The Baikal Insurrection 

near by Irkutsk in 1866 

  © author Bogdan Konstantynowicz

Berezyna and Lubuszany - the estate of Poniatowski-Tyszkiewicz-Potocki branch - the Knights Templar of the FREEMASONRY.
Miezonka-Swolna-Moscow-St Petersburg and the family history of Paszkowski-Armand-Konstantynowicz.

The Knights Templar - The Order of Mark Master Masons. Sir Vernon Kell, Founder of MI5 - Bystrzanowski - and the Freemasonry.

Genealogy of the Constantinovich family 1534 - ca 1945 in Belarus, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Russia, Lithuania. History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives: Troubetzkoy, Radziwill, Piottuch-Kublicki, Sedykh from Kazan, Soltan, Oginski, Paszkowski and Kalinowski from Cracow, Zbieranowski, Zarako-Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Armand in Moscow and Petersburg, Gernet from Estonia, Bakst, Demonet or De Monet, Dizeren, Azbelev, Holynski of 18th cent., Bagration-Gruzinski and Mukhrani from Sakartvelo-Georgia.

Estonia: Balachowicz, Constantinovich / Konstantinovich, Trubetzkoy / Troubetskoy / Trubecki, Dadiani, Dunkel, von Krauze / Krause, Gernet, Toll, Rehbinder / Rebinder, Croy - the Baltic German nobility. История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи.

Józef Piłsudski and Feliks Dzierżyński genealogy. Database for The noble Konstantinovich family history: Switzerland, Estonia, Belarus, Poland and Russia 1772 - 1939. Family Pilar Pilchau, Pilsudski, Dzierzynski / Dzerzhinsky, Bulhak and underground independence movement in Belarus and Lithuania in the years around 1885 to 1920. Trubeckoj and Konstantynowicz in Estonia and Belarus. Duflon, Breguet, Armand in Tsarist Russia in the nineteenth century - until 1918. Hacker, Reppman, Schilling and Benkendorff from Estonia.

Genealogy and history of the Konstantinovich, Troubetskoy, Bagration-Gruzinski, Kalinowski, Soltan, Dadiani, Oginski, Paszkowski, Dyuflon, Staroch Siedoch, Armand, Pociej, Radziwill and Piottuch Kublicki family in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia, Estonia and Belarus.

Genealogy and history of the Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz, Trubetzkoy / Troubetskoy / Trubecki, Orlov-Denisov / Orlow Denisow, Dadiani, Nikitin, Wittgenstein, Golicyn / Golitsyn, Bagrationi / Bagration-Gruzinski / Bagration Gruzinsky, Pashkovsky / Paszkowski, Duflon / Dyuflon, Siedych / Sedoch / Staroch-Siedoch, Armand, Demonets / Demonet in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia

Armand, Paszkowski, Demonets, Konstantinovich and Duflon

Orlov Denisov, Radzivill, Pociej, Trubetskoy, Bagrationi, Siedych, Wittgenstein, Armand, Paszkowski, Demonets, Konstantinovich and Duflon families in Russia, Estonia, Latvia and Belarus.

© author Bogdan Konstantynowicz

  Deka Company 1904 - 1918 in St. Petersburg. New website on the Armand and Konstantinovich families from Moscow! © author Bogdan Konstantynowicz

Zbrojna agresja Zwiazku Sowieckiego na Polske we wrzesniu 1939 roku a stan wojny z Sowietami po 1939.

   Korpus kontrrewolucyjny gen. Dowbor Musnickiego 1917 / 1918

   Genealogy of the Wankowicz family from Belarus

  © Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in St Petersburg and Ukraine 1904 / 1918

  © Walki z sowietami po 23 wrzesnia 1939

Pictures Exhibition of Andrzej Konstantynowicz in 2011 - part four

Pictures Exhibition of Andrzej Konstantynowicz in 2011 - part three

Pictures Exhibition of Andrzej Konstantynowicz in 2011 - part two

There was a certain Konstantinovich branch from Russia in the Congress Poland after exile to Siberia (the exile to  Irkutsk in 1864). Next they lived near by Makov and thereafter Ciechanov at the end of the 19th cent. and derived from  Patrycjusz Konstantinovich + Anastazja nee Mierzejevski. Gavryla Konstantinovich born c. 1810 was father of Patrycjusz  and  Zenon, I think. The document relating to the grant of a certain estate upon this Konstantinovich branch (territory of them  was situated at the border on Russia) was in Mikashovka vicarage till 1945. 

Comment about the Polish emigration to Russia  

Polish emigration to Russia go back to very remote epoches id est in the Tver province in the 15th cent. during duke Michal Borysovich and  king Casimir IV Jagiellonian,

and also in the Kursk and Orel governments and in neighbourhood of Kharkov, in basin of Kharkov river and  Lopania - Doniec tributary. During the power struggles over the succession, the "False Demetrius"
1605 - 1608),
a polit. adventurer posing as  the son of the Tsar, arrived with Pol. assistance on the scene following famine and unrest; 1605 Pol. troops occupied Moscow and again 1610 -  1612, and also in the "Time of Troubles"
1605 - 1613)
entire stream of Polish and Lithuanian rovers and Cossackes of Zarucki spilt to  Astrakhan, Jaik, Tula and Archangel.

A lots of noble ancestries in Russia carried Polish surnames, as
Tomashevski Jakimovich, Dobrovolski, Teodorovski, Telakovski, Sviecicki and admitted Polish origin.

A Siberian chronicles from the
17th cent. included  mentions about the Polish, e.g.: Czernikowski (i.e. Chernicovski) - clerk in Ust'huta (i.e. Ust Kut) by Lena river, and next he was head of Albazin  area (basin of Amur) i.e. Daurien region;

Jerzy Krzyzanowski (Krzyshanovski) in Okhotsk.

Jan (
Ivan) Bialobocki, Polish nobleman  from  a Przemysl region, son of Polish colonel, arrived in Moscow A.D. 1681 and next he worked in Russian diplomacy e.g. in China. Prof. V.  Kluchevskij wrote on Polish, Ukrainian and Lithuanian teachers in tsar court in the 17th cent. (e.g. Szymon Polocki).

We know about a court  painters: Stanislaw Lopucki, Jan Mirowski et ceteri, about Polish musicians in Russian court: Jerzy Proskurowski, Jan Kolendo, Mikolaj  Dylecki from Vilna, Bogdan Zawalski, Kazimierz Wasilewski, Szymon Gutowski in 1667 at alii according to Prof.
Janusz Tazbir. Polish  customs prevailed over Russian one at the tsarist court under Fiodor III Aleksandrovich (1676 - 1682) and his wife Agafia Gruszecki, Polish  noblewoman from the Smolensk government.

The Kiev Orthodox Academy was determined as Polish - Latinized until 1742. Polish - Ukrainian  architect Ivan Zarudny acted in Moscow, and
Lazarz Baranowicz from Chernigov who had published a lot of Polish books in Novgorod  Seversky

Just after the Partitions of Poland (
1772 - 1795), the Polish abundantly poured into Russia, and a description had given Karol Lubicz  Chojecki, insurgent of Counter - Confederation of Bar (1768 - 1772); he met the Polish in exile in Kazan, Tara and Tobolsk - about here since  1733 / 1735, id est during the Pol. War of Succession, when Rus. troops forced the election of August III of Saxony, the Austro - Rus.  candidate to the throne, over Stanislas Lesczinski, the Fr. candidate.

The same Chojecki met Polish exiles in Orel and Kaluga. He also met  count
Beniowski in Kazan (Maurycy August Beniowski 1746 - 1786, exiled to Kamchatka in 1770, an escape to Macao in 1771).

The Bar insurgents stayed in  different corners of Russia and Siberia 10.000 strong, according to
S. W. Maksimow in "Siberia and exile" (among other things in Orenburg, Omsk  and  Tobolsk, where 600 insurgents got to mutiny after 1783). 

Russian historian Ogloblin described mutiny in Krasnoyarsk, where stayed the Polish, too. German historian Pallas wrote about Polish exiles  in Siberia in the 17th and 18th cent., by Lena (here numerous places:

Polskaja Polana, Polskaja Pasznia, Polskaja Doroga
) and Yenisei (near by Yeniseisk).

The exiles of
1794, as Judycki, Tarnowski, Domaszewski et ceteri soon adopted Russian. The Napoleon soldiers came back from Siberia to the  Congress Poland in 1815

A Polish colonies in Moscow, Kherson (since 1784), St Petersburg, Kharkov (Andrzej Dudrewicz) and Odessa (Czacki, Stanislaw Soltyk, Jozef Drzewiecki  and  Michal Walicki since 1802 and next Sobanski family, Zofia Potocki, Elzbieta Branicki; Polish villages near by Odessa: Kochanowka, Marianowka, Mazurowka,  Jablonskie, Zofiowka, Wandalinka, Stanislawka, Poniatowka, Potockie, Wielkie Potockie and Sewerynowka) appeared under of the Tsar Alexander I. At the  same  time Russian educational system was overhauled by duke Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (in 1802), priest Hieronim Stroynowski from Vilna (in  1803) and count Seweryn Potocki. Even Jozef Wybicki (1747 - 1822, leader of the Insurrection in 17944, 1795 - 1807 emigration in France) had became a  supporter of the Tsar since 1813 to his death in 1822.

Not a few Poles from Belarus and Lithuania had got to choose a military service in the  Russian Army since the end of the 18th cent.: about 12.000 Polish soldiers performed a military service in Russian Army in 1794, but only  3.000  in 1795.

Two regiments, Polish and Tartar - Lithuanian (
with colonel Jakub Mustafa Baranowski, general in 1812), had organized just in 1797,  and five regiments in 1807:

the Volhynia regiment, Lubnie one, Tartaran, Lithuanian and Polish. We can to estimate total of the Polish in  Russian Army in 1812 - about 4500 Polish volunteers in all army (
generally about 500 Polish officers: in the 1st West Army and 2nd Russian West Army served  244 officers from Byelorussian governments and from Ukraine, e.g. Wladyslaw Branicki son of Ksawery, colonel in 1812; colonels:

Karol Kunicki, Ulan - Polanski from  Lithuania and Leon Skorulski from Lithuania, too; major Jan Chlewinski from Ukraine
) according to Jaroslaw Czubaty.  

New waves of Polish exiles were getting to pour into Russia and Siberia after plots of Walerian Lukasinski (1819 - 1823) and the Filaret Society  (1817 - 1823): Adam Mickiewicz, Zan, Jan Czeczot (born 1796 or 1797 - died 1847, exiled to Russian inland, discharged in 1841), Jezewski and Prof. Jozef  Kowalewski - orientalist in Mongolia and China; Alexander Chodzko - next in Persia; Jan Witkiewicz in Turkestan. 

At the same time with shutdown of the Vilna University (in 1831) and College of Krzemieniec, opened up, activated Polish law and theological  faculties in Moscow and St Petersburg, and next started off influx of Poles. At University of Kharkov lectured: Dudrewicz vice-chancellor, Jan  Krynski - zoologist, A. Walicki - Hellenic scholarship, Grzegorz Hreczyn - mathematician, Alexander Mickiewicz - brother of Adam, poet - author of "Law Encyclopedia"; the Kharkov College: Jozef Korzeniowski - director and novelist. In the Odessa Richelieu College: Wladyslaw Jurgiewicz - historian. Prof. Wladyslaw Dybowski (1838 - 1910, brother of Benedykt) lectured at University of Dorpat (Tartu) till 1878. The  Universities of Moscow, Kharkov and Kazan were created on Polish educational models. 

Large exile after the November Insurrection 1830 - 1831: Siberia (in Omsk stayed priest Sierocinski and doctor Szokalski organized a Siberian  plot with  Dzurdzylowski i.e. Dshurdshylovski, Jablonowski at 60, Zagorski), Russia and Caucasus. At the same time, poor and slight nobility from Belarus  and  Lithuania was exiled 54000 strong (without recruits) only in 1832 - 1849and again after 1863. Just then Piotr Wysocki organized a plot  in  Aleksandrovsk near by Irkutsk (Piotr Wysocki 1797 - 1874, leader of the November Insurrection 1830 - 1831, exiled into Siberia 1832 - 1857, discharged in 1857);  a  plot of Rufin Piotrowski and his escape from Irbyt, through Archangel, Petersburg, Riga to Konigsberg and Paris (he left a diary). Besides   Polish  scientists - exiles in Siberia: colonel Aszewski in Altay mount in 1790, he researched the bees; Sawiczewski behind the Lake Baikal  in the  Middle Siberia; Morawski in the West Siberia - produced cedar oil; the others introduced prime wheat in East Siberia; Budeskul or  Buldeshul  owned big farm here; W. Godlewski; Bronislaw Pilsudski (b. 1866 - d. 1918, brother of Jozef, exiled to Sakhalin in 1887, he worked in Vladivostok  museum since  1899 till 1906, discharged 1906); Benedykt Dybowski (1833 - 1930, leader of conspiracy in Warsaw 1862 - 1864, convicted in 1864 and exiled into the  East Siberia by  the Lake Baikal 1865 - 1879, Kamchatka 1879 - 1883, exempted from Siberia in 1884); Alexander Piotr Czekanowski (b. 1833 - d. 1876, exiled into  Siberia after  1863,  expedition by Amur river 1871 - 1875); Jan Czerski (1845 - 1892, exiled into Siberia 1864 - 1871 and next expedition into the East Siberia 1871 -  1883,  Petersburg 1886 - 1890, again in Siberia 1891 - 1892 where died); M. Witkowski (exiled into Siberia); Waclaw Sieroszewski (1858 - d. 1945, exiled into  Siberia in  1879, he lived in the Yakutsk region for 12 years, travelled a lot of after 1900). 

Enormous wave after uprising in 1863 - 1864 was largest of everything.  

Many of them in Siberia

("The overall number of persons exiled from the  Kingdom of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine for participation in the uprising of  1863-64 reached 36.459. Between 1863 and 1868 these exiles were assigned to  locations throughout the empire, with between 18.000 and 24.000 going to Siberia"  according to Andrew Gentes; 18.623 persons exiled into Siberia according to W.  Sieroszewski; it were exiled - regular exile mainly to Tomsk, Tobolsk and Irkutsk  governments, life hard labour and penal military service - in all to Siberia about 30.000  or  38.000 persons according to anothers sources; other search: after the January  Insurrection 1863 / 5 all in all exiled - since spring of 1863 by middle of 1866 - 33.958 Poles;  according to Russian Home Office exiled 36.958 (among others about  10.000 to European governments) persons: 5.010 to penal military service, over 22.000  Polish  exiles  had gone on over Ural mount but only 6.515 - 10.000 throughout  Tobolsk into Middle and East Siberia since May 1863 by 01 April 1866; throughout  Krasnoyarsk proceeded  on into the East Siberia only about 6.000 persons; in the West  Siberia at that time 10.898 Poles settled themselves by July 1867; a Siberian archives  demonstrated over 21.000  settlers i.e. life hard labour, military service under arrest and  regular exiles, and together with a members of families - nearly 30.000, according to   Polish governor of Tobolsk, A. I. Despot - Zenowicz = Zenovich; according to  Semen Kowal from Irkutsk of 1966: 22.000 Poles - settlers in Siberia 1863 / 1869,  among others 524 exiles in 1863 and 10.649 in 1864),  

others in European  Russia. 

It had gone on 35 battles against Russians in White Russia during  the  January Insurrection, and otherwise 237  battles in Lithuania  A.D. 1863 - 1864. In the area of former Kingdom of Poland and ex-Grand  duchy of Lithuania on the whole about 400  persons were punished  to  death (e.g. Konstanty Kalinowski 1838 - 1864, had organized a plot in the Hrodnaa  region 1861 and a conspiracy in Vilna 1862, leader of  uprising in Belarus and  Lithuania 1863, shot in 1864; Alexander Waszkowski 1841 - 1865, leader of the January  Insurrrection, arrested in December 1864, had died 1865)  and also 4000 to life  hard labour in Siberia (Bronislaw Szwarce 1834 - 1904, leader of conspiracy, arrested in December of 1862 and gaoled in Shlisselburg, next  exiled into Siberia till  1891), 700 (or 5.010 according to other source) to penal military service; there were confiscated 1800 noble estates only in White  Russia and  Lithuania; Polish language expeled from offices in Belarus in 1863. It were compulsive displaced about 250.000 in the Congress  Poland,  Lithuania and White Russia. About 30.000 persons in all died in the area of former Poland and Grand duchy of Lithuania during the  January  Insurrection. Besides about 10.000 emigrated to West. 

The exiles set off an incompetent Baikal rebellion near by Irkutsk in 1866. 

At first D. Bociarski,  Wieliczko,  Wojszwillo and Czerniewski made up a plot in Tobolsk in May 1863, and W. Lewandowski, G. Waszkiewicz,  G.  Samborski, B.  Dybowski, Pawel Landowski, Antoni Grabowski, Z. Minejko, W. Hryncewicz - Hryniewicz, I. Jamont, I. Gajbulin and L.  Zychlinski (Shychlinski)  attached in 1864. M. Shaba (Zaba), K. Sosulicz, Mieduniecki, Dubowik and clerk Karpinski acted in Tobolsk, Kurghan,  Ishym, Tiumen, Irkutsk  and Narym. Halicki, Dmuchowski, Downar, Orlowski, Tombowski and Haraburda in Jalutorowsk; they were in touch  with Mokrzycki from  Vilna, Rodziewicz in Riazan and W. Gromadzki in Omsk. The organization moved to Tomsk and Z. Minejko - Strumillo,  A. Bonasewicz,  Arcimowicz, Waszkiewicz and Zarembski here acted; there were 6.000 exiles in 1865 and 3.000 settlers in the Tomsk  government. Besides they  moved to Omsk at the beginning of 1865 and to Irkutsk (Rutkowski and priest Pukien). The Baikal Organization in  Irkutsk created in July 1865: E.  Andreoli, J. Dworzaczek, madam Bninski; in Nerchinsk mine: Mejsztowicz and Studzinski ("many worked as  clerks for the Nerchinsk administration, for  example; there is a roster of the exactly 100 Poles assigned to the Irkutsk Saltworks in August 1864 which shows that half were  working as common laborers, while the other  half were employed as foremen, cooks and carpenters", according to Andrew Gentes); in Czeremcha: Janusz Tur,  Ignacy Wieczernicki and Ignacy  Warnachowski; in Krasnoyarsk and Rybinsk since September 1865 acted: Szlenkier, Landowski, Ratynski,  Mikolaj Serno - Solowiewicz; besides  P. Landowski, doctor Zaleski, M. Serno - Solowiewicz (after), Karol Nowakowski, K. Arcimowicz, N.  Celinski and A. Glowacki stayed in Kansk  -  1.400 Poles were here. At the same time Z. Minejko, G. Waszkiewicz and A. Okinczyc escaped   from  Tomsk. W. Lewandowski (next under arrest)  was appointed the chief of the Baikal organization with his staff: Serno - Solowiewicz (or  Solovjevich, died 14 February 1866), P. Landowski (next    under arrest), Sielski, I. Sulinski (Russian spy), J. Szlenkier (under arrest in January 1866) and K.  Michalowski - Malicki (weak in conspiracy in Irkutsk).   

They played a large part in conspiracy in Irkutsk in 1866: K. Michalowski - Malicki, Kostrzewski, Z.  Odrzywolski, G.   Szaramowicz,   Dzierzanowski, W. Pankowski, N. Celinski, K. Arcimowicz, I. Reinar, L. Eljaszewicz, E. Wronski, K.  Nowakowski and J.  Dworzakowski  (Dworzaczek, I think). At the time 2.367 Polish exiles stayed in Irkutsk, among others 2.040 on life hard  labour at the end of 1865.  A lot of life  exiles arrived at the beginning of 1866 (3.000 in all in April 1866). A branches of the Baikal plots: 1. the  Akatujsk mine: M. Rytter, W.  Tworowski,  M. Czechowicz, M. Cwiklinski in 1865; 2. the Nerchinsk = Nertschinsk mine and near by Tschita =  Chita: F. Sokolowski, E.  Ostrowski, K.  Lichtanski, M. Ososko, M. Szlezenger; 3. the Alexandrovsk factory: J. Ohryzko, Dworzaczek, S.  Pszybylko (Przybylko ?) and K.  Michalowski; 4. Usolsk factory and Ust - Kut plant: Kazimierz Arcimowicz (next in Irkutsk), G. Szaramowicz; 5.  Listwjeniczna village by the Lake Baikal (L.  Eljaszewicz) and Kultuk village near by Baikal (Arcimowicz with pseud. Kwiatkowski and also Zarembski).  The Tsar had made the  Amnesty Act on April  16th, 1866 but however the Baikal Insurrection had broken out on June 24th, 1866 / July 07th,  1866 in Kultuk village  near by the Lake Baikal;  commanded: Gustaw Szaramowicz chief in Murino and Mishicha (besides N. Celinski, J.  Reinar, Eljaszewicz, Wronski Kotkowski i.e. W. Kostkowski,  Dzierzanowski, Moszynski, Zaleski and Kostrzewski) villages and Arcimowicz in Kultuk, 721  exiles in all. The uprising had fallen down c. August 07th, 1866 / August 20th, 1866
after 44 days; it were convicted 680 exiles, and G.  Szaramowicz, N.  Celinski, W. Kostkowski (Kotkowski ?) and J. Rajnert (i.e. Reinar) were shot down in Irkutsk on  November 14th, 1866.

It was last in the long  succession of Polish noble insurrections in the Age of Enlightenment and the epoch of romanticism and it  ended up with defeat and disaster  like of previous rebellions, i.e. in 1768/72, 1794, 1830/31, 1846, 1848, 1863/65, without victorious uprising of  1806 in the Poznan province. Successive insurrection of 1918 also in the Poznan region ended in full victory

A second  amnesty in
1868 allowed  the  majority of insurgents to return home or at least transfer from Siberia to locations in European Russia. When in 1881 Alexander III announced a third amnesty, Western  Siberia had a population of only 1.100 insurgents, while only a couple dozen were still living in Eastern Siberia
(see also Andrew Gentes)

November and December 2013 - new websites on the genealogy and history of the noble Konstantynowicz family in Russia 1772 - 1918, Poland 1918 - 1939 and next at a Polish territory 1939 - 2012.

My research concerns many state intelligence networks created in the first half of the 18th century.

Initially it was a global political network of the Russian intelligence infiltrated by the British [1791], French [from the 40s of the 18th century] and Germans [1769/1776], and by the Polish independence conspiracy [was established 1792/1799] starting from a years 1870/1878.

Compare three dates:
6 km to the south of the BRZEZIE was the palace in Wieniec founded in the early nineteenth century by the family of Miaczynski; in 1868 the property bought a Warsaw banker of Jewish origin and a great Polish patriot - Leopold Kronenberg.

1870, Brown of London - takes over the Breguet company [below];

and the letter of 1871 from Albert Pike to Mazzini.

Breguet cooperated also with Chambrier, V. Foy, the French government (dial telegraph in 1845), the Telegraph Company in 1863 (electric telegraph - Breguet System, late 19th century), in Britain in the 1860s and 1870s with Wood, Edward George b. in Clerkenwell, Islington, January 1812, d. 1896 from Cheapside, City of London, who was friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist (galvanic telegraph, Crossley's Telegraph in Halifax), d'Arlincourt (transmitter); Breguet patented a Telegraph Communicator - Breguet Alphabetical Type, circa 1870; manufactured the telephone transmitter (Boudet, Laborde, Breguet, Ader, Du Moncel, and others) and telephone receivers (Bell, Breguet, and others).

In 1877 telephones appears in Russia but in the Russian army experiments on telephone made in 1878.

L. Dyuflon and Dizeren in St. Petersburg established the Electrotechnical workshop on 1892, June 27. On 1896, December 14, L. Dyuflon, J. Dizeren and A. V. Konstantinovich [Apollon Konstantynowicz son of Wasyl Konstantynowicz] in St. Petersburg established The Factory of electromechanical structures when Tesla received a British patent on the design of the spark gap - rotating strap. 1898, K. F. Siemens, W. Siemens, A. V. Gvineria and A. Y. Rothstein in St. Petersburg established the Russian joint stock company of electrical plants 'Siemens and Halske'. 1899 were starting experiments on radio in Russian War Department. 1902 (1901), the Plant of electromechanical structures reorganized into a joint stock company 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz & Co', DECA.

Albert Pike [Albert Pike b. 1809, died 1891, was an attorney, soldier, writer, and Freemason, elected Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite's Southern Jurisdiction in 1859, of thirty-two years] described in a letter wrote to Mazzini [Giuseppe Mazzini, 1805 - 1872, an Italian politician, journalist; "William R. Denslow lists Mazzini as a Mason, and even a Past Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy"], dated August 15, 1871, plans for three world wars necessary to bring the One World Order, and it is a "commonly believed fallacy that for a short time, the Pike letter to Mazzini was on display in the British Museum Library in London, and it was copied by William Guy Carr...".

It was the plan known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers, and within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was Rhodes with Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner who was added to the society by Stead.

Rhodes had been planning this event for more than seventeen years (before 1872).

See: the letter of Pike to Mazzini in 1871, and Edward Brown - Breguet Company in 1870.

Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. In modified form, it exists to this day.

Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) and Polish officers:

Army commandant in 1877:

Nikolaj Nikolajevic senior, Romanov; that is Mikolaj Mikolajewicz Romanow, b. 1831, d. 1891; Grand Duke, General Adjutant - 1856, General Field Marshal - 1878. Third son of Tsar Nicholas I and Tsarina Aleksandra Fedorovna, born as Charlotte / Charlotta Princess of Prussia. His older brothers were Tsar Alexander II and Grand Duke of Russia, Konstanty Mikolajewicz.

"... The Knights of the Order of the Garter are the leaders of the Illuminati hierarchy ...

[Queen Victoria, Alexandrina Victoria b. 1819 was daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent

(son of George III {his father Frederick, Prince of Wales and mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha} + Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1744 - 1818 {her father Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg, Prince of Mirow, and mother Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen})

and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1786 - 1861

(1803 at Coburg, she married 1st to Charles, Prince of Leiningen; 2nd to Prince Edward, Duke of Kent {the TEMPLARS} and Strathearn, in 1818 at Amorbach. Victoria's father was Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and mother Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf daughter of Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg)]

... [mentioned above] Charlotte was the grandmother of Queen Victoria {Maltese Orders}, and whose son married the daughter of Frederick III of Hessen-Kassell {Frederick III of Hessen-Kassel / Friedrich III von Hessen-Kassel, born in 1747, the father of Auguste Wilhelmine Luise von Hessen-Kassel b. 1797 married Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the son, of George III of the United Kingdom and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz}.

Charlotte's brother was Charles II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whose daughter married the heir of the Prussian crown, Frederick William III.

Frederick II of Prussia was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, who married Louise of Brunswick- Wolfenbuettel.
She was the sister of Frederick Duke of Brunswick, the Grand Master of the Strict Templar Observance, and who had convened the great Masonic convention at Wilhelmsbad in Hessen-Kassel.

Frederick Wilhelm II of Prussia was the father of Frederick William III, who became a member of the Order of the Garter.

Of Frederick William III and Louise' four children, three married the brothers and sisters of Csar Alexander I. Frederick William III's daughter, Charlotte of Prussia, married Paul's son, Czar Nicholas I, who succeeded Alexander I, and who also belonged to the Order of the Garter.
Frederick's son Wilhelm I married Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, the daughter of Nicholas' sister Maria Romanov.

A third child of Frederick, Friedrich Karl Alexander of Prussia, married Maria's Romanov other daughter, Marie Luisa Alexandrina von Saxe-Weimar.

The son of Csar Nicholas, Constantine Nicholaievitch Romanov, Grand Duke of Russia, fathered Olga Constantinovna Romanov, who married George I King of Greece. George was a member of the Order of the Garter, as was his father, Christian IX of Denmark. ...".

Mikolaj Mikolajewicz married his cousin Aleksandra Oldenburg

[see Oldenburg in St Petersburg and the Duflon & Konstantynowicz Company. She was the daughter of Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich Oldenburg (1812-1881).
Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg, 1812-1881, m. Therese Wilhelmine Friederike Isabella Charlotte von Nassau, 1815-1871, with children:
1. Alexandra Friederike Wilhelmine von Oldenburg, m. Nikolaj Nikolajewitsch of Russia, 1831-1891

[Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia / Nicholas Nicolaievich the Elder, 1831 - 1891, was the third son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Alexandra Feodorovna. Field Marshal and the commander of the Russian army of the Danube in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878]
with son: Peter Nikolajewitsch, 1864-1931;

2. Alexander Friedrich Konstantin von Oldenburg, 1844-1932, with son Peter Friedrich Georg von Oldenburg, 1868-1924;

Konstantin Friedrich Peter von Oldenburg, 1850-1906 m. in 1882, Agrippina Djaparidse / Agrippina JAPARIDZE, 1855-1926,
with daughter Alexandra von Oldenburg, Gräfin von Zarnekau, 1883-1957.
The JAPARIDZES - see Armand - PASZKOWSKI - DEMONSI home in Moscow and Konstantynowicz line of Moscow- Swolna-Miezonka-Lida.

Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich von Holstein-Gottorp of Oldenburg was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I.
Konstantin Friedrich Peter Oldenburg or Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg began a flirtation with Agrippina; Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel 'Daniel' Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command; Dadiani were a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty;

Agrippina was Tariel Dadiani's second wife but Agrippina in 1882 divorced Dadiani. 1882, Constantine entered into a morganatic marriage with Agrippina Japaridze; by the early 1890s, they were doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).
See the Armands and Konstantynowiczs in Moscow and Alexandrovsk.
Prince Tarieli Taia Aleksandri Dadiani, b. 1842, m. first to Princess Sopio Dadiani b. 1838 daughter of Prince Levanti Shervashidze of the Guria. On June 28, 1882, Agrippina divorced Dadiani.
His father:
Prince Aleksandri Manuchari Dadiani.
And his grandfather:
Major-General H. E. Prince Nichola Giorgi Dadiani / Nikolai Georgievitch Dadianov / Bolshoi Niko, Lord of Kurdzu, b. 1764 - Duke of Mingrelia, fourth son of Katsia II Dadiani, Duke of Mingrelia.

Prince Aleksandri Kviti Niko Dadiani, b. 1864, m. Princess Nino Dadiani (b. 1868), younger daughter of Prince Tarieli Taia Dadiani, by his second wife, Princess Agrafina Countess von Zarnekau, daughter of Prince Konstantini Japaridze.

Eugene's ARMAND of Moscow brother - Emil E. ARMAND was married to Zofia Hacker / Sophia nee Osipovna Hecke (Hakker, Hacker, Hekke) from Estonia.
They had six children:
LEW ARMAND / Leo (1880 - 1942) + Japaridze-Saparov [Saparova Tamara Arkadevna - Japaridze married 2nd to Leo Emilievich ARMAND.

Saparov Arkady (1854 - before 1921), was married to Varvara Maypariani with the daughter
Tamara Arkadevna SAPAROV married 1st to Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and
TAMARA SAPAROV - JAPARIDZE was 2nd married to Lev ARMAND / Lion Emilievich Armand (Inessa Armand relatives).

Ivan Iaparidze was the son of Constantine Japaridze / Constantin Japaridze (Ivan b. ca 1860; his father Konstantyn died in 1860 !) from the upper Racha region of Georgia. Ivan Japaridze b. ca 1860, had sister Agrippina, Countess von Zarnekau, b. 1855, nee Agrippina Constantines Japaridze, and Ivan Japaridze's parents were Constantine and Melania Japaridze; named father Constantine died 1860].

His {Mikolaj Mikolajewicz} brother was Michal Mikolajewicz Romanow b. 1832, d. December 1909; Grand Duke of Russia, field marshal, chairman of the Council of State (1881-1905). In 1862-1882 he was the general-governor of the Caucasus. He worked in Tbilisi.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France.
Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia [Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company], on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies.

Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) was the Freemason, and he called himself Philalethes.

Receiving education at home in Georgia, Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909; the funeral was in Russia; Field Marshal.
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska [see Trubecki, Konstantynowicz, Oginski and Wola Pszczolecka] but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Oginski by name and Romanov by gene.

I am presenting here below several Poles fighting in the Russian army during the war 1877-78:

Artur Niepokojczycki / Niepokójczycki (1813-1881)
- Russian general. Pole. After graduating for some time he served in the General Staff.
NIEPOKÓJCZYCKI Artur, born in 1813 in the Niepokójczyce estate close to ZABINKA, died in Petersburg.

Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky wasn't born in Slutsk.
His father ADAM NIEPOKÓJCZYCKI / Niepokojczycki was the district leader of the nobility - the Sluck marshal of nobility.
Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky was born when the war with Napoleon rattled. Originated from the old German clan von UNRUH [not von-Upru], who moved to Poland.
The Niepokojczyce chapel of the Helvetic congregation was operated under the auspices of the family Rayski
[Evangelische Kirche Helvetischen Bekenntnisses / Evangelische Kirche, is the Calvinist church of the reformed trend; Calvinism is the dominant confession in Scotland and in the many cantons of Switzerland].

Niepokojczyce, is situated near Jamna / Jamno / Yamno [east district in BRZESC], the Kobryn county, Polesie; rural commune of Zbirohi / ZBIROGI [18 km north-east to the center of BRZESC] by the Muchawiec river; near Zabianka.


- in the second half of the nineteenth century, RASNA was bought by Calvinist Count Jan Grabowski born in 1827.
Already from the beginning of the nineteenth century, a small Calvinist church in the village stood where the mausoleum of the Grabowski family was located. Count Adam Jan Pius Waclaw Goetzendorf-Grabowski b. in 1827 in Lukow close to Oborniki, as the oldest son of Józef Goetzendorf-Grabowski the owner of Lukow. Jozef Grabowski was Napoleon's officer, director of the Credit Bank in Poznan. Jozef GRABOWSKI married Klementyna Wyganowski. Jozef's father - Adam Mateusz Grabowski the owner of Welno and Parkow, the Royal Court official of August III.
Adam Jan Pius Waclaw Goetzendorf-Grabowski b. 1827, married 1853 to Jadwiga, the daughter of Duke Konstanty Lubomirski. His daughter Maria m. Duke Hieronim Drucki-Lubecki.
The Grabowskis came from Grabówki, in the Sieradz county: here Elzbieta the wife of Mikolaj Hanczel of Mokrsko, close to WIELUN - inf. in 1508;
Jan Grabowski, the zealous Calvin, moved to Lithuania, where he left a few sons, of whom Krystyan Grabowski, the official in Lithuanian Brest, and Marcin Grabowski, a Vitebsk official; they acted in the Kaunas county, and Jan signed the choice of the king Jan III. Stefan Antoni Grabowski, the official in Brzesc Litewski in 1696.

Albert GRABOWSKI, the Prussian Count in 1816, Major, died in 1819 [or in 1799 ?], married Wilhelmina von Winterfeld,
with the son Wilhelm Grabowski and the daughter Albertyna Grabowska ROSEN [b. 1784 or 1786 - Wartenburg, d. 1856 - Warszawa].
The great-grandparents of Albertyna / ALBERTINA ROSEN:
Stefan Grabowski 1680-1756; and Teodora Stryjenska.
Stefan Grabowski was the son of a Brzesc Litewski official.

Albertina Grabowska married to Aleksander Rosen, baron, b. ca 1780; Alexander Vladimirovich von Rosen 3rd, born in 1780 in Ostrogorsk, was the son of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen born in 1742;
the grandson of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, b. 1717 in Linden.

Albertina had children:
Woldemar von Rosen;
Alexei von Rosen;
Maria Ledochowski b. 1814 married PAWEL LEDOCHOWSKI / Paul count Ledochowski;
Elisabeth von Möller and
Grigori von Rosen.


David Dadiani of the House of Dadiani, was Prince of Mingrelia, in western Georgia, from 1846. David was sent to Tiflis to be educated under the guidance of the Russian generals Vasili Bebutov and Georg Andreas von Rosen.
Baron Rosen's son-in-law, Colonel Prince Alexander Dadiani.

Lydia Grigorievna Dadianov (von Rosen) b. 1817, married Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien, b. 1800
[Lydia Dadiani was the mother of Praskovya A. nee Dadiani married to FERDINAND Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg. She was born 1846 or 1847 = Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian 1847-1919];

LYDIA von ROSEN DADIANI was the daughter of
Gregor (Grigori Vladimirovitch) von Rosen 2-nd
and granddaughter of
Woldemar (Vladimir Ivanowitsch) von Rosen, b. 1742 in Reval
[baron Vladimir I. Rosen, born 1742, died 1792, married Olympia Raevskaya / Olimpia / Olimpiada Rajewska born ca 1746];
and great-granddaughter of
Hans Christian von Rosen, of Sonorm, born in 1717 in Linden.

Above Alexander Leonevitch Dadiani of Mingrelien b. 1800, was the son of Leon A. Dadiani and the grandson of Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753 and
Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd ] born 1753 died 1812.
The parents of above Alexander:
Peter G. Dadiani and Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja [1st] died March 19, 1780.

Parents of above Piotr / Peter:
George / Egor Levanovich Dadiani b. 1683 and
Sophia A. Imereti of Mukhrani b. 1691 died 1747.

Above mentioned Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, b. 1834, died 1888, married in 1868 to Paraskewa princess Dadiani / Dadian, 1847-1919.
Praskovya A. nee Dadiani / Paraskewa Alexandrovna married to Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg; she was born 1846 or 1847; her father was Aleksandr Leonovich Dadiani b. 1800.

Ferdinand Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg b. 1834, the son of August Ludwig zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg; and Ferdinand was grandchild of Christian Heinrich Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, 1753-1800 (married 1775 Charlotte Friederike countess of Leiningen-Westerburg 1759-1831),
great-grandchild of Ludwig Ferdinand 1712-1773, and
great-great-grandchild of Casimir 1687-1741.
His father Ludwig Franz Sayn-Wittgenstein, 1660 - 1694.

Note on the Rosen family:

From Carl Gottlieb Gernet b. 1700 d. 1791:

Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn and died 1884 in Reval,
her father -
Karl Johann von Gernet 1776 Lehhola / Lehola - 1857 in Lauenhof / Love, Podrala, Valdamaa, Estland;
and her grandfather -
Carl Gustav von Gernet 1747 - 1812,
and her great-grandfather -
Carl Gottlieb von Gernet b. on March 18, 1700 and died on May 4, 1791 in Lehhola.

Hedwig Charlotte von Rosen nee von Gernet b. on March 30, 1821 in Reval / Tallinn married
Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus / Woldemar von Rosen 1813 - 1892
and his father -
Hans Wilhelm Gustav von Rosen 1780 - 1862;
Robert Friedrich von Rosen b. 1748 in SONORM, Estland;
great-grandfather was
Hans Christian von Rosen b. 1717 in LINDEN, Estland.

Above Karl Gustav Woldemar Amandus von Rosen, b. 12 Jan 1813 at Resna, m. 1844 at Hapsal / Haapsalu to Hedwig Charlotte von Gernet b. at Reval,
the daughter of Johann von Gernet and his wife Hedwig Elisabeth von Patkul of Habbinem.

Sons of above named Hedwig:
1. Johann Wilhelm Fabian Richard von Rosen, b. at Neuenhof near Hapsal, m. at St. Petersburg to Sophie Valentine Schottländer d. 28 Sep 1912 at Reval,
2. Leo Felix Karl von Rosen, b. in St. Petersburg, m. 2ndly in 1927 at London to Magna Smith daughter of Nadeschda Kowalewskaja Smith / Kowalewski.

The palace of Herrenhaus Neuenhof that is Uuemoisa mois east part of Haapsalu at present.

The noble Schillings / Schilling family moved to Estonia / Estland from Courland (Kurland). Karl Gebhard von Schilling began his service in the Russian army, married to Helene Charlotte von Römer of Müüsleri / Seinigal and Orina / Orgena - 2 km north-east of Jarva-Jaani (Orina, Järva-Jaani vald).
Müüsleri (Seinigal by German) is a village in the rural community Kareda - ca 80 km east-south of Saku, close to Jarva-Jaani.

Pauline Amalie Sophie von Schilling b. 1806 in Reval / Tallinn, Estland / Eesti, her mother Anna Juliane von Rosen b. 1770.

Explanation to
Alexander P. Dadiani b. 1753:
he married Leonovna Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani [2nd] born 1753 died 1812.

Above named Anna Bagration-Gruzinskaja of Mukhrani born 1753, died in Moscow, February of 1812, married Alexander Petrovich Dadiani b. 1753/54, died in Moscow on 26 Jan. 1811.
Her father Levan Bagration-Gruzinsky, born Moscow 1739, or 1730 acc. to me!
He was in 1753 married to Alexandra Yakovlevna Sibirsky b. 1728.
Her grandfather Bakar I King of Kartli, born Kutaisi in 1700, married Anna Eristavi of Aragvi b. 1706.
Her great-grandfather Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675.

Brief to Georgian genealogy:

Alexander [son of Bakar] or Aleksandr Bakarovich Gruzinsky, born 1726 died 1791, was a Russian-born Georgian prince of the Mukhrani branch of the Bagrationi royal dynasty. Aleksandre was born ca 1724 / 1728, in Moscow. Alexander was married to Princess Daria Aleksandrovna nee Menshikov, d.1817.
BAKAR, 1699 / 1700 - 1750, was the son of Vakhtang VI King of Kartli, b. 15 Sept. 1675 - died on March 26, 1737.

Vakhtang VI married in Imereti, in 1696, a princess Rusudan (died in Moscow, on December 30, 1740). They had children:
named above Prince Bakar (1699 / 1700 - 1750), ruler of Kartli;
Prince George (1712 - 1786), general of the Russian Empire;
Princess Tamar (1696) married, in 1712, Prince Teimuraz, the future king of Kakheti and Kartli;
Princess Anna (Anuka) (1698), married, in 1712, Prince Vakhushti Abashidze;
Princess Tuta (1699), married the Imeretian nobleman of the ducal family of Racha, Gedevan, Duke of the Lowlands.

We back to the Grabowskis:

Count Wilhelm GRABOWSKI, the son of Albert Grabowski, d. 1851, m. Zofia Zawisza, Count in Russia in 1840. He had 8 sons:
Count Karol Oktawian GRABOWSKI, d. 1893, the owner of Rasna, Szymonowicze and Eustaszyn, m. Zofia Horwat.
Zofia HORWAT GRABOWSKA had daughter Zofia m. Count Konstanty Broel - Plater,
and Zofia Horwat had a son Aleksander Grabowski, b. 1852, the owner of Tolkaczewicze, in the MINSK governorate, m. Maria Reytan, with a daughter
Magdalena Grabowska m. Antoni Kieniewicz.

The Calvinist chapel of the RASNA parish was in Niepokojczyce under the patronage of the Rayskis.
Here in RASNA / Rasna, 1765 Tadeusz Matuszewicz was born - Polish politician, Minister of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Poland and Minister of Treasury of the Warsaw Duchy

{Tadeusz Wiktoryn Matuszewicz - born 1765 in Rasnia, died 1819 in Bologna, Polish speaker, publicist, translator, poet and theater critic. Minister of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815-1817, member of the Provisional Government of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815. A member of the Central Military Government of the Galicia in 1809, a Freemason. He was the son of Marcin Matuszewicz, of Brest, and Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt, daughter of Józef, and Petronella Wolodkowicz}.

Niepokojczyce - in the Kobryn county, near Zabinka.

Grabanów close to Biala Podlaska;

in 1818, Grabanów is already the court property of Adam Niepokojczycki, the father of GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki [Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780].
He had wooden residential building made of oak tree.
1822, Grabanow farm was bought from the Radziwills by Poplawski. Shortly thereafter, these estate passed on to the property of the Grabowski family.
Kozula's mill in the Grabanów farm in 1781, belonged to the Radziwills, who had a hunting lodge here - near BIALA PODLASKA.

GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki in 1841, was sent to the Caucasus under General Grabbe.
Artur A. Nepokojchitsky owned the estate Ostashevo. Until 1861 it was called Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo on the left bank of the Ruza Reservoir, 21 km from the Volokolamsk suburb near Moscow.
The Polish origin had the actual commander-in-chief of the 1877/1878 Army, the Chief of Staff, General Artur Niepokojczycki and his deputy, General Karol Lewicki, and two leaders of the Bulgarian uprising, dictator and commander-in-chief - Stanislaw StClair, and major Ludwik Wojtkiewicz.

Artur A. Nepokojchitsky was next of kin to the KRUPSKI family.
Krupski Bonifacy, the son of Urban Krupski and Katarzyna Antoniewicz, was born in 1822 in Ihnatow in the MINSK county in Belarus; he studied in SLUCK; then Bonifacy lived in the BOBRUJSK county in the Wittgenstein estate [see SZUMSKI]. 1856, his father Urban bought from Korsak the Mieciawicze estate in the Sluck county, and in 1861 from Ratyski bought Nowosióki in the IHUMEN county. Bonifacy Krupski in 1861 was married Stefanja widow, born ca 1830, the daughter of Florjan SWIDA, and Konstancja Niepokojczycki Swida, b. ca 1805.

{Erazm Swida-Polny, b. 1882 - Mieciawicze, d. 1928 - Malecz; a brother of his father was Wladyslaw Swida-Polny b. 1842, d. 1924 - Siechniewicze near Pruzany. Wladyslaw Swida was the son of Florian Jakub Swida-Polny and named Konstancja Niepokojczycka born ca 1805. Wladyslaw Swida-Polny 1842-1924 m. Jadwiga Rewkowska, 1850-1922}.
In Nowosiólki was a folk school, under Ligenza from Kiev.
B. Krupski fought in 1863 in the Ihumen county.

Niepokojczycki had the WAGA coat of arms - together with Abramowicz, Korzeniowski, Pociej.

The Grabowski - Kosciuszko branch:

Elzbieta Grabowska b. 1748 or 1749, d. 1810 in Warsaw, the daughter of Teodor Kajetan Szydlowski the official in PLOCK, and Teresa Witkowska.
Elzbieta married Jan Jerzy Grabowski (d. 1789) with:
Michal Grabowski, Aleksandra Grabowska, Kazimierz Grabowski.

Elzbieta married 2nd Stanislaw August Poniatowski, with:
Kazimierz Grabowski,
Stanislaw Grabowski [see below],
Izabela Grabowska.
Elzbieta Grabowska nee Szydlowska m. Jan Jerzy Grabowski (b. ca 1730, died in 1789 or in 1784) and had children:
Stanislaw Grabowski, b. 1780, Warszawa, d. 1845, Warszawa, Secretary of the Council of State and Ministers Council of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, married Cecylia Dembowska, the daughter of
Józef Dembowski + Julia Zabiello.
Izabela Grabowska b. ca 1770 - 1856, m. Walenty Faustyn Sobolewski;
Konstancja Grabowska, m. Wincenty Doria-Dernalowicz;
Michal Grabowski, 1773 - 1812.

Jan Jerzy Grabowski born ca 1730 at Lithuania, died 1789, Lieutenant General of the Crown Army, general inspector of Lithuania;
Calvinist (Reformed Evangelist), in 1767 he became the marshal of the dissident SLUCK confederation under the patronage of Russia
[compare Jerzy Wilhelm von Goltz (vel Golcz) b. in Golczewo, d. 1767, the General Lieutenant in 1760, General major in 1750, the Torun marshal of Protestant confederation in 1767, the official in Tuchola].
In 1769, Jan Jerzy Grabowski married Elzbieta Szydlowska. Most of the children from this relationship were really children of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski and they were brought up to Catholics. One of them was Stanislaw Grabowski.
Jan Jerzy was the son of Stefan Grabowski, b. ca 1680/1700, died in 1756 and Teodora STRYJENSKA Grabowska.
The grandson of
Krystian Krzysztof Jerzy Grabowski b. ca 1640, d. in 1711 [see below], the official in BRZESC LITEWSKI in 1693, married to Katarzyna OBORSKA.
The great-grandson of
Jan Grabowski - Calvinist - b. ca 1620, d. ?

Wiktoria Grabowska + Faustyn Benedykt "Siechnowicki" Kosciuszko, the official in Brzesc Litewski in 1746, born ca 1670 ? His father -
Aleksander Jan Kosciuszko (the great-grandfather of General Tadeusz Kosciuszko) the first Catholic in the family. Aleksander Jan Kosciuszko (1629-1711) was the judge in the Brzesc Litewski province.

Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko Siechnowiecki 1667 - ca 1720/1723, was the son of named Aleksander Jan Kosciuszko Siechnowiecki. Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko - the owner of Siechnowicze and the judge of the Brzesc Litewski province; Ambrozy's uncle - Chryzostom Kosciuszko, who in 1669 managed of Kobryn. Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko - the grandfather of Tadeusz - had 3 brothers.
Ludwik Tadeusz Kosciuszko (1700-1758), was the son of named Ambrozy Kazimierz Kosciuszko. Ludwik took Mereczowszczyzna close to Kosow Poleski.
Ludwik Kosciuszko had the son Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura Kosciuszko.

Wiktoria Grabowska b. ca 1690, was the daughter of
Krystian Jerzy Grabowski d. 1711 + Katarzyna Oborska. Krystian Krzysztof Jerzy Grabowski b. ca 1640, d. in 1711, the official in BRZESC LITEWSKI in 1693. Krystyan Grabowski was the son of Jan Grabowski.
Wiktoria's brother was Stefan Grabowski, b. ca 1680/1700, died in 1756, m. Teodora STRYJENSKA. Jan Jerzy was the son of Stefan Grabowski.
Wiktoria had a second brother Józef Grabowski who had
great-great-granddaughter Teodozja Grabowska + Aleksander Oskierka.

Wiktoria's Grabowska Kosciuszko son - Jan Nepomucen Kosciuszko Siechnowiecki born 1720.

Brief note:
1. Sniadecki knew Benedykt Niepokójczycki well.
close to PIESZOWOLA, Wytyczno, LIBISZOW, and Parczew.

In the first half of the 19th century, the lands near Sosnowica belonged to the large landowners and the clergy. In 1822, it belonged to Józef Sosnowski. They come from Kruszewo near Choroszcz, west to Bialystok

[Wlodzimierz Karol Józef Sosnowski, 1822-1888, had a son Wlodzimierz married Amelia Maria Romana Dembinska the great-granddaughter of Ignacy Dembinski 1753-1799; Ignacy Aleksy Jakub Dembinski 1766-1829; and
Duke Antoni Pawel Sulkowski, 1785-1836 who was born in 1785 - Leszno, died in 1836 - Rydzyna. Duke Antoni was the grandson of Duke Aleksander Józef Sulkowski, 1695-1762 in RYDZYNA
- he bought LESZNO in 1738, and in 1752 also BIELSK in Silesia].

Józef Sylwester Sosnowski d. 1783, was the owner of SOSNOWICA, after his father MARCIN; Rokitno and Przegaliny in the Brzesc Litewski province.
Near to Marcin Radziwill of KLECK and to Bartlomiej Stecki, Maltese bachelor, in 1765 of Stwolowicze [1737 Jozef was in Wschowa; acted with the Poniatowskis of Wolczyn].
JOZEF married in 1741 in DAUKSZE to Tekla Zenowicz / Despot Zenowicz, with the daughters,
Katarzyna PLATER
Ludwika - Tadeusz Kosciuszko fell in love with her, unsuccessfully because of her father's opposition, in 1774.

Józef Sosnowski bought Sosnowica in 1802 from his cousin of the same name and surname as he.

Józef Sylwester Sosnowski born 1729, had 2 daughters: Katarzyna Sosnowski Plater; and Ludwika Sosnowski.

Józef Sosnowski died 1823 and Sosnowica was acquired by his children: Tekla b. 1801, Joanna born 1804, and Stanislaw Stefan Sosnowski b. 1805.
In 1824 Tekla Sosnowska sells her part, to her future husband, Jan Niepokójczycki [b. ca 1790/1800], maybe the family of Adam Niepokojczycki [Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780].

In 1827, Pieszowola was bought by Wojciech Weglinski. 1832 -
the division of the property between Jan Niepokójczycki [b. ca 1790/1800], Joanna Sosnowski Skarszewska and Stanislaw Sosnowski. As a result, Sosnowica's land estates, took the last one.
1871, Stanislaw Sosnowski died and Sosnowica was inherited by daughters of Tekla NIEPOKOJCZYCKA: Waleria and Sabina Niepokójczycki.
1892, they sold Sosnowica to Alfons Libiszowski.
Waleria was living in the Sosnowica manor.
1894 - Teodor Libiszowski, son of Alfons.
Sosnowica village and Turno, in 1832 took Jan Niepokójczycki. Then to Antoni Zembrzuski husband of named Sabina Niepokójczycki.
1888 Turno belonged to Ksawery Bielski.
Jan Niepokójczycki was a brother of ADAM ?

Note to Tadeusz Kosciuszko in Sosnowica:

"I see him OFTEN, ... He is as pure a son of liberty, as I have ever known, ... and of that liberty which is to go to all, and not to the few or rich alone. Thus did Thomas Jefferson describe his new-found friend General Kosciuszko in 1798. Kosciuszko had left his native Poland in 1776 to join the American patriots ... Jefferson had scarcely known him then, but when he returned to his adopted fatherland for a second time in 1797 the two men became close friends and saw each other, for a time, almost daily.

Kosciuszko travelled in 1796 / 1797 from Russia to Sweden with his secretary J. U. Niemcewicz and with cheerful officer, Libiszewski who often had to carry the General

[Libiszowski / Libiszewski willingly performed this service. In Sweden, Kosciuszko was listening to Libiszewski playing the guitar at his bedside and to a concert organised in his honour by the best musicians; in Philadelphia was a musician in orchestra. He died - still young - of fever in Cuba. In 1892 the Sosnowski manor from Waleria Niepokójczycki, bought Alfons Libiszowski. In Libiszow is the Libiszowski manor, 'Rybakówka'; Libiszow is situated 5 km west of Sosnowica; east of Ostrow Lubelski].

The American newspapers followed with interest his triumphal fourney through Sweden and England. At Gothenburg, the principal inhabitants turned out to greet the Polish hero ... In London, the leaders, including Fox, Wilberforce, and Sheridan, waited on him. The members of the Whig Club had their president, General Banastre Tarleton, the former dashing cavalry commander who almost captured Jefferson during the American Revolution, present a sword worth 200 guineas to Kosciuszko as a public testimony of their sense of his exalted virtues and of his gallant, generous, and exemplary efforts to defend and save his country. Rufus King, the American Minister to Britain, arranged his passage to the United States. At Bristol, where the citizens presented him with a magnificent mahogany case of silver plate weighing more than 216 ounces, each piece inscribed "The Friends of Liberty in Bristol to the Gallant Kosciuszko", the General stayed in the home of the American Consul. ... Kosciuszko arrived at Philadelphia in August, 1797. ...

Niepokojczyce by the Muchawiec river - Rayski Edward; close to JAMNO and Zabinka, near Brzesc.
Zygmunt Rayski b. 1917, of Niepokojczyce.

Ostashevo (until 1861 - Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo)
is a fragmentary preserved estate on the left bank of the Ruza reservoir, 21 km from the Volokolamsk suburb near Moscow.
Ostashevo, a small village, 140 kilometers to Moscow.

The grandson of Nicholas I, Konstantin Romanov, received this estate in 1903.
The previous owner, Nikolai Shipov, was one of the greatest agricultural innovators of his era. In 1854 he bought 200 cows, hired a specialist from Switzerland and established a cheese factory at Ostashevo [FRAUCHI ?].

The Ostashevo estate was owned by

an energetic entrepreneur A. V. URUSOV [N. D. Urusov in KOTOVKA];


[in the early 1820s young Prince Valentin Shakhovskoy, a pupil at the famous cavalry school in Moscow run by Nikolai Muraviev of nearby Ostashevo, became involved in the DECEMBRISTS movement. A sister of named WALENTY SZACHOWSKI married the leading Decembrist, Alexander Muraviev of Ostashevo];

Artur A. Nepokojchitsky / Artur Niepokojczycki owned the estate Ostashevo [ca 1840 - 1854]. Until 1861 it was called Aleksandrovskoe-Ostashevo; Arthur Adamovich Nepokojchitsky was born in Slutsk [or in Niepokojczyce close to Zabianka and to Brzesc] in the family of Adam Niepokojczycki [von Unruh], the district leader of the nobility, on December 8, 1813, when the war with Napoleon rattled.

N. P. Shipov since 1854 or before

[Nikolai P. Shipov, to 1903 {b. ca 1830 ?}. Nikolai Shipov, JUNIOR, the son of PAVEL SHIPOV, junior, was one of the greatest agricultural innovators. Nikolai Smirnov, P., and Nikolai Shipov traveled together. PAVEL junior b. ca 1795/1800 had a brother,
Sergei Shipov b. 1790.

In 1813 until 1844, the serf entrepreneur Nikolai Shipov SENIOR roamed the Russian Empire. Aleksey Feofilaktovich Pisemsky b. 1821, a Russian novelist and dramatist, was born at his father's Ramenye estate in the Chukhloma province of Kostroma. His parents were retired colonel Feofilakt Gavrilovich Pisemsky and his wife Yevdokiya Shipov.

Nikolai's junior brother was Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919) was an Imperial Russian Politician. Ivan Pavlovich Shipov after graduating from the Imperial Alexander Lyceum, entered the Ministry of Finance. He rose to the position of Assistant Director of the Special Credit Office, and was eventually Director of the General Office (Ministerial Chancellery).
In addition, Ivan Pavlovich Shipov served on the Board of the State Bank in 1902-1905. In 1905, he was appointed Minister of Finance during the Witte government. In 1906, he left that position when Witte resigned, due in part to his long association with Witte. He was executed by the Bolsheviks in 1919.
Nikolai Shipov junior had a son Dmitry Shipov, b. 1851.
DMITRY was the founder of the All-Zemstvo Organization, which was banned shortly after it was founded in 1896. He was elected chairman in the first Zemstvo Assembly from 6-9 November 1904 during the Zemstvo Congress. Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Sviatopolk-Mirsky gave permission for their assembly. Alexander Guchkov and Dmitry Shipov refused to work with the reactionary. "... Witte was in October 1905, charged with the task of assembling the nation's first cabinet government, and he offered the liberals several portfolios (Ministry of Agriculture to Shipov; Ministry of Trade and Industry to Guchkov; Ministry of Justice to Koni; Ministry of Education to Trubetskoy; Milyukov and Lvov were also offered ministerial posts). None of these liberals agreed to join the government...".

Most remarkable of the Shipovs was Sergei Pavlovich Shipov (1790-1876), that is SERGEI the son of PAVEL senior born ca 1760.
PAVEL junior b. ca 1795/1800 had a brother, Sergei Shipov b. 1790.

Nikolai's junior [b. ca 1830] brother was Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919).

Sergei Shipov, b. in 1790, was descended from a well-to-do gentry family in Kostroma province. In 1832 he served Ministry of War. 1841 - 1846 the governor of KAZAN - compare DEMONSI and Wasyl Konstantynowicz + Breguet in KAZAN + V. A. KOKOREV in KAZAN ca 1843 {1844 tax reform note on farms; near LIKHACHEV before 1844; 1843-1844 he had two farms close to Kazan}.

SERGEI born 1790, had youngers brothers
[the textile manufacturing - see also ARMAND:
DMITRII P. Shipov - a governor;
and Pavel born ca 1795/1800;
and maybe the serf entrepreneur Nikolai Shipov SENIOR roamed the Russian Empire in 1813 until 1844].

Nikolai P. Shipov owned to 1903 the Ostashevo estate (his son Dmitry Nikolaevich Shipov b. on 14 May 1851 - d. 14 January 1920). His brother Ivan Pavlovich Shipov (1865-1919) was an Imperial Russian Politician.
Mentioned Dmitry Nikolaevich Shipov (14 May 1851 - 14 January 1920) was a Russian liberal Slavophile politician of the 19th and 20th century. Shipov acted as a political mentor of Georgy Lvov, Russia's future first Prime Minister.
Karl Wilhelm also known as Karl Vasilievitj Hagelin was born in St. Petersburg in 1860. His parents Wilhelm Hagelin (1828-1901) and Anna Lovisa Eriksdotter (1818–1870) ... In 1861, the family moved to the Volga where his father worked for a period as a second engineer on passenger boats and towboats. ... In autumn 1870, he started at the Givochini boarding school in Nizhny Novgorod ...
In 1875, thanks to a recommendation from family friend A. I. Sandström, he was accepted into the design workshop at the shipbuilding factory belonging to D. P. Shipov in Kostroma. He received his first real assignment working on the designs for a motorboat, ... and two smaller steamers
... he was employed as a mechanic at the Kaukaz & Mercury shipping company in Astrakhan, where he worked on preparing boats ... he met two Swedes, N. Qvarnström and master mechanic Westvall, with whose recommendation he was able to secure employment as a mechanic in the instrument workshop at the Nobel paraffin factory in Baku. Hagelin’s first working day at Robert Nobel's factory was on 4 April 1879. ... During his initial period in Baku (1879-1883), Wilhelm ... assisted chemist E. Tell ... When engineer Alfred Törnqvist returned from his trip to the USA and started setting up a new paraffin factory, Hagelin was given a job as a draughtsman. ... he decided to apply to the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. In order to pass the entrance exams, he took private lessons from engineer A. B. Lambert in mathematics, physics and chemistry. After two years in Sweden, he wrote to Branobel's managing director, J.G. Crusell, explaining his desire to return to Russia and take up his position again. ...

Ludvig Nobel invited Hagelin to St. Petersburg. Wilhelm was given a post in the technical laboratory where he experimented with chemical processes for production of light oil fractions. ... In 1891, he was first promoted to technical director and then office manager in Baku. ... In 1900, he was recalled to St. Petersburg to replace M. J. Belyamin as the company's chairman of the board ... In 1906, he was appointed Swedish consul general in St. Petersburg (1906-1911). ... In spring 1917, Hagelin travelled to Baku, continuing onboard the K.W. Hagelin motorboat to Astrakhan ... Wilhelm left Russia and spent a year abroad, but in July 1918 he was back for a shorter visit ... The remaining directors M. Belyamin, G. Nobel and A. Belonozhkin tried at numerous meetings to solve the burning issue of how the company's trading rights and authority could be protected. Hagelin's last attempt to enter Russia via Constantinople failed and on 3 July 1920 he was forced to return to Stockholm. ...

he, together with Immanuel Nobel / Emmanuel Nobel / Lyudvigovich Emanuel Nobel b. 1859, joined the Aktiebolaget Cryptograph company under the management of Arvid Gerhard Damm (where Wilhelm's son, Boris Hagelin, also worked for a time)].

K. K. ROMANOV in 1903 until 1915

[Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia, born 1858 in Strelna - d. 1915 in Pavlovsk, was a grandson of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia; a poet and playwright. He wrote under the pen name "K.R.", initials of his given name and family name, Konstantin Romanov.
Konstantin Romanov / Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich was the son of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich of Russia.

Konstantin Nikolaevich had a brothers:
Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, 1831 - 25 April 1891, as a Field Marshal he commanded the Russian army of the Danube in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878 [see General ARTUR Niepokojczycki].
And Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia (25 October 1832 - 18 December 1909), served 20 years (1862-1882) as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi, the town which most of his children remembered as the home of their childhood];

in 1915, a merchant and philanthropist A. G. Kuznetsov

[Aleksandr Gennad'evich Kuznetsov / Kuznetsov Aleksandr Genadjevich or Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov

- " Mansurovsky Lane in the heart of Moscow, architect Alexander Kuznetsov built himself a mansion with an entrance gate {in 1915} ... The house owner received guests: the famous Russian modernist architect Fyodor Shekhtel, and constructivist architect Konstantin Melnikov. After the revolution, Kuznetsov was found building a factory on the outskirts of the Soviet Union, and was jailed ... Russian tea merchant, Alexander Kuznetsov and Co, Moscow, had a factory in Hankou, China {see CEYLON !}, the offices in MOSCOW and IRKUTSK.
Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov,
was the tea magnate of Imperial Russia, named and purchased the 239 foot steam yacht 'Foros' in Scotland on the 9th June 1891. Designed by the Glasgow yacht architect Thomas Lennox Watson, Foros took the name from the southernmost Crimean resort made popular by Kuznetsov through the development of his estate there. Guest on board the yacht was in 1896 Grand Duke George Alexandrovich

{GEORGE died in 1899 in Abastumani, Georgia - was the third son of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Marie of Russia. Grandson of Emperor Alexander II and his first wife Marie of Hesse - a daughter of Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Princess Wilhelmine of Baden. Marie of Hesse was the granddaughter of Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse, the great-granddaughter of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt / Ludwig IX von Hessen-Darmstadt, 1719 in Darmstadt - 1790 in Pirmasens (compare JOHANN STARCK in 1781 back to Darmstadt)}.

We remember about Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow. In 1840 acc. to Cosroe Dusi: "... May 30. This morning began the portrait of Countess Josephine Kalinovskaya / Jozefina Kalinowska ... 1840, June, the 27. This morning the family Branicki leaves with Countess Kalinovsky. They ordered me a portrait of an older sister, who is married to General Plautin / Plautyn and lives in Tsarskoye Selo. And Olga Kalynovska / Kalinowska goes away from court, to his native Poland, where she get married; Alexander agrees to marry Mary Hesse-Darmstadt...".

Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia
{Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia (25 October 1832 - 18 December 1909), served 20 years (1862-1882) as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi};

in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus; Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years; served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel. In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg, acc. to Wikipedia. In 1888, he had an affair with Princess Walewski; later, with Countess Catherine Nikolaevna Ignatieva daughter of Minister of Interior, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev.
In 1900, moved to Keele Hall, in Staffordshire, close to Newcastle-under-Lyme;
visitor of North Berwick in Scotland {east to Edynburg}, and
in the south of France, Cannes where he met his sister Anastasia and in 1903 his father, also brother Alexander and his family;
he moved with his family to Hampstead in 1909 and every year Grand Duke Michael would visit Edward VII at Windsor Castle, Sandringham and Buckingham Palace

{Edward VII born in 1841, the son of Victoria b. 1819, was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - she was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn [the TEMPLARS], the fourth son of King George III / George William Frederick, b. 1738. GEORGE III was the grandson of King George II}.

In 1912, Grand Duke Michael was with a visit in Russia. 1914 as an agent for Russian loans in France.
On 31 October 1916 he "...wrote to Tsar Nicholas II warning him that British secret agents in Russia were expecting a revolution".

And (by Wikipedia) "General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort, stated that Russian communist elements working against the Tsar had betrayed Kitchener's travel plans to Germany. He stated that Kitchener was killed 'because of his ability', as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover...".

Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia after November 1917 moved to Regent's Park. In 1916 his youngest daughter, Nadejda (Nada) married Prince George of Battenberg, eldest son of Prince Louis by Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Anastasia (Zia), the eldest daughter, in 1917 married Sir Harold Wernher. Michael Mikhailovich and his wife returned to Cannes in 1923, and died in 1929.

Johann August Starck / Stark (1741 - 1816)
- Immanuel Kant and Johann Georg Hamann were among his acquaintances in Königsberg. In 1776 went to Mitau [Courland; at margin see Komorowski] and took place here as professor of philosophy until 1781 when he back to Darmstadt.

1767 or 1768 - J. A. von Stark / STARCK has established a new sect, which grew out of Clirici Ordinis Templariorum / Clerics of the Knights Templar;
he was in 1761 initiated into a French freemasonry lodge at Göttingen but
left for St. Petersburg in 1761, while teaching in St. Petersburg, Starck had met a Greek by the name of Pyotr Ivanovich Melissinos = Count Peter Melesino / Melissino, 1726-97, a lieutenant-general in the Russian Imperial Army, and whose order of freemasonry claimed the clerics of the Templar Knights

{"... Melissinos arrived in Russia during the reign of Peter the Great and ended his career as Vice-President of the Commerce Collegium in 1740-45.
During the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774, Pyotr Melissino was in charge of the Russian artillery.
... In 1783, he was appointed Director of the Artillery and Engineering Corps in St. Petersburg. ... Melissino was instrumental in promoting the career of one of Paul's favourites, Aleksey Arakcheyev. His son Aleksey Melissino, a Major General, was killed in the Battle of Dresden (1813). His brother, Ivan Melissino, was Dean of the Moscow University under Catherine the Great. Starck had met a Greek by the name of Count Peter Melesino (or 'Melissino'; 1726-97), a lieutenant-general};

then traveled to Paris in 1765 and obtained a position at the royal library;
back to Germany, in Wismar (1766-8). Starck promoted the clerical brand of Templarism.

Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin, wife of Wilhelm Bacheracht, ex-wife of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse- Darmstadt;
sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Mentioned above Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin / Hutten-Czapski Alexandra b. 1854 / 1853 - d. 1941, the 1st husband Kolemin; then entered into a morganatic marriage with the Grand Duke of Hesse Ludwig IV b. 1837;

Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and other Royal Houses of Europe. Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany; his mother was the granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia. Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse- Darmstadt, the first son of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine b. 1809, and Princess Elisabeth of Prussia; CHARLES was the second surviving son of Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse. LOUIS II was the son of Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse and the grandson of Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt born 1719; the great-grandson of a son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl in 1862, married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
The couple had seven children, among others Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia b. 1864, and Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of All the Russias b. 1872.
Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage in 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska / Aleksandra Czapski Hutten b. 1854 in Warsaw, d. on 8 May 1941, in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland; she was the former wife of Aleksander Kolemin, the Russian charge d'affaires in Darmstadt; now the Countess von Romrod.

Alexandrine Bacheracht / Alexandrine Countess von Hutten-Czapska died in Vevey / Switzerland, close to La Tour de Peilz; 8 km noerth-west of Montreux (see: Duflon, Konstantynowicz); 18 km south-east of Lutry; 6 km north-west of Clarens!
Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska, Grafin Romrod, was the daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski, and Countess Mariane Rzewuska / Marianne von Rzewuska Grocholska / Maria Anna Katarzyna Hutten-Czapska nee Rzewuska b. 1827.

We back to mentioned above Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov:

During the First World War, the yacht of Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov served as a hospital ship before eventually being scrapped in 1927.

"In 1840 Alexei Semenovich Gubkin established the first tea-selling company in Kungur. Up until then tea had arrived in Russia in the form of large solid bricks. Gubkin was the first business owner to sell tea already weighed out in handy quantities and wrapped in colourful attractive packaging. In 1882 the firm's head office moved to Moscow. After Gubkin's death his nephew Alexander Grigorievich Kuznetsov took over at the helm. He renamed the company The Successor to Alexei Gubkin, A. Kuznetsov & Co {Kuznicow}. Over a period of fifteen years the company sold 300 million roubles' worth of tea and sugar and had branches not only throughout Russia, but also in China, India, Ceylon and London. By the beginning of the 20th century the firm controlled one third of the entire tea market in the Russian empire."
Copyright by

"The largest firms in the pre-revolutionary Russian tea trade, were: C. S. Popoff & Co., Alexis Gubkin & Co., and Wissotsky & Co. At first, the Popoff company had the lion's share of the business, but Wissotsky & Co., a much younger firm, finally took away much of Popoff's trade. Alexis Gubkin & Co. became A. Kusnezow & Co. after Mr. Gubkin's death, with its head office at Moscow. Later, this concern became the Trading Company, and later still, The Asiatic Trading Corporation, Ltd., under British registry".

Asiatic Trading Corporation, Ltd:
in LONDON, and Thrissur, Kerala, India importers of tea, coffee, and cotton. "The Russian Society for Tea Trade Gubkin-Kuznetsov and Co founded a tea-packing factory called the Moscow Branch of the Society Karavan. Its yield was 1600000 pounds a year. It quickly became one of the major manufacturers of Russian-style blends. In the 1920s Karavan was renamed Lenin Moscow Tea-Packing Factory, which became the flagship of the Soviet tea industry. Russian Caravan Tea: produced the Chinese tea, blend of China black tea, notably with Keemun tea, is called Caravan since it was carried by camel back from China to the West].


For the processing of dairy products obtained from 200 cows of improved northern breeds kept in the estate, a cheese factory was commissioned and assigned to a specialist invited from Switzerland. At the same time, Shipov undertook to rebuild the estate.
Arthur Eugene Leonard Frauchi / Artour Khristianovitch Frautschi / Arthur Hristianovich Artuzov Frautschi / Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov b. 1891, Tver region.

Family of Christian Frautschi, came from Switzerland to Russia in 1881 and settled in the estate of Popov landowner, Apashkovo, Tver province, where his older brother Paul / Peter Frautschi, arrived in this region 1879, next in Yurino estate, manor Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putjatino, the village Davydkovo / Davydovo, 17 km north-west of Kashin, and north-east of Tver.

Cheesemaker was working in the estate
Mykolaivka, and
Christian Frautschi married Augusta Didrikil, Didrikil family was of mixed origin, the Latvian and Estonian, her grandfather was a Scot; after the wedding, the young family settled in the estate at Kashin County, Tver province. Leonti V. Dubbelt / von Dubelt was owner of the factory Kuvshinovo, Tver region.

Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi was born in the family of Swiss origin, but Italian nationality. His father Christian Frautschi came to Russia, where he was engaged in reindeer cheese; cheesemaker, a citizen of the Swiss Federation.
Mother Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938, had the Latvian and Estonian roots, and one of her grandfathers was a Scot;
her father Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik,
her mother Bertha Sterling / Esterling / Stirling / EASTERLING born 1835 d. 1891 -
her parents:
Edward Sterling / Edward Esterling / EASTERLING and
Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland.

"Augusta grandfather was from Scotland. Edward Sterling / Edward Esterling was in Russia during the War of 1812. He studied at Dorpat, worked as notary, married Latvian woman. One of his many daughters married Estonian - Didrikilya / Didrikil. In this family was born Augusta Avgustovna".

Hereditary cheesemaker Christian Frautschi came to Russia in search of a good steady income; took a fancy to the north-western province (Estonia), for cattle, and it took two or three years; Here Christians Frauchi married to one of the four sisters of the Didrikil family, of the Estonian, Latvian, Russian, Scottish and even French blood.

One of the sisters, Olga Avgustovna, married exiled Bolshevik Mikhail Kedrov
(Olga Avgustovna Didrikil - daughter of gamekeeper August Ivanovich Didrikil who served for many years to the Suvorov family, in Prozorovskaya (?) county).

In 1903 the whole family Frauchi / Frautschi moved to Novgorod province, where, moving from one estate to another, Arthur's father, together with his assistants was doing cheese. Estates - Zhdanov, Mikhailovsky, Putyanin, Petrovskoe, Davydkina.

Nikolaj Wasiljewicz Wierieszczagin, born 1839 near the village of Piertowka or Pietrowka in the Czerepowiec district, Nowogrod province; a Russian representative of agricultural sciences, he was the elder brother of painter Vasily Viereshagin. At the Tver lands meetings, he applied for loans to farmers for dairy cooperatives and cheese makers; spring 1865 - according to the advice of the younger brother - he and his wife Tatiana Ivanovna started a trip to Switzerland and other countries, Germany, Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden. In these countries he observed the organization of milk, butter and cheese in the Swiss town of Coppet, near Geneva. At the heart of Freiburg, under the supervision of the masters, he learned the technology of oily cheeses. 1866, the first cooperative cheese factory in Russia in Otrokowicze; a model milk cattle farm was opened in Edimonów.

We back to
Arthur Adamovich Niepokojczycki, died in St. Petersburg on November 11, 1881, was buried at Volkovsky Lutheran Cemetery.
He graduated from the General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg. In the Russian army 1832-1881, the pacification of the peoples of the Caucasus, 1841-1845; Chief of Staff of the Army Corps during the revolution in Hungary 1849;
Chief of Staff of the Army (general lieutenant) during the Crimean War of 1854-1855.
Member of the Council of State (general of arms) and general adjutant of the Emperor.

The Niepokojczycki family was Calvinists.
Under the Radziwills - 1600, Zabludów bought Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun; then his son Krzysztof II Radziwill. He founded in Zabludow and took care of the Calvinist congregation. Dominik Hieronim Radziwill, the owner of ZABLUDOW, m. in 1807 to Izabella Mniszchek, div. Izabella, 2nd voto Demblinska, in 1819 took Zabludów - until 1831.

Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki.
He acted in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce close to SLUCK

{in SLUCK was living Krzysztof Niepokojczycki, bef. 1880. Karol Niepokojczycki the son of Piotr Niepokojczycki and Zofia, Lieutenant in 1824 - 1827. In 1697 in the Brzesc Litewski province was 12 noblemen with Niepokojczycki name. Kazimierz Zlotnicki, in 1723 married 2nd, ?, Zofia Leonowa Niepokojczycka, d. bef. 1723. Leopold Korewa / Koreywa, d. 1758, m. Katarzyna Niepokojczycka. Kosciszewski Michal the Wilkomierz official in 1699, m. Joanna Rzaczynska, then she was married Jan Niepokojczycki. KOSSAKOWSKI Andrzej, owned 1624 Brzeska Wola, and in 1686 r. Niepokosice / Niepokojczyce}.
Before Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki in BOLOCZYCE were: Aleksander Pociej, then Ludwik Rozwadowski, also here were Józef Twardowski, Jan Gieczewicz, Lady Plater married Aleksandrowicz; Ignacy Karp.

Bolotchitsy / Boloczyce,

close to Novobelichi and Prussy. 18 km north-west to METYAVICHI / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy . 22 km south-west to SLUCK.
Close to
Mieciawice / Maciewicze in the SLUCK county, and here was living Bonifacy Krupski, born 1822; opponent of the military action in 1863; he was involved as a commissar of the IHUMEN area.
Soon he was arrested and imprisoned in Minsk. The sentence condemned him to 8 years of heavy work and confiscation of Novosiolki property. At exile stayed in Usol, after 5 years in Tobolsk, then in Tsarevo, then in Warsaw. 1874 rights restored. Died in 1903 in Maciewicze.

Józef Ignacy Kraszewski wrote on Maciewicze.
Close to Pohost, Starobin, by the Slucza river; near Sielco, Cisowo and Hawrylczyce. Starobin - south to SLUCK.

Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in Belarus; close to ZAZEVICY; SIALCO; TOMILOVA GORA; CHIZHEVICHI; east to DUBOCHKI; nort to SAKOVICHI / Sakovicy; 6 km north-east to SOLIGORSK [137 km south to MINSK - since 1958]; 6 km south-west to PAGOST / Pohost; close to the villages of Vishnevka, Pokrovka, Kovaleva Loza, Teslin, Peschanka.

The Nameless Association [Union of people without names / Association of an unnamed = innominate people / The Nameless Association / 'Zwiazek bezimienny' / 'Zwiazek Bezimiennych'].
Founder of the underground association -
Walerian Pietkiewicz / PIETKIEWICZ Walerian Jan (1805-1843), born in Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district;
Professor, MP, activist in exile; he, on the initiative of Lelewel, established the Association of an unnamed = innominate people.
Preparations were made to fight against Russia.
In 1832/1833, colonel Józef Zaliwski arrived from exile with a few companions and began preparations for the uprising in the Russian lands [see SULIMIERSKI in Lubiec close to Wola Pszczolecka]. The first attempts to create a conspiracy were made by Walerian Pietkiewicz - the emissary of Joachim Lelewel. The center was in Kolbuszowa (property of the Tyszkiewicz family) in Galicia, where after 1831 many of the November insurgents were held. Preparations were directed by the Union of people without names [Association of an unnamed = innominate people / The Nameless Association / Unknown Association].

Adam Mickiewicz already during a trip to Rome and to Florence in the summer of 1830, said, according to Odyniec, similar thoughts like the closest and most faithful followers of Towianski, Ferdynand Gutt who wrote to Walerian Pietkiewicz in 1836.

Walerian Pietkiewicz befriended with Gutt and he was the recipient of many of his letters sent from countries where Ferdinand traveled in those years. As Stanislaw Pigon Ferdinand wrote from Germany.
The year 1830 ended with a stronger accent, with the outbreak of the uprising in the Kingdom of Poland and the expansion of war activities to Lithuania soon. Walerian Pietkiewicz was a member of the Central Vilnius Committee and friend of Joachim Lelewel.

Valeryan Pietkiewicz knew well Towianski, like Gutt Ferdynand. He gives the testimony of honesty although in 1830 they did not take up arms; Gutt as a doctor served his knowledge on both sides. And he - at the request of General Paskevich - for the protection of Russian soldiers wounded in the Polish war of 1830-1831, was decorated on January 13, 1834 with the order of Saint Anna's third grade.
On January 24, 1836 from Mannheim, Gutt wrote to Pietkiewicz that his father was murdered on 1 November 1835 at home. Money was not taken; the tragic death of the pharmacist Jerzy Gutt was dominated by legends, as always, when the perpetrators could not be detected. One of the legends accused Mikolaj Malinowski, the son-in-law of Gutt. By Krasinski - Towianski persuaded Ferdinand Gutt to murder his father [the letter of Zygmunt Karasinski to Delfina Potocka on March 19, 1842].
Extensive fragments of letters from Gutt to Pietkiewicz, written in 1833-1837 from Germany, are quoted by Stanislaw Pigon in the book "From the Age of Mickiewicz - Studies and Sketches" (1922).

Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski wrote on Metyavichi / Maciewicze / Mieciavicy in the SLUCK district.

Parents of Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852:
August Jacek Hieronim Broel-Plater / August Hiacynt 1745-1803 and Anna Beydo-Rzewuska 1761-1800. Józef Krzysztof Donat Broel Plater b. 1796 in Kraslaw, died 1852 in Wilno, m. Antonina Pereswit-Soltan (1800-1871) or
she married to Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater who was sentenced to settlement in Smolensk, where he lived with his family to 1846.
In Smolensk he has established a contact with named above Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski. After 1846 he returned to Kombula, in 1847 was elected assessor of the Criminal Chamber of the Novgorod province.
Writer under nick-name Joseph Plaskoziemski in 1846, gave his own theory of light, heat and electricity, but not supported by experiences in the mid-nineteenth century. He was also the author of the short history and geography of Livonia; died in 1852 in Vilnius, was buried in Kraslaw. He was married from 1819 to Antonina Pereswit-Soltan (1800-1871) and had 14 children.
I emphasizes once again on
Józef Kazimierz Broel-Plater / PLATER 1796-1852, writer, born 1796 - Kraslaw, died in 1852 - Wilno, married in 1819 to Antonina Soltan 1800-1871, daughter of Benedykt Soltan b. 1770 and Józefa Benislawska b. 1770.

We back to
Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, born ca 1740/1760, the Sluck official, was the legal guardian for Kajetan Kraszewski.

Kajetan Kraszewski b. 1827 in Dolhe, the Pruzany county, d. 1896 in Stary Kuplin, close to Pruzany; Polish writer, musician and astronomer, the father of Boguslaw Kraszewski.
Benislawska MANTEUFFEL-SZOEGE was closest friend to Kajetan.

Bartlomiej Niepokojczycki, send named Kajetan to Nieswiez under Devil alias De Yille; Nieswiez was owned by Karol Radziwill, 'panie kochanku';
in Nieswiez often stayed then
Leon Borowski, Wolodkowicz, maiden Brzostowska; Morawski, Wendorf, Miternowski, Mackiewicz, Czyz, Mogiluicki;
Bartlomiej Niepokójczycki, of Boloczyce, the father of ADAM Niepokojczycki;
and Michal Domanski, who journeyed in 1769 - 1778, with KAROL Radziwill.

Karol Stanislaw Onufry Jan Nepomucen Radziwill 'Panie Kochanku' b. 1734 in Nieswiez; voivode of Wilno from 1762, general lieutenant from 1759, marshal of the Grand Court of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1755;
in 1764, he signed the manifesto, recognizing the convocial session in the presence of Russian troops as illegal.
KAROL Radziwill a great patriot and creator of the anti-Russian opposition fought against the Russians in June - the battle under Slonim, and was forced to go to Woloszczyzna. Then he moved to Dresden, where he found out the news that the Parliament was deprived of his office, and that his estates were seized and confiscated.
In 1768 he fought out a guarantee treaty, because Poland became a Russian protectorate, and he joined in exile to the leaders of the Bar Confederation. In 1770 he was a member and the founder of the Masonic Lodge Wandering Crew in PRESOV / Preszów.
For failing to swear the oaths to Catherine II, after the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the Russians confiscated KAROL Radziwill's Newel, Siebiez in the Polock Province / Governorate, and Kopys and Romanów in Mogilev Governorate.
He returned to Lithuania in 1777, settled in Nieswiez.

Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, lived and acted in Sluck, Nieswiez and in Boloczyce [Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. Bartlomiej was in Sluck in 1763 - 1795.
Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce].
Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI [b. ca 1730/1740] had a son Adam Niepokojczycki [born ca 1760/1780], the Sluck Marshal of nobility;
Adam's son was General ARTUR Niepokojczycki [8 Dec 1813 - d. 11 Nov 1881]!

KAROL RADZIWILL with Lady Morawska were abroad, with a few respected ladies, between whom there was a foster child, without father and mother, Miss Karolina Paszkowska, from the Lanckoronski clan.
Michal Domanski and Miss Karolina Paszkowska were together.

Paszkowski - Radziwill:

Sons of TOMASZ Paszkowski and REGINA: Michal Paszkowski 1st and Jan Paszkowski [born 1742; he was living in Mokrsko in 1742 - the father of General Franciszek Paszkowski and the grandfather of Maria Paszkowska ARMAND from Moscow - see Apolon Konstantynowicz].

Jan Paszkowski [1742-ca 1800] moved home to Ukraine [ca 1776 ?]. Maybe
his brother [cousin ?] was Piotr Paszkowski b. ca 1733 married Elzbieta nee Nietyks,
with son Paszkowski Michal 2nd (born 1761 in Brzesc Litewski - after 1819), Colonel in 1794 in Brzesc Litewski, an official in Oszmiany; studied 1775-1779. In 1789 he bought Zabludow in the Grodno county. The friend of Hieronim Radziwill and of Michal Zaleski, manager [1804] to Dominik Radziwill; Michal Paszkowski was closest to CONSPIRATOR, Karol Prozor in 1812. In 1808-1820 he taken from hands of Radziwill, Naliboki. After 1819 / 1820 no inf.
The Niepokojczycki family was Calvinists.
Under the Radziwills - 1600, Zabludów bought Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun; then his son Krzysztof II Radziwill. He founded in Zabludow and took care of the Calvinist congregation. Dominik Hieronim Radziwill, the owner of ZABLUDOW, m. in 1807 to Izabella Mniszchek, div. Izabella, 2nd voto Demblinska, in 1819 took Zabludów from hands of Michal Paszkowski 2nd - until 1831.

Michal Paszkowski 1st [b. ca 1725/1730] was an official in Malbork, moved in Volhynia, m. Monika Piotrowska of the Chelm area, daughter of Mikolaj and Katarzyna nee Plonski, Piotrowska, with a few children.

Above HIERONIM Radziwill:

Dominik Hieronim Radziwill b. 1786 in Biala Podlaska, d. Nov. 1813 in Lauterecken in Nadrenia-Palatynat; the son of Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill and Zofia Dorota Fryderyka Thurn-Taxis;
Dominik Radziwill was the Freemason.
Colonel Dominik was the owner of Nieswiez and Olyka, Birze, Dubinki, Sluck, Kopyl, Biala. Since 1786 Dominik was under care of Karol Radziwill, and then in 1790 under Adam Czartoryski. Dominik Radziwill inherited the uncle Karol Radziwill.

Above KAROL:
Karol Stanislaw Onufry Jan Nepomucen Radziwill 'Panie Kochanku', died in 1790 in Biala, General Lieutenant in 1759.

Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill married Zofia Dorota Fryderyka Thurn-Taxis. Duke, died in 1786; owned Kleck. The son of Michal Kazimierz Radziwill 'Rybenko' and the father of named Dominik Hieronim Radziwill.

Niepokojczycki Ignacy, maybe was the brother of Adam Niepokojczycki. Inf. on IGNACY, 1780 - 1782.
Also of Niepokojczycki Tadeusz, inf. in 1767 - 1780

[Niepokojczycki Tadeusz, the Bialsk / Bielsk official, inf. in 1787 - 1794, BIALA PODLASKA west to Brzesc Litewski. Grabanów close to Biala Podlaska, 5 km north-east to Biala;
in 1818, Grabanów is already the court property of Adam Niepokojczycki [Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780], the father of GENERAL ARTUR Niepokojczycki.
He had wooden residential building made of oak tree. 1822, Grabanow farm was bought from the Radziwills by Poplawski. Shortly thereafter, these estate passed on to the property of the Grabowski family. Kozula's mill in the Grabanów farm in 1781, belonged to the Radziwills, who had a hunting lodge here - near BIALA PODLASKA].

The father of ARTUR:
Niepokojczycki Adam, of SLUCK, was the secretary of Dominik Radziwill

[Prince Dominik Hieronim Radzivil (1786-1813) was a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman. Compare:

Paszkowski Michal 2nd (born 1761 in Brzesc Litewski - after 1819), Colonel in 1794 in Brzesc Litewski, an official in Oszmiany; studied 1775-1779. In 1789 he bought Zabludow in the Grodno county.
The friend of Hieronim Radziwill and of Michal Zaleski, manager [1804] to above Dominik Radziwill;
Michal Paszkowski was closest to CONSPIRATOR, Karol Prozor in 1812.
In 1808-1820 he taken from hands of Radziwill, Naliboki. After 1819 / 1820 no inf.
The Niepokojczycki family was Calvinists.
Under the Radziwills - 1600, Zabludów bought Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun; then his son Krzysztof II Radziwill. He founded in Zabludow and took care of the Calvinist congregation. Dominik Hieronim Radziwill, the owner of ZABLUDOW, m. in 1807 to Izabella Mniszchek, div. Izabella, 2nd voto Demblinska, in 1819 took Zabludów from hands of Michal Paszkowski 2nd - until 1831].

Dominik Radziwill was the owner of Nesvizh and Olyka and owner of Birzai, Dubingiai, Sluck and Kapyl estates. He took part in Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812 and later died of wounds after the Battle of Hanau. Parents - Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill and Princess Sophie Friederike of Thurn and Taxis.
Prince Hieronim Wincenty Radziwill b. 1759 - died in 1786, was a Polish prince, diplomat, politician and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded in 1780. He was Count of Kleck, Great Cupbearer of Lithuania from 1779 and governor of Minsk.
Parents - Michal Kazimierz "Rybenko" Radziwill + Anna Luiza Mycielska.

Adam Niepokojczycki - inf. in 1805 - 1809.


1841-47 fought in the Caucasus, and Dagestan. He participated in 1849 in Russian intervention in Hungary and the Crimean War of 1853-1856. In 1874 he became a tsar's adjutant. In the war 1877-78 he became the head of the staff of the Danube army.
During the stay of the Tsar on the front, ie until mid-December 1877, he belonged to five people who ruled Russia - but the head of government did not belong to this group.
1853-1856, at the end of this campaign he commanded a staff of naval and land forces in the Crimea. Originally, he was the son of ADAM Niepokojczycki, the County marshal of the gentry in Slutsk.
In 1878 deputies of Artur Niepokojczycki, who was to concentrate on strategic problems, were appointed:
General Kazimierz Lewicki (operational command) and
General Marcin Kuszewski

{maybe his brother was Aleksander Kuszewski b. ca 1830; wife Zofia Linowska, the granddaughter of Jan Antoni Linowski, the Wschowa official, 1736-1801; he comes from Jan Franciszek Linowski b. 1667, d. bef. 1725}.

Both had extensive experience from the Hungarian campaign and the Crimean war. The staff also included Artillery commander Gen. Mikolaj Massalski.

Note 1:
Kosciuszko travelled in 1796 / 1797 from Russia to Sweden with his secretary J. U. Niemcewicz and with cheerful officer, Libiszewski who often had to carry the General;

[Libiszowski / Libiszewski willingly performed this service. In Sweden, Kosciuszko was listening to Libiszewski playing the guitar at his bedside and to a concert organised in his honour by the best musicians; in Philadelphia was a musician in orchestra. He died - still young - of fever in Cuba. In 1892 the Sosnowski manor from Waleria Niepokójczycki, bought Alfons Libiszowski. In Libiszow is the Libiszowski manor, 'Rybakówka'; Libiszow is situated 5 km west of Sosnowica; east of Ostrow Lubelski].

Note 2:
The conspiracy created in May 1793 reached the roots to the Freemasonry organization and of the club of the "Society of Friends of the Constitution of May 3". A part of the Masons stood in a moderate, liberal position - the preservation of the monarchy with King Stanislaw August and the implementation of the Constitution of May 3. Among the moderate activists of the conspiracy found themselves:
Ignacy Dzialynski, Andrzej Kapostas, Michal Kochanowski,
Alexander Linowski,
Stanislaw Woyczynski, Ludwik Gutakowski, Antoni Bazyli Dzieduszycki, Kazimierz Nestor Sapiecha.

Note 3:

GENERAL Artur Niepokojczycki was the grandson of [Bartholomaus / Bartholomew / Bartholomäus von Unruh] Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI

{barons von Unruh changed their family name to Niepokojczycki, acc. to Edward Henry and Lewinski Corwin ed. New York in 1917}.

Originated from the old German clan von Upru = von UNRUH / Unrug

[von Unruh of Koblenz, (Unrug, Unruh, von Unruhe).
The barons von der Baysen changed their family name to Bazenski, the barons von Unruh to Niepokojczycki, the counts von Hutten to Czapski, the von Oppelins to Bronikowski and so along the line. Graf von Unruh: Unruh (Unrug) - came from the owner of Wagrody [Wendstadt], Baron von Unruh, near Baron von Schlichtung, owner Niechlowa [Nechlau].
Wagrody [Silesia] - west to GORA and south-west to LESZNO - see SULKOWSKI.

Hans Siegmund von Unruh (1644-1694) from the Wendtstadt-Linden line is regarded as the founder of the baronial line. His son Johann Wilhelm von Unruh (1668-1728) belonged to the manor Wagroda (Wendstadt, Guhrau) in the Bohemia-Silesia.

In 1641 in Gniezno, Christoph von Unruh

{Christoph von Unruh (1624-1689 in LESZNO !), the official in Gniezno / Gnesen and in Miedzychód - see MIELZYNSKI. The son of GEORG = JERZY Unruh, 1580-1652, the owner of Miedzychod.
He helped protestant religious refugees from Silesia in Miedzychod / Birnbaum, and from all over Germany, who wanted to escape the Thirty Years War. Christoph von Unruh established his seat in the already existing Manor = Gutsbezirk of Lindenstadt / LIPOWIEC at the gates of Birnbaum, but completely rebuilt it. He built a new castle and its own church.
Christoph's son:
Jan Krzysztof Unrug 1660-1687 = Johann Christoph von Unruh was born in 1660, to above Christopherus von Unruh born in 1624, in Birnbaum. Johann had 17 siblings: Jerzy b. 1652-1710; Bogislaw (Boguslaw) von Unruh / Unrug, Alexander von Unruh and 15 other siblings. The branch of Krzysztof von UNRUH moved to Mniszki [south-west to LECZYCA, near Leznica and Chodow], Tuczepy [south to SZYDLOW] and Milostowo [west to Pniewy, south-east to Miedzychod].
Christoph von Unruh traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh (the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705) with Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski.
Anna Zychlinska was the mother of
Christoph IV von Unruh, Count, the official in MIEDZYCHOD (died in 1763) and OBORNIKI, General;
Wladyslaw / Ladislaus von Unruh;
Boguslaw Peter von Unruh, of Miedzychod / Birnbaum (died in 1766; the father of Georg Boguslaus "Boguslaw " von Unruh d. 1779);
Konstantin von Unruh, Count

(Konstantin Reichsgraf von Unruh born 1689, died 1763 - diplomat of Saxony. Konstantin von Unruh served as a Saxon resident in Gdansk (1738-1750) and the Polish General Commissioner there in 1736-1750. He had taken a wife from the Gdansk patriciate and settled there. His nephew Bogislaw / Boguslaw inherited the Birnbaum - Miedzychod estates in 1763, but in 1779 bequeathed to his son Stephan Peter UNRUH);

and Eleonore von Unruh.
But Christoph von Unruh fell ill and died there on January 29, 1689. His body was transferred to Miedzychód and buried there in the cemetery of the Protestant church}.

Baron Johann Wilhelm von Unruh, found himself in 1711 as a member of the Red Eagle Order. The estate Wagroda (Wendstadt, Kreis Guhrau) is situated in the county of Góra. His descendants settled in GORA and moved to the Great Poland in the early 19th century and became permanently polonized. Alfons Wladyslaw von Unruh, a merchant from Poznan, was awarded the title of Baron on 2 June 1902. Another branch came to East Prussia. Also in 1770 in Lehsewitz / Lasowice close to Lubin],

who moved to Poland in the village of Nepokoychitsa close to Brzesc.

Unrug family came to Poland very long ago, because in 1579 from Thuringia and settled in Silesia. Initially, they called themselves Unruh, they received from the Polish King Zygmunt II August the "right of homeland", that is citizenship of the country [in Poland in 1594]. CHRISTOPH VON UNRUH (1550-1622) bought MIEDZYCHOD.

This is a branch of Tadeusz Gustaw Unrug, born in 1834 - died in 1907, in the Sielec estate near Znin, Major General of the Prussian Guard. Tadeusz came from a Polish Calvinist family derived from count Jerzy Unrug / UNRUH, the official in Gniezno
{Christoph von Unruh was in Gniezno in 1641, and traveled to Leszno in 1689 to celebrate the marriage of his son Boguslaw von Unruh. BOGUSLAW was the official in GNIEZNO, died in 1725 - Polish royal deputy at the Prussian court in 1704-1705. Boguslaw married to Anna Constantia Ludovica von Zychlinska, the daughter of Piotr Zychlinski}
and JERZY was the founder of the city of Kargowa in 1641, then called "Unrugov".

Tadeusz UNRUH was the son of Henryk Kajetan Unrug

(Henryk Kajetan = Kajetan Unruh died 1884 - Henryk was the son of Fryderyk Sebastian Unrug 1734 - 1802 {Unruh sold Miedzychod in 1785 to Adam MIELECKI}; grandson of Aleksander Unrug / von Unruh, 1704 - 1773

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof who bought Trzciel and Wytomysl. Aleksander Unruh bought Kobylka in 1772 from hands of Duke August Sulkowski, who had this estate after August Poniatowski. Kobylka is situated close to Wolomin. Here was a mint};

the great-grandson of Georg Sebastian von Unruh = JERZY Unruh, ca 1666 - 1723

{JERZY bought Kargowa; Jerzy born ca 1666, had a brother Christian von Unruh = Christoph von Unruh, auf Pieske born 1666, d. 1723, the owner of Pieski / Pieske near Miedzychod, and Nowy Gorzyck = Nowe Gorzycko. Christoph was the father of Sophie Catharina von Unruh, and Urszula Marianna Brudzewska};

the great-great-grandson of Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628

{Aleksander had a brother Krzysztof founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689, the official in WALCZ and in GNIEZNO; Krzysztof had a son Jerzy 1652-1710, the official in POZNAN and WALCZ})

and his wife Anna Kurnatowski (died 1884). In the 1850s [or in 1849], Tadeusz and some of his siblings converted to Catholicism. In a marriage with the Saxon countess Izydora von Bunau (1851-1923) he had two sons, including Vice-Admiral Józef Unrug. Tadeusz after 1870 settled near Znin, died in 1907.

Aleksander von Unruh, auf Bauchwitz born in 1628, had a brother Krzysztof - the founder of KARGOWA, b. 1624, d. 1689.
The son of named Aleksander:
the grandson
the great-grandson
the great-great-grandson HENRYK KAJETAN MAURYCY UNRUG (1791-1849), the owner of Szolow, Dzieczyn and Skrzydlew, had 8 children.

Heinrich Kajetan von Unruh, passed in 1849 on Catholicism [his son Józef Bartlomiej Unrug / Józef Baltazar Unrug, b. 1825]. He also changed the spelling of his last name from Unruh to Unrug. Two of his sons died in the uprisings in April 1848 near Miloslaw in the Wrzesnia district. He fought against Prussia. Kazimierz, the second son, died in May 1863 in the January Uprising. He fought against the Russians.

Kossak Wojciech (1856-1942), a painter artist, send a letter to General Stanislaw Puchalski in the case of Zygmunt Unrug vel Kajetan Niepokojczycki in Russian captivity, dated Cracow in 1916. Stanislaw Puchalski (1867-1931), was the then commander of the Polish Legions. Refers to Zygmunt Unrug (1857-1935), brother-in-law of the artist under the name Zygmunt Niepokojczycki in Russian captivity.
Pawel Segneri (1624-1694), Italian Jesuit, and writer in Cologne, 1694; the Polish translation of Segneri by Krzysztof Niepokojczycki appeared in 1759 in Lviv.
Kazimierz Zlotnicki, m. Zofia Leonowa Niepokojczycka, d. bef. 1723. That is Leon Niepokojczycki born ca 1640 ?

Niepokójczycki Mikolaj (born in 1883 - died after 1914), born in Minsk.

Liudvikas Abramavicius Niepokójczycki (1879-1939) was a Polish activist in Kharkiv. Ludwik Abramowicz-Niepokójczycki was editor of 'Przeglad Wilenski'.

General Nepokoichitskiy Artur Adamovich / Artur Adamovich Nepokoichitsky b. 8 Dec 1813, d. 11 Nov 1881. Burial at the Volkovskoye Lutheran Cemetery in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Note 4:
NIEPOKOJCZYCKI Benedykt Wilhelm (1796-1865), President of the Bank of Poland; b. in Szlowiany, in the Wilkomierz county, died in 1865 - Drezno. His mother Scholastyka Kuszelewska, born 1770, died in 1829 + Stanislaw Niepokojczycki, b. ca 1760

[Kazimiera Niepokojczycka and Franciszka Niepokojczycka were the daughters of Scholastyka Kuszelewska Niepokoyczycki / Niepokojczycka, and they had a court case in Wilno about a landed property in Stlowiany and Stefance, Elminiki and Putwiszki, belonged to the Radziwills, in the Wilkomierz county; the court case was after the death of Józef Kuszelewski, the Marshal of Wilkomirz; with Antoni Domeyko of the Kowno county in Gierkance].

Benedykt's brother was Wincenty Niepokojczycki b. ca 1800. They lived together in WILKOMIERZ in 1829 and in 1852.
Stanislaw Niepokojczycki, born ca 1765/1770, had a brother Adam Niepokojczycki born ca 1760/1780.

Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, acted in Sluck, Nieswiez and in Boloczyce [Niepokójczycki Bartlomiej, the Sluck official, was the grandfather of General Artur Niepokojczycki. He acted in Sluck in 1763 - 1795. Niepokojczycki Bartlomiej owned Boloczyce close to SLUCK].

Bartlomiej NIEPOKOJCZYCKI had a son Adam, the Sluck Marshal of nobility; Adam's son was General ARTUR Niepokojczycki!

Wincenty Niepokojczycki b. ca 1800, had a son born 1829, and grandaughter Józefa Niepokojczycka 1857-1925 + Tadeusz Chelminski 1852-1901. Tadeusz had a daughter Felicja Chelminska 1887-1943 + Marian Antoni Andrzej Chrapowicki 1864-1930. MARIAN Chrapowicki was the grandson of Eustachy Chrapowicki b. ca 1790; Amelia Gorska 1793-1866; and Dorota Szadurska b. 1810.
MARIAN Chrapowicki was the great-grandson of Józef Chrapowicki 1750-1812; Stanislaw August Gorski and of Franciszek Ksawery Szadurski b. 1764; Pss Magdalena Oginska; Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1767-1796 and of Franciszka Felkerzamb.
Anna Niemirowicz had a half-sister Dorota 1780-1813 + Mikolaj Siestrzanek-Karnicki and Dorota had a daughter Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka 1811-1883 + Konstanty Mikolaj Radziwill 1793-1869,
who was the
grandson of Leon Michal Radziwill 1722-1751 and the great-grandson of
Michal Antoni Radziwill (1687-1721). Michal Antoni + Marcjana had a daughter Izabela (1711-1761) / Izabella Katarzyna Radziwill married Tadeusz Franciszek Oginski.

Kazimierz Lewicki (1835-1891),
the Russian General, Pole. An educator of the cadet corps in Polock. 1855 served the Guard. Participated in Crimean War 1853-56. In 1859, he finished Academy and started serving the staff of the Guards and then in the Siberian District. 1870 professor; in 1874, the tsar's adjutant and chief of staff of the guard. In the war 1877-78, replaced Artur Niepokojczycki; after the war, he becomes an inspector of cavalry and 1885-88 commander a Cavalry Division.

Duke Mikolaj Massalski (1812-1880), the Russian General;
Pole. He graduated from the Military Academy in St. Petersburg. In the army from 1832 and fights at Caucasus. In 1839 in Persia, 1855 commander of the Finnish artillery, 1865-67 he is in the Polish Kingdom, later the commander of the Siberian District. In the war 1877-78 he became commander of the Danube army artillery. From 1879, a member of the State Council.

Walerian Derozynski (1826-1877), the Russian General; Pole.
In the army from 1845, then the end of Academy; Russian intervention in Hungary 1849 and Crimean War 1853-56. From 1857, the Division chief of staff; he fights in the war of 1877-78, at the Battle of Szypka together with
General Marcin Kuszewski, deputy Chief of Staff of the Danube army;
Colonel Aleksander Lipinski;
Colonel Bieniecki.

Artur Niepokojczycki during the Tsar's stay on the front, ie until mid-December 1877, he belonged to five people who were ruled of Russia.

9 Infantry Division - General Duke Swiatopolk Mirski / Swiatopelk.

11 Corps - Duke General Schachowskoi ie Aleksy Szachowski.

The ARMAND family from Moscow [+ General Franciszek Paszkowski] and the French roots of the Konstantynowicz family [Anna Armand Konstantynowicz and Inessa Armand - Lenin Uljanov] - Prometheism / PROMETHEISM of Poles in Russia, 1877/1878 - 1904:

Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia in 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow), the daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution.
Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica, b. 1767, the daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand in 1791. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably).
The 29 year-old General Paul Armand, in 1791 [Jean-Louis Armand in 1799], came from Paris to Russia in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay [see below].
He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine in 1791.
After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, in 1792/1793, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then, after 1815, the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.

Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demontet family ran in Moscow and in KAZAN a sales of these French wines.

When Paul Armand married [ca 1783 / 1785], he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand in MOSCOW, was trading house of DEMONSI / Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.

Mentioned above
Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage [ca 1806] to Elizabeth Osipovna (1786 / 1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny / EUGENIUSZ ARMAND, born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker [compare HACKER in the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company].

In 1811 in Moscow lived:

Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1786 / 1787,
and his son Louis-Jean ARMAND, b. 1807 / 1808, French nation;
his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787/1788 and
the daughter Elizabeth b. 1807.
Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived (again?) to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica, the daughter of Charles, was born 1767.

Louis-Jean ARMAND, b. 1807 / 1808.

Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia in 1799.

Yevgeny Armand born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow.

Paul was killed and Paul's son, Jean - Ivan [= Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1786 / 1787], started a wine-import business [in 1799 in Russia - but in Moscow in 1808].
But it was Ivan's son, the first
Eugene [= Yevgeny / EUGENIUSZ ARMAND, born in 1809], who founded the Armand fortunes.

Note to Marquis de Courtenay in Russia in 1791:

The last male member of the French Courtenays died in 1733 [the last male member of the French Courtenays committed suicide in 1727], but his niece married the Marquis de Bauffremont, and her descendants assumed the title of "Prince de Courtenay".
However the marquis de Beauffremont [Louis de Bauffremont (1712-1769)] was made in 1757 Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and this title was recognised in France.

Above LOUIS had a brother - Prince Joseph of Bauffremont (1714-1781) who married in 1762 to Princess Louise Benigne Marie Octavie Francoise Jacqueline Laurence of Bauffremont / Princesse de Bauffremont-Courtenay [b. ca 1745 ?] 1750-1803.

JOSEPH's son -
Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont-Courtenay, [maybe he was born before 1773 !] b. 1773, died in 1833, married in 1787 [in 1787, San Ildefonso, Province de Segovie, Castille et Leon, Espagne] to Marie-Antoinette Rosalie Pauline of Quelen de La Vauguyon (1771-1847), the daughter of Paul François of Quelen de Stuer de Caussade, second duke of La Vauguyon, prince of Carency, and Marie Antoinette Rosalie de Pons de Roquefort.

Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont - Courtenay (1773-1833), son of JOSEPH [not of Louis] served under the Bourbons.
He fled France during the French Revolution and emigrated in Koblenz, then Alexandre was in Russia in 1791, he entered the rank of a colonel in Spain, served in the campaigns of 1793 and 1794 as captain of the cavalry in the service of France.
He settled in the United States [in 1794 ?].
He later returned to France [compare General Tadeusz Kosciuszko] and was made a Count of the French Empire by Napoleon in 1810. Louis XVIII made him a peer of France in 1815 and in 1817, and duke in 1818.
Alexandre Emanuel Louis de Bauffremont, marquis de Listenois had 2 sons:
Alphonse (1792-1860), 2nd Duke of Bauffremont;
Theodore (1793-1852).

Brief note on Courtenay in England:

John Courtenay Throckmorton (1753/1754-1819), fifth baronet of Coughton, county Warwick (1791).
William Paston married Mary Courtenay, daughter of mentioned John Courtenay.
Above Sir John-Courtenay, 5th bart., was commemorated as being "a ban vivant", and he was baronet after Christopher Hewetson. John was the son of George Throckmorton SENIOR, and Anna Maria

[= Anne Maria Paston b. ca 1730, was the daughter of William Paston and Mary Courtenay. Mary Courtenay b. ca 1705, was the daughter of John Courtenay. John Courtenay b. ca 1670, lived at Molland, Devon, England
(Molland-Bottreaux; in 1703 of Molland-Champson. The Courtenay family in West Molland in 1467 - 1489 - 1733 - 1863)].

Husband of Maria Katherine Giffard. Brother of Sir George Throckmorton, 6th Baronet, JUNIOR; Sir Charles Throckmorton, 7th Baronet; William Throckmorton; Robert Throckmorton and Teresa Metcalf.
Sir George "6th Baronet Throckmorton of Coughton" Courtenay-Throckmorton, JUNIOR, formerly Throckmorton. Born on 25 Sep 1754 in Warwick, England.

Now on the Konstantynowiczs - HURKO and PROMETHEISM in 1877/1878:

Prometheism - in 1904 Jozef Pilsudski announced the division of Russia into component parts, and giving independence to countries that were strongly incorporated into Russian Empire.
The name Prometheism was described in the years 1924-1926 from the inspiration of Tadeusz Schaetzel and Tadeusz Holowko.

Georgians researcher from France and the state of Washington in the USA, Georges Mamoulia writes that the creator of the word Prometheism was HAJDAR Bammat - inf. 2009.
Wlodzimierz Baczkowski writes in 1984, on the name Prometheism is associated with the Prometheus League and followers of Józef Pilsudski.

Charaszkiewicz writes that the idea of Prometheism appeared in the Memorandum of Jozef Pilsudski to the government of Japan in 1904
[see Sieroszewski and Azbelev - the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - in JAPAN. Breguet and Nobel around the Konstantynowiczs].

Roman Knoll in Ankara in 1924-1925 devoted his efforts to implementing the idea of Prometheism.

In the definition of the Promethean movement, it should be specified that it is not synonymous with the term Promethean thought. It is the close cooperation of the representatives of enslaved nations with "Polish factors" aimed at bringing the independence of these countries.
On the other hand, the Promethean thought from 1877/1878 is a much broader concept, it is understood as the idea of dismembering the Russian Empire based on the unified movement of nations enslaved by Russia.

Already in the years 1877-1878, Polish officers in the headquarters led the Russian Army in the Balkans, and they met with the problems of Russian imperialism and the problems of small nations in Transcaucasia and the Balkans.
In 1877 in order to overcome the ridges of the Balkans, the General JOZEF HURKO / Josif Hurko (about 12000 soldiers) was appointed as commander.

General Jozef Hurko / Iosif Vladimirovich Hurko (Gurko) born in July 1828, in Veliky Novgorod or in the village of Burnejko in Mogilev Governorate; died 1901 in the village Sakharov in the Tver Governorate; Russian field marshal.
He came from a Polish-Belarusian noble family, the son of General Vladimir Iosifowicz Hurka (1795-1852) and Tatiana Aleksandrowna, baroness Korff;
the grandson of Polish nobleman Józef Hurko-Romejko, junior, died in 1811.

General Jozef Hurko born in 1828, was a student in 1846; participant of the Crimean War (1853-1856). Then a commander of the 2nd Division of the Guard.
In the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), he was commanding the Division from June 1877, he made a march - maneuver for the Balkans (commanded by Aleksandr Puzyriewski), for which he was promoted to general-adjutant.
Mentioned above
Józef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR died in 1811, the son of Jozef Hurko Romejko, senior, Polish nobleman and state activist of the Russian Empire, the first vice-governor of the Kurland Governorate after 1795/1796.
He came from a noble family from the Polish province of Vitebsk. He was born ca 1750/1760. He served the army as Petyhorski's lieutenant before 1796.
Recommended by the general-governor of Kurland, Peter Ludwig von Pahlen, on the newly created position of vice-governor of the Kurland Governorate. The nomination was issued by Tsarina Catherine II.
In addition to the estates in the Courland province, Jozef Hurko-Romejko, junior, also owned estates in the Mogilev Governorate, in the Orsza county.
That is
Krynki = Krotowsza or neighbouring Krotowsze / KROTOVSHE;
Wysokie Łuszajewo;

He died in 1811.

Krynki was situated in the Wysoczany district; the ORSHA county in the Mohylew province.
Kratowsza, in 1849 belonged to the Mikulino Rudnia parish.
Wysokie Łuszajewo = Wysokie / Vysokoje - north to ORSHA; close to Obuchovo; Grishany; Jurcevo.

Burnejko in the Mohylew province.

General Jozef Hurko owned in 1901 Sacharowo in the TWER province [compare inf. in my domain].

KRYNKI, south-east to KOPTI; west to Bolszaja WYDREJA; south-east to VICEBSK; north to Vyshacany. See KOLPINO - west to OSIPOVO; close to LUCHOSA.

BABINOWICZE / Babinavichy - in the 17th and 18th cent. belonged to OGINSKI. 1772 to Russia. Babinowicze, the Orsza county; by the Werchita River. Бабінавічы / Babinowicze in the ORSHA county - Babinowicze - south to Liozno, of the Vitebsk region of Belarus. North to ORSHA.

Józef Hurko-Romejko JUNIOR b. ca 1750/1760, was the son of SENIOR Jozef Hurko / JOZEF HURKO - ROMEJKO, born ca 1710 - in 1759-1780 the Vitebsk chamberlain.
Jozef Hurko / Gurko, senior, was maybe the son of JAN HURKO, born ca 1680 from KROTOWSZE-KRYNKI.

Christina Golynskaya (Krystyna Holynska) was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski. She gave her estate in will to her brother Kazimierz HOLYNSKI, and to her sister Frantiska.
In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of Jesuits.
Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms, born ca 1670 - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was the first husband of KRYSTYNA HOLYNSKA; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko born ca 1680 of Krotowsze-Krynki) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714.

Acc. to 'Secret Memoirs of the Court of Petersburg...' Zachary Konstantynowicz / Constantinowitz in 1796 was a valet (servant) of Yekaterina Alexeevna or Catherine II the Great, Empress of Russia.

Stephen (Stefan) Golynsky (Stefan Kazimierz Holynski born ca 1630/1640) was the third son of Davyd / Dawid Holynski, owned the estate Soin (Soino, Soino Wielkie, Woronowe Slobody).
In 1663 Golynsky / Holynski mentioned, Mayor Zhmudsky, served in the regiment of Ilya Surin (mother of Stepan Holynski was kind of Surin ancestry).

On January 31, 1664 a priest of the Mstislavl Church, Herman Konstantynowicz filed a complaint against Paul Moskevich and Stephen Golynsky / Stefan Holynski for armed mob to his house, for loot his grain bread and torturing her daughters
(a data extracted from the Vitebsk and Mogilev documentary province books, stored in a central repository in Vitebsk, and published under the editorship of M. Verevkin, T. 24, Vitebsk 1893, p. 455-457).

Christina Golynskaya
(Krystyna Holynska born ca 1680)
was the third daughter of Stephen Holynski / STEFAN HOLYNSKI born 1630/1640. She gave her estate in will to her brother Kazimierz and to her sister Frantiska. In 1718, she sold the Chodun estate in the hands of the Order of Jesuits. Frantisek Rogosa / Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms - but not the Srzhenyava (Szreniawa) arms - was her first husband; the second husband: Jan Gurko (Jan Hurko born ca 1680) was the Vitebsk province clerk and was mentioned in 1714
(I think that the above error about the Rohoza nickname arose from confusion between this nickname and surname Rahoza; for example Michał Rahoza with the Szreniawa coat of arms from Kiev in 1579).

Józef HURKO JUNIOR, had 2 sons:
Leopold Hurko (1783-1860) the Russian Major General;
Włodzimierz Hurko (1795-1852) the Russian General; and the daughter
Ewelina (d. 1821 in ROMA) - the wife of Tadeusz Niemirowicz-Szczytt, the POLOCK official (1778-1840), the son of Justynian Niemirowicz.

Włodzimierz [1795-1852], had a son {the grandson of Józef HURKO [died in 1811]} the Russian Field Marshal and the Warsaw governor, Józef Władimirowicz Hurko / Romeiko-Gourko / Иосиф Владимирович Гурко (1828-1901).

Zenaida Lubomirska nee Hołyńska, b. 1820 in Rowne / Rivne, was daughter of Michał Hołyński and Elżbieta Tolstoj; wife of Kazimierz Anastazy Karol Lubomirski
with children:
Stanisław Michał Henryk Michał Henryk Lubomirski [1838-1918],
and Marie Lannes de Montebello.

Above Michał Hołyński / Михаил Иванович Голынский, b. 1784, was son of Jan (Ivan) Hołyński and Barbara KASZYC.

Above Jan (Ivan) Hołyński b. 1746, was son of Józef Antoni Tadeusz Hołyński and Petronela ZUKOWSKA.

Above Józef Antoni Hołyński / Juozas Antanas Holinskis of the MSCISLAU province of POLAND, born ca 1720/1730, was son of Kazimierz Hołyński b. ca 1670, and Teofila MOSKIEWICZ.

Kazimierz Hołyński b. ca 1670 - the son of Stefan Kazimierz Hołyński and Izabela Ostankiewicz.

KAZIMIERZ of the MSCISLAU province was brother of
Franciszka Holynska born ca 1665;
Teofila Wojna;
Jan Michał Hołyński;
Krystyna Romeyko-Hurko - Konstantynowicz born ca 1680;
Jakub Hołyński;
and Barbara Romeyko-Hurko.

Note to above mentioned KAZIMIERZ Holynski b. ca 1670:

Franciszek Rohoza Konstantynowicz b. ca 1670/1680, near of kin with Holynski family from Soino (either Big Soino or Voronove Slobody near by a farm of Mielkovka = Mietkowka), and his siblings, and Hurko family also (from Krotowsza otherwise called Krynki or Krotovshe that belonged to Romejko - Hurko family in the Orsa district / JAN HURKO born ca 1670) were in trouble with Holynski

(Kazimierz Holynski born ca 1670, the son of Stefan Kazimierz Holynski from Chlyszczewo i.e. Chwostowo close by border between Belarus and Russia, from Soino and Uszpol, born ca 1630/1640)

family after 1714.

The above Soino is situated 18 km east away from Mscislau, at territory of Russia now i.e. 7 km from present border; it was the Grand duchy of Lithuania 1359 - 1772 and next in Russia: the Mstislavl district, Soino region = "volost" that is similar to county, in a parish of Mscislau (archbishopric of Mahileu, in the Mscislau - Klimavicy catholic area were three parishes: Lozovica, Mscislau and Smolensk in the 19th cent.);
one our leg lived in the territory of present Belarus, but the second one stood at the present land of Russia in borders after 1992.

A fortunes of Poles in this remote easterly territories of the former Both Nations Republic turned out differently than by Vistula, because not a few Poles had got to choose military service in the Russian Army since the end of the 18th cent. [see 1877/1878] or they worked as engineers in different corners of former Russia since second half of the 19th century.