed. And in the following events in 1917, ... you can not find the information in the documents on what engines from Alexandrovsk were to installed to particular variety of aircraft "Ilya Muromets". ... In addition, the well-known book of V. B. Shavrov 'History of aircraft design in the USSR until 1938', states that the motor 'deka' (in the book it is called the M-101) was installed on the aircraft, 'Lebed XI'.
In 1917 began the turbulent events ... All year management and staff of the Alexandrov factory DEKA did everything possible to continue production of engines and save the company ... but 'Company' could no longer exist (after November 1917) in the same form and on December 24, 1917 the company was terminated / adjourned. Although less than a month, the Soviet government decree that plant was nationalized (January 1918), the Company under the circumstances was unable to work...".

1916 -  1917   

   
The Deka built up the military manufactory of aeroengines in a town
 Aleksandrovsk 
(i.e. in Zaporozh'e either Zaporoze or Zaporizhzhya / Zaporozhye) in 1916. The Stavka (Supreme High Command of the Russian Military)  and  Russian military intelligence was interested in such experimental production with advanced  technology in actuality and this headquarters laid down actual line of research into the Deka mechanical  powers for  aircraft, e.g.  general P. W. Pniewski ordered to enforce norms of special steel for aeroengines in  Petrograd at the end  of 1916.  Copyright by Техника - молодёжи 2007-10, страница 31
   The "Main war - technical board" under
W. A. Semkowski concluded a big contract with joint stock  company of electrical firms (i.e. particular, separate businesses from Duflon / Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.  abbreviated as  DEKA) from Petrograd on 01 February 1916 in order to construct in the plant of DEKA two experimental aircrafts of professor
Gheorghe Botezat 
by 01 or 20 October 1917 (with aeroengine "Renault" and  with a gyroscope  - wheel which, when spinning fast, keeps steady the object in which it is fixed - the first automatic pilot) but  the professor  has been gone abroad earlier.
   The
stock society DEKA received twice considerable government  subsidies on research & development in 1916 but the magnetos to aero engines produced here continuously in co-operation with the Petrograd  Polytechnic Institute (magneto i.e. electric apparatus for producing sparks in the ignition system of an internal combustion  engine). Copyright by Роман Гусаров Roman Gusarow and Жаннa Храмченко Zanna Chramczenko And it was soon built the section of aero engines in Zaporozhye = Zaporizhzhya under the general chief N. R. Brilling; an area of the factory had got 39 millions m² according to "History of building airplanes  in the  USSR" by B. V. Shavrov of 1985. In 1915, 'Deca' bought the plant of Moznaimov brothers and rebuild it under the issue of internal combustion engines and in particular - aviation; the first contract with the Government for an engine type '100' and 20 engines type Benz - Mercedes. The Mersedes (i.e. Mercedes) aero engines manufactured here in the  second half of  1916 and expected 10 - 15 engines monthly (e.g. the Mercedes - type 100 hp from DEKA factory and  "Deka M-100" in Zaporozh'e as early as 28 September 1916, at a later date DEKA 166/168/170 hp and it were produced here  ten aero engines   DEKA 129 hp with six cylinders monthly in the end of 1916, and DEKA M-170 hp in 1917; extra the "Benz"  and "Mercedes"   aero engines manufactured here also in 1917; the DEKA Company learned production of the piston engines  since September 1916: M-6, M-11, M-22, M-85, M-86, M-87, M-88, Ash-87FN, Ash-62JR
, often superior  and better than foreign engines
).  
   Major General
Pniewski said in parliament about the DEKA company in  November 1916: "This is the first aeroengine as a whole from the Russian materials of experimental line of 5 pieces by 100 hp". The day of complete success - DEKA M-100, the first Russian six-cylinder water cooled engine constructed on 15 / 28 September 1916. This date can be regarded as the birthday of Russian domestic air industry; before 1916 Russia only imported aircraft engines.

So incompetent paralleled researches into the Mercedes engines conducted Anthony Fokker in Germany who was from  Holland and Heinrich Focke b. 1890. About details and photos of the MERCEDES aviation engines or on the  Mercedes-Daimler Motorengesellschaft from Stuttgart-Unterturkheim, see: "Jane's fighting Aircraft of World War I", by John  W. R. Taylor, England 1919 and London 1990 ("Studio Editions").  


The War Department wants to procure large quantities an airplane's bullets and even in 1917 our Joint-stock company 'Deka' was commissioned 400 thousand 'bullets, to shoot from airplanes' but the plant in July passed this order the army.

At present in 2007 "LSR Group planned to open 3 new first class business-centers. Electric City business centre of 340 thousand square metres was designed by architects Sergey Choban and Evgeny Gerasimov in 10, Copyright by Кирилл Н. Кравченко, http://kirill-kravchenko.narod.ru/Medikov Prospect in St Petersburg, in the historic building of 'Duflon, Konstantinovich and Co' plant - 'Electric plant'. ... LSR Group founded in 1993, LSR Group is one of the leading real estate development, construction and building materials companies in Russia". Under copyright by Кирилл Н. Кравченко, http://kirill-kravchenko.narod.ru/

 I  will take pains to collect information on all and  somebody who reads  need to know about.  You don't need to thank me; I'm happy to help whenever I can. I think that we are all  agreed in this matter, and therefore there needs no more words about it..  

'Omsk Engine-Building Production Associationoriginates from the plant in Alexandrovsk /  Zaporizhia, a joint stock company 'Deka' and produces aviation piston engines of foreign models. Was restored in 1920. 


"The area covered by brick-made production buildings of this factory exceeded any of then available engine works in the tsarist Russia and it   was equipped as one of the best; the Mercedes-type 100 hp single-row water-cooled  six-cylinder  engine assembled here in September 1916 and designated Deka M-100 became the firstling of the  company; the date of its manufacture was accepted as the birthday of the Company (i.e. in Zaporozh'e =   Aleksandrovsk or Zaporozhye / Zaporizhzhya); later on the engine power has been increased to 129 hp and  then to 168 hp due to efforts of Deka experts who managed to do this" (quotation from Vyacheslav   Boguslayev, Chairman of Board and Director General Motor Sich JSC of 2001; this quotation without the Author's  written permission, so see: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/ukraine/motor-sich.htm); the engine was  installed to power several modifications of four-engine "Ilya Muromets" aircraft (with the Argus engine  too; for the first time attempted to produce "Benz" and "Argus" engines in the Russian Baltic Railroad Car Works that  evacuated from Riga to Petersburg in 1915 but 10 months waited for steel in 1915/16; more than 70 military versions of  the "Ilia Mourometz" were built for use as bombers within 1913 - 1917; in all, 75 bombers were delivered, and roughly half of them saw combat; twenty similar airplanes had  been produced in 1916 and five built in September 1916 were not noticed by military command - were probably with engines of experimental line of 5  pieces Deka M-100; 15 March 1916 the 1st Aero Squadron begins operations) developed by the famous Polish aircraft designers Igor I.  Sikorsky and  his collaborator eng. Witold Jarkowski; outliving the fires of Civil War - sequestration by the Bolshevik authorities in January  1918 - "the  factory has commenced to repair and then to manufacture the parts for Renault aircraft engines" after 1921.   The section of aero engines in  Zaporozhye =  Zaporizhzhya employed as workers for years: in 1916 - 191 employees, 1917 - 420, and at the beginning of 1918 - 416 persons.  

   Завод ''Дюфлон, Константинович и Ко.' 1914  арх. М. М. Чижов, Улица Академика Павлова, 8; проспект Медиков, 3.

   Employees of ours

Nikolaj Romanowicz Brilling
elaborated aeroengine with two opposite pistons when acted as chief in DEKA factory (Duflon either  Duflou or Dufflon & Konstantynowicz) in Zaporozhye 1916 - 1918.
 Brilling i.e. Briling; Russian, b. 1876, Russian and Soviet expert of aeroengines after  completion  of the Moscow Polytechnic, twice under arrest due to distribution of Lenin's  "Iskra", 1907 doctor in field of engines, 1908 - 1915 professor of the Moscow Polytechnic and chief of a special engine lab here, 1911 wrote thesis about internal combustion engines;  Zaporoze, DEKA Company - Copyright by Двигатель №4 (58) 2008 г_ СТАНОВЛЕНИЕ КОНСТРУКТОРСКОЙ СЛУЖБЫ ОАО МОТОР СИЧ

"
the Soviet Council of Labor and Defense issued instructions for the creation of a Commission for Organization of the Design of the Aerosled = KOMPAS in 1919, and the membership of the commission included such leading designers as N. E. Zhukovskiy - its scientific director and N. R. Briling, who  was  selected (according to  Valeriy Potapov; this quotation without the Author's written permission) as director of KOMPAS - it was Briling  himself who had laid the foundation for aerosled design shortly before World War I  in 1912 - mass production of  transport aerosleds was begun in the Russo-Balt i.e. Russian-Baltic Plant in Tsarist Russia". The 'DEKA' company gave work and bread for many future communists:
Antyuhin Fokich Ivan (1894-1938), Mavrin I. F., A.I. Ionov, Michail Georgievich Belov (1881-1936), Skorokhodov Kastorovich Alexander (1880-1919), Sutkevich Pavel Antonovich (1871 - 1919) and Alexander Alexeyev Yemelyanovich in St. Petersburg - then become a draftsman, designer, and finally, an assistant manager at the plant 'Duflon'.


Wladymir Jakowlewicz Klimow
 
after completion of the Moscow Polytechnic in 1917 worked as trainee in DEKA factory in  Zaporozhye, he designed a certain aero engine of his own here in 1917 and received an award at professor N. R. Brilling's  hands (Klimow i.e. Klimov; Russian, b. 1892, main constructor of the Soviet aeroengines since 1935). 

In August 1916 was a test of the first aircraft engine 'DECA M-100'. Inline six-cylinder water cooling, such as 'Mercedes'. His drawings created under the direction of engineer Vorobyov from
Alexandrovsk / Zaporozhye Plant of St. Petersburg stock company Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co., abbreviated as DECA but "in this study involved a student of the Moscow higher Imperial Technical School - Vladimir Klimov - the future chief designer of engines 'VC', founder of the OKB-117 (now JSC 'Klimov', Saint Petersburg), which took place at the time as the factory practice".
 
  


Bedrich  Urban  

(born 1880, d. 1940?)  

signed on with the Konstantynowiczs in year 1908 and he worked for  "Duflon & Konstantynowicz" 1908 - 1911 in St Petersburg.

Urban has got experience from "Tallinn Volta" 1904 - 1908.

Bedrich Urban was  engineer  constructor  and after

1911 - 1918 worked for Siemens - Schuckert  factory in St Petersburg

as  director manager according to Rain  Vaikla. 1918 came back to Estonia and he was owner of the 'Bureau Ins. B. Urban & Co.' for technical products and metal products business, tools, engines, steam engines, turbines and Skoda car factory representation in Estonia. 'Siemens-Halske' played a key role in the formation of the St. Petersburg electrotechnical industry before the First Warld War but in this city were other businesses: 'Universal Company of Electricity', 'United Cable Plants', 'Schuckert and Co.', 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', 'Society battery factories Tudor'. From 1898 'Plant of dynamos Siemens-Schuckert' and in 1895, Erickson launched the company 'NK Geisler and Co.', which has American roots. 'Glebov plant' really was the only Russian electromechanical company in Petersburg. All the rest were foreigners, mainly British and Germans but however, one plant was with mixed capital: 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' so-called 'Deca', but it was mainly French. 

http://www.okipr.ru/encyk/view/236 Copyright by Encyclopedia of Russian merchants: Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz Company

According to JOHN SPARGO an  author  of   "RUSSIA  AS AN AMERICAN PROBLEM", ed. NEW YORK  and LONDON  in 1920 by Harper  & Brothers

"The four  principal  manufacturers of electrical machinery in Russia were   Siemens - Schuckert, General Electric  Company,  Siemens &  Halske, and Duflon,   Konstantynowicz & Co. These companies  made  practically all the generators and transformers   produced in  Russia, the first two companies  named  producing two-thirds of the whole. Of the four  companies named three were simply Russian  branches  of  German concerns, the  last   named, the   Duflon-Konstantynowicz firm, being French. These  factories were quite unable to meet the demand for   generators,  transformers and  other electrical   machinery even before the war".

Russian aircraft factories in the Russian Empire in 1915:

1. Rusian - Baltic Plant (RBVZ): departments of aviation in Riga and St. Petersburg. In 1910 Sikorsky built C6, C10, C12, C22. 2. Zavod 1st All-Russian Association of aeronautics (Shchetinin). 3. 'The aeronautics company (Lebedev, from 1913 to Petrograd). 4. Zavod V. Slyusarenko, 1912 Riga, Bleriot aircraft. 5. Fabrika A. A. Porohovschikova, Petrograd in 1914. 6. Company 'Dux' since 1910 aircraft Farman, Voisin, Deperdyussen. 7. Aviatsionny plant F. F. Mosca. 8. Masterskaya I. I. Steglau in 1911 Petrograd. 9. Zavod A. A. Anatra 1913, Odessa, Simferopol. 10. Company Mathias, from 1914 Berdyansk, the Schütte-Lanz airships. 11. 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', Aleksandrovsk in the Ekaterinoslav province, the Argus engines for sale under license. 12. Russian factories Daimler. According to: P. D. Duz, 'The history of aeronautics and aviation in Russia': 1. Russian-Baltic Shipyard (RBVZ) manufactured liquid-cooled engine capacity of 166 liters; RBVZ type-6 Argus have been designed by RBVZ in Riga. The evacuation to Petrograd loss of skilled personnel, equipment and system of production and finance. 2. Plant 'Motor': in the summer of 1915 from Riga to Moscow was evacuated the plant of 'Motor' association which already had experience in building of rotating engines. 3. JSCompany of P. Ilin; producing of engines to cars was involved in workshops of the Ilin company in Moscow. 4. the aviation company in Simferopol; it was created as a branch of the Aviation Plant A. Anatar located in Odessa by the beginning of 1917. 5. Deka in Zaporoze / Aleksandrowsk / Alexandrowsk. 6. In Rostov-on-Don was the Agricultural Machinery Plant 'Aksai' began to create the aviation department and has received an order for monthly production of 30 engines of the 'Mercedes'; 7. and many related industries as Singer in Podolsk.  

Comment on Gheorghe Botezat  

Gheorghe Botezat either doctor George, Geogrij, Georges A. de Bothezat or Georg A. Botezat, Botezatu, was born in Iasi i.e. Jassy in Romania 1883 or 1882 - died in Dayton, Ohio in USA 1940 (photo from http://www.hill.af.mil/museum below). Botezat learnt in Sereth, next graduating in 1908 at Kharkiv Institute of Technology, and two years of study at the Sorbonne in Paris in 1911, was a doctor in field of aviation; a Russian  aeronautical engineer and  mathematician; professor of the  Petrograd Polytechnic  Institute in the beginning of the First world war; worked for DEKA in  Petrograd / St  Petersburg 1914 -  1917 and next he stayed in Iasi at the  turn  of 1918; Copyright by Bogdan Konstantynowicz / Константинович. Prof. Bothezat from Romania.wrote (1918) letter and report "General Theory of  the  Screw" (air-screw i.e. propeller of an aircraft); at a later date he wrote off to Subcommittee on Buildings, Laboratories and Equipments in  Feb. 1919 and ( by http://avia.russian.ee/vertigo/bothezat-r.html ) the US  Army Air Corps awarded a contract in January 1921 to Dr. George  de  Bothezat and Ivan Jerome (i.e. Eremeeff, Jeromiejew or Jerome - after a  millionaire   inventor from Long Island and next owner of the Massapequa Farmers Market, the 59-year old Jerome was arrested in 1955, freed on $100,000 bond, he  jumped bail and disappeared; there were reports he had been   seen everywhere from Russia to South America, but he was never found; by   http://www.newsday.com/extras/lihistory) to develop a vertical flight  machine; this helicopter, designated the Engineering Division H-1  and designed by George De Bothezat and Ivan (Eremeeff) Jerome,  made its first public flight on December 18, 1922; George de  Bothezat's Army Helicopter Number 1, nicknamed "The Flying  Octopus", possessed 1 x the 180 hp Le Rhone radial engine (Rhone 134 kW).
Copyright by http://www.okipr.ru/encyk/view/236 Документальные источники: Duflon and Konstantinovich Company


Count Albert R. de Gern / Albert Gernet ? / де Герн граф Альберт Романович Earl, member of the Russian-French Chamber of Commerce, Board Member: The Russian-French Commercial Bank and the Society of the Bryansk factories; the secretary of French society 'Russian Mining and Metallurgical Union', the French agent in Russia, and member of the board of 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company. His neighbours at I. Lidvall / Lidval house in 1912 - 1916 in St Petersburg: G. Bunge, a retired engineer, member of Russian locomotive and mechanical plant in Kharkov, Management Board of Russian-Belgian Metallurgical Society; M. Weiss, the daughter of Vice Admiral, Grotkus Anna von Erne baroness and Grube, Ernest Charles, the Discount and Loan Bank of Persia - Chairman, Board of Siberian Commercial Bank in St. Petersburg, Committee of the Sisters of Mercy of the Red Cross in 1912; Ramseyer ? / Рамзай К. А. / Ramsay K. A. / Ramsayer, gentleman, office in the Ministry of Imperial Court.
After Revolution the family of Gern (von Gernet?) stayed in the St. Cloud in France. Even in St. Petersburg, Lina de Gern was acquaintance of Anna Pavlovna Pavlova second, a dancer of Russian ballet. Youngest son Nicholas, Frenchman was released from the Marine Corps in the spring of 1917 with the rank of warrant officer and was assigned to the cruiser. The Minister of Marine, Grigorovich has sent him in fall of 1917 to America on charges of ordering new ships. In New York he fell in love with some actress and decided to marry her. In 1918, shot himself. The eldest son Sergei, from post-war Paris, in 1920 went to America. They all were Catholic. Count de Gern for a long time was married to the daughter of the Marquis de Segur, and the Catholic Church does not recognize divorce; the count went to the family estate in the north of France. The consequence of loss of personal funds was that the Count appeared in St. Petersburg as a representative of the French capital invested in the steel factory Makeyevka in southern Russia. De Gern on August 19, 1906 second time married, lived close to Kozelsk and in St. Petersburg. Acquaintance of the Gern family: the family of Zapolsky, Sergei N. Aksakov with son of Boris and daughter Xenia, Peter V. Blokhin and Princess Nadezhda Vyazemskaya from Mogilev, Alexei Nikolayevich Yergolsky from a estate south of Kozelsk.

M. S. Sitnikov employees of ours. 

Nikolay Mikhailovich Shvernik born 1888, was a Russian politician and employees of ours - 1902.
CHARLE Masson Ph. / son of Philiberte / Philibert Masson was Vice - Chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon' in St. Petersburg (then L. L. Nobel succeed him) and a member of the Board of Nabpolts (Moscow). Nobel L. L. (descendant of Ludvig and Edla Nobel: Ludvig Alfred Lullu Nobel, 1874 - 1935) - hereditary honorable citizen, Director of the Company 'Gear-Tsitroen' (Citroen) and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and a machine factory of Company 'Ludvig Nobel'.

The 'Duflon...' Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8: Evgeny / Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, Nikolai Danilovich Liesienko who 1906 - 1914 represented the interests of the company in St. Petersburg, L. F. Duflon who lived since 1908 in Switzerland, Alexander E. Armand, Sergei Gernet son of Pavel and Emil I. Ramseyer - Swiss citizen, the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, chairman of the Board of the 'Atlas' Society in St. Petersburg; his brother Ramseyer Y. I., Swiss citizen was also the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank and Director of the Company 'Sormovo'. Also: W. W. Kiriejew engineer in Aleksandrowsk (Benz engines) and
Alexander Medvedev born 1900, the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs BASSR - he began his career in 1913 at 'Dyuflon' in St. Petersburg. Zhurnollo L. A. (Dziurnollo?), engineer and commerce adviser, factory director and board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', a board member of the Society of Tver city railway. Mr Breguet - the engineer of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', company representative, Swiss citizen and friend of Drzewiecki. And from the Tomsk Province Basil Bunkov since 1915 in St Petersburg


Valentin Petrovich Vologdin
1881 - 1953.
According to Jan Schneiberg / Ian Shneyberg: "Valentin Petrovich Vologdin was born 1881. His father, Piotr A. Vologdin worked as a mining superintendent of the Kuva Metallurgical Plant. ... After moving this family to Perm, Valentin ... enrolled in 1892 to Perm real school. ... In 1900 he successfully passed the examinations to the Petersburg Institute of Technology. ... participated in the demonstrations of the revolutionary ... students. ... he was arrested ... Through the application of a professors of Technology Institute, he was enrolled in the engineering corps soldier ...". V. P. Vologdin began his work after return to St. Petersburg. His real activity began in 1910 in the field of the construction of Russian-built generators for radio communications. "V. P. Vologdin created several original designs, the first of which was built in 1912 for naval stations. ... in 1912, has developed its own ... radiogenerator ... to the naval radio station, manufactured by the factory of Glebov. A year later, in 1913, Vologdin creates a more powerful machine (6 kW at a frequency 20 kHz), which was used for radiotelephone between crests and the main port of Admiralty in St. Petersburg at a distance of 5 km". He worked for the French - Russian plant in 1912 - 1918, now part of the Admiralty shipyard, the plant  “Duflon & Konstantinovich” (Deka)
he designed a certain generator at the plant Electrik (former Deka) in St. Petersburg, and also an high frequency alternator for radio engineering purposes in Russia, with 2 kW, 60 kHz for the Navy and planned to work on much larger machines for radio stations and (1915) on heavy aircraft Ilya Murometz by Igor I. SikorskiIgor Sikorsky airplane with co-operation of DEKA.Prof. Valentin Petrovich Vologdin played an outstanding role in radio engineering and electrotechnology. "V. P. Vologdin becomes head of the technical bureau at the plant 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz' near by St. Petersburg. The company produced the high-power generators, which were cheaper than foreign and reliable in operation. ... representatives of foreign firms invited him to work, but he rejected all the proposals and wants to create own research laboratory. During the ... war ... Valentin Petrovich was already working as technical director, produced not only high-frequency machine radios, and generators for airplanes, different equipment for military installations". "He played a special role in the development of the Russian radio industry initially as an expert in power conversion technique and then as one of its organizers. Vologdin is also a pioneer of high frequency electrotechnology" (see: research by Vladimir I. Roginskii, published in 1981, Leningrad). Valentin Petrovich Vologdin was the founder of the industrial use of  high-frequency current technology including shipbuilding, with Michail Boncz Brujewicz (Bonch-Bruevich), the foremost expert in the radio valves in the tsarist Russia.

In 1918, Valentin Petrovich Vologdin in Lower Novgorod set up scientific Electrotechnical Laboratory to create radio Science Center, founded the summer of 1918. He has built two transmitters spark station at Tsarskoe Selo and Khodynskoe field in Moscow together with M. Bonch-Bruevich, creator of the world's first electronic tube generator with a copper anode, cooled water.

Azbelev Peter P. , b. Febr. the 27, 1868 in Vologda, died after 1927, the Soviet Union. From the hereditary nobility. A retired major-general of the Russian fleet and when the first Russian ocean armored cruiser 'Dmitriy Donskoy' carried out investigations off the coast of the Korean Peninsula in 1896, the crew of the cruiser gave names to islands, capes and bays in honor of the members of the crew: P. P. Azbelev, A. A. Bek-Dzhevagirov, G. I. Butakov, Vitgeft, Gildebrandt, Govorlivyy, Dundukov-Korsakov, G. S. Zavoyko, Semenov V. I. and Shtorre. We can to see familiar names given by the Russian sailors on German maps of Korea published in 1904, according to Nikolai Komedchikov of the Russian Academy of Science. His father Paul B. Azbelev, d. after 1901, a retired Councillor of State, lived in St. Petersburg, Kolpino No 7. Brothers and sisters: Nicholas d. 1912, major-general of the Admiralty, Ivan b. 1862, died in Ekaterinburg 1931, Alexander d. 1913, Constantine b. 1895 died after 1920, Julia d. after 1913; wife Elizabeth F. d. after 1913, lived with her husband in St. Petersburg, Apothecary No 6. Son Paul b. 1900, St. Petersburg d. after 1932, arrested 1932. About the family of the above named Azbelev: 1. Azbelev, I. P., 'Yaponiya i Koreya', published by A. Levenson, Moscow, 1895, 276 pp. 2. Acc. to Yuan Tung-Li: Azbelev, Nikolai Pavlovich, d. 1912. P. P. Azbelev also was Director of the Electromechanical Plant of the Society 'Dyuflon,  Konstantynowicz and Company'; a board member of society 'Bahmutskiy salt'.

Armand Alexandr / Alexander E., hereditary honorable citizen and candidate for Board Member of the Association of woolen factory 'Eugene Armand and Sons'; a board member of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company'. Armand Evgenii / Evgeny E., hereditary honorable citizen, counselor; chairman of the Board of the Association of woolen goods factory 'Eugene Armand and his sons'; chairman of the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company'. Von Gernet S. P., a nobleman, a retired captain and board member: the Company 'Bahmugskaya salt', the Society of electromechanical installations 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Company' and the Company of metallurgical, mechanical and shipbuilding plants 'Becker and Co.' Alexander Kastorovich Skorokhodov, a worker-Bolshevik, in Petrograd 1916 and he worked at the plant 'Dyuflon'.

Fedor Illarionovich Stupak - the history of creation and organization of production of the first Soviet vacuum tubes is going to Bonch-Bruevich and to the outstanding Soviet technologist F. I. Stupak; after moving to St Petersburg, 1896 he met Vologdin; in 1898 he was appointed to the plant manager and in 1911 to the position of chief engineer of the plant 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.' in St Petersburg (to 1916).
  
Pavel Antonovich Sutkiewicz son of Antoni Sutkiewicz. Born 8 / 20 September 1871 in Saratov, nobleman, the Roman-Catholic, Polish, died 24 August 1919. He left a lot of articles in 'Elektrichestvo', by Russian Imperial Technic Society. P. A. Sutkievich was living in Samara and in 1892 Odessa, and after 1892 studied at the St Petersburg Technical University, to 1897. Since 1897 worked for 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company' in Petersburg (office job), 1898 was living in Lower Novgorod. Acc. to A. G. Udincew.
Ian A. Berzin / Janis Berzinš b. November 29, 1890, died April 14, 1938. Soviet trade unionist. In 1915, Ian A. Berzin began working in the plant of General Electric Company. The First World War forced the government to evacuate some of the plants from Riga to Petrograd. Together with other workers, Jan Berzin goes to the Russian capital, Petrograd and to factories of Puzyrev, Dyuflon, Rakovitski, Geri, Siemens-Schuckert.

Cooperant of our factories 

Igor I. Sikorsky (or Sikorski) born 1889, he spent three years at the Naval College in St. Petersburg 1903 - 1906; Sikorsky's success  helped win him a job as head of the airplane division of the Russian Baltic Railroad Car Works in Petersburg 1912 - 1917, that is where he  developed his first major new airplane design.  The R-BVZ manufactured trains, airplanes, engines and automobiles, and it was run by M. W.  Szydlowski, who had insight into the importance of aviation's future; the engineering and technical staff at the R-BVZ was expanded by  Sikorsky  who brought many of them along with him from Kiev; the first airplane built by Sikorsky and his staff at the R-BVZ was the S-6B  which was a modified version of the S-6A (by Carl Bobrow this quotation without the Author's written permission). In 1920 a business - company of 'Sikorsky - Ukraine', was half of state company, started to operate. 

1917

Comment on  Zaporozhye / Zaporizhzhya  

Announcement on autonomy of Ukraine in April 1917 and the first Declaration of   independence  by Ukraine on 20 November 1917 involved Zaporozhye but shortly assumption of power by the Soviets in January 1918. In 1918 the 'Deca' factory in Zaporozhye was nationalized and in 1923 was renamed on the 'State Aircraft Plant No 9 Bolshevik' - 1995 as JSC 'Motor Sich'. "The Peace of Bread"  concluded by Germany,  Austria - Hungary and  Turkey with the Ukraine:  acceptance of the Ukr. state on 09 February  1918, and Treaty of  Brest-Litovsk  on 03 Mar. 1918 recognized the Ukraine as ind. state and  thus the Austria -  Hungarys Army occupied Zaporozhye since April by November 1918, next Skoropadsky and the Ukrainian Directory since November 1918 by March 1919, general  Denikin since May  1919 by December 1919; general Vrangel by October 1920 and conquered  by the Red Army  then. 


Around that time many others the Polish in Russia were involved in studying flights 

1. eng. Theodor Kalep / Kalepa or Kalepas, Estonian by birth, in "Motor" works which evacuated from Riga to Moscow in 1915  (by  http://latvianaviation.com/Pioneers.html here constructed the first Soviet aeroengine in 1919),  
2.
Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovski i.e. Zukowski (1847 - d. 17 March 1921) called "the father of Russian aviation" wrote about stability of  motion and hydraulic shock in water pipe, one of the world first wind tunnel was built in 1902 at Moscow University under his  supervision and First Europe Aerodynamics Inst. was established in Kuchino in 1904,
3.
Stefan Drzewiecki (1844 - 1938) son of Karol, worked in Paris (here edited a handbook in 1916, and died in 1938) and  Petersburg. Drzewiecki met with Breguet - the engineer of 'Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz', company representative, Swiss citizen. The usual guests of Drzewiecki were brothers Paul and Peter Solomonovich Martynov, Dyuflon, botanist Professor Poirot, K. E. Makovsky, Serbian Prince Karageorgievich. Drzewiecki presented his theory in a detailed report of the Technical Society in April 1884 and published under the title 'The airplanes in under way, the theory of flight experience'. His parents were noble, an ancient clan of the Poles, who owned large estates in the province of Volhynia and a piece of land in Odessa, houses in Warsaw, and so his parents more part of living were in Paris, where he was educated at home and in Lycee St. Barbe.
4.
L. Z. Markowicz who edited handbook in St Petersburg in 1911/1913,  

5. major general P. W. Pniewski, chief of the Russian air force who kept  in touch with the Supreme High Command of the Russian Military  and chief officer of  the "board of directors on aerial - war fleet" in 1916 (the Pniewski family of Rola  arms verified themselves in Kaunas  A.D. 1799: Maciej son of Stanislaw, and also in 1861: sons of brothers Augustyn and Stanislaw; Ignacy Pniewski son of  Szymon possessed Tarucie estate in the  Kaunas government in 1889)

6. W. F. Adamienko, owner of an air factory in Moscow,  

7. O. W. Olechnowicz  (lieutenant Alechnovitch) has beaten many records on the small Sikorsky aeroplane; see www.alexanderpalace.org/.../flyingmen.html,  

Stanislaw Dorozynski (the first flight of Russian Naval Aviation at Kulikovo Pole airfield near Sebastopol with pilot S.F.Dorozhinski on 16 September 1910),  

Dybowski, Sredinski, Heyne, Makowiecki, Malynski,  Bronislaw Matyjewicz - Maciejewicz (he studied in France in 1910, died 01.05.1911 near Sebastopol),  

Grzegorz Piotrowski (or Petrovski, he studied in France in 1910),  

Michal Scipio del Campo (or Campo - Scipio, b. at Polesie area in 1883, did a degree in Polytechnic of Lille, his first flight was here in 1905, he studied in France still in 1910, Scipio flew on a plane constructed by Czeslaw Zbieranski & Cywinski in summer 1911),  

Otto Segno (or Henryk Segno, he studied in France by the end of 1910),  

and at a later date B. J. Rossinski, M. G. Lerch, A. J. Rajewski /  A. E. Raievsky (the first Polish to fly in a Bleriot monoplane was a young student, Raievsky) and G. W.  Jankowski /  Yankovsky (when Sikorsky started to build machines of his own, Yankovsky became his pilot)  -  experimental pilots (the Polish were 33 % of Russian pilots in 1911, and besides Lew Maciewicz died in 1910; the others Polish pilots in Russia who served under general Dowbor Musnicki 1917/1918: Norvid Kudlo in Babrujsk 1918, captain Zygmunt Studzinski in Minsk 1917 - 1918; besides Stanislaw Jakubowski in Odessa 1917 - 1918 and lieutenant Waldemar Narkiewicz in Odessa 1918 - 1919);

8. W. Hurko - chief of the Committee on Air Force since 1915  and the member of the imperial State's Cabinet

9. eng. Butmi, Giedrojc and eng. W. W. Bartoszewicz (i.e. V. V. Bartoshevich, chief of the assembly of aeroplanes; Farman-IV aircraft was built in series under supervision of engineer  Bartoshevich)  at  "Dux" factory in Moscow,  

10. eng. Pozezinski elaborated project of aeroengine in September 1915,  

11.  M. Adam Haber - Wlynski (i.e. Gaber - Vlynskij, b. 1883 - died 1921 in Lublin, he studied in France by the end of 1910 and worked in "Dux" factory near by Alexander station in Moscow; he    flown the most common modification of Russian Farman - IV and had set several ceiling records e.g. April 13th, 1913; next fought in the Poznan province 1919),  

12.  Nagorski (i.e. pilot J. I. Nagurskij did the world  first  flight in Nesterov's  flying boat on September 17th, 1916 twice with a passenger; the international record was registered by the Airclub counsel   on  November 16th, 1916),  

13. Raczynski - in his big estate in the Smolensk government constructed an airplane factory in 1917,  

14.  patents for aeroengines received during the First world war: D. Wiszniewiecki, captain Jablonski, colonel P. A. Gelwach, lieutenant Fajwiszewicz;  

15. W. A. Semkowski was in command (1916) of the "Main war - technical board of directors" where  was an air section; the section was the base of the "board of directors on aerial - war fleet" under major general P.  W. Pniewski (war supply and orders) in 1916, 

16. major general Michal Szydlowski (Sydney Gibbes - who was after appointed English tutor to the Tsar's children in 1908 - spent the summer of 1901 with a family called SHIDLOVSKY = Szydlowski; he was taken on as tutor to two boys and lived in St Petersburg and in their country "dacha" according to "The Romanovs & Mr Gibbes (...)" by Frances Welch, ed. London 2002; see also below) an ex-navy man with connections to the Russian military and who was near connected with W. Hurko in 1916, died 1918

17. Feliks J. Biske or Biskie was born in Plonsk 13.11.1874 and next lived in Warsaw 1912, physicist and air expert in 1915, in Rostov by Don 1916, Izum in   Ukraine 1924,  

18. Stanislaw Ziembinski manager of aerodynamics lab near by Kiev and director of "Gnome" aeroengines factory in Moscow by June 1915; here captain  Wojtkiewicz, lieutenant Radawski and captain Golubicki also worked in May 1916,  

19. W. J. Sredniewski, expert of aerial photograph,  

20. eng. Wladyslaw Zalewski (chief of the Central air constructional office in Warsaw since 1925) and Franciszek Kaczynski carried out designes of planes in 1915

21. Jerzy Jankowski and S. Czerwinski