COPYRIGHT BY BOGDAN KONSTANTYNOWICZ

May the 09th, 2015

Mayer Amschel Rothschild - 1769 in Hessen-Kassel - the Illuminati, 1776. The Knights Templar in 1742 / 1743 in Paris and in 1745 / 1791, Scotland - and The Order of Mark Master Masons, 1769.

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Rewolucja Lenina 1917 - niepodleglosc Polski 1918.

Lista teorii konspiracyjnych - najwieksze teorie konspiracyjne w historii.

Masoneria. Rosyjski wywiad wojskowy.

Lenin's Revolution 1917 - Polish independence in 1918. List of conspiracy theories - the largest of conspiracy theories in the history. Freemasonry. Russian military intelligence.

And now let's see how my genealogical research began, and not only those - in 1987 - and how it connects to the Artusov / Артур Христианович Артузов / Фраучи and Vernadsky! This short preface to my domain was formed 19 and on 20th April 2015, but its extensive fragments are also to read in the so-called 'Part 2 - Intelligence...'. So I invite you to read how somebody can create an history image omitting the historical facts...

"...The Trust's young mastermind, A. H. Artuzov / Артур Христианович Артузов (Фраучи), in his thirties at the peak of the operation, was a cousin of Potapov. Originally named Renucci or Fraucci, Artuzov is said by most sources to have returned to Russia from Genoa only on the eve of the Revolution, while the Soviets' fictionalized biography of Artuzov acknowledges that he was of Italo-Swiss ancestry. When Potapov was the Trust's emissary to Western Europe in the 1920s, he supposedly fooled the Russian aristocrats abroad into believing he was the representative of an anti-Bolshevik underground. Yet, as emigre chronicler of the Trust S. L. Voitsekhovsky had to admit, it was incomprehensible, how his contemporaries, his former superiors and colleagues, could have believed in the sincerity of his monarchical views. ... The Trust of the spies and provocateurs, as the above shows, turns out to be a microcosm of a much bigger East­West complex, whose strategic outlook was best stated by the infamous Toynbee in 1974. ... Cheka chief Dzerzhinsky wore another hat, as chairman of the Supreme Council for the National Economy, which allowed him to deal directly with the Western members of this larger Trust...".
Copyright of above quotation:
EIR Volume 15, Number 3, January 15, 1988; © 1988 EIR News Service Inc., All Rights Reserved. A Fresh Look at the February Revolution. New KGB skirts history lessons... by Aleln and Rachel Douglas.
"John Dziak leads the IASC's work on technology security, strategic denial and deception and countermeasures. He has served over three decades as a senior intelligence officer and an executive in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and in the Defense Intelligence Agency, with long experience in weapons proliferation intelligence, counterintelligence, strategic intelligence, global countermeasures and intelligence education. He is the author of the award-winning, Chekisty: A History of the KGB (1987), numerous other books, articles, and monographs, the most recent of: which is The Military Relationship Between China and Russia, 1995-2002 (2002), and is currently preparing a book on counterintelligence. Dr. Dziak is fluent in Russian. Dr. Dziak is co-founder and President of Dziak Group, Inc., a consulting firm in the fields of technology transfer, intelligence, counterintelligence and security, and national security affairs with clients in industry and the Intelligence Community. Dr. Dziak is an Adjunct Professor at the National Defense Intelligence College".

The Dziak family came from Slovakia:
Ortutova in 1921, George Dziak to Cleveland, OH; Maria Dziak (Zavidny) of Lipova; in Lipova in 1901 Andrew Dziak to Marblehead, OH; Ortutova, Slovensko, east of Bardejov. Helen Dziak 1854-03-10 of Lipova; Stefan Dziak; Dziak, John 1866-02-17 of Ortutova; Peter Dziak; Dziak, John 1888-08-09 of Sasova / Šašova; see: Charles Dziak b. ca 1900 / 1906. His wife Susan Dziak (nee Madansky). Lipova, Ortutova and Sasova are located east of Bardejov, northern Slovakia. Dr. John J. Dziak is co-founder and President of Dziak Group, Inc., a consulting firm in the fields of technology transfer, intelligence, counterintelligence and security, and national security affairs with clients in industry and the Intelligence Community in USA. Please remember about: John W. Dziak, Sr, of Lorain, died 2014 in Lorain; he was born in 1927 in Lorain; John served with the US Army from 1945-1947; worked for the Illuminating Company; member of the American Slovak Club, First Catholic Slovak Union; his wife Frances nee Keplar; children Robert, Barbara (Dennis) Goza of Cheboygan, Beverly (William) Allsop of Vermilion, Joan, John (Kathy) Dziak, Jr of Lorain, and so on; from Slovakia!

But
"... A. H. Artuzov, in his thirties at the peak of the operation, was a cousin of Potapov. Originally named Renucci or Fraucci, Artuzov is said by most sources to have it returned Russia from Genoa only on the eve of the Revolution, while the Soviet's fictionalized biography of Artuzov acknowledges that he was of Italo - Swiss ancestry. When Potapov was the Trust's emissary is Western Europe in the 1920s, he supposedly the Russian aristocrats fooled into believing abroad he was the representative of an anti-Bolshevik underground".
In this quotation, however, is a mistake. Characteristic that appeared to it in the years 1987 and 1988.
Recently in 1987, I started by solving puzzles and political genealogy around my Konstantynowicz family in Poland and Russia.
In the first period October 1987 - September 1989 I recognized the immediate environment of our family Konstantynowicz, maybe 200 people; unfortunately it 'coincided' with the death of my father on November 3, 1987; buried 09 November 1987.
In principle, all these people were associated with the Warsaw special services, mainly with counter-intelligence of the security services (by the way, like in the whole period 1972 - 2015 [since 2005 with cooperation of Slovakia and Romania; at present even the structure derived from the famous Humer alias Umer from Tomaszów Lubelski - Gliwice, with connection to ... Tirana, Thessaloniki, Tbilisi...]); the locations of these people in society clearly suggested further direction of my historical research.
Not counting other important family events on 28 October 1987 and 1 November 1987 - and finally, on November 2, 1987 I attempted to obtain from my father the most important data about our family.

Curiosity!
The webpage 'Executive Intelligence Review www.larouchepub.com/.../eirv15n03-1988011' was founded on 21 November 1987, but EIR, Executive Intelligence Review, was ed. on January 15, 1988, vol. 15, No 3. EIR: Founder and Contributing Editor: Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. and Editor-in-chief: Criton Zoakos
(Criton M. Zoakos is President of Leto Research, Inc., an economic research and consulting firm in Ft. Lee, NJ. Formerly, he was a columnist for the Asia Times. Earlier, he worked with Norman A. Bailey, Inc. of Washington, D.C., a firm headed by Dr. Bailey, formerly the President Reagan's Special Assistant for International Economic Affairs at the National Security Council. Dr. Norman Bailey, a native of Chicago, Illinois; Dr. Bailey in 1981, joined the Reagan administration as Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and Senior Director of International Economic Affairs on the staff of the National Security Council in the White House),
Editor: Nora Hamerman.

EIR is published by New Solidarity International Press Service.
Executive Intelligence Review is a newsmagazine founded in 1974 by the American political activist Lyndon LaRouche.
The article "New KGB history skirts lessons of the...", by Aleln and Rachel Douglas, is about "A History of the KGB" by John J. Dziak, Lexington Books, edited on October 1, 1987, 234 pages.
'Chekisty: The KGB...' was ed. the first by 'Free Press' on 28 September 1987, and then
'Los Angeles Times', on November 22, 1987 by Michael Krepon about 'CHEKISTY: A HISTORY OF THE KGB' inf.: "The Soviet state security apparatus has a wide-ranging portfolio, including internal security, foreign espionage, kidnaping, assassination, and control over nuclear weapons. Many of the sordid details are provided in John J. Dziak's short history of the KGB, 'Chekisty'."
And again 'Chekisty: The KGB...' was ed. by 'Free Press' on 01 January 1988.

The Lexington Books edited this book on 01st October 1987, but second publisher 'Ballantine Books' ed. on October 31, 1988.

AP published on March 18, 1988 in BOSTON, that on

March 17, 1988 "Lawyers for Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr. introduced today three letters between Henry A. Kissinger and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and said they were evidence of a Government effort to harass Mr. LaRouche. A Government prosecutor said later that he might put Mr. Kissinger on the stand to rebut the harassment charge. ... Today's developments came in a months-long Federal trial of Mr. LaRouche, a political extremist who, along with six of his aides and five of his organizations, is charged with conspiring to obstruct a grand jury investigation of credit card and loan fraud attributed to his 1984 Presidential campaign. Among the letters introduced today was one written in August 1982 by Mr. Kissinger to William H. Webster, who was then the F.B.I. Director and is now Director of Central Intelligence. ... Oliver Revell, the F.B.I.'s executive assistant director, responded with two letters saying that the bureau would investigate Mr. Kissinger's complaint and that there appeared to be some evidence of illegal telephone use by LaRouche supporters to harass him. John Markham, an assistant United States attorney, told Federal District Judge, Robert Keeton, that he might call Mr. Kissinger as a witness after the testimony of a former LaRouche aide scheduled to appear Friday. ... Mr. LaRouche contends he has been the target of a 20-year Government vendetta that climaxed in 1984 because of his outspoken criticism of the Administration's efforts to aid the rebels in Nicaragua...".

(Some on Lyndon LaRouche:

"...an internationally known economist, and his exceptional successes as a long-range forecaster, are the outgrowths of his original discoveries of physical principle, dating from a project conducted during the 1948-1952 interval".

Acc. to http://www.larouchepub.com/larouche_biography.
"In his subsequent search for a metrical standard for this treatment of the functional role of cognition, he adopted the Leibniz-Gauss-Riemann standpoint, as represented by Bernhard Riemann's 1854 habilitation dissertation. Hence, the employment of Riemannian conceptions to LaRouche's own discoveries became known as the LaRouche-Riemann Method. That work was further enriched by his study of the Riemannian biogeophysicist Vladimir Vernadsky, whose concepts play a major role in LaRouche's scientific work".

At https://larouchepac.com/vernadsky we read: "Throughout the work of Ukrainian-Russian [Pole!] biogeochemist Vladimir Vernadsky, we find a powerful argument for why processes on Earth, and in the Universe, are organized according to a top-down principle of life, and, even higher, human cognition. This is a concept found throughout the writings and speeches of economist Lyndon LaRouche, who has often referenced the work of Vernadsky".

Vernadsky's life's work ended up culminating in a similar investigation, of the unique distinction of man from animal, something Vernadsky approached from the standpoint of a biogeochemist. Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky wrote 'Revolutionary Theory of the Biosphere and the Noosphere'.
Irina Trubetskova of the Department of Natural Resources, University of New Hampshire: After years of silence, the West finally started to discover and scientifically recognize a prominent Russian researcher, organizer of science, educator, public figure, person of encyclopedic knowledge, philosopher, and thinker - Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky, a genius that belongs to all of humanity.

GRANDPARENTS of Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr., among others:
Ella Stevens Lougee, b. Lynn, Mass., 1869;
George Weir, b. Bridgeton, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland, in 1860, emigrated to US in 1863, lived in 1920 in Perry Co., Ohio;
George Weir married Martha H. Wood, daughter of Daniel Heveland Wood Jr. and Caroline Almira Starr, in 1890.
The WEIRs come of Bridgeton and Hamilton.

История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Wernadski, Modzelewski and Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz family in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia.

At http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/cult/larouche
informed by By John Mintz from Washington Post, on January 14, 1985:
It was January 1974, and Lyndon H. LaRouche Jr., the leader of a left-wing sect, was telling his followers why they had to believe his story that one of them had been brainwashed by the Soviet secret police. ... The story of how Lyndon LaRouche transformed himself from Marxist theoretician to red-white-and-blue conservative in 10 years is a tale of a political chameleon. ... He has taken with him on his ideological journey a worldwide organization that follows his every instruction and mimics his every political twist and turn, according to interviews with former LaRouche associates and experts on the group, as well as the group's internal documents. ... his organization, known as the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC), according to interviews with former NCLC members, others familiar with its activities, published reports and an examination of the group's internal documents, some of which were filed in a recent libel suit in Alexandria. ... A top associate, Nancy Spannaus ... LaRouche associates point to the Schiller Institute's sometimes large conferences as evidence that his followers do not constitute a cult. ... Paul Goldstein, a top LaRouche aide, said descriptions of the group as a cult come from former members who "have gotten burned out because of the pressure" of outsiders' attacks.
Another source: Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort by Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, New York: Guilford Press, 2000: ...Though often dismissed as a bizarre political cult, the LaRouche organization and its various front groups are a fascist movement whose pronouncements echo elements of Nazi ideology. Beginning in the 1970s, the LaRouchites combined populist antielitism with attacks on leftists, environmentalists, feminists ... They developed an idiosyncratic, coded variation on the Illuminati Freemason and Jewish banker conspiracy theories. ... A former Trotskyist, Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr., founded the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC) in 1968 as an offshoot of the radical student movement. But in the early 1970s, LaRouche engineered a political about-face, using cult pressure tactics to consolidate his grip over the NCLC and initiating a campaign of physical attacks on Communists and Black nationalists...
During the 1970s and 1980s, the LaRouchites built an international network for spying and propaganda, with links to the upper levels of government, business... The LaRouchites traded information with intelligence agencies in the United States, South Africa, East Germany, and elsewhere. ... Food for Peace and the Schiller Institute, and put out such publications as New Solidarity (later The New Federalist) and Executive Intelligence Review. In 1976 LaRouche's original electoral arm, the U.S. Labor Party (USLP), published a conspiracist attack on President Jimmy Carter...
In 1989, LaRouche was sentenced to fifteen years in prison for mail fraud conspiracy, based on illegal and manipulative fund-raising practices, as well as tax evasion. His organization continued to operate while he was in prison...
At Metapedia.org:
... LaRouchism, also known as the LaRouche movement, is an idiosyncratic political movement based on the views of Lyndon LaRouche, an American political activist. ... the LaRouche movement has attracted a significant amount of Jews (Anton Chaitkin, Jeffrey Steinberg, Paul Goldstein, Phil Rubinstein, Harley Schlanger and others). ...
Gregory Rose, a former chief of counter-intelligence for LaRouche who became an FBI informant in 1973, said that while the LaRouche movement had extensive links to the Liberty Lobby, there was also copious evidence of a connection to the Soviet Union. George and Wilcox say neither connection amounted to much-they assert that LaRouche was "definitely not a Soviet agent",
by Wikipedia.
By Wikipedia
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Caucus_of_Labor_Committees and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Labor_Party):
"...Beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Lyndon LaRouche formed a variety of political organizations, including the U.S. Labor Party and the National Democratic Policy Committee. These organizations served as the platforms for presidential campaigns by LaRouche starting in 1976, and by his followers in scores of local races. According to one candidate, supporters viewed LaRouche as "the greatest political leader and economist of the 20th century, and they're proud to be associated with him. They feel he's leading the battle to save Western civilization." The Survey of Jewish Affairs, 1987 called the LaRouche movement one of the two most prominent "extremist political groups" of 1986. ... The U.S. Labor Party (USLP) was a political party formed in 1973 by the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC). It served as a vehicle for Lyndon LaRouche to run for President of the United States in 1976, but it also sponsored many candidates for local offices and Congressional and Senate seats between 1972 and 1979. ... According to Dennis King, the USLP chairman advocated launching ABC (atomic, biological and chemical) warfare against the Soviet Union as well as the military crushing of Britain (which his newspaper described as the headquarters of the "Zionist-British organism"). ... The National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC) is a political organization in the United States founded and controlled by political activist Lyndon LaRouche, who has sometimes described it as a "philosophical association". ... According to the Los Angeles Times, LaRouche said he met with representatives of the Soviet Union at the United Nations in 1974 and 1975 in order to discuss attacks by the Communist Party USA on the NCLC, and to propose that the CPUSA should be merged into the NCLC. He denied receiving any assistance from the Soviets. ...
The NCLC had it origins in the 1968 convention of the Students for a Democratic Society. It comprised people who had been expelled from the Maoist Progressive Labor Party, an SDS faction, and students from Columbia University in New York City. It called itself the "SDS Labor Committee" or the "National Caucus of SDS Labor Committees". Led by LaRouche, it included "New Left lieutenants" Ed Spannaus, Nancy Spannaus, and Tony Papert, as well as Paul Milkman, Paul Gallagher, Leif Johnson, Tony Chaitkin, and Steve Fraser.
According to Dennis King, Papert and Fraser had been targets of the FBI's COINTELPRO operatives. ... It was originally a New Left organization influenced by Trotskyist ideas as well as those of other Marxists such as Rosa Luxemburg, but opposed other New Left organizations which LaRouche said were dominated by the Ford Foundation, Institute for Policy Studies and Herbert Marcuse. ... The LaRouche criminal trials in the mid-1980s stemmed from federal and state investigations into the activities of American political activist Lyndon LaRouche and members of his movement. They were charged with conspiring to commit fraud and soliciting loans they had no intention of repaying".

Helga Zepp-LaRouche founded the Schiller Institute in Germany in 1984. In the same year, LaRouche was able to raise enough money to purchase 14 television spots, at a cost of $330,000 each.
By http://www.lyndonlarouche.org/fascism19.htm:
"...Between February 1982 and February 1983, with the approval of the National Security Council, LaRouche met with Soviet embassy representative Evgeny Shershnev. Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld reported in his 2011 memoir that at a 2001 dinner in Russia with leading officials, he was told by General Yuri Baluyevsky, then the second highest-ranking officer in the Russian military, that LaRouche was the brains behind SDI. ... In 2012 the former head of the Russian bureau of Interpol, General Vladimir Ovchinsky, also described LaRouche as the man who proposed the SDI. ... The LaRouche organization's relationship with the Soviet Union ranged beyond military and scientific matters. Former NCLC intelligence staffer Kevin Coogan writes that in 1979 LaRouche met in West Germany with Julian Semenov, a Soviet spy novelist widely believed to be linked to the KGB. Semenov asked the LaRouchians to investigate the disappearance of a czarist treasure looted by the Nazis. The LaRouchians found no treasure, but they did publish an EIR teaser about it. They also published an article by Semenov on the Kennedy assassination. Predictably, he speculated that Peking was involved. Another key Soviet contact was Ioni Andronov, a correspondent for Literaturnaya Gazeta. Andronov frequently chatted with Paul Goldstein, whom he occasionally quoted as a counterintelligencc expert. In one interview Goldstein told Andronov he thought the so-called Bulgarian role in the attempted assassination of Pope John Paul was a hoax. On this point he was probably right, but he went on to suggest that the CIA might have been involved - an allegation for which there is no evidence whatsoever. ... According to Coogan, the LaRouchians met regularly with Soviet officials in Washington as late as 1983. The LaRouchians claim they provided reports on these contacts to Judge Clark's office at the NSC. Whatever the truth, LaRouchian publications until the death of Leonid Brezhnev displayed a certain degree of affection for hard-line Stalinism because of its no-nonsense attitude toward Zionists and other dissenters and its commitment to central economic planning. New Solidarity's obituary on Brezhnev praised him as a "nation builder" and avoided any mention of his invasions of Czechoslovakia and Afghanistan. Thereafter, as LaRouche became more heavily involved in supporting Star Wars and NATO, the NCLC line changed. Moscow became the "Third Rome," a center of unremitting Russian Orthodox evil. When Gorbachev took power, the LaRouchians said he was the Antichrist. The Soviets in turn took serious note for the first time of LaRouche's West European political intrigues. In the wake of the 1986 assassination of Olof Palme, the Soviet press depicted the LaRouchians as the prime suspects. ... LaRouche countered that the KGB did it, a charge for which there was no more rhyme or reason than Goldstein's allegations about the CIA and the Pope. Meanwhile, LaRouche claimed that the October 1986 government raid on his headquarters in Virginia was Soviet-inspired. According to LaRouche, when Reagan and Gorbachev met in Iceland, Gorbachev delivered an ultimatum: Either you get rid of LaRouche or there'll be no arms deal. In Paris, LaRouche sued the pro-glasnost Soviet magazine New Times for calling him a "Nazi without the swastika." It was basically the same suit he had brought repeatedly without success in American courts. The pro-glasnost Soviet magazine chose to play by Western legal rules: They mounted an aggressive courtroom defense, entering LaRouche's own writings as evidence. The Paris High Court rejected LaRouche's suit and ordered him to pay costs as well as damages to the magazine and its distributors...").

We back to my work.
Then came the second exploration period, since September 1989 to 2002. I traveled through West Berlin, Georgia, Azerbeidzan, Ingushetia, Kabardino - Balkaria, Ossetia, Abkhazia, Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Lithuania, Slovakia, Hungary.
I met Georgians, Russians, etc, but mostly tens people of Poland and other countries has granted me accurate genealogical data, and not just about family Konstantynowicz;
thanks to this I could - in 1992 - provide a working thesis of particular importance: "in our family was someone on the top of the Soviet military intelligence" , and our family Konstantynowicz moved in Tsarist Russia very close to the Russian intelligence core. The parts it turned out to be true; I am writing that only partially, because the key person was a Swiss with Italian - Estonian origin, and this man had no affinity with our family, but was created by the military system, whose my Konstantynowicz family was a part: in Miezonka, Swolna, Moscow, Estonia, St. Petersburg, Kazan, the Vaud canton and the nearby Swiss villages, Riga. This search took me 27 years, but it took 20 years to Stalin it came up on the trail military conspiracy in May 1937 - probably as long, because the key person - Artusov surely created a Soviet counterintelligence, and next he took the position as head of civilian intelligence, then deputy head of the military intelligence of the Soviet Union. In the period February 2003 to date (31 January 2014) in 2014, communicate to all with the help of Yahoo servers in California, knowledge on the history and genealogy of the Konstantynowicz family, by using further of the factual help my readers .

So...
Sebastian Rybarczyk, journalist and publicist, specializes in the history of special services, at 'historia.focus.pl/swiat/' on January 15, 2014 write about Artuzow
(my webpage was writing on Artuzow on January the 01st, 2014 and on 08th January, 2014):
"...Strange that he did not defend himself, using his knowledge of the most senior (Soviet) leaders, eg, at early 20s (of the 20th cent.) he was responsible for the 'protection' of Clare Sheridan - an attractive young British sculptor, Churchill's cousin and lover of Trotsky and Kamenev, the personal enemies of Stalin...".
Well, unfortunately, I lost on 02 January 2014 the previous workplace.

Part 1 - Intelligence. Scotland, Ireland, Estonia, Switzerland, Russia. Bolshevik Revolution 1917. Key note.

Part 2 - Intelligence. Scotland, Ireland, Estonia, Switzerland, Russia. Bolshevik Revolution 1917. Key note.

Espionage and intelligence in Russia 1772, 1914, 1917, 1937, 1989.

At the beginning of 2014, the first on the world I am showing very interesting network! Lenin and Inessa Armand, Konstantynowicz, Breguet, Duflon, nobility from Scotland, Italy, Ireland, France, Switzerland, the German noble families in Estonia.
This military - political intelligence network has a different appearance depending on, which side you watch from. It's like the external universe, which expands. It has a chaotic structure, but only to the viewers. For top executives of the network, it is extremely bright and clear.
It works like clockwork.
Time passes, and this network is expanding, as the universe, at that time some stars turning pale, faded and disappeared.
Maciej Pietraszczyk on 19 January 2015 wrote down: "A feature of the network operation is the lack of central leadership but actions are run in a fixed overall direction; they are not necessarily coordinated. This causes the highest effectiveness and practically physical impossibility of liquidation".

The underground structure has clearly defined objectives at the beginning of the 20th century:
Europe 1789, 1815, 1914, 1917, 1937. Belarusian, Estonian, Polish and Russian genealogical and historical database
1. call up the chaos in Europe (see below on Major Edmund Charaszkiewicz and Gavrilo Princip);
2. to bring the continental war (Bogdan Hutten-Czapski);
3. overthrow of the Romanovs in Russia (Hanecki, Radek, Parvus, Armand, Konstantynowicz);
4. lead to anarchy in Russia (Lenin, Dzierzynski, Artuzow Frutchi, Pilar Pilchau);
5. starting the war between the invaders, who take away the Polish independence (Pilsudski);
6. pulling the western countries into the war, and in due time also America (Koziell Poklewski, Ricord, Anjou).
Overarching objectives are:
1. Polish independence (Jodko Narkiewicz, Pilsudski, Sudzilowski, Krzyzanowski, Konstantynowicz),
2. The independence of the Baltic States (Pilar Pilchau of Parnu);
3. The creation of a Jewish state in Palestine (Zionist movement of Odessa).
Tools to achieve these goals are:
1. The money from the Scottish (Perth), Jewish and American banks; revenue from the Mediterranean trade - Marseille, Greece, Naples, Crimea; and plantations in Ceylon and from the Asian trade - Ceylon, India, Japan (Nagasaki);
2. the use of secret non-goverment organisations (NGOs) in Europe and America (masonry);
3. The creation of favorable underground structures inside the intelligence networks of Western Europe and American countries (MI5 in 1909).

I managed to investigate and decipher a system in 2013 after 26 years of my researches: this is a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military intelligence of the Tsarist Russia:
deep political espionage (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic technological-scientific intelligence (Breguet + Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company, also Nobel and Armand families:
telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.).

Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence.

An influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign UK policy ca 1895 to ca 1921 played Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, a British statesman.

Acc to Aydelotte:
"...in 1888 Rhodes made his third will ... to LORD ROTHSCHILD (his financier in mining enterprises), but ... for strategic reasons Lord Rothschild was subsequently removed from the forefront of the scheme. Professor Quigley reveals that Lord Rosebury, replaced his father-in-law Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes' next and last will. ... Quigley informs us that the central part of the 'secret society' was established by March, 1891, using Rhodes' money.

The organization was run for Rothschild by Lord Alfred Milner - the ROUND TABLE worked behind the scenes at the highest levels of British government, influencing foreign policy and England's involvement and conduct of WW I.
... Between 1894 and 1907 a number of international treaties were signed to have Russia, France, England and further nations unit against Germany in the case of war. It was the task of the
COMMITTEE OF 300 to set the stage for the First World War. From the ROUND TABLE group emerged as a front the 'Royal institute for International Affairs' ... known as 'Chatham House' and had among its founding members Lord Albert Grey, Lord Arnold Toynbee ... of the MI6, H. G. Wells, Lord Alfred Milner - head of the Round Table, and H. J. Mackinder - inventor of the so-called geopolitics.
... sums of money from the international bankers, among others from ALFRED MILNER - by Jan Van Helsing - who later took over the secret Round Table, were poured into the Ochrana that already had infiltrated the Bolshevik movement. Agents steered many of its activities. The infiltration was so strong that in 1908 four of the five members of the Petersburg committee of the Bolshevik party were Ochrana agents".

Some details:

Hubert Bland, a bank-journalist, worked for the London Sunday Chronicle, a paper owned by newspaper magnate Edward Hulton, formerly of the Liberal Manchester Guardian. Bland was a co-founder of the Fabian Society in 1884 and became a treasurer. He also recruited Bernard Shaw. Bernard Shaw was working for the London Pall Mall Gazette, where William T. Stead served as editor and Alfred Milner as his assistant, both Stead and Milner were close to diamond magnate and Rothschild associate Cecil Rhodes and were involved in the formation of the influential secret organisation known as the Milner Group. Having been recruited to the Fabian Society by his friend Bland in 1884, Shaw recruited Annie Besant and his friends Sidney Webb, Sydney Olivier and Graham Wallas in 1885 and 1886.

Shaw married Charlotte, daughter of Horace Payne-Townshend, a wealthy Stock Exchange investor. He was employed by millionaire William Waldorf - Lord Astor, owner of the Pall Mall Gazette, and became a close friend of the Milner Group leader - Waldorf and his wife Nancy. Shaw's friend, Sidney Webb married Beatrice - a close friend of Rothschild associate and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, the daughter of Richard Potter, a wealthy financier with international connections, the chairman of the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railways of England and Canada.
Shaw, Webb, Olivier and Wallas became the Fabian Society's dominant Big Four with John Passmore Edwards, an leader of the Liberal Manchester School, and with Richard Cobden. The Fabian Society was in close touch with the Rothschilds both directly and through Lord Arthur Balfour, and has also been close to David Rockefeller. Cecil Rhodes the South African diamond millionaire, used his fortune to promote the scheme of federating the English speaking peoples around the globe.
Rhodes and other acolytes of Ruskin, formed a secret society known as the Round Table Group, were able to gain access to Rhodes' fortune after his death in 1902. The Milner Group, the secret society formed by Cecil Rhodes, dominated the British delegation to the Peace Conference of 1919, founded the UK Royal Institute for International Affairs in 1919 / 1920 (the British Institute of International Affairs was founded in London in July 1920), the US Council on Foreign Relations, and parallel groups in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India.
In 1919 British and American delegates to the Paris Peace Conference, under the leadership of Lionel Curtis, conceived the idea of an Anglo-American Institute of foreign affairs to study international problems with a view to preventing future wars - at Chatham House, Number 10 St. James's Square in 1923 (Professor Arnold Toynbee became the leading figure until his retirement in 1955).

Retinger was very close to Lionel Curtis, the founder of Chatham House and Retinger was politically active in London exactly at the same time when Chatham House was established in 1921-1923; the Chatham House / the Royal Institute of International Affairs represented by both ideologies of the Rhodes - Milner ideology with the ideology of the Fabian society and Retinger had links to both these groups; his the Bilderberg Group had their first meeting in May 1954 at the Bilderberg Hotel, near Arnhem in Holland.

I wrote above that the Round Table was started by Freemason and Rothschild agent, Lord Alfred Milner; but Rhodes, who was connected to the Freemasons, first formalised his idea with William T. Stead;
in 1910, The Round Table Journal: A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire was founded by Lord Milner and members of Milner's Kindergarten: Lionel Curtis, Philip Kerr and Geoffrey Dawson; by 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries: in the United States acted George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Erwin D. Canham.

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, b. 1862, known as Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary from 1905 to 1916, was closely politically, intellectually, and socially affiliated with the Milner Group according to Prof. Quigley; he got Russia and France to sign secret agreements that committed them to join England if there was a major war in Europe. Several years later, when World War I was imminent, Sir Edward Grey denied the existence of the secret agreements.
Sir Edward Grey met few times with Edward Mandell House, the son of a successful banker and land owner; House in 1911 became acquainted with Woodrow Wilson; he confered with British foreign secretary Sir Edward Grey in 1913, and in the spring of 1914 again; Colonel Edward House was a superb behind-the-scenes operator whose talents made him an invaluable diplomat and presidential advisor. "...Wilson proclaimed neutrality and in January 1915 dispatched House back to Europe on board the Lusitania for a second official mission. House hoped to change British blockade policies and end German attacks on merchant ships. House found that both sides were so heavily invested in the conflict that they feared a public backlash if peace were sought without victory...".
A third mission took place in 1916, when House met with Lord Grey; in January 1919, House accompanied Wilson to Paris for the peace conference.
Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner; others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included: Bertrand Russell, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.
The Illuminati, who also called themselves the Society of the Elect: Cecil John Rhodes, Baron Nathan Rothschild, Sir Harry Johnston, William T. Stead, Reginald Brett - Viscount Esher, Alfred Milner - Viscount Milner, B. F. Hawksley, Thomas Brassey - Lord Brassey; Edmund Garrett; Alfred Beit; Sir Abe Bailey; Albert Grey - Earl Grey; Archibald Primrose - Earl of Rosebery; Arthur James Balfour; Sir George R. Parkin; Philip Lyttelton Gell; Sir Henry Birchenough; Herbert A. L. Fisher; William Waldegrave Palmer - Earl of Selborne; Sir Patrick Duncan; Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian, and others.
The Association of Helpers:
1. The Inner Circle:
Sir Patrick Duncan, Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian; Lionel Curtis, William L. Hichens, Geoffrey Dawson, Edward Grigg - Baron Altrincham; Herbert A. L. Fisher, Leopold Amery, Richard Feetham, Hugh A. Wyndham; Sir Dougal Malcolm, Basil Williams, Flora Shaw, Nancy Astor, Arnold J. Toynbee; and others;
2. The Outer Circle: John Buchan - Baron Tweedsmuir, Sir Fabian Ware, Sir Alfred Zimmern; Gilbert Murray, Robert Cecil - Viscount Cecil of Chelwood; Sir James W. Headlam-Morley, and others.
Members in other countries: a. Canada; b. United States: George Louis Beer, Frank Aydelotte, Jerome Greene; c. South Africa: Jan C. Smuts, Sir Patrick Duncan, Sir Abe Bailey, and others; d. Australia; e. New Zealand; f. Germany: Helmuth James von Moltke and Adam von Trott zu Solz.

Victor Rothschild (Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild b. 1910 d. 1990; son of Charles Rothschild; a member of the Apostles Club at Cambridge, a secret society, there he became friends with the future Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt, and Kim Philby - not a member; he was recruited to work for MI5 during World War II, and was the head of B1C, continued to work in security as an adviser to Margaret Thatcher; 1971 to 1974 The Think Tank), who worked for J. P. Morgan & Co., was one of the members of the Round Table.

The Rothschilds had financed Cecil Rhodes, co-operated with the Morgans and the Rockefellers, and they financed the activities of Edward Harriman (railroads) and Andrew Carnegie Steel.

Roundtable inner Circle of Initiates included Lord Milner, Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Balfour, Albert Grey and Lord Nathan Rothschild (Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild b. 1840, d. 1915, a British banker in issuing loans to the governments of the USA, Russia and Austria; a close relationship with Benjamin Disraeli, he also funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and the De Beers diamond conglomerate, and administered Rhodes's estate from 1902 and set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford).

According to Gary Allen's expose, Milner financed the Russian Bolsheviks on Rothschild's behalf, with help from Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg.

The Round Table movement, founded in 1909 - acc. to historian Carroll Quigley - was connected to a secret society named the 'Society of the Elect' with
Cecil Rhodes, Stead and Lord Rothschild as his designated successors, and also Milner, Reginald Baliol Brett Lord Esher, Cardinal Manning, Lord Arthur Balfour, Lord Albert Grey and Sir Harry Johnston;
Carroll Quigley claims in 'Tragedy and Hope' that Rhodes's 'Society of the Elect' was established in 1889 - 1891; an outer circle known as the Association of Helpers was later organised by Milner as the Round Table;
its sister organisations: Lionel Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920, and Walter Lippmann in 1921 - the Council on Foreign Relations, in America.
See also: Alexander May, The Round Table, 1910-66, ed. by University of Oxford.

At this same year, 1909 descendant of Samuel Konarski founded the groundwork of modern English MI5 counterintelligence. KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel b. 1802 in Cracow or in 1803 in Praszka, west of Czestochowa; he was son of Joachim Konarski. That is maybe Rajmund Konarski (1783 - 1863) / Rajmund Joachim Konarski (Rajmund Konarski was son of Józef Konarski and Tekla Laskowska / Tekla Kunegunda Laskowska; and was brother of Tomasz Konarski (General) 1792 - 1878; Jan Konarski and Feliks Konarski; probably father of Samuel Aleksander Konarski).

Alexander Samuel or KONARSKI Aleksander Samuel was wine merchant in England, like Paul Armand who opened in Moscow own wine shop. Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski married to Harriet Fraser Lucas; he was transcribed as 'Alexander Kowaraki'.
She come from the Irish family, Philip Monoux was the West India and Colombia merchant, plantation owner and slave-factor.
Philip Monoux Lucas was a partner in a number of companies and resided in the West Indies between about 1802 and 1810, acted in the Lang, Chauncy & Lucas (address: at 39 Wilson Street Finsbury Square in 1834). Monoux Lucas died in 1830. Emma, the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872. "James Mad Lucas" or "The Hermit of Hertfordshire", was son of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah nee Beesly.
Above Nathaniel Snell Chauncy, 1789 - 1856, son of Charles Snell Chauncy ne Snell, who died in 1809, and brother of Charles Snell Chauncy. West India merchant, partner with Philip Monoux Lucas and Charles Porcher Lang in Chauncy, Lucas & Lang until Lucas's death in 1830.
Harriet Fraser Lucas / Harriet Fraser Konarska was daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and his wife Sarah and she was one of the "heirs of Philip Monoux Lucas" identified as a beneficiary of his estate. She married above mentioned Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski at St Pancras in London, 1839. Died in 9 Bedford Place, Brighton in 1871.
Children of Count Samuel Ernest Alexander Konarski / Samuel Konarski / Konasski / Alexander Kowaraki:
a. Samuel Philip Lucas Konarski b. 1843,
b. Marie Konarska b. 1853 / Maria Alexandrina Stuart Konarski or Marian Alexandrina Stuart died 1926, in 1845 living in Kensington, 1846 court against George Lucas;
c. Georgina Augusta Konarska b. 1855 / Georgina Augustus Kell nee Konarski;
d. Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (1847-1933) daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, (inf. of 1895) m. in 1870 to Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney / Valentine MacSwiney / Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY
(son of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom / Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 who married 1st Margaret Cremen, m. 2nd to Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903)
b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897;
her son Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII
(Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938, he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1828 or 1829 and Amelia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852; and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children:
Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at 'gw.geneanet.org/ygobilliard').
Acc. to: A representation of North Paraiba in the House of Representatives of Brasil, 1821 to 1900; LEGISLATURE 1857 - 1860, district - Areias, copyright by Carlos Eduardo Barata.
Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born in 1828 in Mill Keys Farm, in Paraiba; baptized 1829, in Gurinhem, died 1899, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. He was son of Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, of Nazareth, Pernambuco, and Angela Sofia Teotonia; degree of Pernambuco Univ. in 1851. He was the District Attorney of the District of Areias in Paraiba. In 1871, in Rio de Janeiro, m. to Amelia Machado de Castro Coelho, born 1852, Rio de Janeiro, died 1946, Viscountess Cavalcanti, daughter of Dr. Constantine Machado Coelho de Castro and Mariana Barbosa de Assis Ferreira; her children:
1. Velho Fernando Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, born 1873, in Rio de Janeiro. Civil engineer, graduated from the Polytechnic School of Rio de Janeiro, 1899;
2. mentioned above Maria Estela Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Marchioness of Marchesini, for your 2nd wedding.

Samuel Alexander Ernest Konarski was died on 14 January 1893 in Nice, France; was a doctor, emigrated to England.
We know also on Thomas / Tomasz Paschalis Seweryn Konarski / KONARSKI Tomasz Paschalis (1792-1878) General 1830-1831, from Zarczyce close to Malogoszcz; in Zarczyce Duze in 1700 was born Stanislaw Konarski actual name Hieronim Konarski; died 1878 - Auxerre. His father lieutenant of the Austrian Army born 1742. Grandfather 1699-1756. Tomasz Konarski married two times: in 1822, Warszawa, and in France.
Marie Melanie Edwige KONARSKA 1855-1940 m. 1880, Auxerre to Isidore ROZE 1848-1934 with Marie Therese Eleonore ROZE 1881-1971 m. 1899 to Henri LIONS with Hedwige LIONS b. 1900.

Auxerre - half way from Paris to Dijon.
We know also that Samuel Alexander Konarski played at roulette in the casino in Monte Carlo with high luck; a surgeon by profession, a participant of November Uprising 1830 - 1831, during which he was wounded, awarded the Golden Cross of the Virtue Military;
after the uprising, he emigrated to England, where he was occupied at large scale in wine trade, thanks to help of Treasury (see below a note).
He spend the winter in warmer corners of Europe, including Monte Carlo, Nice, Monaco.
He left a considerable wealth, for which his daughter Emma bought a large collection of art. Unfortunately, after her death, none of this collection was provided to Polish museums, but only to the collections of the Vatican Museum, the Museum of Cluny in Paris and the City Museum in Pau (France).
Explanation!
1. Emma was the daughter of Philip Monoux Lucas and Sarah Lucas, married Edward Walker, a London solicitor who left Ł500,000 on his death in 1872.
2. Valentine P. MacSwiney / Valentin Mc Swiney / Walenty Mac Swiney m. in 1870 to Emma Konarska / Emma Issabella Countess Konarska (Emma KONARSKA 1847-1933).
Her son Valentine Emanuel Patrick MacSwiney (1871-1945) was born in Paris and created a Marquess by Pope Leo XIII.
We know on the copy of confirmation of arms to the descendants of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom married Margaret Cremen
(or Valentin MAC SWINEY 1806-1862 m. Isabelle MAC LEOD 1814-1903, her parents John MAC LEOD ca 1774-1839 and Honora RIORDAN; under copyright by Yves GOBILLIARD):
his grandson, Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII (Valentin Emmanuel MAC SWINEY, marquess of Mashanaglass b. 1871 in Paris, d. 1938,
he married in 1895 1st to Stella CAVALANTI d'ALBUQUERQUE / Stella Cavalcanti de Albuquerque / Stella Mac Swiney, Marquesa de Mashanaglass, sister of Fernando Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque who was born 1873, to Diogo Velho Cavalcanti de Albuquerque b. 1829 and Amélia Machado Cavalcanti de Albuquerque born in 1852;
and 2nd m. to Anne de SCHILTZ-HESSE 1877-1933 in 1910 with children: Honora MAC SWINEY b. 1911, Mary Elisabeth MAC SWINEY b. 1913, and Owen MAC SWINEY; inf. at 'gw.geneanet.org/ygobilliard')
and who was only son of Valentine MacSwiney (Valentin Patrick MAC SWINEY b. 1847 in Macroom, Ireland, d. 1897) by Emma Issabella Countess Konarska daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, inf. in 1895.
This MacSwiney family come also from Mashanaglass.
3. Major, 25th Regiment, King's Own Scottish Borderers (b. 1843, died at Torquay in 1887; the only son of Count Alexander Konarski) Konarski Samuel Phillip Lucas / Samuel P. L. Kouasaki / Samuel Konarski m. Emma Cecilia Konarski / Emily L. Kouasaki / Emma Cecilia nee Walker b. ca 1844 in Paddington, living in 1881 at Biddlesden, Buckinghamshire.

National Treasure, the immigration funds collected in order to promote the fight against invaders on the country, used to promote Polish foreign affairs. The idea of the creation of the National Treasury in exile after the fall of the January Uprising already gone back to Agaton Giller.
The base of this treasure was a gift of Louis Michalski residing in Switzerland; in 1887 Sigmund Milkowski edited the famous book 'The thing about the active defense and on the National Treasury', where he outlined the idea of creating a fund.
Agaton Giller b. 1831 in Opatówek, was a Polish journalist and writer, conspirator and independence activist, a member of the National Government; brother of Stefan Giller.
Ludwik Michalski born Louis Matyasek / Ludwik Maciaszek, b. 1836 in Krakow, d. 1888 in Hilfikon in Switzerland, was Polish-Swiss engineer and entrepreneur, a participant of the January Uprising.
Milkowski in 1859 thought on the idea of national permanent Insurgency, and as Z. F. M. wrote 'Rzecz o obronie czynnej i o skarbie Narodowym', ed. in Paris, 1887; expanded ed. Krakow, 1912: Polish question, so-called 'Polish Intrigue' should be most important for Europe.
He also reminded all the time, on the pattern of Ireland, on the establishment of the National Treasury, with the national voluntary Taxation;
in August 1887 (? 1886) Milkowski / Jez moved to the castle Hilfikon in Switzerland, where he studied with Ludwik Michalski, the Polish emigrant, Maximilian Hertl from Paris, and the curator of the Ossolinski library in Lviv - Dr. Alexander Hirszberg who met Polish Democrats in Lviv, especially the Director of the Lemberger Savings Bank, insurgent of 1863, Fr. Zima, and the Warsaw patriots, to organize a democratic society with a centralization at the top, and the result of those deliberations was the Polish League.
In Switzerland in 1887, by a group of former participants of the January Uprising living in the Prussian and Austrian partitions, as well as abroad, Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez, Maximilian Hertel and Alexander Hirschberg at Hilfikon castle near Zurich, was established the Polish League.
Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824 in the village Saracei in Podolia, d. 1915 in Lausanne, Polish writer, was the son of an noblemen, Joseph, was a Napoleonic officer; the gymnasium in Niemirow; he was graduated from Richelieu high school in Odessa 1843 - 1846, then the University of Kiev 1847; 1848 he went to Hungary via Galicia and served in the Polish Legion during the Hungarian campaign of 1848-1849, where he advanced to the rank of lieutenant.
Since the time of the Hungarian uprising was in the sphere of influence of Stanisław Worcell b. 1799, Heltman Victor b. 1796, Darasz Wojciech b. 1808, and Limanowski Boleslaw b. 1835.
He emigrated to Turkey where he was interned for a year,
1850 he left for England, where, while he was working in a factory producing printing blocks for wallpaper patterns, he joined the Polish Democratic Society.
In 1851 he went to Moldavia as an agent of the Central Committee of European Democracy. During the Crimean War he was on the Balkan Peninsula, and was also an observer attached to the Turkish army. He stayed in Walachia then left for Serbia, Bulgaria, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople,
then in 1858 he returned to London.
After the outbreak of the January Uprising in Poland in 1863, he became commander of the army in Ruthenia and was appointed colonel by the National Central Committee. He organised an insurgent troop in Tulcza, which was to enter Russia through the territory of Romania. 1864-1866 he stayed in Belgrade, then he moved to Brussels, Lausanne and Geneva. Towards the end of his life he settled in Lausanne.
In 1866 he initiated the establishment of the National Treasury to fund future insurgent actions and develop Polish propaganda abroad.
Darasz was the editor of Polish Democrat, a member of the Centralization - Polish Democratic Society and a member of the Revolutionary Committee of the Centralization of Europe.
Heltman was one of the ideologues of Polish Democratic Society and European activist, with
Jastrzębowski Wojciech Bogumil b. 1799, who can safely be called the first theorist of a United Europe; the National Guard soldier, battles at Wawer and Olszynka Grochowska in 1831; his ideas about Europe were echoed in the views of Massini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Ledru - Rollin and Ruge Anolda b. 1802.
Massini fought with MONARCHS EUROPE, already in 1832 he founded YOUNG ITALY, helped organize the YOUNG GERMANY and Young POLAND. These were the steps involved in creating YOUNG EUROPE because he believed that only the young generation could rebuild Europe's monarchs in Europe of Nations.
We back to Milkowski, who was sent back to England 1850 (again 1858); active involvement in the Polish Democratic Society, closer to the international revolutionary circles. Since then, he was theorist of the European revolution.
The Central Committee of European Democracy commissioned colonel Zygmunt Miłkowski task of forming a resistance movement in Russia; detailed instructions on this matter received from the German revolutionary Arnold Ruge; besides Miłkowski, to Galicia was sent Louis Jastrzebski.
Milkowski with a passport in the name of Williams Smith went (1851) to the east, had letters of recommendation from Massini and Bratianu Dmitri; this mission was a tragedy for his family, his brothers Joseph and Felix in Romania were arrested and handed in 1853; Joseph, as the tsarist officer was shot in Izmaiłow; Felix sent to Orenburg. The third brother John was killed in a battle with the Turks at Oltenica. The mission of the European Democracy agents was thwarted by the church and the aristocracy, because some European Democracy activists were Freemasons;
the European Democracy top members:
Giuseppe Mazzini, Ledru-Rollin, Arnold Ruge, Darasz Wojciech and Dimitrie (1818-1892); they shared a need to organize a European revolution. Massini though Mason was the believer man; Arnold Ruge was a atheist. Darasz and Rollin were radicals.
Colonel Sigmund Milkowski did not agree with the policy of Czartoryski, who financed the trip to America, for former insurgents 1863; Society of the Third of May led by Adam Czartoryski also called the Hotel Lambert and the Society for Military of gen. Rybinski Maciej deprived to participate in the fight against the aggressors.
But the League of Liberty and Peace was established in 1867 in Geneva. At the Congress in Lausanne, speech in defense of Polish affairs gave Colonel Zygmunt Milkowski in 1872; the congress was attended by representatives of the Poles, French, Germans and other nationalities. "Almost all the congresses of the League felt the spirit of the EUROPE of NATIONS ... by the inspiration of Charles Lemonnier, at the Congress in Lausanne, Polish independence was considered as a prerequisite for peace in Europe".
Milkowski was one of the founders of the Polish National League, which was transformed into the National Democracy Party.
Also with Louis Matyasek Michalski, an engineer, who opened his castle Hiltikon for this meeting; he was born in a family of teachers. 1863 he joined the January Uprising under Kopernicki Francis (1824-1892). After the uprising got to Switzerland, Sumatra, and back to Switzerland; provided financial support for Polish initiatives.
Hertel was also an engineer, poet, worked for the Ministry of Roads and Transport in Paris. He had a big impact on the French Polonia.
Dr. Hirschberg, historian, the history of diplomacy and Polish-Russian relations. The source of the new organization were manifestos of the POLISH DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY (1832-1862), with the reconstruction of Poland from 1772, but with the right of minorities to autonomy.
Milkowski was also the President of the Supervisory Council of the National Treasury, a member of the Board of the Polish Emigrant Union and of the Executive Board of the Polish National Museum in Rapperswill. In 1900 he made a journey to the USA; he died in Lausanne on 11 January 1915.
Above data under copyright by Dr Marek Adamiec.
On his initiative Zygmunt Balicki came to Warsaw, and founded a secret Polish Youth Union modeled on Freemasonry, at the turn of 1886-1887, among university students; fought on the independence of Poland.

Interesting notes on wine commerce:

1. Trading House "Heirs of A. F. Poklewski-Koziell" / Pakleuski Kozell - the Company founder was Alfons Fomich Poklevskii-Kozell / Alfons Koziell Poklewski who in 1869 bought a large estate in Kurgan, built here a stone wine warehouse.
2. The ARMAND family from Moscow:
Jean-Louis Armand (1786 - 1855 in Moscow) appeared in Russia ca 1790 - 1799, together with his father Paul Armand and mother Angelica (1765 / 1767 - 1813 in Moscow) daughter of Charles, during an escape from the terror of the French Revolution; Paul Armand b. ca 1762 was a prosperous farmer in Normandie and sympathized royalists. He, settling in Paris, opened the building workshop; there he married Angelica daughter of Charles from Alsatie; he decided to build his commerce on the French wines trade in Russia. Once the ship crashed in the Bay of Biscay and it ruined family of Armand. But Paul soon had good commercial relations in shipping ports of south France (Nice and Marseille probably). The 29 year-old general Paul Armand came from Paris in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay. He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine.
After the shipwreck of wine in the Bay of Biscay, Armand transfered trade of wines to the Mediterranean ports of France, it took place perhaps during the continental blockade taken by England against Napoleon. Then after 1815 the trade lasted maybe until the Crimean War in the 50's of the 19th century.
Paul Armand ran the wine trade through the ports in the south of France to Russia: a probable route from Marseille - Nice - after Italian Naples - Smyrna / Smyrne (see the Ralli Brothers from London, Marseille, India) in Turkey? - Crimea / Krym, where the Armand family had a very good trade agreements. A Demonsi / Demonet / Demontet family ran in Moscow a sales of these French wines.
When Paul Armand married, he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats at first. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.
Jean-Louis Armand, from his first marriage to Elizabeth Osipovna (1788 - 1817), Sabine called her, had a son Yevgeny born in 1809. From his second marriage, Jean-Louis and Marie-Barbe, nee Collignon (1780 - 1872) had a daughter Sophia, married a Swede, Osip Hecke / Hoecke/ Hacker.
In 1811 in Moscow lived:
Jean-Louis Armand b. ca 1787, and his son Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808, French nation; his wife Elizabeth Osipovna b. ca 1786/1787 and daughter Elizabeth b. 1807. Also merchant Paul / Pavel Armand b. 1762, who arrived (again?) to Moscow in 1808; his wife Angelica daughter of Charles, was born 1767.
Louis-Jean b. 1807 / 1808 that is Yevgeny born in 1809 = Evgeny (Eugene Louis) Armand (1809 - 1890), the grandson of Paul Armand, worked as a foreman for weaving and dyeing factories near Moscow.
Paul was killed and Paul's son, Jean - Ivan, started a wine-import business. It was Ivan's son, the first Eugene, who founded the Armand fortunes.
3. Alexandra Constantinovna Countess von Zarnekau b. 1883 married in 1900 Prince George Alexandrovich Yurievsky, a son of Alexander II of Russia. In 1884, they bought a local wine cellar established by the Frenchman Shote in 1876 for bottling champagne, doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe).
4. On July 30th Bronislaw Pilsudski left Nagasaki by ship, on August 3rd left Japan for Galicia (Austrian Poland) via America.
On the main street of Ginza in Tokyo, Pilsudski rented a room from the end of January to July 1906 - had a connection with Russian merchants in Vladivostok and sold natural ice transported from Hakodate in Hokkaido and milk, as well as ice cream and foreign-made wines later. In 1908 Futabatei visited St. Petersburg as a special correspondent for the newspaper Asahi and met Zarnowska - wife of Bronislaw Pilsudski - who was staying at a relative's home there. He did not, however, manage to see Pilsudski.
5. GAILLARD, J. Jeune / Jeune GAILLARD, 1896, a General Store was opened at Nagasaki at 12 Oura under the name of J. Gaillard, the Nagasaki branch of Gaillard & Co., which was led by Jean Sirot. Sirot came from Shanghai. The Nagasaki branch provisioned the French Navy with coal, food and other provisions and in 1897 the branch specialized in wine and spirits. From 1889 to 1903 only C. Joana is listed as head of this branch and J. Gaillard is only mentioned in 1901, with Rene Chevalier Lavaure, to 1904.
6. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829 in Paris, France, d. 1904 / 1908 in London, England; he was son of John O'Meara and Elizabeth Sophie. John O'Meara, b. 1797 in Borrisokane, Co Tipperary, central part of Ireland, south-west of Dublin; died 1867 in Paris.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was husband of Marie Camille and father of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara b. 1861; Henrie Marie Bulkeley b. 1857, Charles Louis Thomas b. 1862, John Herbert Lewis b. 1860, and Camille Alfred O'Meara. Camille Alfred O'Meara b. 1858 in Piltown - south-east of Ireland, d. ?; son of Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara and Marie Camille; husband of Rosalee Julia nee Guilloux; from this family was Louis Fançois Marie GUILLOUX, b. 1899 in Saint-Brieuc, France, his father was a socialist activist of 'Proudhonism'; Guilloux befriended the philosophy tutor Georges Palante, an anarchist. Camille Alfred O'Meara was father of Rose Julie Taylor, Harry O'Meara, Charlie O'Meara, Tom O'Meara, Alf O'Meara, Pat and Camille Cammie; half brother of Mathilde Camille Marie O'Meara.
Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - was half brother of Josephine Camille O'Meara and Mathihilde O'Meara. Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara was born on the 9th December 1829 in Paris and died at Addison Gardens, London, in 1904; he was secretary of the Cercle Imperial Club in Paris, was a cashier in Salt Manufacturing of his brother-in-law's company at Stoke Prior in England, and finally was a wine merchant; married to Marie Camille nee Blot.
Parents of above named Thomas Bulkeley O'Meara - wine merchant - b. 1829: John O'MEARA 1797-1867 and Elisabeth Sophie FITZPATRICK 1809-1889. Acc. to http://gw.geneanet.org: parents of mentioned John O'Meara: Jack O'MEARA and Ann MORAN.
Why James Augustin FITZPATRICK found himself in France between 1805 and 1809, we do not know; France and England at that time were fighting at many fronts; maybe he traded wine from southern France as Paul Armand?! Maybe he traded tea from India? The economic blockade of the UK economy by France, created by closing the trade of this country with the countries of continental Europe and imposed allies of France to introduce trade embargo against Great Britain, resulted edition in Berlin by Napoleon Bonaparte's decree of November 21, 1806. The closure of European ports for the British fleet cut off the United Kingdom from markets and supply. It was notoriously broken because its effects were also negative for the European economies. For example, the cost of wine production in Scotland and France. France also losses because it was the recipient of the English wool.

The creation of a secret society (the Round Table of Milner) had been planning for more than seventeen years. "Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890".
According to Carroll Quigley, "...Rhodes embraced the ideas of Stead much earlier than they actually have met (on 4 April 1889), and then they jointly set up their secret society for the establishment of the Anglo-American Union ... in 1891, February 5. Stead continues: The conception in those day (1880) was confined to few, but nowadays the parties led by Lord Rosebery and Lord Salisbury would vie with each other in asserting their readiness to recognize the European Concert as the germ of the United States of Europe, and to develop the concerted action of six Powers in relation to the question of the East into a Federated Union of all the European States...".
This is not a joke on the readers of this website, that 100 years and 1 day later, the general Kiszczak also closed the debate of his Round Table.
This Round Table that are negotiations conducted to April 5, 1989 by the representatives of the People's Republic of Poland in Magdalenka near Warsaw.

When Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland, then Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, from December 1916 to November 1918, was one of the most important members of David Lloyd George's War Cabinet. His mother was a daughter of Major General John Ready, former Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island and later the Isle of Man.
Upon his return from South Africa, Viscount Milner occupied himself mainly with business interests in London, becoming chairman of the Rio Tinto Zinc mining company, a director of the Joint Stock Bank, in January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson, in Russia, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed; he was an advocate of inter-allied cooperation, in St. Petersburg in February 1917.
But Trotsky in his book 'My Life' tells of a British financier, who in 1907 gave him a large loan to be repaid after the overthrow of the Tsar. Arsene de Goulevitch, who witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution, has identified both the name of the financier and the amount of the loan: over 21 million rubles were spent by Lord Alfred Milner in financing the (October 1917 Revolution) Russian Revolution.
It was a big dream of Pilsudski and Poles to Tsarist Russia collapsed, and then in the revolutionary chaos appeared Lenin had passed into Russia by the Germans.
A documents made it clear, that this above mentioned funding was provided by Milner and channeled through Sir George Buchanan, who was the British Ambassador to Russia at the time, acc. to Goulevitch, p. 230.

In March 1832, Adam Mickiewicz stayed in Dresden, Saxony, where he wrote the third part of his poem 'Dziady'. July 1832 he arrived in Paris, accompanied by Ignacy Domeyko; in Paris, Mickiewicz published articles in 'Pielgrzym Polski', and wrote 'The Books of the Polish People and of the Polish Pilgrimage' - in the part: 'Pilgrim LITANY' we read:
"...The universal war for the freedom of peoples,
We ask you, Lord.
The weapons and national eagles,
We ask you, Lord...".

Tadeusz A. Kisielewski in "The Great War and Polish independence" ed. Rebis Publishing House, 2014, shows the First World War (the Great War 1914-1918) as a game of powers, which fight each other for dominance over Europe and domination in the colonies.

In 1832 the author of 'Pilgrim LITANY', Adam Mickiewicz, although romantic poet, but cool, wrote that
an essential condition of Poland's independence is the conflict between the invaders, and it must be converted into a European-wide war.

In 1895, Pilsudski published an article titled "Russia", in which he formulated for the first time
a basic condition for independence by Poland: to "slit the seams of ethnic Russia" and other non-Russian parts of the empire (to split the seams of ethnic Russia and other non-Russian parts).

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins, Serbs and Bosniak, coordinated by Danilo Ilic, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society.
"...In May of 1914 Colonel Dmitrijevic, a secret way from his own government, introduced the idea of the assassination of Archduke. The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow, was not able to decide, and reached an agreement with friends from the General Staff in St. Petersburg, and after a few days passed acceptance: 'Works ... we will not leave you alone'. Today we know that these words were not empty. We do not know who made the decision. Whoever he was, he had to be close to the heads of the party pro war; it was leading by the uncle of the Tsar, Grand Duke Nicholas (Nikolai); and operate at the interface between the military and diplomacy, he soon began a covert operation to observe long-term Russian ambassador in Belgrade, Nikolai Hartwig. One thing is certain: the decision of St. Petersburg, and then ... shots of Princip started the chain of events that led to the global carnage...",
according to http://foxmulder2.blogspot.com/2014/06/najwieksze-sekrety-kryptonim.html by Hubert Kozieł.

The Russian attache Colonel Artamonow / Viktor Alekseevich Artamonov / Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov / Виктор Алексеевич Артамонов, had a close relationship with Apis;
"...accessible records do not explain what role, if any, Artamonov had in the plot. To make matters murkier still, just before his execution by his own government at Salonika in June 1917, after being accused of involvement in yet another plot, this time against his own leaders, Dimitrijevic boasted in writing of his role behind the Sarajevo plot and admitted that Artamonov funded the terrorist operation, something that Yugoslavia's Communists revealed in 1953 to discredit the royal regime that preceded them in power in Belgrade. As Artamonov died in exile in 1942 without fully explaining his role in the assassination... something undertaken by direction from St. Petersburg. ... Given that Russian radio intelligence was able to read Austro-Hungarian diplomatic ciphers before the war, it seems likely that St. Petersburg was aware of what Vienna's probable reaction to the assassination would be and, as Sean Meekin has recently observed, the Russians subsequently acted as if they have something to hide: 'gaps in the record strongly suggest a good deal of purging took place after 1914', to cover whatever tracks Artamonov left behind. The attaché conveniently managed to be out of Belgrade on the day of the assassination, yet it was well known in Serbian military circles that, in the weeks before the assassination, he and Apis saw each other almost daily. A Serbian colonel who was close to Apis conceded that Artamonov had encouraged the plot... it seems very likely that St. Petersburg knew more about the plot that it later proved politic to admit...".
And "...Serbian military intelligence, whose chief, Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijević, colloquially known as Apis (The Bull), was a violent conspirator with impressive credentials even by high regional standards", copyright by http://20committee.com/

Apis ordered the murder of Franz Ferdinand, and he said that the Russian military attache Artamonov promised protection of Russia from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when Serbia's intelligence operations will be disclosed, and that Russia has financed the killing. In an interview, Artamonov categorically denied any involvement of Russia in this case. Artamonov said that at this time he was on vacation in Italy, leaving only military assistant of Attache Alexander Verkhovsky; and although he had the daily contact with Apis, he learned about the role of Apis only at the end of the war, acc. to Albertini.
Verkhovskii / Alexander Verkhovsky first admitted involvement of the Attache Office, and then completely stopped talking about it.
There is evidence that on June 14, 1914 Russia was at least aware of the plans of terrorists.
Shelking wrote: '...01 (14) June 1914, Emperor Nicholas had a conversation with King Charles in Constanta in Romania. I was there at the time ... as far as I could tell from my conversation with the members of his entourage (Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov) he (Sazonov) was convinced that if the Archduke (Franz Ferdinand) will go in the direction of peace in Europe will not be threatened'.

Mentioned above
Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Верхо́вский / Verkhovsky, Alexander / Aleksander Wierchowski - b. 1886, St. Petersburg, d. August 19, 1938; nobility.
In 1905, for the liberal-constitutional view expelled from the Corps of Pages and sent in Manchuria, was the gunner; awarded the George Cross and promoted to officer. In 1905-1908 he served in Helsingfors, the 3rd Light division in Finland, 1909 lieutenant. Graduated from the Nikolaev Military Academy (1911); 1911 he graduated from the Academy of General Staff. 1911 staff-captain, 1913 - Captain. 1911-1913 he commanded a company of the 2nd Infantry Regiment in Finland. 1913 the senior aide of Staff of the 3rd Finnish Infantry Brigade.
He was sent to Serbia (1914) to study the experiences of participation of the Serbian army in the Balkan wars.
Since the beginning of the First World War he returned to Russia, participated in the battles in East Prussia. Since 1915 head of security section of Staff to the 22nd Corps on the South-Western Front; at the headquarters of 7th Army. Since March 1916, Lieutenant Colonel, Chief of Staff of Army Group, designed to capture Trebizond from the sea. In September - December 1916 in Romania, he was assistant of the security section of the Russia's representative at the headquarters; he arrived in Petrograd and wrote: 'Only a change of political system could save the army from the new misfortunes, and Russia from the ignominious defeat. Army has lost patience...', acc. to '...From the diary of a marching 1914-1918', Moscow.
In early 1917 appointed Chief of Staff of the Chernomorskoy division, designed for landing on the Turkish coast.
After the February Revolution of 1917 he participated in the meeting of officers of the garrison to support the Provisional Government.
On August 30, 1917 Kerensky appointed Verkhovsky the Military Minister;
on Sept. 1st, 1917 introduced him to the Directory, giving the rank of Major-General;
on Sep 7, 1917 Verkhovsky made a presentation on the reorganization of the army;
on Sep 8, 1917 appointed to the Bureau of the Central Executive Committee;
on October 20, 1917 the joint meeting of the Pre-Parliament Committee Defense and Foreign Affairs - Verkhovsky analyzed the state of the army and said we can't fight;
on October 22, 1917 / 04 Nov. "he went on to Balaam" (?), where only on 29 Oct. learned about the October armed uprising.
Nov. 3 / 16, 1917 returned to Petrograd, and together with members of the Central Committee went to headquarters where the All-Army committee and leaders of some socialist parties tried to form a 'general-socialist government';
Nov. 1917 moved to Mogilov.
In 1922 he was a military expert of the Soviet delegation at the Genoa International Conference.
On 18 July 1931 on charges of anti-Soviet activities sentenced to death. December 2, 1931 sentence to 10 years in the camps.

Viktor Alekseievitch Artamonov born October 9, 1873 and died August 23, 1942 in Antwerp, Belgium.
"He graduated in 1890 from the Cadet Corps Simbirsk, in 1892 the Military Academy in 1900 and Pavlovsk Academy of Staff of Mykolayiv. ... the Volhynian Guard Regiment, ... and Odessa in 1904. ... military liaison officer 1907 to 1909 in Greece and then from 1909 to 1918 in Serbia. ... 1919 to 1920 he was representative in Belgrade Armed Forces of South Russia, under the direction of Anton Ivanovich Denikin then under those of Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel...".

Very interesting research of Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire, 'Dictionnaire de la Franc-maconnerie', Paris, Armand Colin, 2014, p. 307-314: the conspiracy theory, a whole section of contemporary American literature to have become a topic of academic research among Americanists; revolutions from the eighteenth century.

But the first was John Robison (1739 - 1805), a Scottish physicist and mathematician. He was a professor of philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. A member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, the first General Secretary to the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1783 - 1798). See Becu in 1803 in Scotland (Dzierzynski, Becu, Pilar-Pilchau, Bulhak, Pilsudski). Robison also worked with James Watt on an early steam car. Following the French Revolution, Robison became disenchanted with elements of the Enlightenment. He authored Proofs of a Conspiracy in 1797, a polemic accusing Freemasonry of being infiltrated by Weishaupt's Order of the Illuminati. Born in Boghall, Baldernock, Stirlingshire, close to Thornhill, north-west of Stirling; west of Drummond, south-west of the Doune castle.

See: Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD; the Douglas family from Bothwell - 15 km south-east of Glasgow, Kincardineshire, 30 km south of Aberdeen, and from Fordoune, Scotland - 14 km north-west of Srirling; see: Douglas from Italy, Napoli. James Francis Edward Keith b. 1696, a Scottish soldier, was born at Inverugie Castle near Peterhead - north of Aberdeen in eastern Scotland, the second son of William, 9th Earl Marischal of Scotland who b. ca 1664, and was also a Jacobite politician of Scotland. Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta.

Back to John Robison:
"...In 1770 he travelled to Saint Petersburg as the Secretary of Admiral Charles Knowles, where he taught mathematics to the cadets at the Naval Academy at Cronstadt, obtaining a double salary and the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. ... Robison returned to Scotland in 1773 and took up the post of Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He lectured on mechanics, hydrostatics, astronomy, optics, electricity and magnetism (see Gernet, Duflon, Breguet, Konstantynowicz). Towards the end of his life, he became an enthusiastic conspiracy theorist, publishing Proofs of a Conspiracy, ... in 1797, alleging clandestine intrigue by the Illuminati and Freemasons ... carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati and Reading Societies. The secret agent monk, Alexander Horn provided much of the material for Robison's allegations. ... In 1798, the Reverend G. W. Snyder sent Robison's book to George Washington for his thoughts on the subject in which he replied to him in a letter. ... Modern conspiracy theorists, such as Nesta Webster and William Guy Carr, believe the methods of the Illuminati as described in Proofs of a Conspiracy were copied by radical groups throughout the 19th and 20th centuries in their subversion of benign organizations...".

Weishaupt (Johann Adam Weishaupt b. 1748 in Ingolstadt, d. 1830) was trained by friend of Moses Mendelssohn - Hartwig Wessely / Hartog Naftali Herz in 1771. Over the next five years
Weishaupt formulated a plan, all secret systems be reduced to a single powerful organization. On May 1, 1776, he formed it to live as a secret Order of the Illuminati or "Enlightened"
and stood at the forefront; see at http://www.eioba.pl/a/3it4/teorie-spiskowe-zakon-iluminatow; this organization essentially acting as a "over-Freemasonry", to take control on all of Freemasonry. Weishaupt himself to be even accept to lodge "Zur Behuntsamkeit" in Munich, and began to arrange his Order within Freemasonry. Please compare the text: http://www.klubinteligencjipolskiej.pl/2015/03/wall-street-i-rewolucja-bolszewicka-w-rosji-2/; and notes by Douglas Reed, translated by Krzysztof Edmund Wojciechowicz, at http://spiritolibero.neon24.pl/post/107504,rewolucja-swiatowa.

And now back to England:
Edward VII, b. 1841 in London, in 1874 the Prince of Wales attended the marriage at St. Petersburg of his brother, the Duke of Edinburgh, with the grand-duchess Marie of Russia. He was first elected grand master of the Freemasons of England in 1874; a bencher of the Middle Temple, he was son of Queen Victoria; initiated by the King of Sweden, at Stockholm in 1868, the rank of Past Grand Master of England was conferred upon him in 1870. Patron of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland and was an honorary member of Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1. Grand Master Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (then the King of Great Britain and Ireland as Edward VII from 1901), 1874 to 1901.

The network:
Montenegro - Potapov - Parvus - Berezyna - Konstantynowicz - Artuzow - Volpi - Venetia - electricity:
Prince Arseny Karageorgievich / Karadjordjevic b. 1859, d. 1938, was educated in Paris lycee and graduated from the 2nd Konstantinovskoye Military College in 1888; served until 1916 to the Russian military, Major General of the Russian Imperial Army, participated in the Russian-Japanese War and in the First World War; the pretender to the Serbian throne, who formerly served in the French Foreign Legion; the friend of Drzewiecki, Duflon, Breguet in St Petersburg (see: Potapov in Montenegro; the Azbelev / Azbelew family, and the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company in Petersburg; Nagasaki and Bronislaw Pilsudski, Volpi; Neuchatel in Switzerland).
Arseny was the son of Serbian Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic and Princess Persia.

The first genealogy of Arseny:

Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov / Demidoff, 2nd Prince San Donato, 1839-1885, owned approximately 100 factories in Russian and 1 million squares kilometers of land in Russia, France and in Italy. He move to Villa Pratolino, named as Villa Demidoff, and m. 2nd time to Helena or Elena Petrovna, Princess Troubetzekaya, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, b. St. Peterburg in 1853, d. Odessa in 1917; Aurora Pavlovna Demidova, Countess Demidova, Princess San Donato, Princess of Serbia, and later Countess Noghera, born in San Donato in 1873 or 1874, d. Marseille, in 1943, eldest daughter of the second marriage of the above Prince Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; Aurora m. first to Arsene Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1859-1938, son of Alexandar Karageorgievich, Prince of Serbia, 1806-1885 and Persida Nenadovic, 1813-1873. General of the Russian army; Comander-General of the Yugoslavian army. He was brother of Peter I, King of Serbians, Croats and Slovens, later King of Yugoslavia, 1844-1921. Prince Arsene divorced in 1896. Paul Karadordevic, Prince of Yugoslavia, b. 1893, was educated at the University of Oxford.

The second genealogy of Arseny:

A wife 1891/2 - 1896 of above Arseny Aleksandrovich Karageorgievich / Arseny prince Karageorgievich:

Aurora Pavlovna Demidova di San Donato, b. 15 November 1873, Kiev; her mother Helena Petrovna nee Troubetzkoy, b. 1853 and married to Pavel Pavlovich Demidov; her grandfather Peter Nikitich Troubetzkoy born 1826, her great-grandfather Nikita Petrovich Trubetskoy, b. August 18, 1804; her great - great-grandfather Peter S. Troubetzkoy b. 1760 died 1817; her great-great - great-grandfather Sergei Troubetzkoy Nikitich b. 1731 died 1812.

Above mentioned Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic / Alexander I of Yugoslavia (1806 - 1885), Prince of Serbia in 1842 - 1858. After his father's death in 1817, he was living in Russia and served to the Russian army to 1840. He left two sons: Peter I of Yugoslavia (1844-1921), 1903 the king of Serbia, 1918 the King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; and above named Arseny (1859 - 1938); his son, Prince Paul was a regent of Yugoslavia in 1934 - 1941.

Mentioned Aurora Pavlovna, nee Princess Demidov San Donato (b. 1873, Kiev; d. 1904, Turin), her father Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d.
1885, Pratolino near Florence),
Russian industrialist, 1871-1872 and 1873-1874 Kiev; the Red Cross during the Turkish war of 1877-1878. He was son of Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov and Aurora Karamzina.

Baroness Eva Aurora Charlotte Stjernvall / Eva Aurora Charlotta Stjernvall; 1836 the name Demidov, 1846 as Karamzin; she was born in 1808, Bёrneborg, died 1902, Helsingfors; the Swedish-Finnish roots, a maid of honor of the imperial court, a large philanthropist.
Her husband was Count Pavel Demidov (1798 - 1840, Mainz), Russian businessman, the owner of the richest Ural iron foundry (see Koziell-Poklewski family), the actual state councilor, honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, philanthropist; the son of Count Nikolai Nikitich Demidov and Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov.

On the other hand we look at
Emmanuel Karaso, Karassu / Carasso / Emanuel Karasu (Salonica, 1862 - died in Trieste in 1934), a lawyer of the Sephardic Jewish Carasso family of Salonica / Thessaloniki, Greece; a member of the Young Turks; a member or a founder, president of the Macedonian Risorta Masonic lodge in Thessaloniki; he worked for Jewish organizations in Turkey, and negotiated the treaty ending the Italo-Turkish War.

And next network in the Balkan kingdom of Montenegro, owned by Volpi, and the Russian military attache from 1903 to 1915 - N. M. Potapov.

Potapov in 1915 taken the position of Quartermaster General and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Russian Army, in charge of all army intelligence.
In the summer of 1917, Potapov began Bolshevik, but he was known since the 1890s.
He help to the transformation of the Tsarist War Ministry into the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs (see the Bonch-Bruevich brothers, Lenin, and village Zbyszyn close to Miezonka).
He was the first Red Army Chief of Staff; close to A. A. Artuzov (see Saanen in Switzerland, Lenin, Dzierzynski in Switzerland, Duflon) - who was a cousin of Potapov.

And at present back again to Montenegro and Serbia, Venetia and Turkey:

"...Parvus's status in Switzerland was secured by his longtime colleague, Adolph Muller, the German Ambassador in Berne, and a Munich publisher. According to authors James and Suzanne Pool ... he had done business with the Nazis since before the putsch. ... The money that Hitler used to purchase the newspaper came from a White Russian and former Okhrana associate, Vasili Biskupsky. ... At the close of World War I, Parvus wrote the following profile of the European situation:
'There exist two possibilities only: either the unification of western Europe, or Russia's domination. The whole game with the buffer states will end in their annexation by Russia, unless they are united with central Europe in an economic community, which would provide a counter-balance to Russia'.
Under any circumstances, Parvus argued that the era of the nation-state system had ended in Europe...".

Acc. to the article on September 23, 2005, Executive Intelligence Review, ... Parvus Permanent War Madness, by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas. This article was based on an exhaustive study by Allen and Rachel Douglas, 'The Roots of the Trust: From Volpe to Volpi, and Beyond - The Venetian Dragomans of the Russian Empire', and on published and unpublished research by Scott Thompson, Marjorie Mazel Hecht, and Joseph Brewda:
"...a doctrine which the Russian-born British intelligence asset Alexander Helphand, also known as Parvus, dictated to Leon Trotsky's effort to overthrow Russia's Tsar in the revolution of 1905. What Helphand dictated to his dupe Trotsky, in writing, personally, there at that time, is a doctrine of 'permanent revolution / permanent war', which Trotsky himself defended up to the moment of his murder by a Soviet assassin, in Mexico in 1940. Alexander Israel Helphand (a.k.a. Parvus). Both (Shabotynsky / Zabotynski) Jabotinsky and Parvus edited publications of the British / Venetian-spawned Young Turk movement, which helped ... the overthrow of the Ottoman Empire.
Like Jabotinsky, Parvus (1867 - 1924) came from (born in Berezyna in 1867) an Odessa family steeped in the grain trade. By 1886, Helphand / Parvus had already become involved in the Okhrana-spawned Russian socialist scene, travelling to Switzerland to participate in the Emancipation of Labor group, led by a number of documented Okhrana agents, including Lev Deutsch, and suspected Okhrana man Georgi Plekhanov / Plechanow.

... By 1900, Parvus had joined the inner circle of the Bolsheviks, using his Munich, Germany apartment to house the printing press for the group, and hosting V. I. Lenin and other leaders (see Brilling, Duflon and Konstantynowicz family, Inessa Armand, Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand).
According to several biographical accounts, by 1902, Parvus was receiving direct Okhrana funding through Gorky, who gave Parvus the rights to publish his works abroad (see Neapol and Capua in my research).
When the entire leadership of the Petersburg Soviet, including Trotsky, was rounded up and jailed in December 1905, Parvus escaped the police clutches. When he was later captured, he escaped police custody, courtesy of the Okhrana agent Lev Deutsch. Parvus next turned up, via Germany, in Constantinople, as a 'journalist' covering the Young Turk rebellion against the Ottomans ... It would be at this moment that Parvus's ties to the leading European 'Venetian Party' factions would be publicly shown.
In 1908, the Committee for Union and Progress, otherwise known as the Young Turks, carried out a military coup, overthrowing the Sultan and seizing power over the Ottoman Empire. ... The actual founder of the Young Turk movement was an Italian Freemason and grain trader named Emmanuel Carasso. Jewish by birth, Carasso had been a founder of the Italian Masonic lodge in Salonika, called the Macedonia Risorta Lodge.
Virtually all of the members of the Young Turk leadership were lodge members. The forerunner of the Macedonia Risorta Lodge was founded by a follower of another Palmerston agent and revolutionary provocateur, Giuseppi Mazzini. ... Carasso was a leading financier (see electricity, Duflon, Konstantynowicz, Venetia) of the entire Young Turk insurrection, and during the Balkan Wars, he was not only the head of Balkan intelligence operations for the Young Turks; he was in charge of all food supplies for the Ottoman Empire during World War I, a lucrative business which he shared with Parvus (see Berezyna and Odessa). ... Another of Carasso's 'business' associates was Parvus, who became economics editor of another Young Turk journal, The Turkish Homeland. Parvus also became a partner of Carasso in the grain trade, and in the arms business, and became independently wealthy. ... Carasso was a protege and business partner of Volpi di Misurata, the leading Venetian banker of the early 20th century, who not only sponsored the Young Turk insurrection, but also promoted the Black Shirt takeover of Rome and went on to run the Mussolini Fascist regime ... The Venetian banker Volpi was closely allied with City of London financiers throughout. And the Young Turks, once they took power, made no secret of their London ties. In 1909 the Ottoman Navy was put under the command of a British admiral; ... banker, Ernst Cassel, established and managed the National Bank of Turkey; and British officials advised the Ministry of Finance, the Interior Ministry, and the Ministry of Justice.
... Parvus also got into the tightly controlled arms business, probably under the patronage of Sir Basil Zaharoff of the Vickers Arms cartel, a prominent Anglo - Venetian enterprise. Once the Balkan Wars had started, leading directly into World War I, Parvus turned his attention back to Russia, laying plans to finance a revolution, to be led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Parvus set his scheme for revolution down in a March 9, 1915 memorandum to the German Foreign Ministry, vowing that the Bolsheviks would take power in Russia in 1916, and seeking financial support. ...
One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski, the head of the Political Section and a longtime business associate of none other than Young Turks financier, the Venetian Synarchist Party operative Giuseppi Volpi, the future controller of Mussolini.
According to his own memoirs,
von Hutten-Czapski had seen the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War as an opportunity 'to smash the Tsarist Empire',
a view shared by Parvus.
... Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark ... Stinnes, too, was tied to Volpi and the Banca Commerciale Italiana. In May 1915, Parvus met with Lenin and Karl Radek in Switzerland (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), and then created a string of front groups in Stockholm and Copenhagen. ... By April 1917, Parvus had pushed the German government to grant secret safe-passage to the Bolshevik leaders back into Russia, and arrangements were soon made, through Parvus and Radek, to smuggle Lenin and 40 other leading Bolsheviks from Switzerland, through Stockholm, back to Petrograd. Parvus remained in Stockholm, in constant communication with the International Mission of the Petrograd Bolshevik Central Committee Abroad...".

On the above Synarchist movement, by LYNN PICKNETT & CLIVE PRINCE:
"...This shadowy politico-occult movement is synarchy, which was developed by the Frenchman Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves, the Marquis d'Alveydre, in opposition to the rise of anarchy in the second half of the nineteenth century. ... The most high-profile late nineteenth-century devotee of Saint-Yves was the physician Gérard Encausse (Papus), a leading light among French esoteric societies. ... Encausse's death in 1916 resulted in a schism in the Martinist Order over its involvement in politics. The activists, under Victor Blanchard - head of the secretariat of the Chamber of Deputies of the French Parliament - formed the breakaway Martinist and Synarchic Order, which established the Synarchic Central Committee in 1922, designed to pull in promising young civil servants and younger members of great business families...".

Acc. to 'Cheney Revives Parvus "Permanent War" Madness', by Jeffrey Steinberg, Allen Douglas, and Rachel Douglas:

"...The German government was deeply split over the issue of backing a Russian Bolshevik revolution. Close advisors to the German Kaiser argued that Germany should push a separate peace with the Tsar, while a faction, centered in the General Staff and around Foreign Minister Zimmerman, pushed for a war-to-the-death with Russia, arguing that war with Russia was inevitable, and it made sense to get on with it before Russia became more powerful. One of the key backers of the Parvus Plan at the German General Staff was Count Bogdan von Hutten-Czapski ...
In addition to the German Foreign Ministry and the German General Staff, Parvus was also given access to an exhaustive amount of funds for his Russian regime change scheme from a leading German Synarchist industrialist and close associate of Hjalmar Schacht (later Hitler's Economics Minister), Hugo Stinnes of the German coal syndicate. Stinnes granted Parvus control over the shipping and sale of German coal to Denmark, from which Parvus made millions of gold marks per month...".

Some on Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki:
A.
Von Fürstenberg was a powerful family lived in Germany in the 19th and the 20th centuries.
Maria Felicitas Ferdinanda von Fürstenberg married ca 1920 to Friedrich Carl von Westphalen zu Fürstenberg b. 1900. Sophie Therese de Longueval Gräfin von Buquoy b. 1879, the daughter of Karl de Longueval Graf von Buquoy and Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz, married Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg in 1897.
Her children: 1. Friedrich Carl Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1898, and 2. Carl Philipp Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1907.
Above Clemens Graf von Westphalen zu Furstenberg b. 1864. Above mentioned Philippine Gräfin Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1858, the daughter of Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Countess Aloisia Morzin.
Hermann Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born in 1819, the son of Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz and Therese Gräfin von Orsini und Rosenberg.
Eugen Karl Graf Czernin von und zu Chudenitz was born on 4 November 1796 at Vienna, Austria, the son of Rudolf Graf Czernin and Maria Theresia Gräfin von Schonborn-Heussenstamm.
B. We know that:
1. after the First World War Stanisław Furstenberg lived in Poland, he was prosecutor, inf. 1931.
2. Fürstenberg Stanisław died in Warsaw, on 06.08.1911. Maybe father of Hanecki.
3. History of the Fürstenberg (Furstenberg) beer originated to the 13th cent. in Donaueschingen, Germany; commercial production of the drink starts from the XVIII century; beer brewed at Hallertau, now Fürstenberg Lager brewed in Munich.
At the beginning of the 19th cent. in Warsaw brewed beer: Krembitz, Schaefer and Glimpf, Wojciech Sommer, in the second half of the 19th cent. in Warsaw: Herman Jung, Karol Machlejda, Władysław Kijok, Edward Reych;
Haberbusch and Schiele since 1846 (Błażej Haberbusch, Konstanty Schiele and Henryk Klawe) in Warsaw and Odessa;
Herman Jung since 1840 from Silesia to Warsaw, 1846 the Grzybowska street, then with Knopf taken K. Bochenek brewary and from Antoni Boenisch plant, also the Karol Osterloff brewary at Grochow.
Jakub Fürstenberg / Kuba / Mikola, b. 1879, came from an assimilated German family, his father was a wealthy merchant and industrialist of Polonized German family.
His father Stanislaw von Fürstenberg / Stanislaus von Furstenberg was the producer of beer, and a factory owner.
The first owner Samuel Krauze, next Waldemar Beorner leased a brewery from Anna Krauze (see Krauze / Krause in Estonia), and then became it owner, a subsequent owners: S. Fürstenberg / Stanislaw von Furstenberg, next was Z. Katz;
main gate of this brewary at Grzybowska / Wronia street (Grzybowska 61 then 65, and Wronia No 12); at Grzybowska No 34 a brewary of A. LENTZKI of 1874, then 1891 to Samuel Krauze; but 1889 Waldemar Boerner was owner.
C.
Our Polish-Jewish-German revolutionary, Jakub Fuerstenberg-Hanecki b. 1879, killed in 1937 in Soviet Union; Lenin had received money and instructions from Jakub Fuerstenberg / Yakov Ganetsky, and from Alexander Parvus of Berezyna. Jakub Hanecki since 1896 in the underground movement, since 1901 in Berlin as a salesman, 1902 top member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania; a friend of Feliks Dzierżyński in Warsaw.
According to the book by Berberova "Iron Lady", the Fuerstenberg or Fürstenberg / Furstenberg family was in a relationship with A. Parvus from Berezyna - Odessa (maybe Stanislaw Furstenberg or his wife was next of kin with the Helphand family of Berezyna?).
We read on an announcement of executions for espionage against the German army, in Warsaw during the German occupation, by the martial court due spy sentenced to death:
1. Leo Sommerfeld,
2. Alexander Petrajtys,
3. Jacob Fürstenberg,
on 23 October 1915, acc. to the German form of 1916.
But immediately after Gelfand had visited Lenin in May 1915 in Switzerland, first appeared one of the most efficient agents of Lenin in Copenhagen, in the place which the Gelfand had chosen as the base for his anti-Russian campaign - the agent was mentioned above Jacob Fürstenberg - Ganetzky.
Lenin asserted in the summer of 1917, Ganetzky had never been a Bolshevik.
The journey of the April 1917 went via Frankfurt to Berlin, where the train was stopped for some time; on the evening of April 12, 1917, the train reached Saßnitz,
24 hours later, Lenin went ashore in Malmö. There, his agent Fürstenberg - Ganetzky received him with a message from Parvus: It is now high time to direct German-Russian peace negotiations in the way.
Ganetzky / Ganetsky / Hanecki was a treasurer of Lenin.
Yakov Stanislavovich Ganetsky / Hanecki / Jakub Fürstenberg / Fuerstenberg / Jakub Ganezki / Jakow Stanislawowitsch Fürstenberg was the connection to Parvus, and was the immediate link to Lenin.
Hanecki - Fürstenberg killed on 26 November 1937, was "...one of the financial wizards who arranged, through his close working relationship with Alexander Parvus, the secret German funding that saved the Bolsheviks ... (with) Karl Radek, was involved in secret negotiations with the German General Staff regarding funding of the Bolsheviks and was one of the organizers of the (Copenhagen operation) as well as a mediator between Lenin and the Germans. He was one of the organizers of Lenin's return in a sealed train from exile in Switzerland to Russia in 1917 ... After the October Revolution of 1917, Ganetsky served as Chief Soviet banker, trade representative and Ambassador to Latvia...(copyright Wikipedia)", by Wikipedia in 2015: he signed the Peace of Riga and Treaty of Kars.
D.
At margin:
Franz Jacob Furstenberg b. 1856 to Franz Johannes Furstenberg and Elizabeth Gerlach. Franz Johannes Furstenberg 1823-1879 married in 1849 to Elizabeth Gerlach b. 1823, her children:
Heinrich b. 1851, August 1853, Furstenberg, Franz Jacob b. 1856, and 4. Franz Joseph b. 1861. The Gerlach family was from Helmsdorf bei Leinefelde.
Franz Johannes Furstenberg born in Helmsdorf, Germany in 1823 to Adam Furstenberg and Dorothea Wachtel. His brother (?) Franz Joseph Furstenberg 1831-1930.

By Wikipedia:
"Karol Sobelsohn / Karl Berngardovich Radek, b. 1885 in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary, d. 1939, acted in the Polish and German social democratic movements; during the Great Purge of the 1930s, he was accused of treason and confessed, after two and a half months of interrogation, sentenced to 10 years of penal labor; killed in a labor camp in a fight with another inmate, or was killed by an NKVD operative under direct orders from Lavrentiy Beria".
1901 Karl set out for Cracow (classmates: Marian Kukiel); met with Boleslaw Drobner, 1902 wrote to 'Promien'; met with Emil Haecker of 'Naprzod'; 1903 in Cracow with Feliks Dzierzynski at the Jagellonian University, but late in 1903 Radek emigrated to Zurich!
took a job as librarian, met with Max Nomad (see Machajski and Trubecki Nestor); then met with Adolf Warski Warszawski, who was his sponsorship to SDKPiL; through Warszawski Warski, he began a correspondence with Rosa Luxemburg; and she arranged for him to publish some articles in the newspapers of the German socialist;
in December 1905 he crossed the Austro-Russian border to Warsaw, was arrested in March 1906 (see Nestor Trubecki); emerged from prison in early 1907;
in May 1907 he became the editor of 'Czerwony Sztandar'; 1908 had transffered some trade union funds to Stanislawski, and Radek must left Warsaw for Berlin;
met with Warszawski and his immediate acceptance into the top socialist circles in Germany in 1908 could been through the intervention of Warszawski, Marchlewski, Luxemburg and Leo Jogiches, Paul Frolich in Berlin.
Then Radek moved to Leipzig (see Anna Konstantynowicz nee Armand), under command of Luxemburg; by 1910 Radek was well known in German socialist circles; 'married' 1909/1911 to a German girl Rosa;
summer 1910 in Copenhagen (see Anna Konstantynowicz and Inessa Armand); met Lenin the first. Radek returned to Leipzig; 1910 moved back to Berlin, 1911 with Hanecki Furstenburg and Unszlicht; 1911 disagreement with Marchlewski, but close friendships with August Thalheimer, Konrad Haenisch from Bremen.
Karl Radek in spring 1912 published for Karl Kautsky; but in July 1912 aimed his attack directly at Kautsky.
'Through Germany in the Sealed Coach', ed in 1924, originally published in German in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66. This is the first time this text has been published in English. Translated and transcribed by Ian Birchall. Translation © Copyright 2005 Ian Birchall. Used by kind permission of the translator. Marked up by Einde O'Callaghan for the Marxists' Internet Archive; at https://www.marxists.org/archive/:
"...On behalf of Vladimir Ilyich I turned, in association with Paul Levi, who at the time was a member of the Spartacus group, and who was temporarily staying in Switzerland, to the representative of the Frankfurter Zeitung, who was known to us. If I am not mistaken, it was a Dr Deinhard. Through him we asked the German Ambassador Romberg whether Germany would allow emigres returning to Russia to pass through its territory. In turn, Romberg enquired of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin and received a reply that was in principle favourable. Thereupon we elaborated the conditions on which we were willing to undertake the journey through Germany. The main conditions were as follows: the German government should allow all applicants to pass through, without asking for their names; those travelling through should enjoy the protection of extraterritoriality and nobody would be entitled to enter into negotiations of any sort with them during their journey. With these conditions we sent the Swiss Socialist deputy Robert Grimm, the secretary of the Zimmerwald Union, and our political ally and comrade Platten to see Romberg. After the meeting with the German Ambassador we met in the trade-union premises. Grimm related how surprised the Ambassador had been, when they had read out to him our conditions for the journey. ...
Grimm, who continued the negotiations in the name of Martov group, had undoubtedly already in Switzerland engaged in negotiations about conditions for peace, and later from Petrograd he sent communications about the prospects for peace from his government, which the Swiss government then probably passed on to the Germans. The attempts to represent him as a German spy or agent are absurd. He wanted to play an important role; Ilyich had already considered that such ambition was the principal motive of his activity. The Germans hoped that in Russia the Bolsheviks would act as opponents of the war and declared themselves in agreement with our conditions. I recommend those gentlemen who are still raising an outcry against the Bolsheviks on this account to read Ludendorff's memoirs, for he is still tearing his hair out over the fact that he let the Bolsheviks through; he has finally grasped that in so doing he was not performing a service for German imperialism, but for the world revolution.
So we set off and travelled in a Swiss train as far as Schaffhausen, where we had to change into the German train. ...
In Trelleborg we made a very striking impression. Ganetsky invited us all to supper which in the Swedish fashion involved Smörgas. We poor fellows, who in Switzerland had been accustomed to have no more than a herring for our dinner, looked at this enormous table with innumerable hors d'oeuvre: we rushed at it like a swarm of grasshoppers and completely emptied the table, to the astonishment of the waiters, who were used to seeing only civilised people at the Smörgas table. Vladimir Ilyich ate nothing. He tried to find out from Ganetsky everything he could about the Russian revolution - but Ganetsky knew nothing. The next morning we arrived in Stockholm. Swedish comrades, journalists and photographers were waiting for us. At the head of the Swedish comrades was Dr Karleson in a top-hat, an inflated chatterer who now, fortunately, has returned from the Communist Party to Branting's camp. ...
In Stockholm Parvus tried to meet Lenin as a representative of the central committee of the German Social Democracy, but Ilyich not only refused to meet him, but charged me, Vorovsky and Ganetsky, together with the Swedish comrades to make a formal record of this attempt. The whole day passed in discussions; we went here and there; but before Lenin left another real deliberation took place. The moment of departure was approaching. Together with the Swedish comrades and a part of the Russian colony in Stockholm we went from the Regina hotel to the station. When our comrades had already boarded the train, one of the Russians took his hat off and made a speech to Lenin. ...
This account by Radek was published in Fritz Platten, Die Reise Lenins durch Deutschland im plombierten Wagen, Berlin 1924, pp. 62-66.
According to Robert Service, Lenin: A Political Life Volume 2: Worlds in Collision, Basingstoke 1991, p. 153, an account of the journey by Radek appeared in Pravda, no. 91, 20 April 1917, p. 4. However, the 1924 version had clearly been revised, since there is a reference to Ludendorff's Memoirs, first published in 1920.
... Last updated on 18.10.2011".

And more information
(on 26th January 2015 by Hubert Koziel) at http://foxmulder2.blogspot.co.uk/2015/01/najwieksze-sekrety-archanio-cz-4-miecz.html.
'Antidotes to Empire: From the Congress System to the European Union' by Stella Ghervas of Harvard University, Center for European Studies, Department Member;
'Blockade 9: Sustaining The Enemy – Tea, Coffee And Plenty Denials' by Jim Macgregor (First World War Hidden History) and Gerry Docherty.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski: his father - Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 in Smogulec + Eleonora Mielżyński; his grandfather Józef Grzegorz Longin Hutten-Czapski 1760-1810
(he was brother of Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski Count 1753 - 1833, who was father of Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1862, and Antonina Skórzewski; and grandfather of Matylda Fabianna Jadwiga Osiecimska; Kazimierz Antoni Fabian Hutten-Czapski, and Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1837 - 1884 in Paris);
and his great-grandfather General Antoni Michal Hutten-Czapski (ca 1725) 1725-1792,
great-great-grandfather Ignacy 1699 - 1745.
Wywiad brytyjski, niemiecki i rosyjski, a niepodleglosc Polski w 1918.  Lista teorii konspiracyjnych - najwieksze teorie konspiracyjne w historii.  Teorie konspiracyjne, historia i genealogia rodu Konstantynowicz z Bialorusi.  Masoneria. Rosyjski wywiad wojskowy. Kluczowe zagadnienia.  Wstep i glowne uwagi o historii rodu Konstantynowicz na Bialorusi i w Rosji 1772 - 1917.

Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten born 1725 (ca 1725)
(son of above mentioned Ignacy Hutten-Czapski b. ca 1699 / 1700, who was brother of Franciszek Hutten-Czapski [m. Katarzyna Skorzewska], Józef Piotr Hutten-Czapski, and Teresa Pawłowska),
d. 1802 in Warsaw; his children:
a. Maria Hutten-Czapska b. 1760 m. Gen.-Major Mikołaj Adrian Joachim Hutten-Czapski of Bukowiec, 1804 Count, with children: 1. Franciszek Ignacy Dionizy Hutten-Czapski b. 1797; 2. Antonina Skórzewski;
b. Anna m. to Józef Oskierka;
c. Ignacy born 1770,
d. Franciszek b. ca 1770;
e. Karol b. in Mińsk 1777-1836 m. Fabianna Obuchowicz (next generation - Emeryk b. 1828);
f. Stanisław 1779-1844 m. Zofia Obuchowicz, Colonel under Napoleon.

Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Francis Servatius Hutten-Czapski b. 1851, d. 1937, in 1890 negotiated with Pope Leo XIII end of the Kulturkampf in Germany; he was friend with the Cardinals of the Vatican; persuaded the German general staff to support the Bolsheviks (1916 - 1917) and in the independent Poland (since 1918) was the president of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta.
His father Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to
(January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833;
1833 - 1837 Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834, including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland. Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to H. Koziel, in
1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
The republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini.

Explanations:

1. At http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1832/feb/29/count-czapski we read:
"...It appeared that Count Czapski had made his escape from Warsaw, with great difficulty, and was so fortunate as to get to Belfast; on his landing there, he was told, it was necessary to give information of his arrival to the office of the Secretary, under the Act regarding Aliens. On his arrival at Dublin, he had made several inquiries at the Custom House and the Castle, and 966 was told at the latter place, as he only intended to stay a few days, he need not apply again. ... After he had landed in Ireland, he came to Dublin, and when he had been there a short time, he was informed, that, in conformity with the Alien Law, he must state to the Government whether he intended to fix his residence there...".
2. "...THE ALIEN LAW - COUNT CZAPSKI. It will be seen from our Police report in this day's FREEMAN, that the distinguished, but unfortunate Pole, who has been sojourning in Dublin for a few weeks. A was yesterday fined 50Ł by the Magistrates at the Head office of Police, under...", on 3 February 1832 in Dublin.
3. "...I DINNER TO COUNT JOSEPH NAPOLEON CZAPSKI. On yesterday, upwards of seventy gentlemnen sat ... I o 'plendid dinner' at Challoner and Hunt's hotel, Davsonstie, WILLIAM FRANCIS FINN, Etq. in the Chair. The, CHAIMIMANI (??), in proposing the first... Saul, be a about to propose the...", on March 02, 1832, by 'Freeman's Journal', in Dublin.
4. Aliens Act; Petition from Dublin respecting Case of Count Czapski.
"Upon reading the Petition of the Inhabitants of the Parishes of the City of Dublin, in that Part of the United Kingdom called Ireland, whose Names are thereunto subscribed; taking notice of the Arrest and Punishment by Fine of Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski, a Native of Poland, for an unintentional infraction of the Aliens Act; and praying their Lordships 'to take such steps as may be best calculated to vindicate the Character and Nature of the British Laws; and to cause a strict Investigation to be instituted into all the Facts of this Case, with a view to a Redress and Reparation of the Injury sustained, and the Punishment of the guilty...".
5. 1832. The House resumed, and the report was ordered to be received next day. The other orders of the day were then disposed ... COUNTRY MISCELLANEA. AFFAIRS OF GERMANY. A meeting, rather thinly but respectably attended, was held on Wednesday at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, Strand, to express, as the requisition stated, their indignation and abhorrence at the invasion lately made by the Diet of Frankfort on the ancient liberties of the Germanic States. Colonel Evans, M. P., Mr. Wyse, M. P., Sir W. Brabazon, Mr. Murray, Count Czapski, M. Bach, with several other foreigners were present. Mr. T. Campbell as chairman, opened the proceedings in a feeling and energetic speech, towards the conclusion of which he said, 'If England allowed Germany to be enslaved by Princes who were themselves the slaves of Russia, she might, when too late, repent in sackcloth and ashes over her departed liberties. The measures of Napoleon against English commerce would be but a jest, a mere feather, compared with the hostility of the present continental despots...".
6. Count Joseph Napoleon Czapski / Czapski left Dublin for London in April 1832.
7. "William Francis Finn was an Irish politician in the United Kingdom House of Commons", by Wikipedia. "He was elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in (on 20 Dec.) 1832 (with Pierce Butler, b. 1774, held post to 1846), and held the seat until 1837".
Pierce Butler (1774 d. 1864) was an Irish politician, elected to the United Kingdom House of Commons as Member of Parliament for County Kilkenny in 1832, and held the seat until 1846.
Acc. to http://genealogy.links.org/links-cgi/readged?/ we read:
Pierce Butler 1774 - 1846 son of Edmund Butler 1745 - 1793 and Lady Henrietta 1750 - 1785; grandson of Edmund Butler, Charlotte Bradstreet, Somerset Hamilton Butler 1718 - 1774, and Juliana Boyle d. 1774.
William Francis Finn died in December 1862 in Tullaroan, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland; wife Alicia; a member of Carlow town family; William Francis Finn's father, also named William, was a prosperous Carlow merchant and tanner, who resided in Carlow.
His brother, Edmund Finn (d. 1777) produced 'Finn's Leinster Journal' / 'Leinster Journal' of Kilkenny. William Snr. helped finance the paper, then to Patrick Kearney.
Carlow is situated on way from Kilkenny to Dublin, south-east of Mountrath!
William Snr. was one of the Carlow delegates to attend the Back Lane Parliament in 1792.
William Francis senior held lands in Graiguecullen, and farms in Kilkenny. William senior had four sons: Thomas, William - Francis, Patrick and Michael. Thomas 1772 - 1842 resided in Carlow. He was an able journalist and accurate historian, in 1798, in "The Irish Magazine and Monthly Asylum for Neglected Biography 1811, Vol.4"; died 1842, at Bellfield, Clontarf.
William Francis, the second son, educated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1805;
a friend of Daniel O'Connell, O'Connell was a frequent visitor to Carlow town, where he stayed with Alicia and William at their residence at Evergreen Lodge in Cox's Lane. Patrick Finn - William's brother, was actively involved in the County Carlow committee, and was also for many years secretary of the "Friends of Civil Religious Liberty... County", with William as chairman; A Liberal club was established in the town, with the Finn family prominent among its leaders. Peter Gale from the Queen's County, William Francis Finn - Carlow, Nicholas Aylward Vigors - Old Leighlin, and Francis Bruen - Enniscorthy, who represented the Tories. Finn to represent the Liberal party.
William Francis was well known and respected in the Leinster and Munster areas, through his involvement in the Catholic Association.
August 1832 - a Baronial meeting at Ballyhale met with William Finn. William Francis finally declared his intention to stand as a candidate for the constituency of County Kilkenny;
he had settled in Tullaroan, County Kilkenny.
In 1837 William Finn withdrew from parliamentary representation; While residing in Tullaroan, he donated land to the clergy, for the erection of a church and school;
The KILKENNY COUNTY: north of Waterford, north-east of Clonmel and east of Tipperary.
County Kilkenny / Contae Chill Chainnigh is a county in Ireland, in the province of Leinster, of the South-East Region.

Very interesting that the family of Countess Maria Dorota Leopoldyna Czapska (nick-name Dorota Obuchowicz, Maria Strzalkowska, and Dorota Thun), b. 1894 in Praga, died 1981, Maisons-Laffitte, Polish historian, sister of Józef Czapski,
grand-daughter of Emeryk Hutten-Czapski, met and was talking in Belarus with (in 1892) Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, the next of kin of the Belarussian branch of the Czapskis, who described an estate of the Czapski family close to Minsk;
she was in Paris 1925 - 1930.
Maria Leopoldyna Hutten-Czapska / Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapski, b. 1894 / 1895 in Prague, died in 1981, daughter of George and Josephine;
above George / Jerzy Hutten-Czapski 1861-1930, was son of Emeryk Zachariasz 1828-1896 and Elzbieta Karolina Meyendorff b. 1833 in Sankt Petersburg, d. 1916;
and mentioned Jerzy was grandson of Fabianna Obuchowicz b. ca 1800 and Karol Hutten-Czapski 1777-1836;
also Jerzy was grandson of Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795 (Georges de Meyendorff d. 1863, diplomate) and Zofia Stackelberg b. 1806.
Above named Josephine / Jozefa Thun-Hohenstein 1867-1903, was daughter of Fryderyk Franciszek Józef Thun-Hohenstein 1810-1881 and Leopoldyna Lamberg 1825-1902.
Above named baron Jerzy Wolter Konrad Meyendorff b. 1795, died in Würzburg, Bawaria, acc. to Maria (Maja) Anna Górska-Zabielska.
Copyright by Claude Trudel:
Jerzy / George Baron Meyendorff (1795-1863) recounts his journey from Orenburg to Bukhara made in 1820 in his travelogue published in 1826. He was then a colonel in the General Staff of the Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825).
This expedition is part of Russian expansionism initiated in the 18th century by Catherine the Great (1729-1796).
An extract of this travelogue is contained in the anthology 'The trip to Central Asia and Tibet' published by Michel Jan in the Editions of Robert Laffont. This extract contains two parts: Preparation and dangers of the journey, Manners and customs of Kyrgyz. Acc. to http://cltr.blogspot.co.uk/2014/10/expedition-en-asie-centrale-1820.html.

Above mentioned Emeryk Zachariasz Mikolaj Seweryn Hutten-Czapski, Count, b. 1828, was son of Karol Józef Czapski, friend
(Karol Czapski was owner of Stankow / Stan'kava in Belarus!; b. 1777, died in 1836 in Danilovichi / Daniłowicze
[Daniłowicze / Danilavichy (Данілавічы, Даниловичи, Daniłavičy), ca 11 km east-south-east of Stan'kava / Stankowo of the Hutten-Czapskis, and 18 km south-east of Dzyarzhynsk / Dzierzynsk / Kojdanow of the Hutten-Czapski family; west of Dukora of the Oginski family; ca 40 km south-west of Minsk in Belarus now. In 19th cent. it was the Minsk government, the Ihumen county (Cerven now), the Uzda region];
he was son of Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten of the Chelmno province in Poland, and Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł, daughter of Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko; Karol Czapski married to Fabianna Obuchowicz, daughter of Michał Obuchowicz of Minsk in Belarus; Karol was brother of Stanisław 1779-1844 / 1845, Colonel of the Polish Army; Marshal of the Minsk county, married Zofia Obuchowicz, owner of Kiejdany - son of mentioned Stanislaw was Marian Czapski Count: born in Łachwa in 1816 Belarus now, d. 1875, Więckowice in the Posen province / Poznan province, studied in Wilno / Vilnius, 1845 owner of Kiejdany close to Minsk, exiled to Siberie in 1864, Tomsk to 1867, 1867-1871 Czapski was living in Dorpat, Estonia)
of last Polish king Stanislaw August Poniatowski (see: Sulkowski, Poniatowski genealogy, Venture, Breguet, Konstantynowicz and villge Miezonka), and Fabianna nee Obuchowicz; this branch come from Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Czapski, of the Chelmno province, and from Belarus (Radziwill family and Wittgenstein - Radziwill).

Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski studied in St Petersburg, 1863-1864 governor of Great Nowogrod, in 1865 was deputy of the Petersburg governor.

Karol Józef Czapski leased Miezonka from Radziwill 1832 - 1842; then Miezonka was the Konstantynowiczs estate (see: Breguet in Kazan and Armand in Moscow).

Above named Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko / Prince Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila / Міхал Казімер Радзівіл, b. 1702, Olyka, owner of Niasviž, Olyka, Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk and Kopyła. Court Marshal of Lithuania since 1734, Grand Hetman of Lithuania since 1744, 1725 he married Urszula Franciszka Wiśniowiecki, 2nd married Anna Luiza Mycielski in 1754 in Lviv; his children: Michal Krzysztof Radziwiłł, Janusz Tadeusz, Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł - Panie Kochanku, Anna, Ludwika, Teofilia Konstancja Radziwiłł / Teofila Morawska, Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Rzewuska / Katarzyna Karolina, Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł / Weronika Joanna Hutten-Czapska, Hieronim Wincenty, Maria Wiktoria / Maria Wiktoria Maja Moricone / Morykoni, Józefina Grabowska, and last Konstancja.
Mykolas Kazimieras Radvila Žuvelė / Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł / Rybenko d. 1762 in Nieswiez, son of Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1669 - 1719, Karol was brother of Mikołaj Franciszek Radziwiłł; Bogusław Krzysztof; Jerzy Józef Radziwiłł; Ludwik Radziwiłł; Tekla Adelajda; and Jan) and Anna Katarzyna;
he was brother of Katarzyna Barbara Branicka; Tekla Róża Korybut-Wiśniowiecka; Karolina Teresa Pia Sapieha; Hieronim Florian Radziwiłł, and Konstancja Franciszka Sapieha.

In May 1900, Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (acc. to Bogdan Hutten Czapski) gave the political leadership - Chancellors Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfurst and Bernard von Bulow - "an early opportunity to object to the politically risky portion of his military thinking ... Accepted by Gerhard Ritter, Fritz Fischer, and Norman Rich, he sought to determine what the Reich political leadership thought about violation of Belgian and Dutch neutrality.
In May 1900 Schlieffen asked Graf (Bogdan) Hutten-Czapski, confidential and private secretary to Chancellor Hohenlohe, to visit him. He asked (Bogdan) Hutten (Czapski) if he would sound out Holstein and the Chancellor confidentially.
... Schlieffen apparently did not name the country to which he referred, but Graf Hutten (-Czapski) immediately thought of Belgium. Hutten-Czapski broached the matter with his friend Holstein, the influential advisor to the Foreign Office. ... A few days later Holstein arranged a social gathering at his house to which the Chancellor and the Chief of the GGS were invited. ... Schlieffen apparently carried out the same procedure with Chancellor Bulow. Schlieffen got a different reaction from Herman Freiherr von Eckhardstein, German Counselor in London...", acc. to Moltke, "Schlieffen, and Prussian War Planning", p. 176.
The Schlieffen Plan of the German General Staff in 1905, with the Deployment Plan Aufmarsch I in 1905, "...would not involve Russia but was expected to include Italy and Austria-Hungary as German allies ... In Aufmarsch I, it was stated that Germany would have to go on the offensive to win this kind of war, which entailed all of the German army being deployed on the German–Belgian border, so it could launch an offensive into France, through the southern Dutch province...".
Alfred von Schlieffen, b. 1833, d. 1913, a German field marshal, the Chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906.
Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was at the time the confidential adviser and secretary to Prince Hohenlohe. Acc. to J. Bradford DeLong on July 16, 2014.
In July 1914, Germany had prepared nothing diplomatically, not even the ultimatum to Belgium. Count Hutten-Czapski, records that in May 1900 immediately thought about Belgium. The whole conversation lasted only a few minutes. The name of the country to which Schlieffen referred was never mentioned.
Count Hutten Czapski claims to have been of a different opinion - that it was a momentous decision which would need careful thought. "...Fundamentally he was against any violation of neutrality without the permission of the states involved, because the consequences could not be predicted".
Schlieffen still had close contact with Holstein, also no less significant and influential Count von Hutten-Czapski.
Big play began in the eighties of the 19th century, when Hutten-Czapski, who was the Polish largest landowner in the Prussian officer corps, also enjoyed the full confidence of Holstein, was as a personal secretary at the Imperial Chancellor Hohenlohe; and under his successor Bulow.
Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow b. 1849, in 1905 Prince, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs for three years and then as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909.
Senior military officials, foreign diplomats and military attaches met in the Bogdan Hutten Czapski house. His connections with the ruling circles and members of the imperial government and the Prussian officer corps were very needed to Schlieffen,
"who conducted non-public life. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote about it: 'When he was chief of the General Staff, he let me go to him often and I honored his confidence, using my connections'. ... 'Hutten-Czapski had ample contacts in Poland and Russia and use them to gather political information and military espionage for the Chief of the General Staff...'. The high trust placed him close to Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, evidenced by the fact that Hutten-Czapski to find out about how to Hohenlohe and Holstein relate to the violation of Belgium's neutrality, which was the highest level of state secrets, acc. to Theodor Schiemann. In his memoirs, Hutten-Czapski wrote, among other things about him: 'Even when he resigned from his position, he allowed me to visit him and said to me, laughing, that I am now the one who delivers to him the most interesting information about court life and politics'. ... On the other hand, Ritter, Wallach and Craig, wrote that between Holstein and Alfred Graf von Schlieffen 'often marked confidential talks on the political situation', and in appreciation of contacts with Hutten-Czapski. ... Contact with Hutten-Czapski proved that among other things it was about foreign policy issues; Helmut Otto said that since August 1891, established contacts between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Caprivi. Alfred Graf von Schlieffen on all important matters consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski (Hague Peace Conference in 1899 Hutten-Czapski). ...
Soon after Hutten-Czapski had a long conversation between Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Hohenlohe, also Otto said: 'At the turn of the century to strengthen cooperation with the Government and the General Staff...'.
... In general, we should agree with Otto ...
Helmut Otto also confirms the existence of contacts and cooperation with the Alfred Graf von Schlieffen and Chancellor Hohenlohe ... consulted Holstein and Hutten-Czapski ... Schlieffen was fully aware of this need and ... foreign events and issues and their impact on military and strategic planning.
These included the Franco-Russian alliance, the peace conference in The Hague, the first Moroccan crisis, relations with partners in the Triple Alliance of Austria-Hungary and Italy and the problems of coalition military preparations, the military objectives and expansionist colonial policy of German imperialism, primarily intervention in China from 1900 to 1902. ... colonial wars in South-West Africa, the struggle against the revolutionary workers' movement...".

It was 1914, the start of the Great War.
But when this war finished, Beseler, as German Governor-General in 1916, proclaimed the German Empire by the occupying powers and Austria - Hungary agreed establishment of an independent Kingdom of Poland. With active help of his close employee Bogdan Hutten - Czapski, he created the new Polish-language Warsaw University and the Technical University of Warsaw. On 10 November 1918, back to Warsaw, Józef Piłsudski; Zdzisław Lubomirski and Adam Koc in the night 09/10 November, 1918 received message about Pilsudski; by Lubomirski's car, Piłsudski arrived to Lubomirski house. Count Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, was looking at this situation from distance, but at Warsaw Castle talked with Hans Hartwig Beseler on Pilsudski; at this moment Sosnkowski moved at Moniuszki avenue. Beseler fled on November 12, with his two aides and Polish officers on a ship on the Vistula river, from Warsaw to Thorn and from there to Berlin.
His contemporaries Hutten - Czapski, Prince Hermann von Hatzfeld and Maria Princess Lubomirska - wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski - expressed their praise of him; Hutten - Czapski: 'The Inspector General of the engineer and pioneer corps and the fortresses had also acquired management experience. ... with a refined and perfect - looking character...'.
Above Prince Zdzisław Lubomirski, a Polish aristocrat, landowner, chairman of the "Central Civil Committee" in 1915. 1917 to 1918 member of the Regency Council. Zdzislaw Lubomirski born 1865 in Nizhny Novgorod, the son of Prince Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski, and Maria Zamoyska; he attended Krakow's St. Anna High School; Jagiellonian University and University of Graz.
Maria Lubomirska b. 1841, d. 1922, daughter of Zdzisław Zamoyski Count; she was wife of Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski Prince, and she was mother of Zdzisław Lubomirski (b. on April 4, 1865, in Niżny Nowogrod, d. 1943); above Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna in the Mohylow region, d. 1908, m. Maria nee Zamoyska; Zdzisław Lubomirski m. Maria nee Branicka; mentioned above Nizhny Novgorod / Nizhniy Novgorod / Nizhny Novgorod in Russia.
Above Zdzislaw Zamoyski:
Zdzisław Zamoyski Count, 1810 Warsaw - d. 1855 in Vienna, Austria, son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia; husband of Józefa Jadwiga Zamoyska; father of:
Stefan Zamoyski, above Maria Lubomirska;
Wanda Grocholska and Zofia Tarnowska;
brother of Konstanty Zamoyski, Andrzej Artur, Jan Zamoyski, Władysław Zamoyski, Celestyna Gryzelda Działyńska; Jadwiga Sapieha; Artur Zamoyski, Elżbieta Brzozowska; Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski and August Zamoyski.
Above named Władysław Zamoyski Count, 1803 - 1868.

Count Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Władysław Zamoyski b. 1852 was a Polish aristocrat and landowner, the grandson of Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski, and of Count Przemysław Potocki. Andrzej Przemysław married Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, granddaughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies, and had eight children.
Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski b. 1775, d. 1856, politician, landowner of Zamość estates. In 1809 he became the chairman of the "Provisional Government" of Galicia. He was Senator-Voivode of the Duchy of Warsaw and the Congress Kingdom from 1810 until 1831. He married Princess Zofia Czartoryska in 1798 in Puławy.
Róża Maria / Marianna Ewa Zamoyska nee Potocka, b. 1831 in Tomaszpil, Ukraine, d. 1890, daughter of Przemysław Potocki and Teresa; wife of Stanisław Kostka Jan Zamoyski b. 1820 in Vienna, who was son of Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski and Zofia;
Roza was mother of Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Zamoyski b. 1852 - d. 1927, landowner, born in Warsaw - the grandson of above named Count Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski 1775 in Warszawa, d. 1856 in Wien / Vienna.

On October 7, 1918, on initiative of Prince Lubomirski, Polish declaration of independence was announced and 14th October 1918, Polish Army soldiers pledged allegiance to the Polish flag.
Lubomirski supported Pilsudski's nomination (on 10th Nov. 1918 - 14th Nov.) for the post of the head of state.
Above mentioned Jan Tadeusz Lubomirski b. 1826 in Dubrowna / Dubrovno, the Moghilov government; d. 1908, son of Eugeniusz Lubomirski, studied in St Petersburg. Then in France and England. 1863 the Foreign Affairs of Polish Government.
Above named Дубрoвно / Dubrowno in the Sienno (north-east of Miezonka) catholic area; the Orsha county, Moghilev government; at present in the Vicebsk oblast; 90 km to Vicebsk, 19 km north-east of Orsza / Orsha. Dubrovno to 1774 to Sapieha; then Count R. A. Potiemkin / G. A. Potemkin to 1791 (a watch factory!), close to Ksawery Lubomirski estate (and his daughter Klementyna girlfriend of Piotr Kroer);
since 1791 Lubomirski taken Dubrovno - now this place is "capital" of the government; next to Eugeniusz Lubomirski - 1809 new Orthodox church; Dubrovno was the Lubomirski family estate to 1917!
Eugeniusz Lubomirski b. 1789, d. 1834, landowner of Dubrovno close to Orsha from his father;
son of Ksawery Lubomirski (Franciszek Ksawery Lubomirski 1747-1819) and Teofila Rzewuski (Teofila Beydo-Rzewuska 1762-1831), and brother of the Russian General Konstanty Lubomirski.

Bogdan Hutten - Czapski had met with the family of Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Hutten-Czapska in 1892.
She was the daughter of George and Josephine, and was born in Prague. Her mother came from the highest aristocracy of the Roman Empire. Maria was a prominent figure who has registered in history primarily as an editor collaborating with Paris 'Culture'. Also worked on biographies of her family, written in collaboration with her brother Jozef Czapski / Joseph.
Dorothy Maria Leopoldina Czapska / Countess Hutten-Czapska, b. 1894 in Prague, died in 1981, Maisons-Laffitte; the granddaughter of Emeryk Czapski / Emeric Hutten-Czapski of the family who had a huge estates from Radziwill, around Minsk, in Curland, Lithuania and Volhynia, acc. to Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski, vol. 1-2, Berlin 1936.
Ferdinand Radziwill of the Polish Knights of Malta, has come after Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, an old friend of the Prussian court and military.
The estate of Pryluki to the Hutten - Czapskis was situated on Ptych river; a house of 1882 and terraced park. Pryluki / Priluki ca 14 km south-west of the Minsk core, and 15 km west of Koroliszczewiczi / Korolishchevici of the Konstantynowiczs; 13 km west of Gatovo / Hatowo, and 23 km north-east of Kojdanow / Koidanov; south-west of Minsk in Belarus, on way to Dzierzynsk / Dzierhinsk / Kojdanow / Koidanov.
Kuchcicze / Kuhtichi of Zawisza and the Radziwill family at the Minsk district; the palace complex, the facade with stone accents.
The first secret missions Bogdan Hutten - Czapski received in 1890, to the Vatican; over the next two years he worked as observer - the German embassy in Paris, where he was ambassador; the later Chancellor, Prince Hohenlohe, which entered into a close friendship with Czapski, and the later Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow, send him on missions; Duke Hohenlohe send Czapski to maintain contacts and research sentiment of the ruling class, also among the well-known from his youth - Bonapartists; he was residing in Paris, and known Count Guido Henckel von Donnersmarck, and his wife Teresa primo voto Marquise de Paiva; then he moved to Strasbourg, where he was an aide of the Field Marshal Manteuffel.
Then he received from the German General Staff a very important intelligence mission, a trip to the Russian and Austrian ex-Polish districts, to explore moods and relationships (1892). Bogdan Hutten-Czapski met with Karol Czapski of the Minsk goverment;
in 1891 Karol Czapski Hutten in Minsk opened the first pawnshops; in 1892 Hutten-Czapski launched full-scale operations, 1894 Karol Czapski was one of the most wealthy man not only in Minsk, but also in the whole of Belarus.
He know the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company. In the same year in Minsk there was the first power plant, which was able to provide electricity to much of the city. This power was located on Independence Avenue near the Belarusian State Circus.
Karol Hutten-Czapski died in Germany, in Frankfurt on January 17, 1904.

And next very interesting woman:

Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin, wife of Wilhelm Bacheracht, ex-wife of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt;
sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Above Wilhelm Bacheracht, the Russian diplomate, b. 1851, d. 1916 in Berne, the Bern District, in Switzerland; son of Robert von Bacheracht; husband of above mentioned Alexandrine.

Above Robert von Bacheracht b. 1797, died 1884 in Genova, Liguria, Italy. Ex-husband of Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, and father of above named Wilhelm Bacheracht. Also was the Russian diplomate, Vicekonsul in Hamburg, and the generale consul in Genova.
Above Therese Henriette Antoinette Elisabeth von Struve, born in 1804 in Stuttgart, to a father who was Russian legation secretary Heinrich von Struve; she lived in Hamburg; she was sent to Weimer in 1820, and in St. Petersburg,
married Robert von Bacheracht in 1825,
in 1841 / 1848 she started writing using the Pseudonym Therese. She sepparated from Robert von Bacheracht in 1849 (her love affair with the writer Karl Gutzkow / Karol Guczkow), back to her cousin, Heinrich Freiherr von Lützow (he was the Dutch officer, and she followed him to his post to Surabaya on Java) in August 1849. Therese died in 1852.

Mentioned above
Alexandrine Bacheracht nee Hutten-Czapska / Alieksandra Kolemin / Hutten-Czapski Alexandra b. 1854 / 1853 - d. 1941, the 1st husband Kolemin;
then entered into a morganatic marriage with the Grand Duke of Hesse Ludwig IV b. 1837; Louis IV / Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Karl he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and other Royal Houses of Europe. Louis was born at Darmstadt, Germany; his mother was the granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia.
1862, Louis married Princess Alice, the third child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. The couple had seven children, among others Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia b. 1864, and Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of All the Russias b. 1872.
Ludwig IV contracted a morganatic marriage in 1884 in Darmstadt with Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska / Aleksandra Czapski Hutten b. 1854 in Warsaw, d. on 8 May 1941, in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland; she was the former wife of Aleksander Kolemin, the Russian charge d'affaires in Darmstadt;
now the Countess von Romrod.

Alexandrine Bacheracht / Alexandrine Countess von Hutten-Czapska died in Vevey / Switzerland, close to La Tour de Peilz; 8 km noerth-west of Montreux (see: Duflon, Konstantynowicz); 18 km south-east of Lutry; 6 km north-west of Clarens!
Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska, Grafin Romrod, daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski, and Countess Mariane Rzewuska / Marianne von Rzewuska Grocholska / Maria Anna Katarzyna Hutten-Czapska nee Rzewuska b. 1827; Alexandrine was the sister of Henryka Julia Plater-Zyberk.
Bacheracht, Alexandrine nee Countess von Hutten Czapska, Kolemine, Countess Romrod (1854-1941) has grave with Georg von Kolemines in the cemetery of St. Martin in Vevey, Switzerland; but her husband was Alexander von Kolemin.
Who was Georg v. Kolemines?

"According to L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome I (1986), Grand Duke Ludwig (b. 1837, d. 1892) married morganatically at Darmstadt on 30 April 1884 Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapski (b. 1853 or 1854, d. 1941). Alexandrine was Ludwig's young Warsaw-born mistress of some years, was a recent widow, her husband Alexander von Kolemine, a Russian diplomat, having died the previous month in March. The von Kolemines had been separated since 1884, according to L'Allemagne Dynastique, but according to other sources, Alexandrine and von Kolemine were divorced. She is known as Alexandrine or Alexandra, and her first husband's name is rendered as Kolemine, Kolemin, Kalomine, or Kolomine. ... The Queen wrote to Victoria in reply that she was angry with Ludwig's plan to marry... Queen Victoria acted quickly and decisively. She more or less forced Ludwig to agree to end his marriage ... See 'From Battenberg to Mountbatten', by E. H. Cookridge, London, 1966, ... E. Corti (Salzburg, 1936). ... Ultimately, Alexandrine had no choice, accepted the situation, and left for Moscow. A few years later, in 1892 or 1893, Alexandrine married for a third time, to Basil von Bacheracht, who died in 1916. Finally, as for a child born of Ludwig and Alexandrine's brief marriage, one source mentions his existence, ... by David Duff (London, 1958). ... the child, a son, 'was adopted as a brother by the Empress of Russia'. ... Duff, using information supplied by Lord Mountbatten (Victoria's younger son), states that Grand Duke Ludwig's marriage to Alexandrine was not consummated",
acc. to Yvonne Demoskoff on 14 Mar 2003.

It was different Alexander von Kolemin who in 1842 m. to Marija Aleksandrovna Tolstoj b. 1822, daughter of Alexandr Stepanovich Tolstoj 1788 - 1850 / 1859, and Marija Ivanovna Golovina.

Jurij Alexandrovich Kolemin, was son of above Alexandrina nee Hutten Czapska.

I wrote above that
Alexandrine von Hutten-Czapska was the daughter of Adam Graf von Hutten-Czapski (1819 - d. 1883 in Nice or 1884) and Marianne Countess of Rzewuska-Grocholska (1827-1897).
Her father was raised along with his brothers and Ignacy Hutten-Czapski (Emmerich) on 12 June 1874 to the Count title in the Russia.

Above Adam Józef Erazm Hutten-Czapski b. 1819 was son of Karol Hutten-Czapski and Fabianna;
above Karol Hutten-Czapski b. 1777 d. 1836,
was son of Franciszek Stanislaw Kostka Hutten-Czapski and Weronika Joanna, husband of Fabianna;
he was father of Adam Józef Erazm;
Emeryk Zachariasz Hutten-Czapski;
and Karol Ignacy Hutten-Czapski;
brother of Stanislaw Hutten-Czapski; half brother of Augustyn Szymon (Michal) Hutten-Czapski; Anna Hutten-Czapska and Maria Hutten-Czapska.

In 1894 Karol Hutten Czapski was top figure in Minsk in Belarus; this Jan Karol Alexander Hutten-Czapski, usually as Karol Czapski (August 15 1860-1904) the Mayor of Minsk from 1890 to 1901, a Catholic, Count; born in Stankow close to Minsk Litewski, d. 1904 in Frankfurt;
he was the eldest son of Count Emeryk Czapski, known numismatist and Elizabeth of Meyendorff barons.
The owner of an estates: in Minsk belonged to him orchard, three stone and five multi-storey wooden houses, 34 thousands acres of land in Minsk and the Ihumen / Igumen districts, namely Stankovo:
Negoreloye (11 km south-west of Kojdanow, and north-east of Stolbcy; 12 km south-west of Stan'kowo / Stankovo),
Prusinovo (15 km east of Stolbcy; north-east of Nesvizh / Nieswiez),
Zubarevichi (Glussk / Hlusk area),
Stankovo (in Stankovo library there were more than 2,500 books), forest cottage on the way of Tslyakovo;
Sallenen estate / Sallienien in Courland / west Kurland, Saliene (Saliena), south-west of Kuldinga.
In 1894, a friend of Bogdan Czapski, Hohenlohe was Chancellor of the Reich and Czapski, along with his good friend, gray eminence of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Baron Holstein, became the main adviser to the Chancellor on matters of foreign policy;
Czapski also brokered between Berlin and the Vatican; Czapski at that time supported the candidacy of Edward Likowski on nomination, which Berlin did not want to agree. In 1895, Bogdan Hutten - Czapski was appointed hereditary member of the Prussian House of Lords.
Colonel Bogdan Hutten-Czapski, one of the closest collaborators of General Hans Hartwig von Beseler resided in the Potocki Palace in the years 1915-1918.

In 1914 Max Isidor Bodenheimer set out his vision to Count Hutten-Czapski of the General Staff, chief of sabotage operations on the eastern front.
With support from the General Staff and the Wilhelmstrasse, Bodenheimer established the German Committee for Freeing of Russian Jews in 1914; Bodenheimer wanted the German army to assault the power of the Tsarist empire in the Baltic states, Poland, White Russia and the Ukraine, where he hoped for an 'East European Federation' in which 'all ethnic groups were to enjoy national autonomy', including the Jews, by Wikipedia.
Max Isidor Bodenheimer b. 1865, Stuttgart, the main figure in German Zionism, 1898 he visited Palestine, in August 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, he submitted an Expose on the Synchronization of German and Jewish Interests in the World War to German military headquarters in Cologne. The League of East European States or Federation of East European States was a political idea conceived during World War I for the establishment of a buffer state, which would be a de facto protectorate of the German Empire.

Affinities of the Konstantynowicz family at the beginning of the 19th century in Belarus:

A.
Józef Szumski b. ca 1800, m. ca 1827 to Oktawia Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1810

(Oktawia 2nd married ca 1831 to Konstantynowicz Dominik)

- she come from Józef Piottuch-Kublicki b. ca 1780 and from mother Karolina Sołtan

(daughter of Stanisław Sołtan 1756-1836 and Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł at Nieśwież b. ca 1751 daughter of Stanisław Radziwiłł 1722 - 1787, son of Mikołaj Faustyn Radziwiłł 1688 - 1746).

Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł at Nieśwież b. ca 1751 had family:

Helena Soltan b. 1810 (1790);
Adam Leon Ludwik Sołtan (emigree from Vilnius to the Poznan duchy - Prussia) + Idalia Pociej;
Anna Soltan b. ca 1788 (1780) +
Antoni Wańkowicz

(Antoni Wańkowicz 1758 - 1812, son of Tadeusz Wańkowicz b. ca 1720; wife Anna Sołtan b. ca 1788 acc. to me;
her father Stanisław Sołtan b. 1756, and her mother
Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł b. ca 1751.

Daughters of above Antoni Wankowicz were:
Wanda b. ca 1806 + Benedykt Emanuel Tyszkiewicz-Łohojski,
Klementyna b. ca 1810 + Edward Antenogen Józef Mostowski, and
Waleria Wańkowicz b. ca 1805 - d. 1843 married to Konstanty Tyzenhauz 1786 - died in 1853 in Pastavy / Postawy, Vitebsk province, 10 km of the Lithuania border; ca 80 km south-east of Zarasai, south-west of Dryssa.

Antoni Wankowicz, Michal duke Puzyna, Ignacy Moniuszko, Jan Chodzko and Xawery Lipski signed Act of Temporary Administration of the Minsk Province on 19 July 1812 under general Oppeln Bronikowski);

Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1790.

Stanislaw Radziwill - above named - was son of Mikołaj Faustyn Radziwill. He was brother of Albrecht, Udalryk Krzysztof and Jerzy Radziwill + Salomea Anna nee Sapieha; he was father of Anna Olimpia Mostowski b. ca 1762, and Franciszka Teofila Radziwiłł at Nieśwież b. ca 1751.

Prince Tadeusz Franciszek Andrzej Oginski / Tadas Pranciškus Andrius Oginskis / Тадэвуш Францішак Андрэй Агінскі, was Grand Clerk of Lithuania since 1737, had two wives:
Izabella Radziwiłł

(Izabela Kotryna Ogińska b. 1711 d. 1761, her father Michal Antoni Radziwill 1687 - 1721

[his brother Mikołaj Faustyn Radziwiłł 1688 - 1746, with his son Stanisław Radziwiłł b. 1722];

she had sons:
Andrzej Ignacy Ogiński and
Franciszek Ksawery Ogiński)
and Jadwiga Załuska.

Above Andrzej Ignacy Ogiński: b. 1740, Freemason; 1772 in Vienna wanted to establish failed contact with the French Ambassador, de Rohan; was talking with the British Ambassador in Vienna, David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield.
His wife Paula Szembek / Paulina Szembek, with son
Michał Kleofas Ogiński, b. 1765 died
1833 in Florence / Florencja.

B.
Franciszka Teofila Radziwill died 1802 m. Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756 d. 1836,
his father Станіслав Солтан / Stanislaw Soltan born 1698 d. 1758.

Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756, d. Mitawa 1836,
General, the President of the Commission of the Provisional Government of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1812.
He married two times:
 

Franciszka Teofila / Francis Theophilus Radziwill died 1802, her father Stanislaw Radziwill and mother Pociej Carolina, she brought to the family Soltan an estate Zdzięcioł / Zdzieciol. Second time to: 

Konstancja Toplicka - Tupalska voto Korsak in 1820 that is Constance Tupalska Toplicka - Korsak, her father Anthony.

Daughters among others:
Soltan Carolina
b. about 1780 + Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki married ca 1800;
Anna Soltan, b. ca 1780 + Anthony Wankowicz b. ca 1760 - children
Valerie Wankowicz, about 1800 + Constantine Tyzenhauz (Konstanty Tyzenhaus / Constantine Tyzenhauz (b. June 3, 1786 in Żołudek near Grodno, d. March 16, 1853), Polish Count, ornithologist, landowner, painter - a student of Jan Peter Norblin.
His father Ignacy Tyzenhauz 1750 ? / 1760 - 1822, Major General of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, head of Regiment of Guards of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1793, the Lida district general confederation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the Targowica league in 1792, member of the Provisional Government of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1812.
Konstanty Tyzenhaus / Constantine Tyzenhauz participated in the Napoleonic Wars from 1812 to 1814. Member of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Sciences. His wife Waleria Wańkowicz b. circa 1800, daughter of Antoni Wańkowicz and Anna Sołtan; mother of Zbigniew Tyzenhauz, Helena Tyzenhauz, Maria Przeździecka, Władysław Tyzenhauz, and Rejnold Tyzenhauz),

Wanda Wankowicz, about 1800 + Benedict Tyszkiewicz,
Clementine Wankowicz / Klementyna Wankowicz m. Mostowski.

And the next person:

Franz-Felix Kublitsky Piottukh / Franz Feliksovich Kublitsky-Piottukh / Franciszek Piottuch-Kublicki, Russian Lieutenant General; 1860 - 1920, a relative of the poet Alexander Alexandrovich Blok/ Bloc b. in St. Petersburg;
Blok's mother - the daughter of the rector of St. Petersburg University, shortly after the birth of Alexander, left her husband, lawyer in Warsaw and in 1889 married a second time to the officer of the Guards F. F. Kublitski Piottuch, Catholic, in service entered September 1, 1876. In 1918-1920 he lived with his wife in St. Petersburg.

Acc. to 'genealogia.okiem.pl/soltan':
Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756, died in 1836 Mitawa, general, wifes:

Franciszka Teofila Radziwill d. 1802 from Stanislaw Radziwill and Karolina Pociej,
and second wife since 1820 was Konstancja Toplicka-Tupalska Korsak from Antoni.
His children below:
Karolina Soltan b. ca 1780 married Jozef Piottuch-Kublicki.

Stanislaw Soltan, 1822 - died 1897 in Anninsk, from Brzostowica Murowana in the Hrodna goverment, with wifes:
Maria Dunin-Jundzill b. 1827 and
Albertyna Dunin-Jundzill, b. 1837

(brothers and sisters of above Stanislaw Soltan:
Helena Soltan b. 1790 m. to Franciszek Soltan b. 1780,
Adam Leon Ludwik Sołtan, born 1792 in Warsaw,
and Anna Soltan, b. ca 1788 and m. to Antoni Wankowicz b. 1758).
Children of Stanislaw Soltan b. 1822:
Bogdan Wiktor Soltan 1861 - 1912 married to Maria Franciszka Soltan b. 1863
(his brothers and sisters: Emilia Soltan Korsak, b. 1847 d. 1908,
Stanislaw Soltan, 1848 - 1850,
Helena Soltan 1849 - 1852,
Adam Soltan 1851 - 1902 Brzostownica Murowana,
Wiktor Władyslaw Rudolf Pereswit-Soltan, 1853 - d. 1905 Warsaw, owner of Kraszuty)
and his daughter - Maria Emilia Soltan b. 1889 Aninsk and died 1963 m. Zdzisław Henryk Grocholski -
her daughter Maria Grocholska b. 1911 Pietniczany and died in 1940 Otrebusy.

C.
Note on Maria Sklodowska Curie and Vernadsky / Wernadski:
The first Soviet work with radioactive minerals was begun by Professor I. A. Antipov, who worked on uranium deposits in Central Asia in the period 1900 - 1903. In 1908 the private Society for the Extraction of Rare Metals was organized. The Society was connected with the laboratory of M. Sklodovski-Curie. In 1909 P. P. Orlov was researching Siberian radioactive minerals. In 1911 at the request of V. I. Vernadsky at the St. Petersburg Academy of Science, steps were taken to organize the study of radioactive minerals on a large scale.
Иван Александрович Антипов / ANTIPOV Ivan son of Aleksandr Antipov, 1858-1911, in Altai (1880-1887), in Barnaul Lab., Suzunskoye house in 1888), research on silver, lead and coal deposits in the Semirechensk region. Zinc mines and galmeynyh coal mines of the Kingdom of Poland; assigned to Geol. chemical. lab. (1897), (1900) he taught at the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology.
His father АНТИПОВ АЛЕКСАНДР ИВАНОВИЧ 1824 - 1887, was son of Антипов Иван Иванович; at Urals, Lugansk, co-operated with Colonel Gurev / Гурьев, in Kerch in 1846, Kuban under Gen. Raschpil / Рашпил in 1848; 1850-1852 Aralsk Sea, Ust-Urt / Усть-Урт; 1853 Orenburg / Оренбург, 1858-1859 Telev / Телевск; 1860 under Gen. Gerngros / Гернгрос, 1862 Perm.
When the Society for the Extraction of Rare Metals was organized, it was connected with the laboratory of M. Sklodovski-Curie.
It was a private "Fergana Society for Rare Metals" set up in 1908. It was engaged in extracting ore and selling concentrated uranium, vanadium and copper abroad. The Society got in touch with Maria Sklodowska Curie, and her co-workers, Mr. Danich, visited Russia at the Society's request.
V. I. Vernadskiy / Vernadsky founded the State Radium Institute in 1922, then as the (Vitaly Khlopin) V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute / the First Radium Institute - was located in Petrograd / Saint Petersburg and specializing in the fields of nuclear physics, radio- and geochemistry, and associated with the problems of nuclear power engineering, and isotope production.
In Richardson in Grand County, Utah, USA, in 1900 Stephen Lockwood and his partners in the Welsh-Lofftus Uranium and Rare Metals Company acted. Lockwood corresponded with Pierre Curie, who advised on extraction processes. In 1903, an experimental plant was built at Lackawanna, near Buffalo, New York, to produce uranium oxide and iron vanadate from the Richardson ore.

Note on Rehbinder and Konstantynowicz:

Von Karl Reinhold Rehbinder / РЕБИНДЕР КАРЛ РЕЙНХОЛЬД b. 1678 in Livland; the Svedish army under Karl XII. 1711 Russian army, married to Беата Христина фон Врангель / Beata Christina von Wrangell.
Her son Карл Магнус Рейнхольд фон Ребиндер and her grandson Отто Фридрих Магнус фон Ребиндер / Максим Карлович Ребиндер.
Above Максим Карлович Ребиндер b. 1750, that is ОТТО ФРИДРИХ МАГНУС ФОН РЕБИНДЕР. Born 1750. Wars 1768-1774 and 1789-1791; 1792-94 fought against Poland; m. to Прокофьевна Разамай, she died 1838; her children:
АЛЕКСЕЙ, ПАВЕЛ and ГЕОРГИЙ, аnd three daughters.
Above Павел Максимович Ребиндер b. 1803, d. 1866.
His son Михаил Павлович Ребиндер (married to Виктория Ивановна Константинович b. 1846, d. 28 Dec. 1899, daughter of Jan Konstantynowicz) and his grandson Александр Михайлович Ребиндер.
Next generation - Пётр Александрович Ребиндер b. 1898, d. 1972.
Above named РЕБИНДЕР АЛЕКСАНДР МИХАЙЛОВИЧ d. 1906 in Yalta / Ялта. The Russian Navy.
His son Piotr Aleksandrovich Rehbinder / РЕБИНДЕР ПЕТР АЛЕКСАНДРОВИЧ b. 03.10.1898, 1922 - 1932 - Institute of Physics and Biophysics, USSR Academy of Sciences, Professor (1929), Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1933), academician (1946). Since 1935 - head of the Department of Physics and Chemistry: colloidal-electrochemical systems.
Professor of Moscow State University (since 1942 he headed the Department of Colloid Chemistry) and Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. He was the founder of physical and chemical mechanics, the author of a number of discoveries in physical chemistry of surface phenomena; winner of the Stalin Prize (1942). He developed the idea of the molecular mechanism of action of surfactants, developed a framework their application in industrial processes. His wife Rebinder nee Zheltukhina, Elena E. (1909-2000), in 1932. Until 1935 she worked as a laboratory assistant in the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. Constantly assisted her husband as a professional typist.

We back to Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky:
his mother,
Anna Petrovna Konstantynowicz
(1837 - 1898; Anna daughter of Piotr Konstantynowicz),
father - Ivan Vernadsky (1821 - 1884), professor of political economy.
Letters by V. Vernadsky published in 2003 by Russian. In 1928 Vernadsky was at the University in Prague, 1928 on trip to Germany and Norway, research work in Germany, France, the Netherlands and Czechoslovakia, 1933 / 1934 Vernadsky was on a business trip to France, England and Czechoslovakia.
Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky in 1886 married Natalya Staritskaya (1862 - 1943), with whom he lived for more than 56 years; had two children - son Jerzy / George V. Vernadsky (1887 - 1973), professor of Russian history (lived in Perm; after in exile in Czechoslovakia and USA, since 1927 prof. Yale Univ.), the daughter Nina Vernadskaya - Toll (1898 - 1985 or 1986), a psychiatrist, both died in exile in the United States.
Nina Vernadskaya Toll / Nina V. Toll-Vernadskaya was second wife of Toll Nikolai Petrovich / Nicholas P., an orientalist archaeologist and art historian. His first marriage to Olga Petrovna Toll nee Syromyatnikov, both Orthodox on 17 August 1917 in a garrison of Samarkand, and cancel on November 9, 1925. Toll Nikolai Petrovich (1894 - 1975), member of a volunteer army of the 1st Kuban Ice campaign, in the armed forces in the south of Russia before evacuation of the Crimea. In exile in Gallipoli, after in Czechoslovakia. On January 10, 1926 in Prague, married Nina Vladimirovna Vernadsky b. 1898, daughter of Professor V. I. Vernadsky. Since 1939 in the United States, occupied the chair of Iranian studies at Yale University.
Vernadskaya Toll Nina b. 1898, in 1922 - 1939 lived in Prague, and later the United States.
Toll Tatiana born 1929, granddaughter of Vernadsky.

V. I. Vernadsky did not die in the Great Purge in 1937, quite the contrary in 1938 edited the books:
'Scientific Thought As a Planetary Phenomenon', 1938, and 'On Some Fundamental Problems of Biogeochemistry', 1938.
And here is what Vernadsky's teachings was used by the LaRouche movement in 2001:
"Lyndon LaRouche's economic science, including the Eurasian Land-Bridge project, was the focus of a scientific conference held Nov. 27-28 at Moscow's Vernadsky State Geological Museum. The conference, attended by 50 top scientists from the Russian Academy of Sciences and Dr. Sergei Glazyev, head of the Economic Commission of the Russian Duma (Parliament), was sponsored by the Museum, and by the Schiller Institute, an organization founded by Helga Zepp LaRouche which promotes republican economics and Classical cultural policy.
The subject of the conference was 'The Realization of the Concept of the Noosphere in the 21st Century: Russia's Mission in the World Today'."
See: 'Russian Scientists Discuss Ideas of LaRouche and Vernadsky', 2001.
And here 15 days ago, woke up again the LaRouche organization, by publishing (my note May 27, 2015):
'Vernadsky Project, The Basement, Managing the Global Water Supply. Vernadsky & LaRouche: There are No Limits to Growth!'

Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky b. 28 February 1863, was a Ukrainian / Polish and Soviet mineralogist and geochemist who is considered one of the founders of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and of radiogeology, founder of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. In 1943 he was awarded the Stalin Prize.

D.
A note on the genealogy of Borys Konstantynowicz / Борис Владимирович Константинович, born on May 2, 1912 in Kharkiv, Ukraine;
he was son of Wladymir / Владимир Константинович and Наталья Петровна Константинович;
he was brother of Татьяна Владимировна Константинович.
Above Tatiana / Татьяна Владимировна Константинович b. on April 11, 1922 in Kremenchuk, Poltavs'ka oblast, Ukraine.

Mentioned above Владимир Константинович b. on January 3, 1888 in Yartsevo, the Smolensk Oblast, Russia, and died on June 17, 1968 in Kremenchuk, Poltavs'ka oblast.

Wlodzimierz Konstantynowicz / Wladymir was son of Zygmunt Konstantynowicz / Sigizmund Konstantynowicz
(Sigizmund Konstantynowicz or Константин Матвеевич Konstantynowicz, b. 1851 in Poland, died in 1906 in Smolensk; see: Ludwik Konstantynowicz / Ludwig Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms was born ca 1850 / 1860)

and Efrosynia / Ефросинья Лаврентиевна; Wlodzimierz Konstantynowicz was father of Борис Владимирович Константинович and Татьяна Владимировна Константинович; brother of Ольга Константиновна Шемякина / Olga Shemiakin.
Above Ольга Константиновна Шемякина nee Константинович, b. circa 1881 in Yartsevo, Smolenskaya oblast, Russia, died 1937 in Kremenchuk, Poltavs'ka oblast. She was daughter of Sigizmund Konstantynowicz; wife of Сергей Павлович Шемякин, and mother of Борис Сергеевич Шемякин and Галина Сергеевна Френкель / Halina Frenkel.
Above Ефросинья Лаврентиевна Константинович 1865 - 1909 in Smolensk.
Above Владимир Константинович Константинович 1888 - d. 1968 in Kremenchuk, husband of Наталья Петровна;
above Natalia / Наталья Петровна Константинович nee Будрина / Budryn, b. 1889 in Pulawy, Poland, died on January 31, 1969 in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
She was daughter of Петр Васильевич Будрин and Юлия Ивановна Будрина; wife of Владимир Константинович; mother of Борис Владимирович Константинович and Татьяна Владимировна Константинович; sister of Dymitr Budryn; Анна Петровна Будрина; Екатерина Петровна Будрина; Сергей Петрович Будрин; Таисия Петровна Павлова; Василий Петрович Будрин and Елена Петровна Сонгайло / Helena Songailo.

Mentioned above Sigizmund Konstantynowicz or Константин Матвеевич Konstantynowicz, b. 1851 in Poland, died in 1906 in Smolensk, Russia; his mother unknown Wojnowicz; Ефросинья Лаврентиевна married to Sigizmund Konstantynowicz / Zygmunt Konstantynowicz, she was born 1865, died 1909 in Smolensk.

Сергей Павлович Шемякин b. circa 1877, died 1917 in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine; his wife was Ольга Константиновна nee Константинович, b. circa 1881 in Yartsevo, Smolenskaya oblast, Russia, died 1937 in Kremenchuk.

Yartsevo, Yartsevsky District, ca 40 km north-west of Dorohobuz / Doroghobuz; Smolenskaya oblast in Russia.

We know at geni.com on
Ольга Константиновна Константинович b. on November 24, 1896, died on May 21, 1897; daughter of Константин Александрович Константинович and Вера Анатолиевна; sister of Софья Константиновна Константинович and Кира Константиновна Константинович, copyright by Yevheniya Brykova / Брыкова in 2015.

Above Константин Александрович Константинович b. on January 19, 1869 in Riga, Latvia; son of Александр Петрович Younger Константинович and София Антоновна; husband of Вера Анатолиевна; father of Софья Константиновна Константинович; Ольга Константиновна Константинович and Кира Константиновна;
brother of Ольга Александровна Шмидт / Olga Shmidt (Ольга nee Константинович b. February 8, 1858 in Kijow / Kyiv, wife of Андрей Иванович Шмидт);
Михаил Александрович Константинович;
Ekaterina Halenkowski / Galenkowska / Екатерина Александровна Галенковская;
София Александровна Манчич / Zofia Manczicz;
Евгений Александрович Константинович;
and Наталия Александровна Булацель / Natalia Bulacel b. 1867 (we remember on Павел Ильич Булацель 1797 - 1854 - son of Anastasja Anna Lutkowska b. 1777, d. 1845) - was wife of Григорий Павлович Булацель died on February 15, 1908 in Kyyiv.

But we know also on Ольга Константиновна Шемякина nee Константинович, b. circa 1881 in Yartsevo, Yartsevsky District, Smolenskaya oblast, died 1937 in Kremenchuk, Poltavs'ka oblast, Ukraine; daughter of Sigizmund Konstantynowicz and Ефросинья Лаврентиевна Константинович;
wife of Сергей Павлович Шемякин (circa 1877 - died 1917 in Dnipropetrovsk);
mother of Борис Сергеевич Шемякин and Галина Сергеевна Френкель / Halina Frenkel;
sister of Владимир Константинович.

Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine - ca 85 km north of Zaporoze / Aleksandrowsk / Alexandrovsk; Dnipropetrovsk / Dnepropetrovsk / Днепропетрoвск originally Ekaterinoslav / Katerynoslav.

Above Dymitr Budryn b. on December 24, 1892 in Warsaw / Warszawa; died April 1, 1940 in Katyn, Smolensky District, Soviet Union. He was son of Петр Васильевич Будрин; husband of Anna Budryn.
Above Julia / Юлия Ивановна Будрина nee Павлова / Julia Pawlow, b. on January 11, 1870, died February 1942.
She was daughter of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and Evgenia von Baltz; wife of above named Петр Васильевич Будрин / Piotr Budryn.
Above Eugenia / Evgenia von Baltz b. ca 1840 / 1850, died 1915, daughter of Friedrich Julius / Fedor Karlovich von Baltz and Lydia Adelaida von Tiesenhausen; wife of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.
Her father Friedrich Julius (Fedor Karlovich) von Baltz b. on April 30, 1800 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland, died on July 27, 1873 in St. Petersburg, Russia; son of Carl Gottlieb von Baltz and Helena Juliana von Tornauw; husband of Rosa von Baltz and Lydia Adelaida von Tiesenhausen.
Above Helena Juliana von Tornauw / Tornauv b. 1772, daughter of George Andreas von Tornauw and Helena Juliana von Schlippenbach; wife of Carl Gottlieb von Baltz. Mentioned George Andreas von Tornauw d. 1786, son of Valerian von Tornow.

Note about above mentioned Friedrich Julius (Fedor Karlovich) von Baltz b. on April 30, 1800 in Pernau / Pärnu, Estonia.
Fyodor Karlovich (Friedrich Julius) Balz / Friedrich Julius von Baltz b. 1800, Pernau, Livonia province, died in 1873, St. Petersburg, Russian military engineer, Major General, born in the German merchant family in Pernau; Evangelist-Lutheran;
1822, he completed a full course of higher engineering education at the Main Engineering School, a second lieutenant of the Dynaburg / Dinaburgsky engineering team. He served in Riga, Moldova, Poland, Kronstadt; the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829, uprising in Poland in 1831; 1835 Balz was promoted to lieutenant, under command of the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich. 1841 colonel. 1844 the hereditary nobility. 1851 was promoted to major general, 1855 retired. 1858 taken the manor of Domashovo, beautiful estate of Kingisepp district and the whole of St. Petersburg Province, near by the river Sume, was named in memory of his wife Lidino. Fyodor Karlovich Balz buried in the Volkov Lutheran cemetery.
Family by Wikipedia:
father - Carl Gottlieb Baltz (1760-1802).
Mother - Helena Juliana von Tornauw (1772-?), great granddaughter of the Vice Governor of Eastland - Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach.
Brothers - Johann Georg Baltz (Ivan Karlovich) (1795 - 1849); Karl Ludwig von Baltz / Gotlibovič (1796 - 1879), Major-General, 1855-1857 the commander of the First Brigade of the 14th Infantry Division.
Since 1833 married to Lydia Bogdanovna / Lidino / Adelaide Katarina Alexandrina Tizengauzen / Adelaide Kath. Alex. Von Tiesenhausen (1808 - 1853),
daughter of Major-General Baron Bogdan Karlovic Tiesenhausen.
The second wife - Rosa Metzler.
Children from his first marriage:
1. Eugenia / Evgenia von Baltz b. ca 1840, died 1915, daughter of Friedrich Julius / Fedor Karlovich von Baltz and Lydia Adelaida von Tiesenhausen; wife of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov - a member of the Military Council of General of Infantry. Her father Friedrich Julius (Fedor Karlovich) von Baltz b. on April 30, 1800 in Pernau.
2. Julius (d. 1914) - colonel, a graduate of the First Cadet Corps, the head of the construction of the Orenburg railway, then the Tashkent railway, his daughter - Aglaia Yulevna von Balz (1870-1956), married to Alexander Rüdiger (1870-1929). Their son Michael Riediger (1902-1962) was the archpriest of the Kazan church in Tallinn and is married to Elena Josephovna Pisareva (1902-1959), the daughter of a colonel of the tsarist army. Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy comes from the well-known Baltic noble family.
3. Ottilia (05.03.1836 - 04.11.1838). 4. Johann (1837 - 1875) - engineer, Lieutenant Colonel. 5. Nicholas (d. 1884) - Engineer-captain. 6. Leontine (1840 - 1856).
7. Alexander (1841 - 1899) - Lieutenant-General of the General Staff. Wife - Sofia Eduardovna von Baggehufwudt, b. 1851. The son - Vladimir (1871-1931). Daughter - Wiera (1866-1943).

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov and Evgenia von Baltz - Ivan Petrovich Pavlov 1830 - 1909, son of Петр Петрович Павлов, father of Федор Иванович Павлов; Евгения Ивановна Павлова; Александр Иванович Павлов; Мария Ивановна Павлова; Елена Ивановна Павлова; Ольга Ивановна Павлова; Николай Иванович Павлов; Юлия Ивановна Будрина and Надежда Ивановна Павлова. Copyright by Elle Kiiker.

Above Johann Georg (Ivan Karlovich) von Baltz b. 1795 in Parnu / Pernau, died in 1849 in Petersburg, was son of Carl Gottlieb von Baltz and Helena Juliana von Tornauw.
And above mentioned Karl Ludwig Karlovich von Baltz / Karl Ludwig von Baltz / Gotlibovič (1796 in Pernau / Pärnu - 1879 in St. Petersburg), Major-General, 1855-1857 the commander of the First Brigade of the 14th Infantry Division.
He was brother of
Anna Karolina Juliana von Baltz b. 1791 m. NN Althan;
Helena Elisabeth von Baltz;
Johann Georg (Ivan Karlovich) von Baltz;
Friedrich Julius (Fedor Karlovich) von Baltz - Friedrich Julius von Baltz b. 1800 in Pernau, General-Major;
Juliana Elisabeth von Baltz
(wife of Johan Heinrich Althan - b. 1799 was son of Johan Diedrich Benjamin Althan and Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau, he was brother of Georg Benjamin von Althann and Emilie Helene Althan.
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1769 in Hallik and died 1835 was daughter of
Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas;
she was sister of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau;
Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau;
Jakob Johann (Jakob) Baron Pilar von Pilchau
and Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau,
half sister of Margarethe Elisabeth Gfin. Manteuffel and Gotthard Johann III Reichsgraf Zoege von Manteuffel
- inf. under copyright by Elle Kiiker);
Gustav Herman von Baltz b. 1801,
and
Maria Ottilie von Baltz (b. 1802);
copyright by Elle Kiiker in 2013 at geni.com.

We back now to mentioned above
Наталья Петровна Константинович nee Будрина, b. on October 11, 1889 in Pulawy, died on January 31, 1969 in Saint Petersburg; she was daughter of Петр Васильевич Будрин and Юлия Ивановна; wife of Wladymir Konstantynowicz / Владимир Константинович Константинович.
Her father Петр Васильевич Будрин b. on June 6, 1857, d. on March 27, 1939, son of Василий Алексеевич Будрин and Анна Андреевна Будрина.
Above Анна Андреевна Будрина nee Suvorov / Suworow / Суворова, b. on January 13, 1835 in the Kirovskaya oblast, Russia, d. on January 26, 1877 in Perm Province; daughter of Andrej Suworow / Андрей Иванович Суворов and Елисовета Алексеевна Суворова; wife of Василий Алексеевич Будрин, and mother of Иван Васильевич Будрин; Петр Васильевич Будрин and Мария Васильевна Страмковская / Maria Stramkowski.
Above Андрей Иванович Суворов b. ca 1800 ? by Peter Trefilov in 2014.
Now about Jan Krzyżanowski 1869 - died 1910 in Łódź; son of Иван Андреевич Крыжановский; husband of Maria Andrusow; father of Olga Hersztanski / Ольга Ивановна Герштанская and Anna Budryn. Above Anna Budryn nee Krzyżanowska, wife of Dymitr Budryn, and mother of Wlodzimierz Budryn / Włodzimier Budryn.
Above Jan Krzyżanowski was son of Иван Андреевич Крыжановский.
Above Jan Krzyżanowski / Ivan / Иван Андреевич Крыжановский b. on May 8, 1834, died on September 3, 1889 in Warszawa, Poland; Colonel of the 37 Екатеринбурский Его Императорского Высочества великого князя Алексея Александровича полк / Ekaterinburskij Regiment, the Crimea War, Sevastopol / Севастопол 1853-1855.
Above Dymitr Budryn b. on December 24, 1892 in Warsaw, d. on April 1, 1940 in Katyn, wife of above Dymitr:
Anna Krzyżanowska, daughter of Jan Krzyżanowski and Maria Andrusow; mother of Włodzimierz Budryn. Sister of Ольга Ивановна Герштанская nee Крыжановская, b. 1899 in Plonsk, Poland, her sisters: Анна, Надежда and Лидия. We know on Герштанский Иван Васильевич inf. 1877.
We back to Иван Андреевич Крыжановский b. 8 May 1834, d. 1889 in Warsaw / Варшава.
And some on the Krzyzanowskis:
a. 1812 Крыжановский from Ukraine, commander of the Polish Corps under Napoleon; escaped to Poland with nickname Kржижановский;
b. General-lieutenant Mikolaj Krzyzanowski / Николай Андреевич Крыжановский 1818 - 1888, wars on Caucasus, the Crimea War, the Warsaw war governor, the Orenburg general-governor;
c. his brother was Pawel Krzyzanowski son of Andrzej Krzyzanowski; Павел Андреевич Крыжановский, Sewastopol / Севастопол 1853 - 1856;
d. Андрей Николаевич Крыжановский together with father Nikolaj / Николай Андреевич Крыжановский acted in Turiestan / Туркестан, Orenburg / Оренбург, Buchara / Bukhara / Бухарa.
Above Павел Андреевич Крыжановский (1831 - ca 1917), General, the Crimea War.
Above Николай Андреевич Крыжановский (1818 - 1888), born in St Petersburg, 1839 Berlin / Берлин.
See: Severin / Seweryn Krzyzanowski b. 1787 in Parchamówka in the Skwir county / Skwira, Ukraine, d. 1839 in Tobolsk, colonel to 1826 of the Polish Army, exiled in 1830 to Tobolsk!

E.

Wassili Bobrinsky / Wasyl Bobrzynski had 2 children:

I. Alexei Bobrinsky 1831 - 1888, 1st m. 1855 to Pss Catherine Lvova b. 1834, 2nd m. 1859 Sofia Cheremeteva b. 1842.

He had 4 children:

1. Wassili Bobrinsky 1860 - 1861,
2. Ct Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937, he m. twice,
3. Ct Wladimir Bobrinsky 1862 - 1938, married to a French woman,

4. Css Catherine Bobrinsky / Ekaterina Alexeiievna 1864 - 1926 m. 1886 to Pr Peter Swiatopolk-Mirski / Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski d. 1914;

II. Zofia Bobrzynska / Css Sofia Bobrinsky 1837 - 1891, m. Wiktor Keller / Viktor von Keller, d. 1906.

Above mentioned
Viktor Fedorovic Graf von Keller b. 1834 - died in 1906 in Dubbeln close to Riga - west of capital, Latvia; he was son of Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm von Keller and Sophie Eleonore Marie von Keller

(Sophie Eleonore Marie Keller nee Borch, 1795 - 1880 in Riga; daughter of Michael Johann Borch and Eleonore Christine Gräfin von Browne

[Eleonore Christine Gräfin von Browne / Eleonora Krystyna / Eleanor Christina Browne of Camus / Элеонора Христина Юрьервна, 1766 in Riga, Latvia - 1844 in Saint Petersburg, daughter of George, 1st Count Browne of Camas

{George 1st Count Browne of Camas / Browne / Jerzy / Georg Brown / George von Browne-Camas / Seoirse de Brún / Georg Reichsgraf von Browne, 1698 in
Mahoonagh (Castlemahon), Mayne, Limerick, Ireland;
died 1792 in Riga, Latvia; son of George de Browne, de Camus and Honora / Hanora de Browne / de Camus Browne of Camas

(Honora de Browne / de Camus Browne of Camas / DeLacy / Hanora De Lacy, daughter of Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill, Esq. and Alice DeLacy; wife of George de Browne, de Camus),

he was husband of Helene Countess Browne of Camas and Eleonora Christina von Mengden}

and Eleonora Christina von Mengden];

she was wife of Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm von Keller; she was mother of Adelaida Plater-Zyberk

[Adelaida 1817 St Petersburg - died 1885 in Krāslava, Latvia, burial in Līksna, Daugavpils novads; daughter of Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm von Keller; wife of Henryk Wacław Ksawery Plater-Zyberk

{Henryk Wacław Ksawery Plater-Zyberk 1811 in Līksna, Daugavpils novads - died 1903 in Krāslava, Latvia; son of Michał Plater-Zyberk and Izabella Helena;
father of Leon Plater-Zyberk; Wojciech Jan Plater-Zyberk; Henryk Kazimierz Plater-Zyberk; Zofia Buyno; Edward Edmund Plater-Zyberk; Jan Kazimierz Plater-Zyberk; Emilia Niemirowicz-Szczytt; Ludwik Wiktor Plater-Zyberk; Wiktor Kazimierz Konstanty; Anna; Eleonora Przewłocka; Teofil Stanisław; Wilhelm; and Maria Plater-Zyberk;
brother of Izabella von der Ropp;
and Maria Szadurska

(Maria Szadurska nee Plater-Zyberk, b. 1813; wife of Mikołaj Szadurski

[m. 1837, her son Władysław & Stefania Borch with Michalina Szadurska m. Konstanty Maria Michał Ropp.

Properties of Szadurski:
Zwirdzin to Stanislaw Szadurski,
Newlany, Dorotpol, Dunakla to the Stanislaw Szadurski family.
Oswiej and Malnow - the Mikolaj Szadurski family.

Newlany, close to Asune, Kraslavas Rajons, Latvia; which is just 1.5 km SE of the village Naulani (= Newlany?); Dunakla, Dorotpol, Zwirdzin - the nearby property of the Stanislaw Szadurski family.
Lucyn - the nearby town where Szadurski held offices. Dorotpol / Dorotpole 8 km of Indra NW and east of Kraslava, north of Piedruja; Rezeknes Rajons, Latvia; west of Swolna / Svolna of the Zarakowski family and Malkiewicz.
Szadurski Stanisław was brother of Mikolaja, and was a son of Fanciszek Ksawery Szadurski and wife nee Felkerzamb; together studied in Połock and Wilno; owner of Zwirdzin, Dunakla, Dorotpol; married to Katarzyna Szumowicz of Newlany, Colonel of the Russian Guard, the Marshal of the Lucyn county, that is Ludsa; died 1870, left two daughters:
Marya Pruszyńska and
Stanisława nee Szadurska m. Ksawery Szadurski.
Different Stanisława Szadurska of Szadurki 1880-1918, her parents:
Józef Szadurski b. 1845 and
Maria Chomińska of Bakszty b. 1850;
her grandparents Wiktor Ignacy Szadurski b. 1810; Teresa Mohl b. 1820; Stanisław Chomiński 1804-1886; and Ewelina Anna Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1822-1904.
Above Stanislawa Szadurska b. ca 1880 in Pusza, the Rezekne / Rzeżyca district, the Vicebsk government; she died in Feb. 1918 in Pusza.
Her sisters: Kazimiera Szadurska; Maria Szadurska b. ca 1880; Józefa Szadurska b. ca 1880.
Above Wiktor Ignacy Szadurski and Teresa Mohl had
1. Ida Jadwiga Szadurska b. 1840 m. Michał Benisławski b. 1830 with children: Maria Benisławska 1856-1939, Michał Benisławski 1860-1933; and
2. Zofia Szadurska 1840-1924 m. Józef Mońkiewicz 1850-1904 with Zofia Teodora Józefa Mońkiewicz b. 1880; Rozalia Mońkiewicz 1880-1906;
3. Józef Szadurski b. 1845 m. Maria Chomińska b. 1850 with
Wacław Marian Seweryn Szadurski 1878-1958;
Stanisława Szadurska 1880-1918;
Kazimiera Szadurska b. ca 1880;
Maria Szadurska b. ca 1880;
Józefa Szadurska b. ca 1880.

Some details on de Lacy:

1. Alexandr O'Brien de Lacy and Gabriela Radovitsky's genealogy:

Alexander O'Brien de Lacy, 1842-1908, was born to Patryk O'Brien de Lacy and Julia nee Von Dame. Patryk was born in 1790. Gabriela Radowicka was born in 1856. They had 6 children: Maria Jaholkowski, Genowefa Zembszuski / Zembrzuska, and 4 other children.
Copyright by http://www.myheritage.com/names/alexander_obrien.

2. On February 17, 1863 Lt. Tytus O'Brien de Lacy escaped with 400 zouaves to Galicia in March 1863. In the Battle of Chroberz the Zouaves covered the retreat of the main body of Polish forces under Marian Langiewicz.

3. Patryk O’Brien de Lacy b. 1888 in Augustówek close to Grodno, d. 1964; served in the Army of the Russian Empire, to 1917, as a second lieutenant of sappers. He was then adjutant of General Joseph Dowbor-Muśnicki in the Polish Corps in Russia. In 1920 he took part in the Polish-Bolshevik war. 1922 has been verified in the rank of major. He came from an old family of the counts, derived from Ireland.

He was a brother of Terencjusz and Maurycy; married with Maria Duszyński, with whom he had a son Hugon (1925-1958) and daughter Margaret b. 1928.

4. Augustówek / Augustowek, 1760 - 1920, manor, lying at a distance of 3 km from Grodno, on the left bank of the Neman, belonged to the royal estates, wearing the other names. After the partitions 1795, the estates are confiscated and subsequently passed into private ownership. In the second half of the eighteenth century, Anthony Tyzenhauz, treasurer of Lithuania, built palaces, calling them "Stanislaviv" and the other "Augustówek".

In 1797 Catherine II gave Augustówek to General Maurice de Lacy for his merits during the Turkish-Russian war.

Maurice de Lacy, residing permanently in the palace of King Stanislaus Augustus, compiled in 1819 testament to his nephew, Patrick O'Brien, the son of Terence and Mary de Lacy, captain of troops of England. Even before his death, ie. before 1820, gen. Maurice de Lacy gave to above Patrick O'Brien surname de Lacy, and the Tsar Alexander I to combine the two names in one: O'Brien de Lacy.

Before death De Lacy fictitiously sold Augustówek to a friend Charles Medem, of Courland, that the owner of these assets was only a few years. In 1820 sold it with forests, meadows and manors of Horny, Kruhl and villages Połotkowo, Suchmienie, Kruhl, Hornica, Słomianka, Dziemitkowo approx. 12 000 ha, to the nephew of General, Patrick O'Brien de Lacy, who became the Augustówka undisputed heir.

Since 1908, ie. from the death of Alexander O'Brien de Lacy, who inherited Augustówek with several adjacent manors, possessions were ruled by widow, sons - Maurice jun., Terence and Patrick, and daughters - Mary Jaholkowski, Genevieve Zembrzuski and Aleksandra Miączyński. Such legal status lasted until 1921.

There was a family arrangement under which Augustówek was divided into two parts. One, together with the palace received the Polish army colonel, Terence O'Brien de Lacy, the second with a chapel fell to his brother, Maurice jun.; copyright by Roman Aftanazy, 'Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczypospolitej', vol. 3. Palace had many owners, the most famous among them was an old Irish ancestry O'Brien de Lassi / de Lacy.

The history of this family is associated with a battle in 1690 in which Ireland lost its independence in favor of England. Many Irish have chosen exile rather than surrender to William III of Orange. On one ship was James de Lacy with his nephew Peter de Lacy. In 1700, Peter was drawn into the Russian army. Service began with the rank of captain, and graduated as Governor-General of Riga, then the whole of Latvia.

The founder of the Polish family line became a nephew of Count Maurice - Peter O'Brien de Lacy. He followed his uncle, serving in the Russian army, and he received from Catherine II, Augustówek, confiscated after the abdication of King Poniatowski. Not having children of their own, Maurice left the palace his nephew Patrick, and he gave Augustówek in the hands of the younger son Alexander, who married a Polish girl, Gabriela Radowicka.

From this marriage were born three daughters: Maria, Genevieve and Alexandra, and three sons: Terence, Patrick and Maurice.

Terencjusz / Terence, like many men of his family, started military career. During the war belonged to the Russian "Wild Division" and after Poland regained its independence became commander of the regiment in Bialystok. His daughter Nelly O'Brien de Lacy, graduated at Berlin University in painting and emigrated to Argentina, where he was known painter. Maurice O'Brien de Lacy during the World War I was the commander of the Russian sanitary train in the Odessa region. Then he met his future wife, the Russian princess Nadzieja Drucki. 1929-1932 he was president of Grodno. The history of the local parish began in 1818 when General Maurice de Lacy for his own expense built here a chapel; 1903, Mary O'Brien de Lacy wedding took place here; inf. by "The role of the house of Lacy", by Edward de Lacy-Bellingari, 1928. Nadzieja O'Brien de Lacy Princess Drucka b. 1898 in Warsaw, d. 1986, Polish writer, translator and social activist; the daughter of (Sergius and Maria Safonowicz) Mary Safonowicz and the Duke Sergei Drucki, tsarist general and professor of the Military Academy of Legal Affairs, whose family was descended from Rurik Dynasty; returned with her parents to St. Petersburg where, in 1914, she was graduated from the Smolny Institute; 1914, Drucki with her daughter and two sons moved to Moscow. she became a nurse of the Red Cross. During World War I, working as a nurse, she met her future husband Maurice (wedding took in November 1917 in Moscow). In August 1918 she came with her husband to the property of Augustówek, where they were together until 1939; befriended, among others, Zofia Nalkowska. Nadzieja 'Literat' Drucka buried in Warsaw.

Note at margin:

Catherine married Francis Kossakowski (b. 1815), that is Katarzyna O'Brien de Lacy, 1820 / 1827-1910, married Franciszek Korwin-Kossakowski in 1840. Franciszek was born in 1815, in Marciniszki. Katarzyna Korwin - Kossakowska nee O'Brien de Lacy, was born to Patryk O'Brien de Lacy and Julia O'Brien de Lacy nee von Damme; Patryk was born in 1800. Julia was born in 1800. Katarzyna had brothers - Piotr O'Brien de Lacy, and Aleksander O'Brien de Lacy b. 1830 m. Gabriela Radowicka b. 1850, who had daughter Aleksandra 1895 - 1987, by www.sejm-wielki.pl: m. ca 1915 to Andrzej Miączyński 1876-1936 with daughter Zofia 1919-2015 m. Stanisław Komorowski 1915-2004 with Andrzej Komorowski 1950, Stanisław Komorowski 1950, Krzysztof Komorowski 1954, Anna.

Grandparents of above Franciszek: Antoni Korwin-Kossakowski 1735-1798 and Eleonora Straszewicz b. 1750; Ludwik Gorski from Retów 1749-1815 and Konstancja Odachowska.

Parents: Szymon Korwin-Kossakowski, a member of the Malta Order (the Sulkowskis!), 1777-1828 and Józefa Ewa Rachela Gorska b. 1783. Franciszek d. 1887.

Hipolit Gorski
(his sister Józefa Górska married to Szymon Kossakowski b. 1777 in Marciniszki, died in 1828, with sons:
Ludwik Kossakowski b. 1805, d. 1843, and Franciszek Kossakowski b. 1815, and one child more).
Hipolit Gorski b. ca 1790 was son of Ludwik Gorski and stepson of Konstancja Odachowska b. 1750.
Her family: Józefa Ewa Rachela Korwin-Kossakowska daughter, Karolina Cecylia Morykoni, Zofia Pulcheria Giedrojć daughter, Adam Gorski son, Seweryn Gorski stepson, Aleksander Gorski stepson, Bogumiła Billewicz stepdaughter, Prakseda Billewicz stepdaughter, Hipolit Gorski stepson (he was father of Stanisława Hutten-Czapska b. ca 1830, and grandfather of Krystyna Potulicka [mother of Henryk Józef Adolf Potulicki; Józef Zygmunt Potulicki; Teresa Potulicka; Zofia Dowgiałło; Izabela Jabłońska; and Krystyna Potulicka] and Adolfina Maria Hutten-Czapska - her daughter was Zofia Barbara Światopełk-Czetwertyńska), Joanna Billewicz stepdaughter.
Above Józefa Ewa Rachela Gorska (Korwin-Kossakowska), born 1783, to Ludwik Górski and Konstancja Odachowska; Ludwik was born on September 3, 1749. Konstancja was born in 1755. Józefa had 3 brothers: Adam Górski, Hipolit and one more.

Hipolit Gorski b. ca 1790
(his sister Józefa Górska m. to Szymon Kossakowski) son of Ludwik,
had daughter Stanislawa Gorska m. Adolf Hutten Czapski, with children:

1. Maria Czapska Hutten / Adolfina Maria Hutten-Czapska b. 1868 m. Gustaw Karol Przezdziecki
(with Zofia Barbara Przezdziecka m. Seweryn Franciszek Czetwertyński b. 1873);
2. Krystyna Czapska-Hutten (Krystyna Potulicka b. 1860 in Berżany, the Szawle district, Lithuania, d. 1939 in Obory; daughter of Adolf Hutten-Czapski and Stanisława; she was sister of Adolfina Maria Hutten-Czapska)
m. Count Mieczyslaw Potulicki 1858 in Jeziory Wielkie, d. 1910 Obory
(with children:
Henryk Potulicki 1888 - 1931 Poznan, and
Józef Zygmunt Potulicki b. 1889 m. Helena Maria Broel-Plater;
Teresa;
Zofia Dowgiallo;
Izabela Jablonska),
3. Stanisław Czapski-Hutten m. Jadwiga Maria Potulicka
(Stanisław died 1922; son of Adolf Hutten Czapski and Stanisława Górska;
Stanisław married Jadwiga Maria Emilia Potulicka in 1888; Jadwiga was born on October 7 1866, in Jeziory Wielkie;
they had 2 daughters:

1. Józefa Hutten-Czapska-Potulicka born 1890, was daughter of Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1860-1922 and Jadwiga Maria Emilia Potulicka of Więcborg 1866-1943; she was wife of (ca 1907 ?) Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak 1865-1943 son of Józef Bułhak b. 1838 / 1840.

The parents of Emanuel Bulhak:
Józef Bułhak b. ca 1838 / 1840 and
Antonina Malinowska b. ca 1830. (Jadwiga Hutten Czapska - mistake!)

and 2.
Izabella Potulicka m. to Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski).

Louise Ronikier: Ludwika Ronikier daughter of Kazimierz Jozef Ronikier 1787 - 1863, and Ludwika Zbijewska b. after 1787.

Brothers 1. Stanisław August Józef Ronikier (1785-1852) with son: Michał Alfred Telesfor Antoni Kazimierz (d. 1884), and mentioned above

2. Kazimierz Józef Atanazy (1787-1863) with sons: Bronisław Michał Jan (1811-1853), Adam Aleksander Atanazy (1818-1873), Edward Romuald Teofil (1824-1878), Cezary Kazimierz Gustaw (1830-?) and Roman Teofil Ronikier (1832-1918); the above brothers were sons of Michał Aleksander Ronikier (1728-1803); on 18 March 1850, the Count title in Russia and Germany.

Some details on the Bulhak family:

Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670, was father of:

FLORIAN STANISLAW,
KAZIMIERZ,
KATARZYNA,
JAKUB m. BARBARA Wolk - Traby,
FRANCISZKA,
DOROTA,
MARCIN m. MARIANNA WERESZCZAK,
JAN b. 1700 m. NN MOGIELNICKA, Nowogrodek clark.
Probably from Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670 come a branch of Gabriel Bulhak (Gabriel Bułhak with Syrokomla coat of arms, born ca 1750 or ca. 1754 and died ca. 1799, married in 1790) and his son Ignacy Bulhak (born ca. 1786 / 1788, died ca. 1838) - Bobruisk / Bobrujsk marshal.

Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Sluck! His mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749; grandfather: above mentioned Florian Stanislaw Bulhak b. ca 1700.

Bułhak Gabriel, office clark in 1793 and 1810. Bułhak Leon, office clark, 1809, Bułhak Jan, in 1787.

Gabriel Bułhak with Syrokomla coat of arms, born ca 1750 / 1754, married in 1790, with child:
Ignacy Bulhak (Ignacy Bułhak / Ignatius Bulhak in the War of 1812 fought with the troops of Napoleon; was living east of Bobruisk, close to Staraja Dobosna; the land marshal in Bobruisk / the marshal of Bobrujsk; born ca. 1786 / 1788 died ca. 1838 / 1848).
His grandson married to Zofia b. ca 1830.

At the end of the eighteenth century Dobośnia was bought by Bulhak, the construction of the huge neoclassical palace began around 1825 by above named Ignacy / Ignatius Bulhak, marshal of the nobility of the Bobruisk county.

Ignacy Bulgak / Bulhak was born approximately 1786 / 1788, d. 1838 / 1848; from the Minsk government; he was son of Gabriel Bulhak, cavalry captain in 1784, Lida, a nobleman (Gabriel Bułhak was born ca 1750 or ca. 1754 and died ca. 1799; in Lida district or the Asmjany district?) and Fortunata Bułhak.
He had four siblings:
Jozef Bulhak / Joseph (1786-1865) and three unknown sisters;
Ignacy Bulgak / Bulhak studied philosophy in 1810-1812 , Dorpat in Livonia. He was honorary curator of the school Bobrujsk area and marshal of Bobruisk in 1809-1825, a Knight of the Order of St. Anna 2nd class. Known as the benefactor of education, especially school of Bobrujsk,
Ignacy Bulgak / Bulhak was twice married:
Isabella Clara Ślizień / Izabella Klara Ślizień (1810-1834) in 1828 and to
her sister Teresa nee Slizien
(relatives:
Michael Ślizień born about 1725, marshal of the nobility area of Borysow; owner in the Slonim area of Bohuszewicze; Joseph Ślizień born about 1760 died 1856, Mściże owner, the marshal of the nobility area of Borysow; Wilhelmina de Liebe, Antoinette Oborska, Teresa Ślizień born about 1790).
From the first marriage he had two children:
Joseph Witold (1829-1892), a graduate of the University, and
Sophia (ca 1830 / 1832-1881),
from the other wife, was seven children:
Oskar;
Olgierd (1845-1871);
Henry / Henryk;
Edgar (1848 - 1922 / 1923);
Isabella (died ? 1879);
Wanda and
Adela.

Above mentioned Edgar Bułhak 1848-1922/1923 that is Эдгар Игнатьевич Булгак / Edgar Ignatievich Bulgak / Bulhak (inf. of 1905, Rohaczewski ujezd / Рогачевски уезд in the Moghilev government, owned Добосна / Dobosna and Skripnica / Скрипица in the Качеричска volost).

Above Sophia (ca 1830 / 1832-1881), / Zofia Bułhak + Henryk Wołłowicz born ca 1820 (his son Józef Wołłowicz ca 1860).

Józef Bułhak b. ca 1838 / 1840 + Antonina Malinowska b. ca 1830 (her children:
Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak 1865-1943,
Izabela Bułhak / Izabela Moniuszko nee Bułhak - Syrokomla b. ca 1870).

Above Józef Bułhak b. ca 1838 / 1840 was son of Ignacy Bułhak (b. ca 1810) and Izabela. This Ignacy junior was son of Ignacy Bulhak b. ca 1786 / 1788, d. 1838 / 1848; from the Minsk government;
he was son of Gabriel Bulhak, cavalry captain in 1784, Lida, a nobleman

(Gabriel Bułhak was born ca 1750 or ca. 1754 and died ca. 1799; in Lida district or the Asmjany district?)

and Fortunata Bułhak.

Józefa Hutten-Czapska-Potulicka born 1890, was daughter of Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1860-1922 and Jadwiga Maria Emilia Potulicka of Więcborg 1866-1943; she was wife of above named
(ca 1907 ?) Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak 1865-1943 son of Józef Bułhak b. 1838 / 1840.

Emmanuel de Bulhac / Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak b. 1865, d. 1943, the Syrokomla coat of arms, duke, philosopher. Owner of Czehrynka and Dobośnia. After death of dad and uncles
(his uncle was Witold Bułhak that is Józef Witold Bułhak, owner of Czehrynka / Czyhirinka [1834], close to Niemki, Kolbowo, south of Czeczewiczy, near by Drut' river, west-south-west of Stary Byhow, and south-east of Zbyszyn of the Brujewicz family and Borki of 'Nadberezyncy' book by Czarnyszewicz Florian),
he taken Bułhak properties, with library in Dobośnia palace.
Named Tchegrinka / Czehrynka through Tchechevitche, government of Minsk / Czehrynka, the Byhow district, Ozierany parish.
Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak was also owner of Bereśniówka / Bieresniowka, south-west of above Czehrynka / Czyhirinka, close to Sieliba, Niehowla, north of Dobysnia; near by Dobosna river / or Dobysna river, south-east of Miezonka of Konstantynowicz.
Emanuel Bułhak m. Józefa Hutten-Czapski (ca 1907 ?) with daughter Izabella and also Emanuel Bułhak adopted Jerzy Bułhak-Jelski and Władysław Bułhak.
Izabela or Izabell Bułhak b. ca 1908/1910 ?, died 1930.

Jerzy Bułhak-Jelski, b. 1900, d. 1972; his parents:
Czesław Jelski and Helena Moniuszko 1875-1946;
grandparents: Józef Jelski 1830-1879 with Cecylia Wołłowicz (her father Eustachy Wołłowicz born 1797) and Donat Moniuszko with Izabela Bułhak - Syrokomla
(her parents: Józef Bułhak b. ca 1838 / 1840 and Antonina Malinowska ca 1830.
Izabela was sister of Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak b. 1865).

Some details on the Szadurskis:

1. Mikolaj Szadurski b. ca 1810, d. 1876, m. Maria Plater-Zyberk of Broel, b. 1813 - d. 1893 - Kraslaw / Kraslava.

2. His son Wladyslaw Szadurski b. 1840, m. 1866 to Stefania Borch 1847-1888 daughter of Michal Borch and Maria Korsak 1807-1869, with children:

a. Michalina Szadurska b. 1867 m. Konstanty Maria Michal Ropp 1855-1925 with children:
Edward Teodor Ropp 1888-1919, Stefan Gottfryd Józef Ropp 1892-1983 m. Wanda Maria Danillo-Gasiewicz 1903-1982,

b. Marian Eugeniusz Wladyslaw b. 1877.

3. Franciszek Ksawery Szadurski b. 1764 m. Franciszka Felkerzamb b. 1760 with son Jan Szadurski b. 1810, who married to Celina Tyszkiewicz-Łohojska b. 1810 from Pius Tyszkiewicz-Łohojski and Augusta Maria Broel-Plater 1775-1834, with children Kazimierz Szadurski b. 1846, Stanisław b. 1849, Witold b. 1850 m. unknown Bourgois b. 1860.

4. Konstancja Anna Januszewicz, born ca 1780 / 1790 was daughter of Jan Stanisław Mohl b. ca 1760 and Joanna Mohl b. ca 1760. Konstancja had one sister Maria Felkerzamb. Konstancja married Wiktoryn Januszewicz ca 1800 / 1805; Wiktoryn was born circa 1780.

Michal Plater-Zyberk 1777 - 1862/63, his daughter Maria married to Mikolaj Szadurski. Maria b. on 23 Sept. 1813, m. on 15 Oct. 1837, she died in Kraslaw on 20 Dec. 1893 (Krāslava, Latvia / Kraslava).
A relationships to Izabella Malkiewicz born 01st May 1908 in Moskwa / Moscow / Moscou; Mother-in-God was Maryla Koziell Poklewska / Maryla Koziell Poklevski married to Slotwinski / Slotvinski. Her sister Irena Malkiewicz, actress.
See also the Krej / Croy family - Nugent in Italy and Ireland]);

Konstanty Plater-Zyberk; Józef Plater-Zyberk; Eleonora; Jadwiga and Stanisław Kostka Kazimierz Jan Józef Michał Plater-Zyberk};

mother of Leon Plater-Zyberk; Wojciech Jan; Henryk Kazimierz; Zofia Buyno; Edward Edmund; Jan Kazimierz; Emilia Niemirowicz-Szczytt; Ludwik Wiktor; Wiktor Kazimierz Konstanty; Anna; Eleonora Przewłocka; Teofil Stanisław; Wilhelm and Maria;
she was sister of Eduard Fedorovic von Keller; Alfred Fed. Keller; Oskar Fedorovic Keller; Arthur Fedorovich Graf von Keller; Leonide von Rönne; and Viktor Fedorovic Graf von Keller];

Eduard Fedorovic Graf von Keller;
Alfred Fed. Graf von Keller;
Oskar Fedorovic Graf von Keller;
Arthur Fedorovich Graf von Keller;
Leonide von Rönne and
Viktor Fedorovic Graf von Keller.
Sophie Eleonore Marie Keller nee Borch, 1795 - 1880 in Riga, was sister of
Karol Jerzy Jan Józef Borch; Eliza von Funck; Isabella Amalie Margarethe Gertrud Grote; Annette Klara Juliane Natalie von Grote; Alexander Anton Stanislaus Bernhard Borch; and Józef Kazimierz Piotr Michał Borch);

Viktor Fedorovič Graf von Keller born 1834 - died in 1906 in Dubbeln close to Riga, was husband of Sofia Gräfin von Keller;
father of Viktor Graf von Keller; Vasili Graf von Keller and Leon Graf von Keller;
brother of mentioned above
Adelaida Plater-Zyberk b. 1817;
Eduard Fedorovic Graf von Keller; Alfred Fed. Graf von Keller; Oskar Fedorovic Graf von Keller; Arthur Fedorovich Graf von Keller; and Leonide von Rönne
(copyright by Peter Trefilov in 2012 at geni.com).

Above mentioned
Honora (Hanora) de Browne / de Camus Browne of Camas / DeLacy, daughter of Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill, Esq. and Alice DeLacy, was wife of George de Browne, de Camus, and she was mother of George, 1st Count Browne of Camas and Ulysses Browne.

Above Ulysses Browne was husband of Maria Philippina Magdalena Gfin. von Martinitz, and was father of Baron Максимилиан Улисс.
Above Максимилиан Улисс / граф фон Броун / де Камю и Монтани / Maximilian Ulysses / Reichsgraf von Browne / Camus und Mountany,
b. 1705 in Basel, Switzerland, died 1757.

Genealogy and history of the Schaub and the Lock families in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Italy and Switzerland.

Luke (Lucas) Schaub, come from Bazylea / Basel was born 1690 and died in London, 1758; received an education in Basel and in Saint-Aubin in the canton of Neuchatel to learn the French language, after law school; Abraham Stanian, British Ambassador in Switzerland gave him various missions; also, Lord Cobham - British Ambassador in Vienna, take Schaub with him. In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy.
Luke Schaub, Lukas Schaub, Lucas Schaub b. 1690 in Basel, Swiss descent. Son of a notary, a study of law in Basel, diplomatic career in the service of England;
1715-1716 he was a British charge d'affaires to the Holy Roman Empire; 1720, he was - by the English King George I - knighted; 1721-1724 he was an English ambassador in Paris; 1737 he mediated in the so-called salmon fishing dispute between Basel and France.
He married Marguerite de Ligonnier du Buisson, b. 1717, d. 1789.
Father of Hans Heinrich Schaub (you must check!) and Frederica Augusta Schaub b. 1750, d. 1832 - she married William Lock;
her child William Lock 2nd b. 1767, d. 1847.
He married Elizabeth Jennings (d. 1847), daughter of Henry Constantine Jennings / Jennings-Noel, in 1805. He lived at Norbury Park, Surrey, England.
Above William Lock / Locke, William, the younger (1767-1847), amateur artist, friend of Henry Fuseli; Locke painted historical and allegorical subjects, after 1819 he lived at Rome and Paris (Paszkowski family in Cracow, Moscow, Rome and Paris also!);
leaving one son, William 3rd, and a daughter Elizabeth.
Locke, William, the third (1804-1832), captain and amateur artist, published some illustrations to Byron's works. He was drowned in the lake of Como, Italy; married Selina, daughter of Admiral Tollemache;

he had daughter, Augusta Selina Locke b. 1833, married

1. Ernest Lord Burghersh,

2. the Duca di San Teodoro

(Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square.

Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua!

MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, 1840 - was an Italian philosopher and historian. Cecilia / Cecylia Mariano Pilar von Pilchau died 1896 in Italy, Neapol. She was born 1847 in Audern, close to Parnu, Livonia.

Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano.

She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. We have got different inf.:

Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano.

And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor of the University of Naples.

Relatives: Adolph (ALF), Jacob Constantin von Pilar Pilchau (1851 - 1925 in Pärnu, Baron of Livonia, and the marshal of the district magistrate in Parnu); and Helene Bertha Johanna von Adele Gruenewaldt (1853-1889, nee Pilchau von Pilar, married Walther Gruenewaldt).

That is on Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847–1896), from Italian cementery. The first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com)
Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel.
Her family:

father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother
Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau.
She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar.
Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu.
He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814.
Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.
Gorki was living on Capri Island (Lenin and Dzierzynski were here). Capri is close to Sorrento, ca 13 km on west; south of Napoli / Neapol where was living
MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani - was an Italian philosopher and historian; student of Augusto Vera; his two wifes from the Pilar Pilchau family of Audern and Parnu. From Capri to Napoli: kilometers 32, bearing: SW),
and 3. Thomas de Grey, the present Lord Walsingham.
Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham b. 1843 in Stanhope Street, Mayfair, London, d. 1919, was an English politician, 1874 to 1875 he served as a Lord-in-Waiting in the second Conservative government of Benjamin Disraeli. Marriages to Augusta Selina Elizabeth LOCKE / Selina Lock in 1877, Marion GWYTHERNE-WILLIAMS and Agnes Baird HEMMING.

Child of William Lock and Elizabeth Jennings:

Elizabeth Lock b. 1806, d. 1877 (Baroness of Wallscourt or Bessie). In 1822 she married Joseph Henry Blake, 3rd Baron Wallscourt, son of Colonel Henry James Blake and Anne French;
children of Elizabeth Lock and Joseph Henry Blake, 3rd Baron Wallscourt:

Henry Joseph Blake b. 1823, William Richard Blake b. 1825, Elizabeth Frederica b. 1827, Elizabeth Nina b. 1830, Erroll Augustus Blake, 4th Baron Wallscourt b. 1841, d. 1918:
1874 married,

firstly, Lady Jane Harriet Charlotte Stanhope, daughter of Charles Wyndham Stanhope, 7th Earl of Harrington and Elizabeth Still de Pearsall;

married, secondly 1896, Mary Ethel Palliser, daughter of Sir William Palliser and Anne Perham; educated at Eton College, Windsor, Berkshire;
he was extra Aide-de-Camp to the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland.

Children of Erroll Augustus Blake, 4th Baron Wallscourt:

Charles William Joseph Henry Blake, 5th Baron Wallscourt b. 1875, Erroll Wyndham Lincoln Blake b. 1875, unmarried, Elizabeth Lucy Eily Blake b. 1877, d. 1966
(she married Major Leycester Penrhyn Storr, son of Reverend John Storr and Amy Theodosia Leycester, 1907 and had: Norah Storr, b. 1908, m. F. D. Atkinson; Leila Storr, b. 1909, 1958 m. Edward McGarel-Groves; Winifred Storr, b. 1911; Jane Storr, b. 1916; Eliabeth Storr, b. 1918, m. Ian Spence),
Elizabeth Honoria Blake, Margaret Phyllis Blake. Above Charles William Joseph Henry Blake, 5th Baron Wallscourt was married Ellen Mayo, daughter of Joseph Mayo.
Literature by Rudolf Massini, 1953; Oxford Dictionary of National Biography in 2004; Stefan Hess. Above data copyright by www.thepeerage.com.

Below are some genealogical information, often requiring further investigation:

Above Alice DeLacy / Conway, b. circa 1642 in Killorglin, County Kerry, Ireland; daughter of Edward Conway and Catherine; wife of Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill, Esq. and Patrick Dowdall.

Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill married Lady Alice Conway, by whom his children
were Edmond,
Peter,
Patrick,
Elizabeth and
Hanora.

De Lacy / Laci / Lacey, is the surname of an old Norman noble family. Count Peter von Lacy / Pyotr Petrovich Lacy / Пётр Петро́вич Лaсси, b. 1678, died in Riga in 1751, was Russian imperial commander;
Peter Lacy was born as
Pierce Edmond de Lacy in Killeedy near Limerick, Ireland.
Count Peter claimed that his father Peter was the son of John Lacy of Ballingarry. Count Peter's grandfather John Lacy of Ballingarry was of the House of Bruff.
His first land battle in Russia was Narva; Lacy withdrew to Riga and resumed the command of the Russian forces stationed in Livland. He administered Northern Latvia and Southern Estonia; his son Franz Moritz von Lacy / de Lacy had entered the Austrian service in 1743.
Count Peter married Estonian-Livonian noblewoman Maret Philippine / Martha von Funcken from Liezere, widow of the young Count Hannes Kristof Frölich, daughter of general Remmert von Funcken of Liezere, and his second wife baroness Helena Üksküla. They had 5 daughters and 2 sons.

Franz Moritz von Lacy / Francis Maurice de Lacy / Boris Petrovich Lassi, 1725, St. Petersburg - 1801, Vienna; was the son of Count Peter von Lacy and was a Austrian field marshal. He was a close friend to Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor;
his father, Count Peter von Lacy or Pyotr Petrovich Lacy / Пётр Петрoвич Лaсси or Peter Lacy was born as Pierce Edmond de Lacy in 1678 in Killeedy near Limerick into a noble Irish family - Riga Governor, General, d. 1751;
his mother, Countess Martha Philippina von Loeser, the widow of the Count von Funk of Livonia - Martha von Phillippine FUNCKE (1685-1759).
Franz Moritz was born in St Petersburg, and entered the Austrian service in Italy, Bohemia, Silesia and the Netherlands; his last years were spent in retirement at his castle of Neuwaldegg near Vienna, by Wikipedia.

Count Пётр Петрoвич Лaсси / Лесси / Pierce Edmond de Lacy / Peadar de Lasa, b. 1678, had family:

1. the son-in-law, Riga Governor-General Юрий Юрьевич Броун / George Browne;

2. son - Franz Moritz Lacy (1725-1800), a famous military leader;

3. nephew was Boris P. Lassi / Moritz Lazy / Lacy, 1737-1820, General of Infantry

(Boris Petrovich Lassie was the Russian military leader, General of Infantry, a hero of the storming of Izmail and Prague. In 1797-1798 the Governor-General of the Kazan province. He began his service in the Austrian army, in 1762 admitted to the Russian service with the rank of lieutenant, in respect to the merits of Field Marshal Lassi immediately promoted to captain;
he remained out of work until 1805, when the first he was sent to Naples with a secret mission, and then, was appointed commander of the Russian, English and Neapolitan troops to protect the kingdom of Naples. After Austerlitz Lassie returned from Naples to Russia and settled in his estate in Grodno, where he died in 1820.

Maurice O'Brien de Lacy / Maurycy O'Brien de Lacy, b. 1891, Avgustovek, near Grodno, the Russian Empire - d. 1978, Warsaw, Poland, Earl, a Polish social activist, president of the Grodno (1930-1933). Born in 1891 (1881?) in the estate Avgustovek about Grodno in the family of Irishman -
Alexandr O'Brien de Lacy and Gabriela Radovitsky.
He graduated from the Faculty of Agriculture of the Riga Technical University. During his studies was member in 1911 of "Arkona". During the First World War took part in the activities of the International Red Cross. He was commander of the Russian sanitary train, which operated in Odessa. At the same time, he met with Russian Princess Nadia Drutska / Drucka and married in Moscow in November 1917. During the Civil War was in Moscow. In 1918 he returned to the family estate in Avgustovek near Grodno, where he lived with his wife until 1939.
He was brother of Terencjusz O'Brien de Lacy, b. 1885 in Augustowek, and Patryk de Lacy).

Count (in 1774) Юрий Юрьевич Броун / George Browne / Seoirse de Brún, b. 1698, Limerick, Ireland - d. 1792, Riga, Russian commander of the Irish origin, general-in-chief, the Riga Governor-General. He was married first to the daughter of Field Marshal Peter Lacy, their son, Count Ivan Y. (Georg) Brown, commander of the Kexholmsky regiment, Maltese gentleman, buried in Vienna with his famous uncle, an Austrian Field Marshal Count Lacy.
After the death of Helen Lassie / Lacy in 1764 he married again, to Eleanor Christine von Mengden (1729-1787). Buried in Kurland, in the town of Schönberg.

Different source!

Rembert von FUNCKE married in Haapsalu in 1660 to Sophie Elisabeth von Ungern (1628-1665), the second time he married to Helene von Yxkull-Gyllenbandiga of Särevere estate; they had:
Anna Magdalena von FUNCKE (1671-1734), Maria Louisa von FUNCKE (b. 1672), m. Major General Magnus Stiernstrale; Beata Justina von FUNCKE (b. 1674), Judith von FUNCKE (b. 1675); Sabina Sidonia von FUNCKE (1677-1714) m. Jürgen Gustav Wrangel (1662-1733); Gustav Moritz von FUNCKE (b. 1678); Franz; Gustav Heinrich von FUNCKE; Carl Magnus;
Martha von Phillippine FUNCKE (1685-1759), m. to the Riga Governor, General Peter von Lacy (1678-1751);
Magnus Gabriel von FUNCKE; Apollonia von FUNCKE married in 1723 to Albrecht von Cahdeusega.

George 1st Count Browne of Camas.

By Dictionary at National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 07 on Browne, George (1698-1792) by Thomas Finlayson Henderson;

"BROWNE, GEORGE, Count de (1698–1792), Irish soldier of fortune ... His immediate ancestors were the Brownes of Camas, Limerick, where he was born 15 June 1698. He was educated at Limerick diocesan school. A catholic and a Jacobite, he, like several of his other relations, sought scope for his ambition in a foreign military career. In his twenty-seventh year he entered the service of the elector palatine, from which he passed in 1730 to that of Russia. He distinguished himself in the Polish, French, and Turkish wars, and had risen to the rank of general ... he was taken prisoner by the Turks. After being three times sold as a slave, he obtained his freedom through the intervention of the French ambassador Villeneuve, at the instance of the Russian court, and, remaining for some time at Constantinople in his slave's costume, succeeded in discovering important state secrets which he carried to St. Petersburg. In recognition of this special service he was raised by Anna to the rank of major-general, and in this capacity accompanied General Lacy on his first expedition to Finland. ... In the seven years' war he rendered important assistance as lieutenant-general under his cousin Ulysses Maximilian, count von Browne. ... at Kollin, 18 June 1757 ... Maria Theresa presented him with a snuff-box set with brilliants and adorned with her portrait. At Zorndorf, 25 Aug. 1758 ... By Peter III he was named field-marshal, and appointed to the chief command in the Danish war. ... appointed him governor of Livonia. He was confirmed in the office under Catherine II, and for thirty years to the close of his life administered its affairs with remarkable practical sagacity, and with great advantage both to the supreme government and to the varied interests of the inhabitants. He died 18 Feb. 1792".

Inf. copyright by Histoire de la Vie de G. de Browne, Riga, 1794; Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyclopadie, sect. i. vol. xiii. pt. i. pp. 112–13; Ferrar's History of Limerick.

Above Ulysses Maximilian, count von Browne / Maximilian Ulysses, Reichsgraf von Browne, Baron de Camus and Mountany was an Austrian military leader;

copyright by Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 07, by Henry Manners Chichester:

"BROWN or BROWNE, ULYSSES MAXIMILIAN von (1705-1757), count of the holy Roman empire, baron de Camus and Mountany, and field-marshal in the imperialist armies, was son of Ulysses, baron Brown, an Irish colonel of cavalry in the Austrian army ennobled for his military services by the emperor Charles V, and was born at Basle on 23 Oct. 1705. He entered the imperial service at an early age ... At the age of twenty-one he married the young Countess Marie Philippine von Martinez, daughter of George Adam Martinez, who for a short time was imperial vicegerent in the kingdom of Naples. Brown's influential connections, as well as his personal merits, secured his rapid advancement. At twenty-nine he commanded an Austrian infantry regiment in Italy, and a few years later, on the accession of the empress Maria Theresa, he was advanced to the rank of field-marshal lieutenant and appointed to command in Silesia. In the campaigns in Italy in 1743-8 ... the battle of Piacenza, where he commanded the Austrian left ... When the Austrians moved southward the city of Genoa opened its gates to him ... His withdrawal from Genoa was considered a masterly operation. ... in 1749 he returned to Vienna, and held commands in Transylvania and Bohemia. He became a field-marshal in 1763. ... His biography was published in German and in French in 1757".

Inf. by Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Leipzig, 1876) ... Sir E. Gust's Annals of the Wars of the Eighteenth Century (London, 1860-1).

Above Countess Marie Philippine von Martinez: daughter of Jorge / George Adam Martinez.

Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill, Esq. and Alice:

"...Edmond de Lacy, father of the famous Marshal Peter de Lacy of Russia, settled at Rathcahill (Monagea) in 1677 (The "Roll of the House of Lacy" gives this Edmond Lacy as being grandfather of Marshal Peter, which in my opinion, is a slight error. Vide Begley's History of Limerick). Edmond married the Lady Alice Conway, by whom his children were Edmond, Peter, Patrick, Elizabeth and Hanora. Hanora de Lacy married George Browne, Baron of Camas, a scion of the ancient household of Knockmany, and these were the parents of the illustrious Count Marshal George Browne, Governor of Riga and Livonia and Knight of the Order of St. Anne. Count George was born at Mayne, Castlemahon, on June 15th, 1698...".

Under copyright by http://www.limerickleader.ie/news/

By geni.com:

"...Honora (Hanora) de Browne, de Camus Browne of Camas was born to Edmond DeLacy of Rathcahill and Alice DeLacy. Honora had 7 brothers and sisters: Edmond DeLacy and 6 other siblings. Honora married George de Browne, de Camus. They had 2 sons: George 1st Count Browne of Camas...".

Count GEORGE BROWNE, of the Holy Roman Empire, General-in-Chief in Russia, Governor-General of Livonia, Knight of St. Anne, son of GEORGE BROWNE, Esq., of Camus, co. Limerick, by HONORA, daughter of EDMOND DE LACY, Esq., of Rathcahill, county of Limerick and grandson of THOMAS BROWNE, Esq., of Camus, who certified his pedigree to Preston, Ulster, 1638;

BROWNE (Rathbane, co. Limerick, granted 1851 to Rev. PETER WILLIAM BROWNE, of Rathbone, Incumbent of Blackrod, Bolton, Lancsaster).

LACY (Bruff and Rathcahill, co. Limerick; another branch of the Anglo-Norman family of DE LACY; to this branch belonged the Russian General MAURICE DE LACY, of Grodno, and also EDMOND LACY, of Milltown, from whom descended, in the female line, the late British General Sir DE LACY EVANS). Arms, same as LACY, of Ballingarry.

Under copyright by http://www.igp-web.com/

From "THE ENGLISH BRANCH OF THE PIERSE FAMILY", by John H. Pierse:

"...Johanna, was the daughter of

Patrick de Lacy of Rathcahill, a townland in West Limerick a mile or so from Templeglantin, and Lady Mary, daughter of Henry Herbert of Templeglantin.

Patrick and Mary de Lacy of Rathcahill had a number of children:

Maurice, the eldest (1739-1820) later to become the famous General in the Russian service of Augustovik Palace (Augustowek) near Grodno, and

Henry who conformed to the Protestant religion, and who lived in Dublin,

Johanna (1750-1795) who married Pierce O'Brien (above),

Mary (1752-1795) who eloped with a certain William Terence (later 'Patrick') O'Brien of Tullig and Drumtrasna,

Frances who married a certain Mr. Joyce but had no family, and

Benedicta.

... At the time of the wedding in 1795, John Fitzmaurice Pierse was 32 years of age and his bride, Johanna was 25 years old. ...

General Maurice de Lacy of the Russian service, was in Ireland in 1792 to visit his ageing mother living in a state of poverty at Rathcahill, but returned the next year. ...

Benedicta, who had married James Murphy Esq. of Newcastle West and Killarney, and had two daughters Mary and Lucy, had died before 1792.

... Henry de Lacy, as already stated, had (as a new Protestant convert) taken an eviction order out in 1770 against his relative Mrs. Evans, and himself was deceased before 1791. ... Fanny (Frances) had married a Mr. Joy but had no children and died before 1792. ...

Mary who had eloped with a Terence or Dennis O'Brien of Tallig and Drumtrasna and had at least five children (all allegedly illegitimate) the youngest of whom was named

Patrick, who was born in 1790, married a Miss Egan at Bath, England and was later divorced; he later became known as Patrick O'Brien de Lacy of Grodno.

At the time of John and Johanna Pierse's wedding Mary de Lacy (or Mrs. Mary O'Brien) was dead and her youngest child Patrick O'Brien was 5 years old.

The first recorded birth of a child to John and Johanna Pierse was Maurice in 1804 and who was known as Maurice de Lacy Pierse.

The couple had been married for nine years and we cannot tell if there had been previously other children who might not have lived very long. It is possible that Maurice was one of a twin as another son, William Fitzmaurice Pierse appears to have been born the same year. So far no parish record of any of the children born to John and Johanna Pierse has so far come to light and, in the light of non-survival or destruction of so many parish registers in Ireland ... they were all born in Newcastle West, Templeglantin or Rathcahill. For at least two, subsequent records state Co. Kerry as their place of birth. The next children born were Mary (de Lacy) Pierse born in 1807, in Co. Kerry, according to her son's birth certificate, John (Patrick) Pierse, born in 1811, in Co. Kerry, ... and George, born in 1816. It is probable that other children were born to John and Johanna, including Patrick John Pierse, ...

In 1819, the eldest son Maurice, at the tender age of 15, left Ireland to visit his grand-uncle General Maurice de Lacy, then aged 79, at his palace home at Augustovik near Grodno in Russian Lithuania. He was apparently well received there and stayed on together with his friend Dr. Condon during the time of the General's final illness (Dec. 1819) and death in January 1820.

His aunt's son, Patrick O'Brien, whose legitimacy was a matter of dispute among the de Lacy family, had also left Ireland first in 1811, ... he married Miss Egan at Bath, and later travelled to Russia to introduce himself to the general, and who also remarked that he had been well-received at Grodno.

Immediately prior to 1815, Patrick O'Brien, then aged 24 or 25, had become a Lieutenant of Militia in the Russian service. Between 1815 and 1819, Patrick O'Brien spent half a year in Russia and half in England because of his poor health. In 1819, at the request of General Maurice de Lacy, he took up permanent residence in Russia and, upon the General's recommendation, applied for and obtained a commission in the Guards of the Russian Emperor.

Thus, when General Maurice died at Grodno in December 1819 (Jan. 1820?), these three, Dr. Condon, Lieutenant Patrick O'Brien (de Lacy) and Maurice de Lacy Pierse, were in attendance at the funeral. Immediately after the funeral, Maurice de Lacy Pierse was persuaded by Patrick O'Brien (de Lacy) to go to London from Poland, where he arranged to meet him regarding the contents of the General's will which, O'Brien declared,

... 1820-1, Johanna Pierse died (it is not certain whether in Ireland or in England) at the age of about 50 years, and shortly afterwards the Pierse family emigrated to England. The family would have been: John Fitzmaurice Pierse, widower, aged 59, William Fitzmaurice, aged 18, Mary de Lacy, aged 15, John Patrick, aged 11, Patrick John, aged about 9, George, aged 6, and any other children not yet traced. ... they most likely sailed from Limerick or Cork to London, where Maurice, aged 18, was already in residence. ... Wilson Place, entire houses were occupied all by Co. Kerry emigrants ...

Maurice de Lacy Pierse returned to Russia and there joined the Russian Service. Letters sent by him, dated November 1823 (when he was 19) from Petrosky in Russia to his sister Mary (aged 16) in London, written up to Autumn 1829 addressed from Chumetry just before he died in the siege of Adrianople in September, 1829 outline his career ...

138 St. John Street Road, Islington' ... Mary used her family relationship with the sparkling de Lacy family (as well as her own family connections) and with the promise of a fortune to come by way of her marriage settlement to attract and secure in matrimony the besotted Charles Nash. They were married on the 5th April, 1836 ... Mary's father John Fitzmaurice Pierse, of course a Roman Catholic, is not mentioned in the marriage records. ...

When in 1792 General Maurice de Lacy of Grodno (then aged 52) together with his kinsman General Count George de Lacy Browne, Governor of Riga, made a visit to Ireland to see their relatives, they were appalled to see the state of poverty into which the family had fallen. They stayed with Maurice's mother (then quite elderly) at Rothcahill ... and returned to Russia the following year. Upon their return, Maurice made arrangements for sums of money ... His mother did not live long to enjoy her fortune and died in 1795 (the year in which John Fitzmaurice Pierse and Johanna O'Brien were married) leaving future gifts to pass to her daughters and their descendants: these were John Fitzmaurice and Johanna Pierse (daughter of Johanna O'Brien, nee de Lacy who also died in 1795), Mary Condon, nee O'Brien, whose husband Richard Condon had died before 1792 and whose eldest son Dr. Maurice John Condon joined General Maurice in the Russian service, Kathleen or Kitty O'Brien (otherwise Mrs. Fitton or Mrs. McGrath of Cork) - later all daughters of Johanna O'Brien nee de Lacy.

... Other equal beneficiaries were: James Morphy of Newcastle West and Killarney (widower of Benedicta nee de Lacy, who died before 1792) and their children Miss Mary Morphy who died in March, 1819 and her sister Lucy Morphy (otherwise Berry) who had married another James Morphy and who was still living in 1830.

Other possible beneficiaries were the daughters of Mary de Lacy (otherwise O'Brien) who was the youngest of General Maurice de Lacy's sisters, who was alleged to have eloped with a certain Terence or Dennis O'Brien of Tullig and Drumtrasna, and who had an illegitimate son, Patrick. Another sister, Frances (or Fanny) had married a certain Mr. Joy but died before 1792

... Charles Nash had an interview in September 1836 with Sir Matthew John Tierney who was Patrick O'Brien's agent in London and a Trustee of the beneficiaries money, apparently with no positive results. ... During 1841, several advertisements were inserted in the Limerick Chronicle inviting applications from claimants to the 'de Lacy fortune' to be sent to solicitors acting for beneficiaries. Further letters were exchanged between Mary de Lacy Nash, her husband, and Patrick O'Brien and Sir Matthew John Tierney. ... Patrick O'Brien was in a very strong position and, now a Russian subject, refused to give satisfactory explanations. The case dragged on until July, 1847 when it came to an abrupt end. ...

Mrs. de Lacy-Browne was claimant to the disputed bequests of Count Maurice de Lacy of Augustovik, Grodno ... some $5,000,000 from the various funds of her kinsman. ... Charles Nash, Mary de Lacy Nash and their son Maurice FitzGerald de Lacy Nash have been fruitless.

They appear to have just disappeared. Possibly they emigrated. Now Mary's brother William Fitzmaurice Pierse, born also in 1807 and therefore possibly a twin ... He was about 18 years of age when he arrived in England with his father and his brothers and sisters. ... were baptised in Christchurch: Maurice de Lacy (b. 3 October, 1832), Elizabeth (b. 25 December 1833), Amelia (b. 16 September, 1836), Florence Johanna (b. 14 March, 1838), Marion O'Brien (b. 22 November, 1839), Kathleen..., William Fitzmaurice (b. September 1843), and Alice Emma (b. 22 February, 1845). William Fitzmaurice Pierse was promoted to Superintendent of H Division of the Metropolitan Police about 1840 ... Apparently George worked as a watchman in the London Docks, probably the Old and New Docks near the Ratcliffe Highway, Whitechapel in London's East End, where he lived. The census return of 1841 ... son of John Fitzmaurice and Johanna Pierse was John Patrick Pierse (b. 1811) who was not the youngest of the family, ... appears to have spent his childhood and early life in the Clerkenwell, Finsbury area of North London, ... in watchmaking or engineering in this industrial area. We first hear of him on the 16th September, 1833 when, aged 22, he married Charlotte Fry, then aged about 19, at St. James's ... parish church, at Clerkenwell, Finsbury. Not much is known about Charlotte. ... had a number of children, the eldest, George, baptised on the 15th March 1835 at St. Leonard's ... parish church, Shoreditch ... Patrick John Pierse and his wife Charlotte Newman and their two children James Lacy and Charles Lacy, who disappeared from the records after 1861, and perhaps emigrated abroad...".

Please remember about:

1. Michael Anton Nugent b. ca 1750, the father of

Johann Nugent b. 1796, and

Laval Graf Nugent von Westmeath 1777 - 1862, served the armies of Austria and the Two Sicilies; born at Ballynacor, Ireland.

2. The Rothschild banking family of Naples was founded by Calmann Carl Mayer von Rothschild (1788 - 1855) who went to Naples / Napoli / Neapol and established C. M. de Rothschild & Figli (Carl Rothschild and Sons) in 1821 during an occupation of Naples by the Austrian army.

Please compare the following information:

"Hanora de Lacy (Nora deLacy) married
George Browne, Baron of Camas, a scion of the ancient household of Knockmany, and these were the parents of the illustrious Count Marshal George Browne, Governor of Riga and Livonia and Knight of the Order of St. Anne. Count George was born at Mayne, Castlemahon, on June 15th, 1698. At an early age he went to Germany and was created Count of the Holy Roman Empire by Charles VII. In 1730, he joined the Russian army and served through the Swedish, Crimean and Bessarabian campaigns under the aegis of his maternal uncle, Marshal Peter de Lacy. ... the French Ambassador at the Porte, by whom he was ransomed for three hundred ducats, and sent back to Russia. Whilst in captivity he learned valuable information regarding Turkish defence and other State secrets, which he afterwards disclosed to the Russian Government. During the third campaign of the Seven Years War (1756-1763), Count George highly distinguished himself at Zorrdorf (August 25th, 1758) ... He was created Field Marshal by Peter III in 1762 ... Count George first married a daughter of Count Munich of Russia, of whom no issue is recorded. He then married his cousin, the Countess Helen de Lacy, oldest daughter of Marshal Peter, who bore him three children, Count John Browne, General Count George Browne and a daughter who married Baron De Medern. ... his second son, General Count George Browne, visited Limerick in 1792 - 1793, accompanied by his kinsman, General Maurice de Lacy and were guests of the Brownes and Lacys at Rathcahill. Whilst visiting they are traditionally said to have attended at the funeral of Lady Mary de Lacy at Clouncagh Cemetery, wearing full military uniform. Reverting to Count George, of the family of Mayne, he died in Vienna in 1784, Governor of Riga and Livonia (vide Ferrar's History of Limerick), far away from the land that bore him...".
Copyright by http://www.limerickleader.ie/news/local-news/

House of Medern:
Louise Margrethe Medern d. 1748, m. in 1739 to David Eimhaus b. 1690.
Hans Christian v. Zieten (27.10.1682 - 9.05.1739) m. Anna Juliane Susanne v. Medern a.d. H. Mehlbach (d. 25.10.1749).
Georg Ludwig Alexander von Wahlen-Jürgaß 1758 - 1833, a Prussian general lieutenant. His parents were Georg Christoph von Wahlen-Jürgass born 1710, d. 1771, and Charlotte Luise Katharina, born of Zieten b. 1719 from the Hausbrunn, daughter of Hans Christian von Zieten b. 1682, d. 1739, and Anna Juliana Susanne of Medern from the house Mehlbach. His father was a gentleman, from Woltersdorf and Charlottenhof, District of the Ruppin and Prussian retired Major.

Peter de Lacy (1675-1756), Russian field marshal who fought with the Swedes and Turks, was the general-governor of Riga and had extensive assets in Courland, Kremon and Sigulda. He come to Russia of Peter the Great, like many other foreigners.

Son of Peter de Lacy - Maurice de Lacy died in 1801.

The Polish branch of de Lacy family comes from Maurice, nephew of Field Marshal Peter. It was the Russian general at the time of Catherine the Great, Paul I and Alexander I.

He was, among others, participated in the expedition of Suvorov through the Alps. He signed a peace treaty with the Emperor of the French. Maurice de Lacy and the O'Brien family were of Irish origin, ultra-Catholic, persecuted for their faith. Despite the fact that neither Patrick O'Brien de Lacy, nor his wife Julia von Damme were Poles, quickly and completely became the Polish;

their six children:

daughter Catherine married Francis Kossakowski (b. 1815),

son Peter is married to Louise Ronikier;

Henry / Henryk; Karol / Charles and Maurycy / Maurice remained unmarried,

Alexander married Gabriela Radowicka.

Above Edward Conway b. circa 1620 in Killorglin, Kerry, Ireland - Killorglin is located at the west coast of Ireland.

Florence, a node of this network in Italy:
1.
a.
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, Prince of San Donato (1839, Weimar - d. 1885, Pratolino near Florence).
b.
Nikolai Nikitich Demidov, b. 1773 in Moscow, Russia; died in 1828 in Florence, Tuscany, Italy. Since 1815 - Russian Ambassador to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In Florence, where he founded an orphanage and a school, it was built a monument (1871) on the square called Piazza Demidoff.
In 1793, "Demidov married an heiress Baroness Elizabeth Alexandrovna Stroganov, so was able to improve their financial situation. Upon his retirement, Demidov went with his wife in foreign travel, visiting Germany, England, France and Italy, and never missed a chance to get acquainted with the success of the mining equipment ... Returning to Russia in 1806, Demidov, wanting to have at its plants all the latest improvements on the part of technology, ordered from France Professor Ferri, then famous expert in the mining business. Demidov sent at his own expense abroad in England, Sweden and Austria to study specific industries of metallurgy more than a hundred serfs. The Nizhny Tagil plant of Demidov, ... was considered at that time the most advanced around the ridge of the Ural Mountains. ... Appointed in 1815 to Florence as Russian envoy, Demidov arranged here at their own expense an art museum and art gallery, which contains works by famous artists. In Florence Nicholas Nikitich arranged for their money a home for the elderly and orphans charity and donated to his special affairs. Living in recent years in Florence, Demidov though he lived a very luxurious and spare no means patronized scientists and artists, could, however, skillfully manage their affairs in Siberia, America, France and other countries...".
His son with Baroness Elisabeta Alexandrovna Stroganova:
Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov, b. 1798 in Saint Petersburg, died in 1840 in Mainz; husband of Aurora Karamzin; Count Pavel (called Paul) Nikolaievich Demidov as an officer in his father's regiment fought at the battle of Borodino in 1812. After the war he entered the Chevalier Guards regiment; in 1831 he entered civil service as governor of the province of Kursk. In 1834 he entered service in the Ministry of the Exterior as court Huntsmaster, later State Councillor. In Helsinki he married the maid-of-honour to Her Majesty the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Aurora Stjernvall (1808-1902) - they had one son, above Pavel Pavlovitch Demidov (1839–1885), whose daughter Aurora was mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia.
Above Eva Aurora Charlotta Karamzina (nee Stjernvall) was a Finnish-Swede philanthropist. "...Karamzina was born in Ulvila (Ulvsby), in Saaren Kartano, Finland. She was the daughter of Carl Johan Stjernvall (1764-1815) and Baroness Eva Gustava von Willebrand (1781-1844). Her father was a high official in the Grand Duchy of Finland and became the First Governor of the Viipuri Province in 1812. Von Willebrand was a distant niece of Gustav I of Sweden. Following Stjernvall's death in 1815, the Baroness remarried and became the wife of Finland's Procurator, Carl Johan Walleen ... Karamzina had an older brother, Emil Stjernvall Walleen (1806-1890) who became a Finnish Minister of State and a Baron. Karamzina also had two sisters, Emilia (1811-1846) and Alexandra Aline (1812-1851). Emilia married Vladimir Musin-Pushkin while Alexandra became the second wife of Jose Maurício Correia Henriques, the 1st Count de Seisal. Karamzina also had three half-brothers ... Aurora was appointed as a lady-in-waiting to Empress Alexandra Fedorovna the elder (consort to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia), and a lady of the bedchamber of Empress Alexandra Feodorovna the younger and Empress Maria Feodorovna. She was made a dame of the Order of Saint Catherine, the highest honour for ladies in Imperial Russia. ... In 1836, she married Pavel Nikolayevich Demidov ... In 1846 ... she remarried to Andrei Karamzin. ... She was considered a great benefactor in many cities such as Saint Petersburg and Florence. Karamzina's only child was Pavel Pavlovich Demidov ... In 1870, Pavel succeeded his childless uncle, Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, as the 2nd Prince of San Donato. Her granddaughter ... Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova married Arsen Karadordevic, Prince of Serbia and became the mother of the Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia...".
Above named Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato, died in 1885, Pratolino, Florence, was a Russian industrialist, jurist, philanthropist; first m. in 1867 to Princess Maria Elimovna Meshcherskaya (b. Saint Petersburg, 1844 - d. San Donato (or Vienna, per Ferrand), in 1868).
Her son Elim Pavlovich Demidov, 3rd Prince of San Donato, at Hietzing in the suburbs of Vienna born 1868.
In Saint Petersburg in 1871 he remarried to Princess Elena Petrovna Trubetskaya (Saint Petersburg, 1853 - Odessa, 1917), with whom he had six children:
Princess Aurora Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, 1873 - d. Bussolino Torinese, Torino), mother of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia;
Anatoly Pavlovich Demidov, 4th Prince of San Donato (b. San Donato 1874 d. in Marseille);
Princess Maria Pavlovna Demidova (b. Kiev, d. Pratolino), married in Helsingfors to Prince Semyon Semyonovich Abamelik-Lazarev;
Pavel Pavlovich Demidov (b. San Donato, 1879);
Elena Pavlovna Demidova (b. Saint Petersburg, 1884 - d. Sesto Fiorentino), married firstly in Saint Petersburg to Count Alexander Pavlovich Shuvalov, married secondly in Dresden in 1907 to Nikolai Alexeievich Pavlov.
Count Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince of San Donato moved to Villa Pratolino / Villa Demidoff next to Gaston Mestayer.
c.
Evgenia Klimentievna Demidova had daughters Evgenia, Avrora and Helena; in Saint Petersburg in 1894 he married Podmener.
d. Look at
http://www.angelfire.com/realm/gotha/Part54.htm, on Florence, Bobrinski and Oginski:
da. Pr Dimitri Obolensky, b. St. Petersburg in 1882, d. Cannes in 1964; m. 1st Berlin in 1905 (div 1916) Css Helene Bobrinsky (St. Petersburg in 1885 - died in Bordeaux in 1937); m. 2d in Moscow 18 Jul 1917 (div 1921) to Css Maria Schouwalowa (b. Berlin in 1894, d. Oxford in 1973); m. 3d in London in 1923 to Natalia Fedorov (b. Simbirsk 1894).
db. Ct Alexis Bobrinsky, b. St. Petersburg in 1893, d. London in 1971; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1915 to Css Natalia Fersen (b. Paris in 1890); m. 2d Paris in 1940 to Olga Kosolup-Pchenitchny; m. 3d to Css Olga de Bertren;
dc. Css Catherine Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1883, d. Nice in 1954; m. in St.Petersburg 1908 to Ilya Miklachevsky (b. Odessa in 1877).
dd. Pr Jerome Bonaparte (b. Trieste in 1814, d. Florence in 1847). de. His sister: Pss Mathilde Bonaparte (b. Trieste 1820, d. Paris in 1904); m. in Florence in 1840 to Anatole Demidov, Pr di San Donato (b. Moscow in 1813, d. Paris in 1870).
df. Ct Alexander Schouwalow / Szuwalow / Shuvalov, b. Vartemiagui in 1881, d. London 1935; m. 1st in St.Petersburg in 1903 (div) Pss Helene Demidova di San Donato (b. St. Petersburg in 1884, d. Florence in 1959); m. 2d in Paris in 1916 to Css Sophia Fersen (b. St. Petersburg 1888, d. Davos in 1927).

2.

Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florence / Florencja.
See: 'Freemasonry and Fraternalism in Eighteenth-Century Russia' by Andreas Önnerfors and Robert Collis (eds.), Sheffield Lectures on the History of Freemasonry and Fraternalism, Volume Two, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, 2009, ©2009 CRFF and the authors, ISBN: 978-0-9562096-1-0.
Andrzej Ignacy Oginski: b. 1740, Freemason; 1772 in Vienna wanted to establish failed contact with the French Ambassador, de Rohan; was talking with the British Ambassador in Vienna, David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield (David Murray b. 1727 d. 1796, known as The Viscount Stormont from 1748 to 1793; Minister to Saxony and Poland, 1755-1763; Ambassador to Austria, 1763-1772; Ambassador to France, 1772-1778; married 1st to Henrietta Frederica Bunau, daughter of the British ambassador to Saxony - child, Elizabeth Murray b. 1760 in Warsaw, and she was friend of Dido Elizabeth Belle b. 1761; David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield married secondly Louisa Cathcart, they had five children - Caroline, David, George, Charles, and Henry), but Oginski believed Kaunitz;
his wife Paula Szembek / Paulina Szembek, with son Michal Kleofas Oginski, b. 1765 died 1833 in Florencja.
Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Oginski, Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski, Franciszek Ksawery Oginski, Amelia Zaluska, Ida Oginska, Emma Oginska.
In 1796 Catherine of Russia died. 1796 - Paul, the new Tsar, and refugees were accepting amnesties already offered by Catherine. Ca 1797 Kajetan Nagurski joined this re-immigration, and he took Maria Neri back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau. Acc. to Iwo Zaluski: ca 1798, Kajetan Nagurski himself returned to Russian Lithuania, to reclaim and sort out his estate. Kajetan, unable then to get a passport allowing him back into Prussia, and thus to Warsaw, asked Morawski's father, Apolinary, to visit Maria Neri. Apolinary Morawski became lover behind Kajetan's back, with Maria Neri ca 1798. Nagurski brought her to his estate in Lithuania, where he married her, ca 1799. Ca 1800 Maria began to be seen in the company of the dashing young Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania. The affair came to an end when Count Kajetan Nagurski decided to go to Vienna with Maria, where he hoped to find a cure for his jaundice. Kajetan died soon afterwards in Vienna 1800 / 1801. His widow, now an independent lady, returned to Vilnius, and in 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska's life changed direction after she caught the attention of General Count Levin August von Bennigsen, Governor of Vilnius.
1801, Michal Kleofas Oginski
(1790, to The Hague as a diplomatic representative of Poland in the Netherlands; in 1795 Konstantynopol, 1796 Venice, Tuscany; Paris; 1810 Petersburg;
moved abroad in 1815?,
1822 Italy, 1823 Firenze / Florence to death 1833)
was living with his wife Izabela and two infant sons, Tadeusz and Xavier, at his wife's family's estate at Brzeziny, to the south west (see Otrebusy) of Warsaw.
Tsar Paul refused him permission to return, and new Tsar Alexander offered him an unconditional amnesty. Michal Kleofas Oginski, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in inevitable divorce, accepted the amnesty, and returned to Vilnius in 1802. Maria Nagurska / Maria Neri accepted marriage 1802, and in 1804 settled at his estate at Zalesie close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk. Michal Kleofas had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg in 1810.
Her children: Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska, Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813. Her son Ireneusz, born in 1807 / 1808 was conceived of the singer Giuseppe Paliani.

Michal Kleofas Oginski with his parents in 1772 - 1773 was living in Viena; 1773 back with mother to Guzow again; 1785 memeber of Parliament in Warsaw; in March 1794 the Uprising began, which was led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Count Mikhail-Cleophas Oginski was in the front ranks of the rebels. Donated 188000 zlotys, was in command of 480 riflemen. He was elected to the National Council.
Twice attempted to enter the Minsk Governorate to raise Belarusians against Russian occupation; actions under him to Dyneburg / Dinaburg on August 12, 1794; also struggled against Prussian intervention.
When the Russians occupied Vilnius 1794, Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Warsaw.
The Russians outlawed him and seized all his lands. In fall of 1794 he, along with Isabella, flees to Vienna and Venice in Italy, but she soon returned to Poland after learns that her husband has spent on the case "revolution" even her family jewels. Thereafter Michal Kleofas Oginski moved to Paris.
He swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia in 1802 and settled in Zalesie village 1804, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow.
1807 - Oginski met Napoleon in Italy,
in Venice; he told with Napoleon but next Oginski moved on Tuscany in 1808, where he was 12 years before; here in Florence General Menou was appointed governor, and Oginski was in the Pitti Palace; after the peace of Schoenbrunn, Oginski repaired to Paris, at the invitation of the Russian minister Prince Kurakin; Oginski was in Paris the seventh time; from Paris back to Wilno, and was entrusted with a memorial from the nobility of Lithuania, and he repaired to Petersburg in 1810 to Alexander who appointed of Oginski to be Senator of Russia and the Russian Emperor gave Oginski the rank of Privy Councilor. In 1810, the nobility of Vilna and Grodno provinces decided to send a representative to the Alexander I on economic and administrative affairs of the region, and this representative was elected Michal-Cleophas Oginski and supported by the Governor-General Mikhail Kutuzov. Then he rejoined his family at Paris; he again appeared at the Tuilleries in 1810, where Napoleon and Duroc again received him about the project re-establishment of the kingdom of Poland. In April 1811 Oginski back to Petersburg to Emperor with regard to Poland.
Michal Kleofas Oginski, not once (1810-1811) met the Russian Emperor Alexander I in St. Petersburg, Vilnius, Mogilev and Vitebsk, developed the latest project of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, known as the Oginski Plan;
this Plan for the restoration of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Empire, to unite the eight provinces, in 1810-1812 offered to Alexander I, however, was rejected by the Emperor in May 1811;
in June 1812, Michal Kleofas / Michael Cleophas Oginski with troops stationed in St. Petersburg. After the war with Napoleon returned to Zalessie, where he remained until 1822, slowly moving away from political affairs;
in 1817 Oginski moved from St Petersburg to Vilna.
I wrote down in 1810 Oginski moved to St. Petersburg, Russia. There he met the Russian Emperor.
"...In 1814, the tsar decreed that the Retow / Rietavas manor be sold to M. K. Oginski for the sum of 277,600 silver rubles. In this way, Rietavas became a private manor of the Oginski family, and soon after that, their most important residence in Lithuania. Duke M. K. Oginski was a multifaceted personality: a prominent figure in the life of the state, the last treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a composer, a man of letters ... (by Jeffrey Andrev Clarke, Liucija Balkevičiūtė).
After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, M. K. Oginski lost hope that the Lithuanian state would be restored, and he decided to emigrate. In 1822, he transferred ownership of his Rietavas property to his wife Maria nee Neri / Marija and to his children, and in 1823 he left for Italy. M. K. Oginski never returned to Lithuania".
"...After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Ogiński considered the Polish puppet Kingdom of Poland, with the Tsar himself as King, a sell-out, and he lost faith not only in politics, but also in his marriage, which, like his first one, had gone sour. In 1823 he wrote his most famous Polonaise No 13 in A minor, known as Farewell to the Fatherland, and exiled himself to his beloved Florence...",
by Iwo Załuski, at http://www.oginskidynasty.com/Kleofas.aspx.
In 1815, his marriage came to divorce, said love life of his wife probably condemned his reputation and now Oginski as a senator of the Russian Empire, after the creation of the Congress Kingdom in 1815, left for Italy, settling in Florence again.
By Jerzy Jan Lerski, ‎Piotr Wróbel, ‎Richard J. Kozicki:
"Disappointed again, Oginski emigrated to Western Europe in 1815. ...".
In 1817 Oginski resigned as senator,
"...in 1822 he became seriously ill, he had drove to Florence (again) to cure itself. From this time Oginski gave away the music and composition ... In 1831 he gave his note book (collection of his notes) with more than 60 works for piano and some songs out".
But different sources wrote:
In 1823 (1815, 1822?) failing health forced him to move to Italy, where he spent the last 10 years of his life.
But in 1820, when finally disappointed policies of Alexander I, Oginski agreed to move to a second wife's home in Napoli / Naples.

And now the most important notes on:
1. The Scotti Douglas / Scotti family of Naples and Nola (below at this webpage); 2. the Neri family from Florence, Venice, Zalesse; 3. also the Mercier / Mercer family from Estonia, Petersburg, Ceylon and south India; 4. tea plantations at Ceylon island. 5. the Weiss family of Estonia.

We need to check all data on Michal Kleofas Oginski trips:
1815 abroad, 1817 ?, 1822 Italy, 1823 Florence.

Explanations to Naples in 1820:

1.
Leonard Borejko Chodźko, historian and writer, born in Oborek, the Palatinate of Vilna, in 1800; son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria; cousin of the Orientalist Aleksander Chodźko; studied at Molodeczno, with Zan, and at Wilna, under the historian J. Lelewel.
In 1819 was the personal secretary of Michael Cleophas Oginski, and together in 1822 left Lithuania, through nearly all Europe; Chodzko after a four-year stay in Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and England, settled in Paris in 1826;
he published Histoire des legions polonaises en Italic in 1829; 1830, "...Lafayette appointed him his aide-de-camp; and after the outbreak of Nov. 29 of the same year in Warsaw, he acted as agent of the revolutionary government in France. He was an active member of the French-Polish and American-Polish committees...".
Member of the Polish National Committee and 'Zemsta Ludu', 1832 / 1833, with Joachim Lelewel and Józef Zaliwski, and also with Józef Kazimierz Sulpicjusz Napoleon Hutten-Czapski / Józef Napoleon, b. 1797 d. 1852,
the father of famous Bogdan Hutten - Czapski (see Pilsudski, Lubomirski, 1892 Minsk in Belarus, Miezonka before 1842.
Members of the 'Zemsta Ludu':
Stanisław Gabriel Worcell, Bolesław Gurowski, Mjr Antoni Krąkowski, Józef Zaliwski; Ostrowski moved to Paris, Krąkowski to Posen, Worcell to Lviv,
Joachim Lelewel who was republican conspirator, a close collaborator of the Carbonari, and of the
Société des Amis du Peuple

[see Inessa Armand:
Inessa Armand born in Paris on 8th May, 1874. Name variations: Ines Stéphane / Eлизавета Фёдоровна / Ines Elisabeth Stephane / Elise / Elisabeth / Elisaveta / Стеффeн / Steffen / Comrade Inessa and Elena Blonina. Born Elizabeth Stephane, was daughter of Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville and Nathalie Wild; married Alexander Armand, Oct 3, 1893.
Alexandre Dumas points to Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux and Ernest Duchatelet were involved in political trials at the time but the person who shot Alfred Galois (a duel) was by the initials L. D., a member of the Society of Friends of the People (La Societe des Amis du Peuple, in France created in 1830, fighting for a republic and for political enlightenment of progressive workers. After the 1833 trial, the society ceased to exist,
acc. to 2010 The Gale Group, Inc). And after - when she was only five - Elizabeth Stephane or Ines / Inessa was brought up by an aunt - new governess and grandmother living in Moscow - around 1880. Anna Asknazi vel Askenazy was friend of Inessa Armand in Moscow of 1909 and also doctor N. N. Pechkin, Boris Armand, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Константинович who helped out financially, Natalia Emil'evna, the twin Brilling brothers-in-law, Alexander Armand. At the age of eighteen she married Alexander Armand, the son of Evgenii Armand, a successful textile manufacturer in Pushkino near by Moscow. At the age of 19 she knew only two languages until as adult she learned German and Polish.
Above mentioned Société des amis du peuple / The Society of Friends of the people was a Republican organization, dissolved October 2, 1830 on the basis of Article 291 of the Criminal Code, but it does not disappear. In April / May, 1831, 19 Republicans are accused of conspiracy, of which ten were members of the Society. New associations take over, such as the League of Human Rights. Member of the Society of Friends:
Evariste Galois was born 1811 in Bourg-la-Reine, died on 31 May 1832 in Paris after a duel; May 9, 1831 in the restaurant Harvest Burgundy, Faubourg du Temple, Evariste Galois was at garden-party, but the next day, arrested with nineteen Republicans, including Ulysses Trélat, Joseph Guinard, Godfrey Cavaignac and Pescheux Herbinville of accused of plotting against the security of the State; on July 4, 1831, Fish and Lacroix make their report on Galois; release on 29 April 1832. Galois's fatal duel took place on 30 May, 1832. There has been much speculation, about a Mademoiselle Stéphanie-Félicie Poterin du Motel; Alexandre Dumas names Pescheux d'Herbinville, one of the nineteen artillery officers whose celebrated at the banquet on the occasion of Galois's first arrest and du Motel's fiance.
Dumas is alone in this assertion, and only a few days after the duel give a description of his opponent that more accurately applies to one of Galois's Republican friends, most probably Ernest Duchatelet, who was imprisoned with Galois on the same charges. There were plans to initiate an uprising during his funeral.
See: John Stillwell of 2010.
Société des droits de l'homme / The Society for Human Rights (SDH) is a republican association from 1830, developed from 1832, after the disappearance of the other great republican association the Society of Friends of the People;
it is organized on the model of the Carbonari.
The note on:
François Etienne Pecheux or Pescheux of Herbinville, former member of the League of Friends of the People / Pescheux d'Herbinville (but also PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE / Théodore Pécheux d'Herbenville):
Evariste Galois confronted Pescheux d'Herbinville in a duel to be fought with pistols, and was shot through the stomach. Évariste Galois, b. 1811.
See: Alexandre Dumas, My Memoirs, p 61 and 247.
Pescheux was named Administrator at Compiegne Palace on May 4, 1848, he took office on June 1 to August 25, 1848 and then at Château de Fontainebleau, on September 2, 1848 until April 15, 1850. He published "Fontainebleau and charming walks to sites and rocks that surround" in 1850.
The genealogy of Inessa Armand:
Henri Lucien PECHEUX-HERBINVILLE born on 14 August 1875 in Asnieres;
parents: Leon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849, marchant, and Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854;
grand-parents:
Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1809 and Marie-Josephine DESCHAMPS / Marie-Joséphine Jenny DESCHAMPS by
http://gw.geneanet.org/pierfit?lang=en&p=henri+lucien&n=pecheux+herbinville.
Her children:
Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE 1839-1904,
Lucien PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1845 married in 1876, in Paris to Caroline GAVIOLI 1842-1924,
Théodore PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1847 - father of Inessa Armand;
Léon PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE b. 1849 married to Augustine Anais GARÇONNET b. 1854.
Above Etienne PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX d'HERBENVILLE / Etienne PECHEUX des HERBENVILLE / Etienne François PECHEUX-HERBENVILLE, b. on 5 April 1809 in Paris, Artillery Officier, member of the 'Société des Amis du Peuple';
m. 1st to Marie-Joséphine DESCHAMPS;
m. 2nd in 1859 in Paris to Lucie Marie Dorothée PÉPIN; he was awarded the Cross of July]

and
Société des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen,
Filip Buonarotti, Michał Chodźko in Lyon in 1833; Kalikst Borzewski of Plock, Zawisza, Sperczyński, Kisielewski, Aleksander Psalmart, Józef Dąbkowski).
Mentioned Bogdan Franciszek Serwacy Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Graf von Hutten-Czapski was born 1851, d. 1937.
In 1833 Colonel Zaliwski, co-operated with The Carbonari movement (see Oginski in Naples in 1820; the Scotti-Douglas in Nola and Naples / Napoli and also Scotland), secret revolutionary society founded in early 19th century in Italy.
The Italian Carbonari influenced other revolutionary groups in Spain, France, Portugal and possibly Russia: Bazard, Silvio Pellico, Pietro Maroncelli, Giuseppe Mazzini, Marquis de Lafayette (see Chodzko), Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis Auguste Blanqui, Byron and Giuseppe Garibaldi.

We back again to Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski 1797 - 1852 / Joseph Napoleon Hutten-Czapski: November Uprising 1831, on December 14, 1831 on the English ship sailed to (January 1832) Ireland, to Dublin; the Masonic lodges friends obtained for him a French passport in the name of Joseph Chapman at the beginning of 1833; 1833 - 1837 Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski / Czapski traveled from Paris to Switzerland, where he and others young revolutionaries founded 'Young Europe' on April 15, 1834
(Mazzini's Young Europe, founded in Bern by seventeen exiles; the center of a European movement, acc. to Alberto Mario Banti:
"...according to whom, in a peaceful future, Europe would take the form of a harmonious community, in which all free nations would cooperate both politically and culturally, to their mutual benefit".
"...Mazzini obtained the cooperation of the principal representatives of the various nationalities in the organization of a new association to be called Young Europe. ... appointed delegates, who on April 15, 1834, solemnly agreed to abide by the political, social, and religious platform which was laid down by Mazzini. The main object of Young Europe, according to Mazzini, was to lay the foundation for a universal development of thought and action, which would lead to the discovery and practical application of the divine laws of human government. Mazzini defined the league as the young Europe of the people, which was to supplant the old Europe of kings...",
acc. to 'chestofbooks.com/reference'),
including the Young Italy, Young Germany and Young Poland.
Also he traveled to Italy, Algeria, Spain and London; acc. to Hubert Koziel, in 1841 he went on a false passport as an Irishman O'Brien to Germany to Munich, Augsburg and Frankfurt.
Józef Napoleon Kazimierz Hutten-Czapski was the republican conspirator, a close collaborator of Giuseppe Mazzini of the Carbonari.
Who was above mentioned an Irishman O'Brien?
Notes:
Journal of Political Ideologies 06/2008 "...analyses the political economy of James Bronterre O'Brien, most important intellectual of 1830s' British working-class radicalism. It examines O'Brien's critique of 1830s Britain ... The article argues that O'Brien's work of the period 1832–1841 is best viewed as the first example of a genuinely democratic anti-capitalist political economy. The article goes on to analyse changes that occurred to O'Brien's democratic anti-capitalist political economy ... was partially abandoned in 1841. The article concludes that the reasons for these changes are to be found not in ideational factors internal to O'Brien's political economy, but rather in O'Brien's personal circumstances and relationship with his imagined audience", copyright by Ben Maw.
Acc. to Richard Brown at http://richardjohnbr.blogspot.co.uk/
"...Bronterre O'Brien was born at (near by) Granard (28 km south of Cavan, 36 km north-west-north of Mullingar), County Longford, Ireland, in February 1804 (or 1805), the second son of Daniel O'Brien and his wife, Mary Kearney. His father, who was a wine and spirit merchant and a tobacco manufacturer in co. Longford, failed in business during O'Brien’s childhood, and died soon after. O'Brien was educated at ... Edgeworthstown School, which had been promoted by Richard Lovell Edgeworth. He then went to Trinity College, Dublin ... 1829. He entered the King's Inns, Dublin, and then went to London, where he was admitted as a law student at Gray's Inn in March 1830. In London he met Henry Hunt and William Cobbett. In 1831, ... contributed to Hetherington's Poor Man's Conservative. ... called himself James Bronterre O'Brien. ... visited France on three occasions in 1837-8. In 1836, his translated edition of Buonarotti's History of Babeuf's Conspiracy was published and in 1838 the first volume of his eulogistic Life of Robespierre appeared. ... In 1837, he began Bronterre's National Reformer, but it soon failed and in 1838 The Operative that ended publication in July 1839. ... he had four children. From the beginning of the Chartist movement, O'Brien was one of its most prominent figures. He was a member of the original London Working Man's Association, and was a delegate to the Chartist meeting in Palace Yard ... 1838 ... He represented the Chartists of Manchester at the Chartist convention ... 1840. O'Brien acted in his own defence ... on a charge of conspiracy, but was found guilty at Liverpool in April ... He was sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment. ... Released in September 1841, O'Brien continued the series of bitter personal quarrels with O'Connor ... edited the British Statesman between June and December 1842, and in 1845 became editor of the National Reformer. ... He wrote several pamphlets on Lord Palmerston, Lord Overstone, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Robespierre. He was a member of the Stop-the-War-League during the Crimean War ... died at his home in Pentonville, London, ... 1864. His wife survived him...".
A short on his son Bogdan Hutten-Czapski:
"...On the German side, the emperor had himself as early as July 31, 1914, a day before Germany declared war on Russia, given the German-Polish magnate Count Hutten-Czapski / Bogdan Hutten-Czapski (b. 1851), a personal acquaintance of his, a non-binding assurance that the Polish state should be restored when Russia was defeated. The imperial promise may have been vague, but the Imperial Chancellor confirmed it on the same day. ... immediately on the outbreak of war this same Hutten-Czapski, who was a lieutenant-colonel in the Prussian army, was attached to the general staff in charge of Polish and Ukrainian questions. His first commission was to foment insurrection in Congress Poland by means which included the raising of a Polish Legion - the counterpart to Pilsudski's in Galicia - and the dissemination among the Poles of leaflets and cartoons to awaken sympathy for the Central Powers. A month later Hutten-Czapski was relieved of this commission but only, it would appear, because his sympathies were too strongly nationalist ...
See: Fritz Fischer, Germany's Aims in the First World War, New York, 1967 pp. 114-5. Note 4 referring to Hutten-Czapski, 60 Jahre Politik etc., Berlin, 1936, Vol 2, pp. 145 f.;
... Szescdziesiat lat zycia politycznego i towarzyskiego. Warszawa, F. Hoesick, 1936. 2 v. plates ... At head of title: Bogdan Hutten-Czapski...".

Leonard Chodzko died in Poitiers in 1871; he was born 1800, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria;
husband of famous Olimpia (see Venture, Sulkowski and Breguet, Konstantynowicz and Armand in Moscow; Duflon from Switzerland);
brother of Aleksander Chodźko (died 1877)
acc. to Leszek Mila.

Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis, was a French orientalist. The son of a family of diplomats
(his father had been consul in the Crimea and in other countries of the Levant)
and military, he studied at the School of Languages of Louis-le-Grand College in Paris where he learned so well the Arab and Turkish, and at the age of fifteen, was working at the French Embassy in Constantinople. He was a secretary and interpreter of the Embassy of France; he held various positions in Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunis in 1779 and Algier. He also participated in the inspection mission of the Levant, by Baron de Tott. He returned to Paris in 1797 at the School of Oriental Languages, the Turkish​​. The member of the Commission on Science and the Arts, military interpreter of the Army of the East. Member of the Institute of Egypt on August 22, 1798, at the section of literature and arts.
Jean-Joseph Marcel, who was his pupil, said he died of dysenterie, others talk of plague. Another hypothesis says he died on April 19, 1799 in Nazareth, ill after the Siege of Saint John of Acre.
He was married in Cairo to Victoria Digeon (on June 14, 1774), he had two daughters, one of which, Jeanne Venture de Paradis married in 1810 (?) to watchmaker Antoine Louis Breguet, son of the famous Abraham Louis Breguet, which is a branch of Clementine Célarié.
But we know that Breguet, Louis François Clément / Louis Clément Bréguet, b. December 22, 1804 (!) in Paris.
Clémentine Célarié (born 1957) is a French actress and singer, was born as Myriem Célarié in Dakar, living in the United States, back in France to Aix-en-Provence.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis in 1764, as interpreter in Sidon, and in 1770 in Cairo, until 1776, making a number of services to politics and commerce of France.
Above mentioned Digeon Victoria (next of kin ? with Alexander Elisabeth Michel vicomte Digeon / Alexandre Elisabeth Michel Digeon, Major General, b. on June 26, 1771 in Paris, died on August 2, 1826 in the village of Ronqueux, annexed in 1834 to Bullion, near Paris) had two daughters.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis returning to France to report to Cabinet on the art of Egypt, had to leave for Marseilles, to accompany Barone Tott, who inspected the French warehouses in ports of the Levant, 1778 Cairo. This mission taken two years. In 1779 Venture was in Tunis, where he remained for five years as interpreter for the Consulate of France; recalled in Paris, as Secretary of interpreters of the East; then posted in Algiers, in order to renew the treaties between France and Algier, in 1790 returned to France; again in 1793 as Secretary - interpreter, together with the French ambassador to Constantinople; he was arrested in Switzerland at the hands of the Austrians; had expected to Venice 1793 ?, then gone alone to Constantinople where he stayed until 1797; then returned to France, accompanying the Ambassador Ali Effendi. In Paris at the Turkish Special School of Oriental Languages​​. When Napoleon undertook the expedition to Egypt, Venture de Paradis was appointed primary interpreter.
During the stay in Egypt, he was appointed member of the Institut of Egypt since its founding, on August 22, 1798 at the section of literature and the arts. He gone with the emperor in Syria, but during the siege of Acre fell ill of dysentery, in the convent of Nazareth, died during the retreat, or he was transferred to Egypt. Venture de Paradis was one of the most famous Arabists of the time, not only for his languages, but also for his perfect knowledge of the habits and customs of the eastern populations.
Jean-Michel Venture de Paradis that is Jan Michał Venture de Paradis was father of Janina 'Egipcjanka' Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska / JeanneFrançoise Venture / Jeanne Françoise Venture b. 1774 in Cairo, Egypt; died 1813 in Bourg-la-Reine, France, wife of Antoine Louis / Antoine Breguet, and mother of Louis Clément Bréguet.
She was also wife of Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski.
Her father Jean-Michel de Venture de Paradis, born 8 May 1739 in Marseille, died 16 May 1799 in Acri / Acra.
Janina Franciszka Victoire Maleszewska, with Piotr Paweł Jan Maleszewski had children:
Victoire Clementine de Laqueuille,
Olimpia Chodźko
and (different father !) Adela married to Mortier (Adelajda? b. ca 1813 or ca 1815 ?).
So Little Louis had a sister, Adela!
And their mother knew the Polish language:
although she knew a bit the Polish language from first husband. So half-siblings of Little Louis also come to know from their father, the Polish language and Polish history.
Adela had the surname, which suggests that she could be in St. Petersburg already in the 30's of the 19th century? And Breguet, when he was in Kazan in the 40's of the 19th century, could know the Polish language and some Russian language!?
Antoine Louis Breguet ran, with his cousin Lassieur, the team of watchmakers working in a studio on the Quai de l'Horloge.
The 'little Louis' - called as its size does not exceed 1.55 m - was sent in 1824 to Geneva, where he worked as a common laborer.
On his return to Paris in 1827, he devoted himself to the construction of marine chronometers, wrote in 1847 in a notice on its work presented at the Academy of Sciences. In 1832, 'Little Louis' decided to become an electrician.
1833, Louis married his cousin Caroline Lassieur, the daughter of Louis Lassieur and Sophie Courbin.
Lassieur Louis was the son of Marie-Louise a younger sister of Abraham Breguet.
May 20, 1833 Antoine Louis Breguet signed the sale of his 'Breguet house, nephew and Co.', formed by Louis Breguet and Louis Lassieur; the price of 270.000 francs paid by the three members.
Now, he invented a mechanical counter in 1841, published on induction with Masson and Savart, in the Annals of Physics; at that time Louis Breguet realized thermometrograph who recorded at the University of Kazan in Russia temperatures of minus 42 degrees; he was appointed a member of the Kazan university in 1843.
Also in 1843, Louis Breguet devised, upon request by Arago and using a method assigned Wheatstone, apparatus of rotating mirror, 540.000 per minute! This time was full of activity with the electric telegraph in France, after its discovery by the English.
Louis Breguet and Alphonse Foy, invented the first telegraph line from Paris to Rouen (1845). Then he participated in the development of the telegraph dial (1849), created a mobile telegraph, a speed controller, a telegraph printer; Lassieur died in 1851, "Breguet, nephew and Co." became simply the "House Breguet" a name that the company retained for a century.
Louis Breguet had one son born in 1851 named Anthony as his grandfather.
Around 1855, the Breguet built telegraph across Europe, and even in Brazil and Japan; led a studio in Montparnasse; among the new productions appeared exploders knuckle-fist for the army and navy, invention of Louis Breguet.
In 1856, he worked for Lyon; 1857, it was the realization of the time resetting mechanical clock; at Breguet workshops also were born devices of Marey, Yvon Villarceau, Berlin, the seismograph Grye, the chronograph Captain Fleuriais, and many others including accumulators; after the War of 1870, his son Anthony worked out with Graham Bell from the USA, the first phones to Paris; the first theatrical stereo transmissions in 1881.

By Bohdan Urbankowski at http://niniwa22.cba.pl/czy_towianski_byl_szpiegiem.htm:

"...Paris, May 30, 1848, meeting of the Society of Slavs. ... speaks Desprez. When the French writer refers ... on Mickiewicz, at the place leaps Leonard Chodźko: 'Mr. Mickiewicz authority is more than suspect, as we believe it all he is a Russian spy!' Chodźko was not a dull fanatic, he has a reputation ... He was written in French - the work of Polish history and literature (two-volume history of the Legions, biographies Kosciuszko, Pulaski et al.), Editor, and what is important: he was a friend - since college - of Mickiewicz in Vilnius, activist of the Filaret Society and publisher of the two-volume Mickiewicz Poetry in 1828. Shocking opinion, which gave, echoed, unfortunately, to our countrymen. Animosity towards earlier beloved poet began to grow after Mickiewicz started in the Towiański movement; because the "Master" Andrzej Towianski also, and even more, was deemed to be an agent of Russia. ... Rumors about Towiański appeared shortly after his arrival in Paris, behind him ... In fact, the way of the future "Master" Andzej Towianski was similar to the way of the future 'Prophet' Adam Mickiewicz, and even a few times with him crossed. A reconstruction of the biography. Towianski was born ... on 1 January 1799 in Antoszwińce (the name of the farm is also present in the plural), was given to schools in Vilnius, ... made friend with Ferdinand Gutt, ... on this friendship has left a shocking record Zbigniew Krasinski, dated 19 March (April), 1848 letter to Delfina. Gutt's father was a pharmacist. It seems that demanded from him poison to someone, apparently Wittgenstein that had married to Radziwiłł (Stefania Radziwill Wittgenstein of Miezonka among others). Old Gutt did not want to bring out the poison, it seems that it was Towiański who advised to bring out the poison... Old Gutt disappeared. I have not known what happened to him, and finally discovered that his body was carved on pieces, and thrown into the river. ... this terrible murder. ... The beginning of the mission of Towiański dated on May 11, 1828. It seems that was in Vilnius and in the neighborhood, but the result was rather unexpected. Edward Wołodko wrote about it in 1907, in the "Library of Warsaw", in the article 'Memories of Towiański' ... Here are a result of denunciation of Towiański by another neighbor, and Towianski was arrested and subjected to a psychiatric examination. ... admits Wołodko - these studies, however, killed of Towianski movement in the eyes of the residents of Vilnius. ... "Master" Andrzej choose somewhere else.
In 1832 he went to St. Petersburg, he met with the Illuminatis, a heirs of Grabianko, but it does not seem that it is only now formed his doctrine.
He tried to convert, so the St. Petersburg police forced him to leave the Russian capital. Yet in 1834 he went to Carlsbad, he was also in Dresden, where he met Odyniec, which inquired about the exact details of Mickiewicz life. Thanks to Odyniec, he met 'Dziady'... Towiański also met and charmed General Skrzyneckiego ... In 1837, after his father's death, he returned to the family farm ... For the second time, as we know, ... on May 23, 1839 before leaving, he wrote "constitution" - a set of moral rules for the peasants, he visited his mother, who settled in Vilnius ... also visited the appropriate authorities. On June 28, 1840 received a passport valid for one year. After arriving at the West, Towiański tried to entrap Skrzyneckiego again - but this time did not work out. There were a lot more serious charges - the destruction of Mickiewicz. In March 1845 the Brussels-writing "White Eagle" published an anonymous article titled 'The Intrigue of the St. Petersburg crowned'. The content gives '...life and works of Adam Mickiewicz', which should rewrite the relevant passages: 'Anticipating that the cathedral of Slavic literatures at the College de France can be used to the detriment of Russia, St. Petersburg government decided to prevent this with the help of his agent, Towiański. The goal has been achieved...'. The accusation of spying, Zygmunt Krasinski slipped in a letter to Trentowski on 10 III 1849: 'The Towianski movement and demagogy of our Paris...'. ... To conclude this section, let us add that suspicion of Krasinski and other immigrants coincided with the French suspicions. As proof, we quote the letter of
Duchatel, the Minister of the Interior, to the Minister of Enlightenment - Villemain ... '...can assume that Towiański is actually Russian secret agent.
For several months ... they develop an animated action, some crisscross of France, the others set their meeting in Switzerland or Belgium, try to establish contacts with the former Imperial Army soldiers remaining in active service...'.
... it was introduced by Becu Joseph / Jozef Becu, brother of the doctor known for 'Dziady'. Krasinski noted in a letter to Dolphina Potocka on 26 November 1841: Towiański actually knew the doctor Becu
... Zygmunt Krasinski on June 15, 1851 sent a letter to Count Zamoyski, in which he wrote of the ... rumors about "Master" like the Russian spy...".
Napoleon Stanisław Adam Felix Count Zygmunt Krasinski b. 1812 in Paris, d. 1859, the greatest poet of Polish Romanticism; the biggest influence on his views and all life had a father Vincent Krasinski - General of Napoleon, and later a loyal subject of the Russian Tsar. From the autumn of 1832 to the spring of 1833 he was in St. Petersburg with his father, who wanted to get him to the service of the Russian court; moved to Krakow, Vienna, he went to Italy, in Rome in 1834, 1836 in Rome, he met Julius Slowacki, December 1838 an affair with Delfina Potocka. During the revolution in Rome in 1848 with Cyprian Kamil Norwid defended Pope Pius IX. Zygmunt Krasinski died on February 23, 1859 in Paris. His parents Vincent Krasinski and Maria Ursula Radziwill; marriage with Eliza Branicka, children Władysław Krasiński, Jerzy Zygmunt Krasinski, Maria Beatrice and Eliza Krasińska. Above Władysław Krasiński b. 1844 in Warsaw, d. 1873 in Menton, son of Sigmund and Elizabeth Branicka, during the January Uprising worked in Paris together with Prince Władysław Czartoryski. Marriage to Rose Potocki, was the father of three children: Adam Krasinski (1870-1909), Elizabeth Krasińska (1871-1905) and Sophia Krasińska (1873-1891). Count Adam Krasinski (b. 1870 in Krakow, d. 1909 in Ospedaletti, Liguria), editor of the Library of Warsaw (1901-1909),
1897 marriage to Wanda Mary of Badeni (1874-1950), daughter of Casimir Badeni, Prime Minister of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

BÉCU Jan Ludwik born ca 1741, died after 1797, industrial and commercial activist.
We know on du Barry Jeanne Becu, Comtesse (1743-1793); Jeanne goes by his mother, from the family of Bécu known as the family of roasters; Jean Bécu was a cook recognized under the reign of Louis XIV. His maternal grandparents, Fabien Bécu and Husson Jeanne, they were serving to Isabelle Ludres; they had seven children together Bécu Anne, mother of Jeanne, born April 16, 1713.

In Poland we know on Bécu August, the royal adviser, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" in Grodno, chairman after 1781 and before 1784. Bécu Jacob, the brother of Jan Ludwik Becu / Louis, a royal adviser, 1771-1780 Inspector General of the Tyzenhauz factories in Grodno, 1780-1787 supervising them, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" (Grodno) in 1781;

Bécu Louis / Jan Ludwik, brother of Jacob, freemason of "L'Hereuse Délivrance" (Grodno), secr. in 1786.
Dignitaries Officers and Members from Grodno and J. V. Antoine Godin, Chair of the Master of Wilna; freemasons in Grodno in 1817: J. E. Gilibert, J. Becu, Louis Wiazowski, J. Sacco, J. Gimel, Charles Gottlieb / Golt, Jean Godefroi Walter, J. H. Müntz, Zacharius Büttner, Jean Louis Becu, Ephraim Gottlieb, Kaus, François Narwoysz, Chresteon Ernst Fechner, Gembowski, Siegfrierd Schmidt, Jurewicz, V. S. Antoine, Fr. Schreiber.

Александр Карл Пилар фон Пильхау / Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 in Wilno / Вильнюс, d. 1871, his sister - Sophia.

He was married to Ионна Станиславовна Кульвинска / Joanna nee Kulwinska daughter of Stanislaw Kulwinski.

His father was born in 1768 or 1769 - Магнус or Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, then was Major of the Russian army,
married to

Maria Cecylia von Bécu / Мария Цецилия фон Бекю

(she was closest next of kin of Augustas Ludvikas Becu / August Ludwik Becu / August Ludwik Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno - his father was

Jan Ludwik Bécu;

August Ludwik Bécu was owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816 and he has two daughters:

Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki,

and Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872;

Teofil Januszewski, was brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki;

August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki).

His grandfather was Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau / Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау born 1734, married 1756 in Tallinn / Ревель, to Catharina Helena von Tausas / Катарина Хелена фон Таузас;
place of living: Халлик and Йоггис; Hagar / Hallik in Tamsalu, Estonia, county of Laane-Viru, south-west of Rakvere - eastern Eesti;

Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia also came from Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau b. 1734;

Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau was retired major of the Polish army, died in 1801 in Jöggis / Jőgisuu, he was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia;
his sons:

1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830.
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.
Recorded in service 1780, above Yegor Maksimovic exactly one year later was promoted to sergeant. Received his primary education at home, with the rank of lieutenant was transferred to Narva Infantry Regiment; next to the Vyborg Infantry Regiment; Yegor Maksimovic Pilar participated in a battle with the Swedes under Nyslott; 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811.

2. Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769
(his wife was Maria Becu with her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802.
Magnus Fabian's closest next of kin: Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein; фон Людер / Luder who died 1857),

3. Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Baron / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774.

Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870, and Sauga. Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough. Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia. Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland. The father of Adolf Pilar von Pilchau was Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, Baron, born and died in Audru / Audern, 1814 - 1870. Grandfather Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814.

On the Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt family:
Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina. She was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano.
She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Charlotte Julie Pila von Pilchau; Ada Pilar von Pilchau (Helene Bertha Johanna Adele von Gruenewaldt 1853-1889); Theodor Gustav Otto Peter Pilar von Pilchau; and Hilda Pilar von Pilchau.
We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano from Neapol. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau or Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor Mariano.

We back now to the first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com) Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar.
Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

4. and Reinhold Woldemar / Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.
His daughter was Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau / Katarina Elizabiet Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1769 in Hallik, Estonia, d. 1835; she was wife of Johan Diedrich Benjamin Althan / Althann; and she was mother of Johan Heinrich Althan; Georg Benjamin von Althann and Emilie Helene Althan; von Althann were living in 1839 in Pernau (Pärnu); her family:
Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau
(Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 was also a son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena, married to Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein; her son was Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791; Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922, was daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau;
Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of
Ottilie Gustava von Lüder,
Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau);
Margarethe Elisabeth Gfin. Manteuffel; and Gotthard Johann III Reichsgraf Zoege von Manteuffel.

Sofia Pilchau Pilar / Zofia nee Januszewski / Zofija Pilar von Pilchau d. 28 Jan. 1898 in Wilno (Zofia Januszewska b. 1836, died 1920 - acc. to 'geni.com'), was sister of Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena / Helena nee Januszewski voto Dzierżyński (1849 - on January 15, 1896), mother of Feliks Dzierżyński / Felix Dzerzhinsky;

Helena Dzierzynska died 1896 (married to Edmund Rufin Dzierżyński with children: Witold; Aldona Kojałłowicz (Bułhak); Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska; Stanisław; Kazimierz and 4 others). And 2nd sister was Emilia Zawadzka (Emilia Januszewska 1.voto Krzywiec, 2.voto Zawadzka, b. 1834 - d. 1883 in Wilno?, wife of Feliks Zawadzki with Jadwiga Rapacka; Józef Zawadzki and Feliks Zawadzki; and from 1st marriage son and 5 daughters).

Zofia Januszewska had son: Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau (Адольф Александр Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1860), married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec; he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierzynski; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Romuald Ludwik Adolfovitch / Roman Aleksandrovich / Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937.

Parents of above Zofia Januszewska were Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806 (Kazimiera Januszewska nee Gorecka 1806 - 1897).

Stanislaw Count Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska.

His father - Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau / Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802 and died d. 1871. This Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, the Judge of the district of Vilnius, was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar! His sister Sophia nee Pilar Pilchau;
his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida.

Above Jadwiga Rapacka nee b. ca 1870, d. 1956, Warsaw, wife of Tadeusz Rapacki with Janina Kowalska 1909 - 2002 in Poland.

Romuald Ludwig Pilar von Pilchau / Пилляр Роман Александрович / Роман Людвиг Пилар фон Пильхау / Ромуальдас-Людвикас Адольфович Пилляр фон Пильхау, that is Roman Pilar von Pilchau / Roman Pilljar / Romuald Pilar von Pilchau, 1894 - 1904 in Mickuny close to Wilno / Vilnius. 1905 to September 1910 - Vilnius secondary school, followed by Zurich in real school (1910 - 1911), where he graduated in 1911. The Pilars then were not wealthy, but still Helena Pilar sent Roman Pilchau Pilar to study in Switzerland. Nothing helped. He came back. Then he went in the other direction, to Russia, to Petrograd, where he studied law. From Dzerzhinsky not departed. In September of the same year, 1911, he continued study in Kuressaare Gymnasium. When German troops occupied the Saaremaa, in Estonia, Pilar von Pilchau evacuated (it is inf. on Dorpat in 1917) to the Yaroslavl Province. Roman Pillar (1895-1937) before World War I, began (1914 ?) to study law at the University of St. Petersburg, where he was soon involved with the Bolsheviks activity of Felix Dzierżyński.
From Mickuny / Mickūnai of the Becu family and the Pilar Pilchau property (near by Terlecki, Ozieblowski, Januszewski, Dzierzynski and Pilsudski families), to Zalesie / Zalesse / Залесье of the Oginski family - close to Smorgon / Smargon / Smorgonie - is ca 60 km to south-east.
Roman Pilar was the cousin of the Dzerzhinsky - Roman Adolfovich / Romualdas Liudvikas Adolfovich Pillar Pilhau was one of the prominent of the initial period of the Cheka - the Deputy Chief of counterintelligence Cheka, deputy chairman of Belarus GPU, then People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Belarus, then worked at senior positions in the Central Asia in 1937, as chief of the NKVD in the Saratov region, was arrested and executed (pay attention to his last post - in the Saratov region was larger numbers of Germans, there was even a Republic of the Volga Germans).
Roman Pilar Pilchau / R. Pillar Pilhau was one of closest personal friends and relatives to the known leaders of the security organs Artuzov.
Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service from August 1931 to May 1935.
Artuzow created on May 8, 1922 the counterintelligence department of the GPU. Artusov / Artuzow / Fraucci knew French. This counterintelligence department was structural unit of the GPU - OGPU, because on May 6, 1922 on the management meeting of the State Political Administration DECIDED to ESTABLISH the structure of a special unit to combat with foreign espionage; the first leaders: Felix Dzerzhinsky, Vyacheslav Menzhinsky and Arthur Artuzov. Everyone from the structure of the Swiss-Estonian and of the Polish nobility of Belarus, I have discussed. Artuzow was in years 1927-1931 - Assistant Chief of the Secret operational management. Artuzov / Artuzow - Frautchi on 01/01/1931 Deputy (Deputy Head of the Foreign Department INO OGPU) and 31 July 1931 headed Foreign department of the OGPU; when creating 10 July 1934 NKVD he headed foreign intelligence, but replaced 21/05/1935 by Slutsky and transferred to the Main Intelligence Directorate on the post of Deputy, (11th January 1937) 01/11/1937 lost this post; Corps Commissar on 21/11/1935; Artuzow / Artuzov on 13.05.1937 appointed on the registration Department and Artuzov Frauchi was arrested on the same day May 13, 1937 as part of the 'Plot of the Generals' (he was executed on August 21, 1937).
Wife of Artuzow: Inna Mikhailovna, in 1938, June 20 accused of spying for the French intelligence service on the grounds that she went twice 'under the guise of treatment' in Paris, where she was recruited; Artuzov Hristianovich Arthur was her husband, living with her from 1934. On August 26, 1938 Ulrich announced the verdict: the death penalty; first wife Lydia Artuzov Slugina escaped arrest; mother of Artuzov, Augusta Avgustovna died shortly after the arrest of Arthur Christianovich; father Christian Petrovich Fraucci / Frautchi and uncle Peter Fraucci / Frautchi died in 1923. Son Kamil / Camill was arrested in 1941; on March 23, 1938 was arrested brother Rudolph Hristianovich Frauchi, was shot by the NKVD in Butovo; the second brother, Victor Hristianovich, moved to Kazan, and became well-known professor; Artusov disagreed with Stalin in matters of Poland and Germany, has also tried to observe certain standards of conduct during the purges of the thirties.
After arrest of Artuzow / Artuzov was a secret trial, and Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Iona Yakir, Ieronim Uborevich, Robert Eideman, August Kork, Vitovt Putna, Boris Feldman, Vitaly Primakov and Yakov Gamarnik (suicide) were accused with planning a military coup on May 15, 1937; they were executed on the night of June 11-12, 1937. Marshal Tukhachevsky / Tuchachevski, Corps Commanders Yefimov, Eideman and Appoga were all arrested on the same day - 22 May 1937; on 24 May 1937, the Politburo passed the following resolution: '...Tukhachevsky, as participant in an anti-Soviet Trotsky-Right conspiratorial bloc ... having engaged in espionage activity against the USSR on behalf of Fascist Germany'. Between 01 and 10 June 1937, Tukhachevsky was describing the conspiratorial organization and plans for defeating the Red Army.
Artur Khristyanovich Artuzov Frauchi was born in the family of Swiss origin, but Italian nationality.
His father Christian Frautschi came to Russia, where he was engaged in reindeer cheese; cheesemaker, a citizen of the Swiss Federation.
Mother Augusta Avgustovna nee Didrikil b. ? - died in 1938, had the Latvian and Estonian roots, and one of her grandfathers was a Scot;
her father Avgust Didrikil / August Diederik, her mother Bertha Sterling / E'sterling / Stirling / EASTERLING born 1835 d. 1891 - her parents:
Edward Sterling from Scotland / Esterling / EASTERLING and Elena Shtaal from Riga and Livland.

Acc. to Józef Mackiewicz:
'Old' Pilar send Roman Pilar to Wilno, then chief of the GPU in Mińsk in Belarus; he was oldest of 4 sons of above Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau, owner of Mickuny, very near to uncle Feliks Dzierżyński.
Aleksander Pilara von Pilchau had only 160 cm tall!
In Mickuny were living the Szabłowskis, among other Ignacy;
a main administrator of the Pilar estate was unknown Szostak, from a family of 5 sons and one daughter; then the Lachowicz family.
At the Bernardin cementery in Vilna we have tombs of the Pilar von Pilchau family:
1. Aleksandra Pilar von Pilchau, d. 25 Oct. 1901;
2. her sister Wilunia, b. 1866, d. 1 Jan. 1872;
3. Pilar Joanna nee Kulwiński, d. 1876;
4. Izabella Pilar von Pilchau Kulwińska, b. 1808, d. 1891;
5. Zofija Pilar von Pilchau d. 28 Jan. 1898;
6. her sister - Helena nee Januszewski, Dzierżyńska, d. 1896, mother of Feliks Dzierżyński;
7. Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, grandfather of Roman Pilar.
Acc. to Czeslaw Malewski:
1. Pilar von Pilchau, Wilno 1818 - 1881; 2. Becu, Wilno 1801 - 1862, inf. 1823.
The von Pilar estate, Mickuny: here was living father of above Roman Pilar, Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau jr. who died 12 Oct. 1939. On 12 Oct. 1826 in Mickuny was consecrated a chapel built by Alexander Pilar senior in 1825 (Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, judge of the border in the county of Vilnius); he was friend of young Juliusz Słowacki, and his sisters Hersylia and Aleksandra Becu. The Mickuny estate owned first August Becu (1771-1824) - August Becu was Professor of Medicine at the Imperial Wilno Univ.
In 1923 in Mickuny was the catholic parish, and Aleksander Pilar, father of Roman, given a home for priest; a father of Roman, above Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau died aged 79, and was buried at the Mickuny cementery; his wife, mother of named Roman, was Helena Pilar, d. on 8 August 1955, aged 91. Acc. to http://dokumente.ios-regensburg.de/ Becu, August Ljudvigovič was son of Ludwik Becu; August Becu was Professor, b. 3.5.1771 in Grodno, died in 1824 in Wilno.

On the other hand:
Mianowski Jozef / Joseph b. 1804 in the district of Human at Ukraine, d. on January 6, 1879 in Ancona, Italy, Polish physician, social activist,
Nowosilcow suspect Mianowski.
Next of kin of Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and her sister Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872.

Aleksandra Mianowska (Bécu) was daughter of August Ludwik Bécu; wife of above Józef Mianowski, mother of Jan Mianowski, she was sister of above named Hersylia Łucja Januszewska.
Above Józef Mianowski 1804 - 1879, was son of Ignacy Mianowski, husband of Nadieżda Mianowska and Aleksandra Mianowska; father of Jan Mianowski. He was graduated in Human, soon was admitted to
the University of Vilnius. There he met a number of interesting personalities, one of them was Adam Mickiewicz, who, according to historian A. Krauschar, was a friend for life.
Mianowski become a doctor. In 1828 in Vilnius became assistant of Jędrzej Śniadecki; 1840 Mianowski was hiding Simon Konarski in the clinic in Vilnius, and when he was executed, Mianowski was in trouble. For a year he was in prison, next he was released.
In 1848 was the court physician of the daughter of Nicholas I. He enjoyed great influence at court in St. Petersburg,
but in Poland in 1857 Medical-Surgical Academy was founded, and Mianowski moved to Warsaw under A. Wielopolski.
Above August Ludwik Bécu / August Louis Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno, d. 7 September 1824 in Vilnius, Polish surgeon, professor of medicine, hygiene and pathology at the Imperial University of Vilnius; Julius Slowacki stepfather.
He came from French Protestant family settled in the seventeenth century at Pomerania; his father, Jan Ludwik Bécu / Jean Luis Bécu, settled in Poland under King Stanislaus Augustus. In 1775 was knighted.
Mother was Caroline of Hein. He was struck by lightning. August Ludwik Bécu was husband of NN and Salomea Bécu; father of Aleksandra Mianowska and Hersylia Łucja Januszewska.
Above BÉCU Jan Ludwik born ca 1741, died after 1797, industrial and commercial activist.
Jan Ludwik Bécu was son of Jakub Bécu; husband of Karolina Bécu; father of August Ludwik Bécu; brother of NN Bécu.

Different CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO b. 30 August 1804, in Krzywicze, Poland, d. Noisy-le-Sec or Juvisy-sur-Orge, Essonne in 1891, Polish poet and diplomat, work on Persian folklore; son of Jan Chodźko and Klara;
above Jan Chodźko / Jan of Świsłocz or Wajżgantos, 1776 - 1851, son of Józef Chodźko and Konstancja;
above Józef Chodźko 1729 - 1783, son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Michał and Franciszek (the branch of Leonard Chodzko who was friend of Oginski).
Mentioned above Leonard Chodźko 1800 - 1871, son of Ludwik Chodźko and Waleria; above Ludwik Chodźko 1769 - 1843 son of Franciszek Chodźko;
Franciszek Chodźko was son of Andrzej Michał Chodźko and Helena, and also was brother of Józef and Michał.
Mentioned CHODŹKO, ALEKSANDER BOREJKO between 1820 and 1823 studied at the university of Wilno / Vilna, arrested in 1823 as the Society of Philarets member, went to St. Petersburg, where he studied Arabic, Persian, Turkish (see Venture!) from 1824 to 1830;
the Russian diplomatic service (to 1844) in Persia, as translator in Tabriz, Tehran and Rast until 1841, then traveled in Greece and Italy,
1842 he joined the Polish emigre community in Paris, with Adam Mickiewicz and Andrzej Towiański;
1847 married Helena Jundzill in Switzerland;
1852 - 1855 served the French foreign ministry as an expert on Oriental affairs; Chodźko wanted to send his two sons to Tehran to serve the Persian government.
Borowsky's (Barowski) testamentary executors were above Chodźko / Alexandre Chodikoff / A. Khodzko, and Edouard Goutte, also Polish by birth from the Russian mission in Tehran.

Izydor Borovsky / Isidor Borowski in 1776 born in Warsaw, Poland - d. 1837 or 1838, his mother was a Jew and his father was a Polish nobleman (the illegitimate son of Prince Radziwill ?); 1794 under Kosciuszko in Poland; 1797 in Italy - the Polish Legions;
in 1801 - 1802 / 1803 at Haiti served the French Army (Napoleon Bonaparte dispatched a large expeditionary force of French soldiers and warships to the island, led by Bonaparte's brother-in-law Charles Leclerc, to restore French rule; it ended in November of 1803 with the French defeat at the Battle of Vertieres. Haiti became an independent country on January 1, 1804, with Jean-Jacques Dessalines),
then (ca 1802) in 'Les freres de la cote', a pirat;
a general and an adjutant under Simon Bolivar (1783 - 1830) in Venezuela and Colombia (a successful rebellion led by the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819. The pro-Spanish resistance was finally defeated in 1822 in the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela, by Wikipedia),
then under Muhammad Ali / Mehemet Ali (1769 - 1849) in Egypt (in 1829 he was teaching mathematics and English),
and under Abbas Mirza (1789 - 1833) to capture Herat in Afghanistan;
by jewishencyclopedia.com/ was reared in the United States (after 1805 ?),
1831 he was in Bushire, Persia (1821 ?);
and "...was afterward recommended by Sir John Campbell, the British minister, to Prince Abbas Mirza, the son of Shah Fatḥ Ali, as a useful and talented man. Borowski developed great military abilities in the service of that warlike prince, and took for him the strong town of Cochan in Khorassan. Later he took the castle of Sarakhs and made prisoner the leader of the Turkomans. After the death of Abbas in 1833, Borowski gave most essential assistance to Abbas' son, Mohamed Mirza (Muhammad / Mahmud 1834), and enabled him to ascend the throne of his grandfather. The English were behind most of the military undertakings of the Persians in those days, and Borowski was looked upon as an English general, and even wore the uniform. But he forsook the interests of the British government and joined the Russian party in Persia, and was shot at the siege of Herat (war 1838 against the Turkmens; but close to Herat in 1836 fought Count Antoni Aleksander Iliński). His wife, a Georgian captive of war, received a pension from Mohamed Shah on account of her husband's distinguished services. Bibliography: Jos. Wolff, Narrative of a Mission to Bokhara, pp. 138-140, New York, 1845; S. Orgelbrand, Encyklopedya Powsiechna, ii., s.v., Warsaw, 1898".
Son of Izydor Borowski was General of Persia, Antoni Radziwiłł-Borowski, 1803–1858, in 1821 in Persia with the father; 1850 was taken Herat.

2.
A strongest organization in the region of Napoli / Naples was the Carbonari movement in 1820; they proclaimed a constitutional monarchy in Naples.
King Ferdinand I accepted vision of social revolution political changes. Vienna and the Holy Alliance directed intervention against the revolution in 1821. Reintroduced the absolute rule of Ferdinand I.
There are many theories about the creation of the Carbonari movement; creators were to be French Freemasons in opposition to the Masonic Swedish Rite or officers who came to Italy with Joseph Bonaparte and Murat to propagate fighting with the reign of Ferdinand IV; there is also a view that English created in Sicily the Carbonari movement, either Queen Maria Carolina of Austria or the Italian Illuminati at the end of the eighteenth century.
Giuseppe Garibaldi b. 1807 in Nice, politician, and fighter for the unification of Italy, was a Freemason, Grand Master of the lodge Grande Oriente d'Italia, but his grandfather and father were shipowners, owners and captains of small vessels in the northern and western Italy; he joined the revolutionary Carbonari. In February 1834 he took part in a failed uprising led by Mazzini in Piedmont, in Genoa.
Giuseppe Mazzini b. 1805 in Genoa, a journalist, a fighter for freedom together with Garibaldi, also Mazzini was a Freemason; maintained close contacts with Albert Pike, also a Freemason.
We must back now to Napoli / Naples / Neapol:
Silvati, Joseph b. in Naples 1791, lieutenant of the Bourbon cavalry, former officer of Murat, affiliated with the Carbonari, together with M. Morelli stationed in Nola (1-2 July 1820), and started the riots of 1820-21;
after the revolution failed he fled to Ancona; arrested by the papal authorities and handed over to the Bourbon government, was sentenced to death and executed.
In Naples, the conspiracy, which was not intended to overthrow King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies but only to ask a constitution, was growing rapidly and involved senior officers. In March 1820 the message from Spain across quickly in the Kingdom of Naples to strengthen the Carbonari and Masonic movements.
Lt. M. Morelli, head of the section of the Carbonari in Nola, decided to involve his cavalry regiment in the conspiracy. He was joined by Giuseppe Silvati, also lieutenant, and Luigi Minichini, anarchist and priest from Nola.
In the night of 1 to 2 July 1820, head of the Carbonari, Morelli and Silvati gives the kick off of the conspiracy by deserting with about 130 men and 20 officers. Quickly, Minichini joined and he wants to come the countryside to recruit peasants; Morelli, meanwhile, wants to go directly to Avellino where General Pepe was in command; Minichini leaves the expedition; the young officer Michele Morelli, supported by his troops, headed Avellino; on 2 July, in Monteforte, he was welcomed triumphantly. The next day, Morelli, Minichini and Silvati are entering in Avellino. Welcomed by the municipal authorities, and the constitution on the Spanish model is proclamed;
Morelli passes the power in the hands of Colonel De Concilij, Chief of Staff to General Pepe. Minichini goes back to Nola; on July 5, the insurgency extends to Naples, where General Guglielmo Pepe gathered around him many military units.
King Ferdinand I was forced to give Constitution. Elections are held and parliament seat for the first time on 1 October 1820.
But the first spark of uprising was in Nola in the night between 1 and July 2, 1820; Lieutenant Michele Morelli 30 years, was a native of Monteleone Galasso (near Foggia) and Lieutenant Joseph Silvati was from Naples; it's a list of 21 conspirators who journeyed from Nola, on the night between 1 and July 2, 1820: Luigi Minichini from Nola, priest; Dominic Gentile of Nola; Antonio Montano from Naples, coffee makers; Camillo Sepe from Nola, pharmacist; Rossi Giovanni of Nola; others from:
Santa Maria a Vico, Armigeri, San Giovanni in Teduccio, Pozzo Ceravolo, and Piazzolla Nola.
The Revolutions of 1820 was a revolutionary wave in Europe: in Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Italy for constitutional monarchies; and in Greece. The 1820 revolution began in Naples against King Ferdinand I; this success inspired Carbonari in the north of Italy to revolt too. In October 1820 and in February, 1821, Austria send an army to crush the revolution in Naples. The King of Sardinia also called for Austrian intervention. The Neapolitans, commanded by General Pepe, made no attempt to defend, and were defeated at Rieti on 7 March 1821. The Austrians entered Naples.


In 1823 or 1822, Michal Kleofas Oginski traveled with relatives in Italy, lived in Florence, where he died on October 15, 1833 in Florence; his main business was a literary and musical editorial work. He was buried at the monastery cemetery close to the Church of Santa Maria Novella, and later reburied in the Pantheon of Santa Croce.
The father of Michal Kleofas Oginski b. 1765, was Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.
Michal Kleofas Ogiński, owner of the Helenow palace, Otrębusy, Komorów, Helenow and Opacz, was born as Michal Kleofas Ogiski in Guzów close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765; was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer; his father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paulina nee Szembek.
Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 / 1730 or in Warsaw in 1731, d. on May 31, 1800 Slonim or Warszawa, in 1755 was landowner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800, next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow) was Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833, and after Helenow village of the Oginski family, in ca 1800 come to hands of Tadeusz Ostrowski (ca 1800 to 1817 Tomasz Adam Ostrowski, 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki and Jakub Ksawery Potocki).
In 1781 above named Michal Kazimierz Oginski was appointed deputy of the Lithuanian provinces, and a year later went abroad. He was in Brussels, Amsterdam, Berlin, Vienna, traveled to England. Visiting Prussia, asked for help of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm II, to regain their estates in Russia.
Michal Kazimierz Oginski, General lieutenant, provincial governor since 1764, composer, writer, poet, cousin of Andrzej Ignacy Oginski / Andrew Ignatius, who was the father of the composer Michael Cleophas Oginski.
His parents: Joseph Tadeusz Oginski and Anna Korybut-Wiśniowiecka;
marriage with Aleksandra Czartoryska.

Countess Olga Kalinowski born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in 1844 and her son: Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women:
with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki. Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.

3.

Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899.

Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Swiatopelk Mirski took part in the Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878; he studied at the General Staff Academy to 1881, in 1887 he was the commander of staff of 3rd Grenadier division; 1895 the Governor of Penza, and in 1897 the Governor of Yekaterinoslav. 1900 Sipiagin appointed him Assistant Minister of the Interior and Commander of the Imperial Corps of Gendarmes. 1902 Governor-General of the North-Western province: Vilna, Kovno and Grodno; was credited with successful liberal reforms, stopping pogroms against the Jews. 1904 Minister of the Interior after Plehve's assassination. His appointment was seen as a victory of liberals, as a victory of the party of widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna who supported the liberal reforms; the Sviatopelk-Mirski's plan included transferring more power to the State Council of Imperial Russia.
On January 22 / January 9, 1905 occurred the massacre known as Bloody Sunday; he never had authorised the shooting of the demonstrators, but his opponents said that he not only did authorise the shooting but also in order to push his own political agenda actively encouraged the demonstration.
He was replaced (on 18 January) as Minister of the Interior by Bulygin in February 1905.
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski 1857 - 1914, married to Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska;
she was from a branch of Wassili Bobrinsky, b. 1804, d. Moscow in 1874, son of Alexei Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1752, who married 1796 to Anna Dorotea / Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg (1769 Tallinn - St. Petersburg in 1846) daughter of the Tallinn commendant Woldemar Conrad von Ungern-Sternberg b. 1739;
Wassili Bobrinsky 1 m. 1824 to Pss Lydia Gortschakova b. 1807, 2 m. 1830 to Sofia Sokownina b. 1812, 3 m. 1869 to Alexandra Utschakova
(his brothers:
A. Alexei Bobrinsky, 1800 - 1868, m. 1821 to Css Sophia Samojlowa b. 1799,
B. Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski), m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899).
Julia Pawlowna Bobryńska / Julia Broel - Plater, Gołąbek - Jezierska, nee Bobrinski / Bobryńska, 1823 - 1899, married Waldemar Gołąbek-Jezierski Count, b. 1822, died 1855 in Warsaw. He was son of Jan Nepomucen Paweł Gołąbek-Jezierski Count and Karolina.
Julia 2nd time married Cezar August Broel - Plater in 1859; Cezar was born on September 8, 1810, in Wilno. They had 2 sons including Cezary Broel-Plater.
Julia 1st married Waldemar Gołąbek - Jezierski in 1851; Waldemar was born in 1822. They had one son Aleksander Gołąbek - Jezierski.
The father of mentioned above Julia was above named Pavel Alekseevich Bobrinski / Paweł Aleksiejewicz Bobryński and Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska Junosza, Countess, nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska.
Paweł Bobrynski / Bobrinski was born on October 27, 1801, in Saint Petersburg; Julia Sonocka Bielińska was born in 1790 or 1804. Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska, ca 1790 / 1804 - 1892; m. 1822, after death of husband she moved to Paris;
her father Stanisław Kostka Bieliński died 1812 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, served on the court of the King Stanisław August Poniatowski; Marshal of the Parliament in 1793, m. Katarzyna nee Golicyn, b. 1775, d. 1825 in Saratów.
The family of above Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
a. Elżbieta Bielińska m. 1779 in Mogilany to Franciszek Wielopolski,
b. Franciszek Bieliński 1740 - 1809, 1776 Nat. Educ. Com., 1794 the Kosciuszko Uprising, owner of Kozłówka to 1799, and the Otwock palace, m. Krystyna Sanguszko.
The father of above named Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
Michał Bieliński died 1747, the Chelmno province governor, Sztum office, 1725 the King court, 1736-42 Kozłówka palace near by Lubartow,
m. 1st to Aurora Maria Rutowska daughter of Fryderyk August II and Fatima, grand-daughter of Jan Jerzy II Saxon / Sas and Anna Zofia of Danmark, 2-v. Claude Marie de Bellegarde;
m. 2nd time to Tekla Pepłowski grand-daughter of Jadwiga Niemyski, of the Kozłówka estate.

Wassili Bobrinsky / Wasyl Bobrzynski had 2 children:

I. Alexei Bobrinsky 1831 - 1888, 1st m. 1855 to Pss Catherine Lvova b. 1834, 2nd m. 1859 Sofia Cheremeteva b. 1842.

He had 4 children:

1. Wassili Bobrinsky 1860 - 1861,
2. Ct Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937, he m. twice,
3. Ct Wladimir Bobrinsky 1862 - 1938, married to a French woman,

4. Css Catherine Bobrinsky / Ekaterina Alexeiievna 1864 - 1926 m. 1886 to Pr Peter Swiatopolk-Mirski / Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski d. 1914;

II. Css Sofia Bobrinsky 1837 - 1891 m. Viktor von Keller d. 1906.

The father of Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
Michał Bieliński / Michael Belinsky, coat Junosza, d. 1746, the provincial governor of Chelmno. Son of Casimir Louis Bielinski, a Polish diplomat and Louisa Maria Morsztyn (d. 1730),
daughter of the poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn / John Andrew Morsztyn.
Brother of Franciszek / Francis Bielinski, also the governor of Chelmno and the Grand Marshal of the Crown.
Michal's 1st wife Aurora Maria Rutowska (d. 1750), illegitimate daughter of the Polish king Augustus II the Strong Saxon, divorced.
The second wife was Tekla Popłowska (d. 1774) with son Franciszek Bielinski / Francis (d. 1809), the writer of the Crown and Stanislaus Kostka (d. 1812), Marshal of the Grodno Parliament. Michal was in 1738-1746, the voivode / governor of Chelmno.
Above mentioned Franciszek Bielinski / Francis Belinsky, coat Junosza, b. 1683, d. 1766 in Warsaw, the Grand Marshal of the Crown 1742 to 1766, the court marshal of the Crown 1732 to 1742, the provincial governor of Chelmno 1725-1732, treasurer of Prussia 1714 -1738.

Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski 1788-1868, Duke in 1861.
His son: Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron back to Russia in 1840, 1841 served at Caucasus -
his brothers and sisters:
1. Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, wife of Wilhelm Rodys, mother of Pelagia Joanna Findeisen

[Pelagia Joanna b. 1849 in Lublin - 1875 in Smilowice, wife of Gustaw Adolf Findeisen, and she was mother of
a. Jadwiga Pawinska
(1868-1924, married in 1886, social activist, had a son Thaddeus, philologist; her husband Pawiński Joseph (1851-1925), a doctor of the Hospital of the Infant Jesus and St. Spirit in Warsaw, the Polish co-founder of cardiology. Born in Zgierz, was the son of John and Amalia Krohn and was brother of Adolf; schools in Łęczycy and in Warsaw, studied medicine at Imperial Univ. in Warsaw 1869-1874. He worked then at the clinic of diagnostic under Ignacy Baranowski; His brother was Adolf Stanisław Pawiński b. 1840 in Zgierz, d. 1896 in Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Polish historian, archivist and assistant professor of the Warsaw School of Economics and professor of general history of the Imperial University of Warsaw. In 1862 Pawiński moved to the University of Dorpat in Estonia, 1864 he received the degree of Candidate of Sciences. Theodore Witte from Dorpat, admitted Pawiński to study abroad. First, he moved to Berlin, where he met Ranke. Later, he attended lectures of Jaffe and Droysen. He then went to Göttingen, 1868, after returning to Polish has been an associate professor at the Warsaw School of Economics and the Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw),
b. Stanislaw Findeisen (1873-1970) + Alicja Paulina Handke 1896 - 1994
(her parents Hugo Handke and Matylda Zalern; Alicja Paulina Handke born in Pultusk and died in Warszawa; her son:
Wladyslaw Findeisen b. January 28, 1926 in Poznań, Polish engineer, a professor of technical sciences, rector of the Technical University of Warsaw (1981-1985), automatic, co-founder of systems theory in the context of the wider science of control / adjustment, the chairman of the Primate Social Council, a senator I and II term in Warsaw. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle);
c. and Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 + Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt - Jastrzebiec 1889-1975: his children:
Gustaw Findeisen b. 1912 Smilowice, d. 1992 in Warszawa;
Andrzej Findeisen 1915 - 1944 with daughters:
c1. Bellert Zieleniewska,
c2. Grocholska;
Tomasz Findeisen 1919 - 2004 + Aniela had 3 children;

and last son of Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948 and
Aniela Niemirowicz-Szczytt 1889-1975 was
Krystyn Tadeusz Findeisen 1924-1944]

and next daughter of above Boleslawa Rodys 1831 - 1915, was
Zofia Joanna Saturnina Sliwicka;
and next brothers and sister of above Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron:
2. Ekaterina d. 1879;
3. Vladymir 1823 - 1861, and
4. Dmitri / Dmitry Ivanovich / Dmitrij 1824 or 1825 - 1899, Infantry General and politician, Caucasus and Russo-Turkish wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia;
his son Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857 - 1914), the governor of Penza and Vilna governments, Minister of Interior of Russia;
5. Mikolaj / Nicholas Ivanovitch Sviatopolk-Mirski 1833 - 1898; a godson of Tsar Nicolas II, and was "aide de camp" of the Tsar, General-Adjutant 1874 (1877-1878 war), the Caucasus wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia, 1881-1898 The Don Cossack chief;
1891 he bought at Princess Mary Lvovna Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst the estate of Zamir, located in the Minsk government, the Novogrudek county, after death of Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg; 1898 Member of the State Council; he died at his estate Mir;
1st m. Princess Vera Ilyitchnina Gruzinsky / Grouzinzky in Tiflis, Georgia on 4 May 1860; 1842-1861 or 1863, daughter of Ilija Georgijevich, with son Ilija;
2nd m. in St. Petersburg in 14 April 1868 to Cleopatre Mikhailovna Khanykov, 1845-1910.

4.

Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937.

5.

John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig, and Caroline Margaret Clayton. His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt.
Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas.
Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green, Scotland - on border of England. Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.
Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas. Gretna is 1 / 2 km south of Gretna Green! After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison.

6.

NERI MICHELE (born 16 OCTOBER 1750, Firenze / FLORENCE, ITALY, died ca. 1822 in Firenze).

7.

Ancestors of Johann Laval Anton Maria Viktor, count Nugent-Pallavicini-Centurioni-Fibbia b. 1877 in Graz - died 1930;
parents:
Laval Jeremias Anton, count Nugent b. 1843 in Triest (d. 1923 in Florence: 1st m. to Baroness Emma von Zahony b. 1847 in Triest, 2nd to Maria Pallavicini Fibbia of Centurioni, 3rd to Karoline von Steininger), and Maria Pallavicini Fibbia, marquise of Centurioni b. 1850.
The parents of above Jeremias:
Johann, count Nugent b. 1796 in Dublin, died in Brescia, and Regina Contessa Abriani b. 1813.
The father of above Johann b. 1796:
Michael Anton Nugent b. ca 1750, who was also father of above: Laval Graf Nugent von Westmeath 1777 - 1862, served the armies of Austria and the Two Sicilies; born at Ballynacor, Ireland.

8.

Józef Hieronim Retinger (17 April 1888 – 12 June 1960) was a Polish political adviser. Since 1906 in Paris, among his new friends was the Marquis de Castellane, and an artists from Left Bank cafes; 1908 docteur of Sorbonne, next Univ. of Munich,
Florence ca 1907?, 1908 met masonry in London, 1911 Cracow under protection of Count Zamoyski and the Godebski family, and again in 1911 or 1912 to London, 1912 return to Cracow,
married Otylia Zubrzycka; sometimes to Paris and again London where Józef Hieronim Retinger opened a bureau of the Supreme National Council; met with Joseph Conrad, 1914 ? and next he fled to Spain and met L. N. Morones and P. E. Calles, moved in 1917 to Mexico; Józef Hieronim Retinger travelled to USA and met Felix Frankfurter and Sir Edward Bedington-Behrens.

9.

Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, b. 1784 in Livorno, west of Firenze / Florence, banker, his grandfather, Moses Vita Haim Montefiore had emigrated from Livorno to London in the 1740s, but had close contact with Livorno; his parents, Joseph Elias Montefiore and Rachel Mocatta, were in Italy on a business journeys;
Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet began his career as tea merchants, was Jew broker in the City; married Judith Cohen and her sister, Henriette / Hannah married Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777 - 1836), for whom Montefiore's firm acted as stockbrokers.
Nathan Rothschild was a London banker, but was born in Frankfurt am Main, as child of Mayer Amschel Rothschild; 1806 in London he married Hannah Barent-Cohen (next of kin with Karl Marx).

10.
The Bobrinsky family and the Demidov di San Donato:
Andrei SCHUVALOV b. 1802, m. Fekla Valentinovich or Tekla daughter of Walenty b. 1801, (Andrei was son of Pjotr SCHUVALOV b. 1771, and grandson of Andrei b. 1743);
his daughter and son:
a. Sophia (b. 1829), m. in 1850 to Ct Aleksander Bobrinsky (d. 1903);
b. Pawel SCHUVALOV (Schouwalov; Schuwalov) b. 1830, m. 1st in 1855 to Pss Olga Belosselsky-Belozersky and m. 2nd to Maria Aleksandrovna Komarov;
his son Aleksander b. in Vartemiagui in 1881, m. 1st in 1903 (div) Pss Jelena Demidov di San Donato / Elena Demidov b. St.Petersburg 1884 - died in Florence in 1959, m. 2nd in 1916 to Sophia Gfn von Fersen;
Jelena / Elena b. Switzerland, Vevey in 1864 - d. Paris 1932, m. in Batignolles 1881 to Ct Andrei Bobrinsky (d. Paris); she was daughter of Pjotr (b. 1819), and grand-daughter of Pawel SCHUVALOV (b. 1776) m. Pss Barbara Szachowska / Warwara Shakhovsky (b. 1796), the great grand-daughter of Andrei (b. 1743 - above mentioned!) m. Css Jekaterina Petrovna Saltykov (d. Rome 1816).

11.
Николай Никитич Демидов / Nikolay N. Demidov (1773 - 1828 in Florence) in 1822 moved to Florence (1815?); he was one of the richest people in the Russian Empire; Demidov, was living in San Nicolo in Oltrarno, a poor part of Florence; immediately after the death of Nicholas Nikitich, his children Anatoly and Peter ordered the sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini to marble monument; with family Demidov closely related two buildings in Florence - Villa San Donato and Villa Pratolino (also called Villa Demidoff). Villa San Donato is located half a kilometer to the north-east of the park Kashin, outside the historic part of Florence, was built in 1822 - 1831;
a grandson of Nicholas Nikitich Demidov - Paul II did not like San Donato, preferring Villas Pratolino - the estate of the Medicis;
1881, the villa San Donato and the collection of art and minerals were auctioned.
Villa Pratolino (now often called the Villa Demidoff) was built on the ruins in 1822 in Pratolino town, 15 km north of the historic part of Florence.

12.
Павел / Паоло Трубецкoй / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866, Intra, north-west of Milano, south-east of Saanen in Switzerland; son of Петр Петрович Трубецки (1822-1892) and Ада Винанс / Ada Winans, 1835-1917, who lived in Florence; his half-brothers:
Пётр Николаевич Трубецкой (1858-1911), and Сергей Николаевич Трубецкой (1862-1905) of the Moscow Univ.; Paolo in 1914 - 1921 lived in USA.
Above Pyotr Trubetskoy / Петр Петрович Трубецкой / Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy was a Russian diplomat, administrator and general. He was born in Tulcin / Tulchyn, Ukraine, died in Menton, France; son of Пётр Иванович Трубецкой and Emilia Petrovna, husband of Varvara Yuryevna 1828 - 1901, governor of Smolensk and Orel in 1844, friend of Tolstoi. He has 3 daughters:
Мария b. 1863, m. to Александр Александрович Прозоровски - Голицын (1853 - 1914).
Prince P. Troubetzkoy, was attached to the Russian royal court; in 1863, he came to Italy as a diplomat of the Russian embassy in Florence, known the pianist Ada Winans 1835 - died 1917 / 1918 in Intra, who came to Florence to study singing. In 1865 he went again to Florence (Italy) on a diplomatic mission which included the supervision of the Russian church there.
Ada / Ада was daughter of Anthony Van Arsdale Winans and Mrs Jay, from New York; Ada in 1853 started work at the Doane Academy in Berlington, the New Jersey; moved to Florence to learn of bel canto (and to Spain). 1864 Ada finished a work in Milano and Florence; moved to Ghiffa / Ghifa in Lombard, in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 120 km northeast of Turin and about 7 km northeast of Verbania on the western shore of the Lake Maggiore. 1870 he was divorced, but were living in Intra; Ada had 3 sons:
Пьер, Паоло and Луиджи / Luigi:
Pierre / Пьер / Петр b. 1864, m. in 1896, to the American writer Louise Amélie Rives (or Amelie Louisa Reeve 1863-1945, an American novelist and poet, her novel, World's End, became a bestseller in New York in 1914), he died in Charlotesville, VA;
Павел / Паоло / Paolo Troubetzkoy, b. 1866;
Луиджи 1867-1959, Navy military engineer (electricity), d. in Ghiffa 1957.
Ada's friend Аchille Tominetti, Leonardo Bazzaro, Paolo Sala, Augusto Laforet, Ulisse Grant, Stefano Turr, Cesare Correnti, the Cairolis;
1884 moved to via Borghetto, close to Porta Venezia, Venice. 1887 Ada and Pyotr Petrovich Troubetzkoy separated, Pyotr lived in Milano with Marianna Chan / Han (?), and had son Питер Хан / Piotr Han (?) in 1886.


Michal Kleofas Oginski married Izabela Lasocka ca 1791 (1789). They had 2 sons, Tadeusz Antoni, and Franciszek Ksawery / Xavier. Maria de Néri / Maria Neri was his second wife in 1802, with children Amelia Zaluska, Emma Brzostowska - Wysocka, Ireneusz and Ida, acc. to Iwo Zaluski. Michal Kleofas Oginski, in accordance with second source, had children: Tomasz Antoni Ogiński, Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński, Franciszek Ksawery Ogiński, Amelia Załuska, Ida Ogińska, Emma Ogińska.


Above mentioned Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata Count (b. Venice, 1877 - d. Rome, 1947), was an entrepreneur and Italian politician. Become rich by exporting tobacco from Montenegro, invested the gains acquired in the emerging electrical industry and in 1905, returned to his homeland, formed the Adriatic Society of Electricity.


Time of life of Parvus:

Parvus was born in 1867 Berazino / Berezyna; moved to Odessa;
ca 1885 in Odessa with political satirist Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin;
in 1886 Gelfand first traveled from Russia to Basel, Switzerland; 1887 - returned to Russia; the fall of 1888 Gelfand enrolled at the University of Basle;
ca 1892 Gelfand moved to Germany, joined Rosa Luxemburg; 1900 he met Vladimir Lenin in Munich;

1902 to 1908 worked for M. Gorki

(to Autumn 1917 Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff worked in the Russian Embassy in Berlin where she became acquainted with British diplomat R. H. Bruce Lockhart. They owned the mansion Jendel in Jäneda, in Estonia where he was shot dead in 1918; 1918, she was arrested in a suspicion of spying for England and transferred to the Lubyanka prison. Bruce Lockhart, tried to vouch for her; they were lovers; Lockhart was expelled from Russia soon after, Maria Moura Countess Benckendorff was released as well under the condition that she would cooperate with the intelligence service; then she met Maxim Gorky as secretary and wife of Gorky, with a few interruptions from 1920 to 1933; 1920 she met H. G. Wells and became his mistress, renewed in 1933 in London, where she emigrated. Later, she was married to Baron Nikolai von Budberg-Bönningshausen, as a double agent for the Soviet Union and British intelligence.
Her older half-sister, Alexandra Alla Ignatievna Zakrevskaya b. 1884, married Baron Arthur von Engelhardt before 1909, was the great-grandmother of Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 2010);

1905, Parvus arrived in St. Petersburg with false Austro-Hungarian papers and coordinated an agitation; he was arrested on 21 March 1906 and imprisoned with Trocki and Lev Grigorievich Deutsch in St Petersburg - was visited by Rosa Luxemburg; emigrated to Germany 1906, acted again with Maxim Gorky (1902 - 1905) 1906 - 1908, and Rosa Luxemburg;
moved 1908 and 1910 - 1915, to Istanbul in Turkey; he was a business partner of the Krupp concern, of Vickers Limited, and of the Basil Zaharov, German ambassador Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim, also to Enver, Talat and Cemal, and Finance Minister Djavid Bey;

Parvus arrived to Berlin on the 6 March 1915; like Sulkowski, he recommended the division of Russia by encouraging ethnic separatists in various Russian regions, and its loss in the First World War was the best way to bring a revolution.

The plan of the Russian Revolution 1915. Copyright by Chronos. World History on the Internet (Подготовка массовой политической забастовки в России / A preparation of massive political strikes in Russia). ХРОНОС. Retrieved 2006-12-17. This document was produced by Alexander Parvus (Israel Gelfand) in February 1915 and contained a preliminary plan for the destruction of existing political system in Russia, the revolutionary movement for the German money. ... at
http://www.hrono.ru/dokum/191_dok/1915parvus.php. Part of the plan he had already finished writing in Berlin. ... Printed from the book: Heresh Elizabeth, Bought Revolution. Secret deal Parvus. Translated from the German I. G. Binevoy, Moscow 2005, p. 21-27.

The plan was handed over to the Germans on March 9, 1915, and they immediately began to finance its implementation. When reading the document easy to see that Lenin in 1917, acted in accordance with this plan. Import of money, weapons and subversive literature was carried out to the territory of Russia by the German money through neutral countries. Lenin maintained relations with Pravus connected via Karl Radek and Jacob Ganetsky (Furstenberg). The plan of the Russian Revolution covers twenty pages:

"1. Preparation of the mass political strike in Russia.

By the spring in Russia should start preparing mass political strike under the slogan 'Freedom and peace'. Center of the movement will be in Petrograd and Obukhov, Putilov and the Baltic Shipyard. The strike should cover rail networks between Petrograd and Warsaw, as well as the South-Western Railway. Railway strike will be mainly carried out in the major centers with large teams of workers, railway workshops and so on. To expand the scale of strikes wherever possible, will broken railway bridges, as well as during the strike movement of 1904-1905.

2. Conference of leaders of the Russian Social-Democrats:

The plan can only be achieved under the leadership of the Russian Social-Democrats. The radical wing of the party has already begun to take action. But it is important that joined them moderate faction of the Mensheviks. ... But two weeks ago, their leader Lenin himself raised the question of unification with the Mensheviks. Unity can be achieved through a policy of compromise; ... And thus begin active operations against absolutism. It should be noted that a group of moderates always is under a strong influence of German Social Democracy. Due to the personal authority of some leaders of the German and Austrian Social Democracy ... you can still achieve a lot with them. ... it is necessary to convene in Switzerland or in any other neutral country ... It should take part:
1. Social Democratic Party of Bolsheviks. 2. Menshevik party. 3. Jewish Bund. 4. Ukrainian organization Spilka. 5. The Polish Social-Democratic Party. 6. The Social Democratic Party of Poland. 7. Social Democratic Party of Lithuania. 8. The Finnish Social Democrats.
Congress can take place only if it is absolute reached a preliminary agreement to launch immediate action against the tsarist regime. ... Additional possible participants of the congress are: 9. Armenian party Dashnak-tsutyun. 10. Hindshak.
... the Congress by their decisions will have a major impact on public opinion in France and England.

3. Russian Socialist Revolutionaries.
Separate negotiations need to lead a party of Russian Socialist - Revolutionaries. These people are most inclined to nationalism. However, their influence to the working community is minimal. In St. Petersburg, they have only a small number of supporters at the Baltic Shipyard. On the question of the mass strike, they can be eliminated without prejudice. Their scope - it is the peasantry, where they have a significant impact, using teachers of public schools.

4. Individual movements.
Preparing the creation of an institutional framework for the mass strike should immediately start doing direct agitation. Through Bulgaria and Romania can establish links with Odessa, Sevastopol, Rostov-on-Don, Batumi and Baku. Russian workers in these areas ... have not stopped fighting for these requirements: only two years ago, the big strike of sailors and dockworkers, which again put on the agenda of the previous suggestions. Agitation should be ... and at the same time acquire a political nature a general strike at the Black Sea ... under the domination of unemployment, ... probably take place in Nikolayev, Rostov-on-Don and among workers in certain occupations in Odessa. Such a strike would have a local character ... To carry out such a campaign is necessary above all restores the organization of Russian sailors who settled in Constantinople, then to Alexandria. Now this center should be in Constanta or Galati. Since the war at sea cause severe disturbances in the Black Sea city, this will make them particularly susceptible to political agitation. Special forces must be applied ... in Odessa, ... as in 1905, ... And it would help to give a new impetus to the universal revolutionary movement. If in Odessa uprising broke out, it could be supported by the Turkish fleet. Prospects for the uprising in the Black Sea Fleet can be determined after the establishment of contacts with large Sevastopol. In Baku and the oil area can easily bring the strike. Can not be ignored ... workers are Tatars, ie Muslims. ... Strikes are also possible in the mining region of Donetsk. Particularly favorable conditions in the Urals. There Bolshevik Party has its loyal and strong supporters. Political strike among miners ... as the population is very poor.

5. Siberia.
Particular attention should be paid to Siberia. In Europe it is known only as a place of exile. But along the large Siberian routes, the railway and river banks lives strong peasant class, proud and independent, who wish to maintain independence from the central government. In the cities live energetic businessmen and intellectual layers, which consists of political exiles and which is under their influence. Siberian constituencies sent to the Duma socialist representatives. During the revolutionary movement of 1905 all the management was in the hands of the revolutionary committees. The administrative staff is extremely weak. The armed forces have been reduced to a minimum ... These circumstances make it possible to create some centers in Siberia action. At the same time it is necessary to take care of political exiles who want back to European Russia. This is purely a question of money. Thus, we can send thousands of ... agitators ... in the above campaign centers and in St. Petersburg. ... All of these actions will be developed and ... more co-ordinated their activities will be. On the other hand ... customize party centers must be immediately included, and lead them to unite.

6. Campaign in the press.
At the same time you need to give a boost to Russian Socialist Party, mentioning it in the press and brochures, as well as the direction of its actions. Brochures in Russian may be issued in Switzerland. In Paris goes Russian newspaper 'The Voice', which is edited by some leaders of the socialist Menshevik Party ... In spite of the exceptional circumstances in which it goes, this newspaper has maintained an objective attitude towards the war. ... May be mentioned and considered Swiss, and Italian, and Danish, and Dutch, and Swedish socialist newspapers, as well as the socialist press of America ... German socialist leaders ... easily be able to participate in this discussion in the media campaign would have a significant impact on the position neutral countries, especially Italy, ... in the socialist circles of France and England. ... which can reach up to England and France with great difficulty, would be of great value. ... easily make an impact in the sense ... against the tsarist regime in the socialist press of Bulgaria and Romania. Since Romania will be a central point of revolutionary agitation in the south of Russia, ... for this reason the position of the Romanian daily press is important, not counting, of course, its importance to determine its own position in the war. All major Romanian newspapers are in the service of Russia. ... It is not difficult to organize a group of recognized journalists for publishing large independent daily newspaper with a pronounced tendency to early accession of Germany. ...

7. Campaign in North America.
Particular attention should be paid to the United States. Many Russian Jews and Slavs in the United States and Canada are a very sensitive element for agitation against the tsarist regime. Russian Social-Democracy and the Jewish Bund were sent to tour to these places. ... they can inspire to energetic performances by local forces, to strengthen the organization, strengthen widely represented Russian and Jewish press and thus achieve the heyday of planned activities. ... with millions Russian immigrants, most of whom have only recently left their homeland, are also of great importance. Movement among Russian immigrants in America would have an impact on public opinion of America. ... The German element also needs to act more actively in this war ... A strong movement among the Russian, that is Russian Jews in America would contribute to performance of the Germans. It should be send here a few agitators from German and Austrian Social Democracy.

8. The growth of the revolutionary movement.
Campaign in neutral countries will have a strong reaction on the campaign in Russia, and vice versa. Further development is largely dependent on the military action. ... If the Russian army during the winter will also be tied to their former positions, the disorder will go across the country. Planned propaganda machine will use this disorder, expanding and deepening its across the board. Strikes here and there, food riots, the growing political agitation - all mislead the tsarist government. If it will lead to an repression, it will cause a growing resentment ... it will be interpreted as a sign of weakness, leading to an increase of the revolutionary movement. ... If in the meantime, the Russian army will suffer a major defeat, the movement against the regime can take unprecedented dimensions. In any case, you can count on the fact that if all the forces will be directed to act on with the plan, the spring can happen mass political strike. If the mass strike will have a large scale, the tsarist government will be forced to concentrate forces in the country, especially in St. Petersburg and Moscow. In addition, the government will need strength to protect the rail links. ... will be sent to the railways in the west, you can call a strike everywhere. If it succeeds everywhere, the tsarist government will still be forced to use to protect stations, and so on. ... Simultaneously, the administrative apparatus will be given in the confusion that will accelerate its decay.

9. The peasant movement and Ukraine.
Along with the developments of above, the peasant movement is, as in 1905, an important contributing factor. ... In general, the question of protection of land is the basis of Russian peasant question, ... In Ukraine, all these problems are reduced to demand autonomy. As long as the tsarist government prevails, policy in Ukraine is reduced to giving away land to Moscow nobles and large landowners of Moscow, which protects it from ... Ukrainian peasants; farmers have no choice to rebel, unless they feel that the pressure of government weakened that ... One of the main tasks of the Ukrainian government is to establish law and order in places of anarchy ... The education independent of Ukraine can be considered as an exemption from the tsarist regime, and as a solution to the peasant question. ... a Great Russian peasants did not remain calm under any circumstances ...
10. Movement in Finland.
In connection to the global movement, in Finland, you can take important steps. Finnish parties are in an awkward position, since the country has significant Russian military forces. On the other hand, the Finns did not just want to be annexed by Sweden. Swedes do not seek to annex Finland, they want to make it a buffer country that is independent. Swedish party in Finland - a small minority. Therefore it is necessary to reach an agreement between the Swedish government and the stronger Finnish parties, among which the most influential - the Social Democratic. Such an agreement is possible if the Swedes guarantee Finns greatest autonomy and give them the right to decide which group of states they wish to join. ... systematically begin preparations for a general uprising. The Finnish Social Democrats have at their disposal an excellent organization, similar to the German. ... a special role played by differences in language. All preparations for the revolution must be conducted secretly ... Then part of the concentrated forces will be drawn to St. Petersburg. This will be the signal for the start of a general uprising in Finland. ... The plan was developed by a special commission in St. Petersburg, where the participants were members of the General Staff, as well as senior administrative officials. ... the Swedish army will have to intervene and protect the independence of Finland. Although this is good way to crush the rebellion, it makes absolutely defenseless against army intervention of enemy forces. Therefore, probably, the tsarist government will go the other way and will delay the army to administrative centers, that is, to the coast and along the railroad. In this case, may even be destroyed railway lines with Sweden. Then Russian will dominate only on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia. ... the rebels will form the National Guard ... Of course, much depends on the development of events in St. Petersburg. Finns can be of great help even before the Russian general strike. ... They could organize a system of signaling for aircraft ... Then can be created radiotelegraph stations ...

11. Caucasus.
During the revolution, the tsarist government virtually ignored the Caucasus. ... because of the Russian-Turkish war, the situation is quite different. There is a possibility of falling away of the Caucasus ... But in contrast to Finland, where a well-organized general uprising is possible, movement in the Caucasus will always depend on the national division and struggle of parties. Most strongly manifested themselves during the revolutionary years, Georgians. ... they got full control of the government in Kutaisi and established his administration, the courts, and so on. However, this movement is not led by separatists, and the Social Democrats. ... the Social Democrats had a few Armenians, ... But we must bear in mind that after the disappointment to the revolution and the war against the separatist tendencies, of course, have become popular. In strikes participated Tatar workers. In general, the Tatar population played a reactionary role. They were opposed to the Armenian government agents from Petrograd. This led to bloody stikam between them. ... Turkey has signaled to the Caucasian Muslims that to achieve the objectives of holy war... At the same time must be concluded an alliance with the Young Turks and the Armenian parties in Turkey ... The details of this action ... beyond the scope of this memorable letters. It should be mentioned only the fact that the share of the Caucasus Armenians and Georgians would have a big impact on decisive performance of the Russian Social-Democracy. ... Holy War, which aims to raise the huge mass in Persia, Egypt, North Africa, etc., is unlikely to have a significant influence in Russia. Tatars on the Volga and Kama, of course, do not move. It is extremely peaceful and absolutely obedient peasant ... The situation is different in the Caucasus, but there Tatars were pacified ... Old conflict between Caucasian highlanders and Russian was just a struggle against any centralized state. Since then, the tribes were scattered, their leaders became landowners, hardly having contacts with the masses. The people have lost a sense of independence. ... The Turkish army will be favorably received ... In the Caucasus Muslims large-scale guerrilla war is hopeless. Rise of the Kuban Cossacks quite possible, in this case would be useful Ukrainian propaganda.

12. End of motion.
The growth of the revolutionary movement in the tsarist empire, among other things, lead to a general turmoil. In addition to the general course of military operations, it is possible to take special measures to enhance this troubled situation. For certain reasons the Black Sea basin and the Caucasus are more favorable to the area. Particular attention should be paid to the city of Nikolaev ... In Nikolayev need to strike among the workers, not necessarily of a political nature, but simply on the basis of economic demands. ... First of all, the most important - is the mobilization ... young of its citizens. Russian Social-Democracy strongly opposed to the absolute power of the country is sought by the royal diplomacy. ... If the revolutionary movement reaches a certain size - even if the tsarist government hold power in St. Petersburg - created by the Provisional Government may raise the question of the cessation of hostilities and the beginning of diplomatic negotiations for a peace treaty. If the tsarist government have to conclude an agreement on a cease-fire until an interim government, the revolutionary movement will develop more resolutely ... ...

13. Siberia.
It is necessary to pay special attention to Siberia also because huge supply of artillery and other types of weapons from the US to Russia ... through Siberia. Therefore, the Siberian project should be considered separately from the rest. It should send a few energetic, cautious and well-equipped agents to Siberia on a special mission to blow up railway bridges. They will find enough helpers among the exiles. Explosives can be delivered at the Ural mountain plants ... from Finland. Technical guidelines could be developed here.

14. Campaign in the press.
Assumptions about Romania and Bulgaria were confirmed after finalization of the memorandum and in the development of the revolutionary movement. Bulgarian media now ... pro-German ...

Now it is especially important to take the job. 1. Financial support of the Social Democratic faction of the Bolsheviks ... It is necessary to establish contacts with its leaders in Switzerland. 2. Direct contact with the revolutionary organizations in Odessa and Nikolaev through Bucharest and Iasi. 3. Establishing contacts with the Russian organizations of sailors. Such contact is already over one gentleman in Sofia. Other connections are possible via Amsterdam. 4. Support the activities of the Jewish socialist organization Bund - not Zionists. 5. Establishing contacts with authoritative figures of Russian Social Democracy and Russian Social-revolutionaries in Switzerland, Italy, Copenhagen, Stockholm. Support their efforts ... against the tsarist regime. 6. Support of the Russian revolutionary writers who take part in the struggle against tsarism even in war. 7. Communication with the Finnish Social Democracy. 8. Organization of the Congress of Russian revolutionaries. 9. Influence on public opinion in the neutral countries, especially the position of the socialist press and socialist organizations ... In Bulgaria and Romania, it has already been successfully implemented; continue this work in the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland and Italy. 10. Equipment of the expedition to Siberia with a special purpose: to blow up the most important railway bridges and thereby prevent the transportation of weapons from America to Russia. ... with rich cash transfer for the organization of a certain number of political exiles in the center of the country.

11. Technical preparation for an uprising in Russia:
a) providing an accurate map of the Russian railways with the most important bridges that must be destroyed to paralyze transport connection, as well as identifying the main administrative buildings, arsenals, workshops, which should be given maximum attention; b) a precise indication of the amount of explosives needed to achieve the goal in each individual case. Thus it is necessary to take into account the lack of materials and the difficult circumstances in which the action will be carried out; c) a clear and popular instruction on handling explosives to the explosion of bridges and large buildings; d) simple recipes for explosives; d) develop a plan of resistance of the insurgent population of Petersburg against the armed power with particular reference to the workers' districts. Protection of houses and streets. Protection of cavalry and infantry. Jewish socialist Bund in Russia - a revolutionary organization, which is based on the working masses and which played a role back in 1904.
Bund is in opposing relationship with the "Zionists", from which there is nothing to expect for the following reasons:
1) because of their membership in the fragile party; 2) as the Russian patriotic idea became popular in their ranks since the war began; 3) because after the Balkan War, a core of their leadership actively seek sympathy of the British and Russian diplomatic circles, although this did not prevent them also to cooperate with the German government. Because of this, it is not able to make any political action".

Mr. Peter Wodzinski wrote in February 2013:

"...signals in 1939, that the German-Soviet pact is approaching, called then Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact (23rd August 1939/28th September 1939), Polish Intelligence service received much earlier from the British (they knew from listening and decryption of German diplomatic codes) via Colin Gubbins, operating in Poland under the guise of a sales representative in Bielsko-Biala (near the border of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, where the factory, next to the border of Germany, produced a version of Enigma). Colin Gubbins, later head of the SOE, acted within the deep intelligence organization, informally co-operating with our II Department of the General Staff, outside the official structures of MI-6, an organization based on the private relationship between various influential personalities. Stephenson was a Canadian multi-billionaire , having interests in the whole world, including Germany, which served as 'cover'. He was closely associated with the Admiral Reginald Hall, head of the Royal Navy intelligence at the Great War 1914-1918, which has not ceased its activities after the war, and Bill Donovan, later head of the OSS. The organization eludes historians, because there is no written sources. It work outside, and sometimes contrary, the governments of Britain and MI-6 (the latter was too bureaucratic), so do not could leave traces. It also had its anti-Soviet blade. There is one thing ... on the basis of age-old tradition:
'The King was the ultimate authority in secret-intelligence matters. He made the top intelligence appointments. The British had worked out their own system of checks and balances to prevent the monarch abusing such power - and to prevent a governing party exploiting secret agencies to serve its own ends'.
In other words, in addition to what is seen (also in the papers, even undisclosed) the second channel was still completely invisible, acting with 'blessing' of King George V and George VI, like Gubbins, or Major Desmond Morton, head of the structure for 'wet work'. (Republican opponent of Roosevelt in the 1940s? Darlan in 1942? De Gaulle, who was nearly been 'deleted' in May-June 1943? Or maybe Sikorski?).
The ignorance of the 'invisible channel' can lead to completely erroneous applications.
On the other hand, 'arson of Europe' made by Gubbins was not his idea; founder, theoretician and experimentator (on the small scale) was a Major Edmund Charaszkiewicz, the figure in Poland at all unknown ...
There are two important considerations:
1. Colin Gubbins gave it unofficially, because he and the entire organization so just acted on the basis of the King, Admiral Hall, Churchill, Donovan and Roosevelt.
2. The information submitted with a certain manner before the Ribbentrop - Molotow treaty was signed".

More: 'The Polish Underground Army, the Western Allies, and the Failure of...', by Michael Alfred Peszke:
The British were already thinking of helping the Poles develop guerilla forces in 1939, and this all evolved from a visit to London in late June 1939 General L. Rayski, then Stanislaw Wlodzimierz Pawel Gano, head of the Technical Section of the II Bureau, Mieczyslaw Frankowski in London, Charaszkiewicz - his contacts in London were
Col. Holland and Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins, who was seconded by the British War Office MI R, and who always had warm relations with the Poles.
Colin Gubbins, (1896 - 1976), head of the Special Operations Executive 1943 - 1946; October 1939 - Charaszkiewicz received a letter from his British colleague, Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins in which he informed Charasziewicz that he had been personally searching for him; Gubbins was also responsible for setting up the secret Auxiliary Units, a civilian force to operate behind the German lines if the United Kingdom was invaded during Operation Sea Lion, Germany's planned invasion.
Gubbins was born in Scotland (or in Japan) on 2 July 1896, the younger son and third child of John Harington Gubbins (1852 - 1929), Oriental Secretary at the British Legation. He was educated at Cheltenham College and at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.

Colin was half Scottish - his mother was a McVean

(inf. under copyright by Colin Houston:
Colin's full name was Major-General Sir Colin McVean Gubbins - a wiry Scots Highlander;
his mother's father Colin McVean had been Chief Surveyor of Japan;
the third child in the family, Colin McVean Gubbins was born in Japan in 1896 to Noni and Jack Gubbins. His father Jack / John Harington Gubbins had been born in Agra, India in 1852 and worked in the British consular service as Oriental Secretary in the Tokio Legation. His mother Noni / Helen Brodie McVean had been born in Japan in 1868, and was the eldest child of
Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan.
This clan come among others of Glen Lochy, Perthshire, Scotland and in 1753 in Killin, Perthshire.
The McVean clan from Glen Lochy, in Killin, and DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland; that is Glen Lochay / Gleann Lochaidh ca 73 km west of Perth, and 60 km north-west of Stirling. Killin, Perthshire ca 60 km north-west of Sirling, and north of Callander and of Thornhill.
We remember on the governors of British Ceylon:
James Campbell, 1822 to 1824, Major general, was succeeded by Edward Barnes.
Colin Campbell b. 1776 d. 1847, Governor of British Ceylon 1841 to 1847 under Queen Victoria; 1792, ran away from the Perth Academy, returned to Scotland to enter a Navigation Academy in Perth, 1792 sailed for India, he was the fifth son of John Campbell of Melfort
(Colonel John Campbell, laird of Melfort - western Scotland and north-west of Glasgow, Kilninver - close to Melfort, and Kilmelfort - close to Melfort, in Argyllshire, Scotland, born 1730, his children: 1. Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Campbell, b. 1767, Killin - half way from Melfort to Perth and west of Perth, in Perthshire, Scotland, 2. John Campbell, b. 1769, Killin, Perthshire, 3. Allan Campbell, b. 1770, Killin, and others children)
and Colina, daughter of John Campbell of Achallader - west-north-west of Perth, whose mother Katherine was a daughter of Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel - southern Glasgow.
His brother was Vice-Admiral Sir Patrick Campbell.
See in Bengal:
Latour and Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill.
Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of the Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.
Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. was the son of Sir Henry Stirling of Ardoch, 3rd Bt.; he married Christian Erskine, daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling, in 1762; died 1799. Children of Sir William Stirling of Ardoch, 4th Bt. and Christian Erskine:
Mary Stirling d. 1847, Margaret Stirling, unknown daughter Stirling.

Above Mary Stirling married Ebenezer Oliphant, son of Laurence Oliphant, 6th of Condie and Margaret Murray, in 1790. Children of Mary Stirling and Ebenezer Oliphant:
Laurence Oliphant, 8th of Condie b. 1791; William Oliphant b. 1792; Anthony Oliphant b. 1793; Christian Oliphant b. 1795; Lt. Col. James Oliphant b. 1796; Thomas Oliphant b. 1799.

Above Christian Erskine was the daughter of John Erskine and Anne Stirling.

Above John Erskine was born 1695, was the son of Lt. Col. John Edmund Erskine and Anna Dundas.
When the Oliphant family left Ceylon, the estate sold to Sir Harry Dias. Sir Anthony Oliphant's tea estate, the Oliphant Estate, situated in the hill country in Nuwara Eliya - 55 km south-east-south of Kandy, east of Colombo, 26 km east of Hatton, close to Lindula and Meepilimana - was the first estate to grow tea in Ceylon; Anthony and his son Laurence are the first people to grow tea in Ceylon. Sir Anthony's son, Laurence Oliphant, went on become a Member of the House of Commons.

Laurence Oliphant was the only child of Sir Anthony Oliphant (1793 - 1859), a member of the Scottish landed gentry. Laurence spent his early childhood in Colombo, and the Oliphant Estate in Nuwara Eliya.
In 1848 - 1849, he was in Europe,
1851 to Nepal, returned to Ceylon,
travel in Russia at the Black Sea in 1853
(Odessa ?; see below in 1855 on Adam Mickiewicz and Bednarczyk / Hudzik / Chudzik; Zygmunt Milkowski / Theodore Thomas Jez b. 1824, 1855-1857 he was living in Constantinople, then in 1858 he returned to London),
next - to 1861 Oliphant was secretary to Lord Elgin;
visited the Circassian coast during the Crimean War.
1861 Oliphant was appointed First Secretary of the British Legation in Japan, a visit to Korea, where he discovered a Russian force;
met Alice le Strange, married in London, 1872.

Emil (Emilian) Bednarczyk (1812-1888) - he studied at the Polytechnic Institute in Warsaw. He fought in the Greater Poland during the Uprising of 1848, and the January Uprising of 1863-1864; in 1866 he fought as a lieutenant. Since 1832 in France, worked close to Paris, he was one of the first members of the Polish Democratic Society. In the years 1833 - 1835 he was as an emissary in Galicia. In 1853 stayed in Constantinople, where he helped to General J. Wysocki. And he was a friend of Adam Mickiewicz and witnessed his mysterious death. "November 26, 1855 Mickiewicz woke up in the morning, he asked to give a cup of tea and fell asleep. When at approx. 10 came to him Colonel Emil Bednarczyk, saw...".
See:
Dłużyna - a village in the Przemęcki Park. Here in the mid-nineteenth century began the history of the House of Bednarczyk, ancestors of Anna Hudzik / Chudzik. Czeslaw Bednarczyku 1889 - 1980 ran the family chronicle, was born in Radomicko; his parents Stephen Bednarczyk and Anastasia Skorupiński; Stefan / Stephen was involved in trade and moved (back probably!) from the central Polish - around Lodz - to Radomicko ca 1888. Here he met Anastasia Skorupińska. She was born 1860 in Radomicko.
Dluzyna is located 7 km east of Radomierz and north-west of Leszno, close to ex-Polish border before 1793.
ALEXANDER JOSEPH SULKOWSKI, was b. 1695 in Cracow, and died 1762 in Leszno.
Radomicko north of Leszno, and 14 km east of above named Dluzyna.
Rydzyna of the Sulkowskis is located around 10 km south-east of above mentioned Leszno.

In the tradition of the family of Czeslaw Bednarczyk, he was a close relative of Colonel Emilian Bednarczyk 1812 - 1888.
Emilian Bednarczyk 1812-1888, a soldier of the uprisings 1830/1 and 1848/9, 1863/4 insurgent, a volunteer in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. An eyewitness to the death of Adam Mickiewicz, buried in the cemetery in Krakow at Rakowice, acc. to 'sowa.website.pl/cmentarium/Cmentarze/spisRakow'.
Emilian Bednarczyk was born around 1810 / 1812; awarded the Military Virtue. The captain and commander in Pleszew in 1848; the Baden infantry regiment of 1849; the Turkish troops in 1853. The January Uprising in 1863. He died in Krakow in 1888.

At archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com:

DONALD MC VEAN was born 1808 in Perthshire, Scotland; in 1851 he was living in Kinlochscridain / Kinloch Scridain, and died 1880;
Kinloch Scridain is located on east of Bunessan.
he married SUSAN MC LEAN in 1836; stayed in 1837 in Kilfinchen, and 1837 at Iona, minster; Susan was daughter of DUGALD MC LEAN and SUSANNA MC LEOD, she was born 1808 in Ardfinaig
[Ardfenaig is located at the Isle of Mull, west of Scotland, ca 9 km east of Iona Island, 4 km west of Bunessan; Ardfinaig / Ardfenaig / Ardfinnaig. Kinlochscridain, Isle of Mull, Argyllshire: Isle of Mull is east of Iona. That is Loch Scridain (5 km north-east of Bunessan), Isle of Mull],
and died 1883;
children of DONALD MCVEAN and SUSAN MCLEAN are:
1. COLIN ALEXANDER MCVEAN, b. 1838, 2. HELEN SUSAN MCVEAN, b. 1839; 3. ANN CATHERINE MCVEAN, b. 1840, 4. SUSAN ISABEL, 5. MARY HELEN MCVEAN, 6. DUGALD HECTOR MCLEAN, b. 1845, 7. ISABEL MERRIAM; 8. ARCHIBALD ARTHUR MCLEAN, 9. DONALD HECTOR MCLEAN, b. 1855, Iona.
Descendants of Colin Alexander McVean b. 1838, and surveyor in Japan, returned to Scotland 1886; in 1891 Killimore House, m. Mary Wood Cowan b. 1837 in Edinburgh, 1868 (1862 ?) in Edinburgh, with children:
Helen Brodie McVean b. 1869 in Japan; Donald Archibald Dugald McVean b. 1870 in Yokohama; Susan McLean McVean b. 1872 in Japan; Alexander Gillies McVean b. 1873, Flora Ann Phoebe; Colin Arthur Campbell McVean b. 1877; Elizabeth Josephine 1878 in Oban; Norman Neil George Cowan, Janet Lucretia Catriona m. Arthur Manson Huston in 1909.
Note under copyright by Merle & Ida King at http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/.

At margin:
In Japan, a public telegraph service was inaugurated using Breguet's one; Louis François Clément Breguet b. 1804, d. 1883, was a French physicist and watchmaker, acted in the early days of telegraphy. Educated in Switzerland, Breguet was the grandson of Abraham-Louis Breguet, founder of the watch manufacturing company Breguet.
He became manager of Breguet et Fils watchmakers in 1833 after his father Louis Antoine Breguet retired. With Alphonse Foy, in 1842 he developed an electrical needle telegraph, and his telegraph system (1847) was applied to French railways and exported to Japan. Four Breguet dial telegraph devices is in the museum's collection in Japan;
the Breguet ABC telegraph was first put into commercial use in 1870; but in 1869 a telegraph service was started between Tokyo and Yokohama (December 25, 1869) with the assistance of an English expert named G. M. Gilbert.
The telegraph apparatus used at that time was called the Breguet letter-point telegraph, and was operated by moving a handle over a disc on which letters were written. This telegraph was operated by pointing to letters on the disc, and was easy for novices to work. The foreign expert then was an Englishman named G. M. Gilbert. In those days, many hired foreigners were invited to Japan to introduce the Western system and technology. The Meiji Government had 300 foreigners at the Industry Ministry; one of these foreigners was an English engineer Gilbert, who in Sept. 1869 adopted a dual instrument; Jan. 1870 the first message was send.
The famous Richard Henry Brunton (1841 - 1901), so-called "Father of Japanese lighthouses", was born in Muchalls, Kincardineshire, Scotland.
He was a foreign advisor to build lighthouses in Japan. Muchalls is a small village in Kincardineshire, Scotland, south of Newtonhill and north of Stonehaven, south of Aberdeen - is the birthplace of Richard Henry Brunton; he was a railway engineer, joined the Stevenson brothers (David and Thomas Stevenson) who were engaged by the British government to build lighthouses.
Japan hired the Edinburgh-based firm of D. and T. Stevenson to chart coastal waters and to build lighthouses, what begun under French foreign advisor Leonce Verny;
Brunton was sent from Edinburgh in August 1868 to head the project.
François Leonce Verny / Leonce Verny born in Aubenas in Ardeche, 1837, d. 1908, a French officer and naval engineer of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in Japan, from 1865 to 1876;
studied at Lyon and École Polytechnique. Verny was sent to Ningbo and Shanghai in China from 1862 - 1864, he was also French Vice-Consul in Ningbo. Verny was persuaded to go to Japan by his distant relative, French ambassador Leon Roches in September 1865; 1865 he briefly returned to France helped in the negotiations for the First French Military Mission to Japan.
Mentioned Léon Roches b. 1809, Grenoble, was a representative of the French government in Japan from 1864 to 1868, then assist friends of his father as a trader in Marseilles! Under Bugeaud's recommendation, Roches joined the French Foreign Ministry as an interpreter in 1845. 1863, Roches was nominated Consul General of France in Edo, Japan. His great rival was the British consul Harry Parkes.
François Leonce Verny cooperated with Jules Brunet b. 1838, a French officer who played an active role in Mexico and Japan, and later became a General and Chief of Staff of the French Minister of War in 1898. He was sent to Japan with the French military mission of 1867.
François Leonce Verny also built four lighthouses in the Tokyo area, and managed the building of the shipyard at Nagasaki.

Above Thomas Stevenson (1818 - 1887) was a Scottish lighthouse designer, was a president of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1884 - 1886); he was the youngest son of engineer Robert Stevenson, and brother of the lighthouse engineers Alan and David Stevenson;
James Melville Balfour was trained under D. & T. Stevenson and then emigrated to New Zealand;
Thomas Stevenson married Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour in 1848 with son, the writer Robert Louis Stevenson; Maggie Balfour was the older sister of James Balfour.
James Melville Balfour (1831 - 1869) was a Scottish-born New Zealand marine engineer, built the network of lighthouses; among his siblings were the physician George William Balfour (1823-1903), and Margaret Isabella "Maggie" Balfour (1829 - 1897) who in 1848 married the lighthouse builder Thomas Stevenson.
Balfour was born in Colinton near Edinburgh, Scotland in 1831. He was the youngest son of Rev. Lewis Balfour (1774 - 1860; but we know on James Balfour Mackintosh 1774 - 1860), a minister for the Colinton parish.
The philosopher James Balfour was his father's paternal grandfather
(James Balfour b. 1705 !, d. 1795, a Scottish philosopher, was born at Pilrig, near Edinburgh; he was studying at Edinburgh and at Leyden, his great-grandsons - brothers George William Balfour and James Balfour were a heart specialist in Scotland, and a marine engineer in New Zealand),
and the physician Robert Whytt was his father's maternal grandfather
(Robert Whytt b. 1714 in Edinburgh, was a Scottish physician, on "unconscious reflexes, tubercular meningitis, urinary bladder stones, and hysteria", acc. to Wikipedia; College of Physicians of Edinburgh; he was the second son of Robert Whytt of Bennochie, advocate, and Jean, daughter of Antony Murray of Woodend, Perthshire).
Above mentioned James Balfour 1774 in Edinburgh, Midlothian, d. 1860, father of Margaret Paul; John Mackintosh Balfour-Melville of Pilrig and Strathkinness; Jane Balfour; James Balfour; Robert Balfour; and Anne Balfour; he was brother of Lewis Balfour, Minister of Sorn and Melville Balfour.
Above named Brunton travelled all over Japan making a survey of sites suitable for lighthouses, and advised the government on their actual construction.
He was a Scotsman, and he introduced a fellow countryman, George Miles Gilbert.
The Gilbert family at present in Aberdeen; we know about: Mollie Gilbert 1706 Baniffshire, Scotland; Jobina Gilbert b. 1853 Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland; main area of this family is the CENTRAL DISTRICT, GLASGOW, LANARK; samples: 1822 Old Monkland, Lanark, in 1856 OLD MONKLAND, LANARK, SCOTLAND. LANARK - 42 km south-east of Glasgow, SCOTLAND, and Old Monkland, Lanark, Scotland - 16 km east of Glasgow.
Under the superintendence of an English engineer named George Miles Gilbert, wires were put up to connect Tokyo with Yokohama, a distance of eighteen miles, in 1870. George Miles Gilbert, was a telegraphic technician.

Acc to http://www.kosmoid.net/lives/mcvean:
Colin McVean and Mary Wood Cowan married in Edinburgh in mid 1862 (1868 ?), come for a long voyage and life together in Japan.
Rev. Donald McVean of Iona, Scotland, and Susan MacLean of the Moy Castle clan,
were living together with Colin's younger siblings Mary, Dougald, Ann, Isabella and Archie McVean. Mary Wood Cowan's sister in 1857 married to the Reverend Boog Watson.
Her father Alexander Cowan was the papermaker but died in 1859. Mary's mother Helen Brodie, was Alexander's second wife, died in 1863. Alexander Cowan and his first and second spouses had twenty children, Mary was the seventeenth. Mary and Colin sailed to Japan after their wedding, in the company of Richard Henry Brunton, the father of Japanese lighthouses, to the Japanese Imperial service.
In Japan, Colin and Mary McVean had a first children, Helen / Noni, later Mrs Gubbins, and Donald / Dondo in 1869 and 1870. Helen Brodie Noni McVean later Mrs Gubbins born 22 March 1869),

but his father was born in India, educated in England;
he was Irish by an ancestor Joseph - George Gubbins, a Captain of Dragoons who campaigned for Oliver Cromwell in Ireland, in 1649 moved to County Limerick
(Limerick / Luimneach is a city in Ireland, located in the Mid-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster);
the family prospered; next soldier in the family was
Colin's great-grandfather Joseph born in 1775;
and next soldier was in 1896 when Colins was born; but above Joseph Gubbins in 1802 returned from service abroad and spent 3 years fortifying the southern counties of England against French invasion; Joseph b. 1775 died 1832, married Charlotte Bathoe of Bath; he served in Santo Domingo with the South Hampshire Regiment, in Holland, Malta, and Egypt with the 2nd Somersetshires and in 1810 he went to Nova Scotia as Inspecting Field Officer of Militia, then in New Brunswick in Canada; was living in Fredericton with 3 children; 1816 returned to England as retirement; his wife Charlotte died 1824, he was now major-general, died 1832;
their third son was Martin Richard Gubbins, 1812 - 1863, Colin's grandfather, joined the Bengal Civil Service of Bombay; in 1856 Martin was Financial Commissioner for the Oudh Province in India; adviser of Sir Henry Lawrence, Chief Commissioner.
Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence b. 1806, d. 1857, a British soldier and statesman in India, who died defending Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny; he was born into an Irish family at Matara, Ceylon, as the eldest son of Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander William Lawrence and was the brother of John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence. Educated at Foyle College, Derry in Ireland, and then Addiscombe, next in 1823 he joined the Bengal Artillery at the Calcutta, where Henry Havelock was also stationed.
Above John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, 1811 - 1879, 1858 to 1869, was the British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. Lawrence came from Richmond, North Yorkshire, but spent his early years in Derry, Ulster, then the East India Company College, went to India in 1829 to Delhi with Henry Montgomery Lawrence.
We back to Colins:
in 1919 joined the staff of General Sir Edmund Ironside in the North Russia Campaign serving as his ADC in Murmansk from 13 April to 27 September 1919.
His father John Harington Gubbins was a British linguist, consular official and diplomat: he was appointed to the British Japan Consular Service in 1871
- see 'Collected Writings of Ian Nish', by Ian Hill Nish; then to the Conference at Tokyo in 1883; 1889, became Japanese Secretary at Tokyo; in London at the Foreign Office in 1894, a close friend of Satow's. He wrote among others things 'The civil code of Japan', Tokio 1897-1899.
By Peter Wilkinson and Joan Astley:
in 1857 Martin Gubbins at siege of Lucknow, in 1858, Martin Gubbins was a Judge of the Supreme Court in Agra, he returned to England in January 1863, to his brother's house in Leamington Spa.
A grandmother of Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins had five sons, another had died very young in India; and a daughter;
his father going to Harrow's school, then Cambridge;
Colin's father John was the youngest of Harriet's five sons.

Edmund Charaszkiewicz, was born in 1895 in Punitz / Poniec, in the Province of Posen, the German Empire; the son of Stanisław Charaszkiewicz; on 15 November 1918, Charaszkiewicz joined the Polish Army in the rank of sublieutenant.
1919–21 he participated in battles against Soviets and was taken prisoner by the Lithuanians; 15 December 1920 was assigned to the Second Division of the General Staff. Edmund Charaszkiewicz in 1922 was assigned to Division II of the General Staff, with intelligence and counterintelligence offensive against the neighboring countries of Poland - later became head of the Branch No. 2 in Warsaw - so-called "Promethean action".
Eugene Edmund Charaszkiewicz specialized in clandestine warfare, coordinated Marshal Józef Piłsudski's Promethean movement, aimed at liberating the non-Russian peoples of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union; the Promethean concept was based on the fight against the Soviet imperial state by supporting the activities of independence among the nations belonging to the Soviet state. In 1928 (?) took over the management of the Branch No. 2 of the Division II, with the organization of sabotage.
1931 - 1939, Charaszkiewicz served, last in the rank of major, as chief of "Office 2" of the General Staff's Section II: with the planning, preparation and execution of clandestine-warfare operations, and was also responsible for "Promethean operations," conceived by Józef Piłsudski.
"...The idea was to combat Soviet imperialism by supporting irredentist movements among the non-Russian peoples of the Soviet Union. Thus the Prometheists' ultimate goal was nothing less than the dismemberment of the Soviet Union. The movement's leaders included ... Colonel Walery Sławek, and ... Tadeusz Hołówko. Great importance was attached to Prometheism by Section II's successive chiefs, Colonel Tadeusz Schaetzel and Colonel Tadeusz Pełczyński, and by deputy chief Lieutenant Colonel Józef Englicht. The movement's intelligence operations were directed by Edmund Charaszkiewicz. Contacts were maintained with Ukrainians and Cossacks, and with representatives of several peoples of the Caucasus: Azeris, Armenians and Georgians" - under copyright by Wikipedia. "...In its prosecution of the Promethean agenda, Office 2 worked with official institutions such as the Institute for Study of Nationality Affairs ... and the Polish-Ukrainian Society ... and its Polish-Ukrainian Bulletin ... as Leon Wasilewski, Stanisław Łoś and Stanisław Stempowski, ... Włodzimierz Bączkowski, a leading figure in the "Promethean movement." ... From March 1934 Charaszkiewicz was a member of the Commission for Scientific Study of [Poland's] Eastern Lands ... and the Committee on [Poland's] Eastern Lands and Nationalities ... at the Council of Ministers...".

At the conference of the Central Committee of the Polish Socialist Party held on 17-20 October 1904 in Cracow, Jozef Pilsudski spoke on the new tactics as the results of discussions with the Japanese. No one expected to overthrow of the tsarist regime in Russia, but had to use the new elements related to the internal situation in the country. Jozef Pilsudski advocated the use of the tactics of action, involving the creation of national events and to force society to action; he believed that the new tactics must even led to the blood. On November 13, 1904 a manifestation at the Grzybowski Square in Warsaw was the first organized with arms against the government in Congress Poland since the fall of the January Uprising in 1863/1864; it gave a signal to the revolution of 1905.
During these events, Pilsudski was in Zakopane in Austria-Hungary. It was in September 1904. Pilsudski with Mrs. Maria came to Bukovina Tatrzanska, highland village near Zakopane, where his close friend, the poet Andrzej Strug had a hut, acc. to Landau; this is the only source from which we get to know more details on the visit of Pilsudski in Bukowina; it is not known how long he stayed here, and who else was among the guests invited by the poet. Then Jozef Pilsudski in April 1905 took part in a conference of socialist and revolutionary parties of Russia in Geneva. Here was also Vladimir Lenin, representative of the Social Democratic Party of Bolsheviks.
The house in Bukowina, where Pilsudski arrived was located on Olczanski Peak.
Kazimierz Dłuski in 1897 visited Zakopane, and Kościelisko village was a part of the city; 1898 Bronisława and Kazimierz went to Zakopane, but 1900 permamently because Kazimierz was without the right to return to the Russia; they created a sanatorium in Kościelisko in 1902; the ville 'Dyrektorówka' of Bronisława and Kazimierz Dłuski was here; the board of directors: Maria Curie-Skłodowska, Ignacy Paderewski, Henryk Sienkiewicz. Close to the sanatorium in Koscielisko was the 'President's House' of the Dluski family. In 1904 Jozef Pilsudski visited Bukowina Tatrzanska close to Koscielisko and Zakopane; ville 'Za bramką II' at the Nowotarska street in Zakopane, belonged to Kazimierz Dłuski; in Zakopane 1899 were together Piotr Curie, Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Erazm Dłuski a brother of Kazimierz, Józef Skłodowski, Józef Dłuski a brother of Kazimierz.
Kazimierz Dłuski got married a sister of famous Maria Sklodowska. Bronislawa Dłuska b. 1865, d. 1939, the Polish doctor, the older sister of Maria Sklodowska-Curie, the first director of the Radium Institute, the wife of Kazimierz Dłuski (see on the Breguet family genealogy). Joseph Skłodowski grandfather was a teacher in Lublin. Father Wladyslaw Skłodowski was a teacher of mathematics and physics and director in Warsaw; father was an atheist;
Bronislawa went to Paris to study medicine, and her sister Mary was in the country and tried to help her financially; Bronislawa in 1890 married to Casimir Dłuski, political exile and invited Maria to himself; Kazimierz Dluski was graduated in Paris with political science and medicine; the Paris apartment of Dłuski was open to the Polish political emigrants, among others, later Presidents of Poland: Ignacy Moscicki and Stanislaw Wojciechowski; in 1892 was born a daughter, Helena, later known mountain-climber. After returning home in 1902, Dluski created in Zakopane a hospital of tuberculosis; in 1919, he was send by the Head of State Jozef Pilsudski to the Polish National Committee and was a member of the Polish delegation to the peace conference at Versailles. Kazimierz Dłuski b. 1855 in Sosnówka near Mohylow Podolski; 1878 emigrated to Switzerland, where he met with Polish socialists staying there. Published to the "Equality", was the author accused of anarchist sympathies and had conflict with Boleslaw Limanowski; 1881, Dłuski took part in the convention in Coire, replaced Louis Waryński there. In 1882 Kazimierz Dłuski went to Paris with a letter of recommendation from Johann Philipp Becker, where he had contact with Karl Marx. Dłuski remained in Paris, and was a member of the National League, a secret political organization, established on April 1, 1893 from the Polish League - the center of the national movement; see Milkowski / Jez. In 1894, the National League held a series of demonstrations across the country.

"Piłsudski's elaboration of Prometheism had been aided by an intimate knowledge of the Russian Empire gained while exiled by its government to eastern Siberia. The term "Prometheism" was suggested by the Greek myth of Prometheus...",
at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheism.
And a text below also from Wikipedia:
"...A brief history of Poland's Promethean endeavor was set down on February 12, 1940, by Edmund Charaszkiewicz, ... Charaszkiewicz wrote his paper in Paris...
The creator and soul of the Promethean concept [wrote Charaszkiewicz] was Marshal Piłsudski, who as early as 1904, in a memorandum to the Japanese government, pointed out the need to employ, in the struggle against Russia, the numerous non-Russian nations that inhabited the basins of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas, and emphasized that the Polish nation, by virtue of its history, love of freedom, and uncompromising stance toward [the three empires that had partitioned Poland out of political existence at the end of the 18th century] would, in that struggle, doubtless take a leading place and help work the emancipation of other nations oppressed by Russia.

A key excerpt from Piłsudski's 1904 memorandum declared:
Poland's strength and importance among the constituent parts of the Russian state embolden us to set ourselves the political goal of breaking up the Russian state into its main constituents and emancipating the countries that have been forcibly incorporated into that empire. We regard this not only as the fulfilment of our country's cultural strivings for independent existence, but also as a guarantee of that existence, since a Russia divested of her conquests will be sufficiently weakened that she will cease to be a formidable and dangerous neighbour.
The Promethean movement, according to Charaszkiewicz, took its genesis from a national renaissance that began in the late 19th century among many peoples of the Russian Empire. ... this was so in Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Georgia and Azerbaijan. These socialist parties would take the lead in their respective peoples' independence movements. ... Ultimately the peoples of the Baltic Sea basin - Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania - won and, until World War II, all kept their independence. The peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins - Ukraine, Don Cossacks, Kuban, Crimea, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Northern Caucasus - emancipated themselves politically in 1919-1921 but then lost their independence to Soviet Russia.
In 1917-21, according to Charaszkiewicz, as the nations of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins were freeing themselves from Russia's tutelage, Poland was the only country that worked actively together with those peoples.
... Immediately after the loss of independence by the peoples of the Black and Caspian Sea basins and the annexation of those lands in 1921 by Soviet Russia, Poland was the only country in Europe that gave material and moral support to the political aspirations of their Promethean (pro-independence) emigres.
... Throughout the years 1918–39, according to Charaszkiewicz, the Polish Promethean leadership consistently observed several principles. The purpose of the Promethean enterprise was to liberate from imperialist Russia, of whatever political stripe, the peoples of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Sea basins and to create a series of independent states as a common defensive front against Russian aggression.
Each Promethean party respected the political sovereigny of the others.
... Poland's role in the Promethean process was marked by the conclusion of a Polish-Ukrainian political and military alliance (the Warsaw Agreement, April 1920) with Symon Petlura's Ukrainian People's Republic, Piłsudski's expedition to Kiev (begun April 25, 1920), the designation (February 1919) of Bohdan Kutylowski as Polish minister to the Ukrainian People's Republic, the accreditation of a Polish minister to Caucasus, the naming of a military mission to Caucasus, and the Crimean Republic's motion at the League of Nations (May 17, 1920) that Crimea be made a protectorate of Poland.
Marshal Piłsudski's immediate collaborators in this period included Witold Jodko, Tytus Filipowicz, Gen. Julian Stachiewicz, Col. Walery Sławek, Col. Tadeusz Schaetzel, a Maj. Czarnecki, August Zaleski, Leon Wasilewski, Henryk Józewski, Juliusz Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz Hołówko, Marian Szumlakowski, Jan Dąbski, Mirosław Arciszewski, Maj. Wacław Jędrzejewicz and Roman Knoll. ...
1922, the first group of Georgian officers, recommended by the Georgian government, were accepted into the Polish Army. ... Polish contacts with the Promethean emigres were continued, ... by Col. Schaetzel, Maj. Czarnecki and Captain Henryk Suchanek-Suchecki, chief of the Nationalities Department in the Ministry of Internal Affairs; and at the Foreign Ministry, by the chief of the Eastern Department, Juliusz Łukasiewicz.
An exception to the Polish government's official attitude pertained to Georgian Prometheism, which enjoyed support with both the foreign minister, Aleksander Skrzyński, and the chief of the General Staff, Gen. Stanisław Haller.
... Since 1927, Wasilewski, Sławek, Schaetzel and Hołówko had been laying foundations for Promethean movements in Paris, Warsaw and Istanbul. They had been studying questions involving national self-determination and federative polities with help from academic experts at institutions such as the Eastern Institute in Warsaw and an analogous one in Vilnius...(under copyright by Wikipedia)".
Office "B" (responsible for the East), headed in 1937-39 by Major Dąbrowski, prepared clandestine actions against the Soviet Union, conducting "Promethean operations" among non-Russian peoples (e.g. Caucasus, Tatar, Ukrainian and Cossack emigres) and creating covert organizations at Poland's borders with Soviet Belarus and Ukraine.
Charaszkiewicz suggested to an old Polish Legions comrade, Wiktor Tomir Drymmer - from 15 September 1933 to the outbreak of World War II, director of the Polish Foreign Ministry's Consular Department - the creation of an organization covering all countries that harbored substantial Polish communities. They agreed that this would be necessary due to the inevitability of war with Nazi Germany.
It was decided that the organization should be run by a "Committee of Seven" (K-7) comprising half Foreign Ministry personnel - Drymmer, his political deputy Dr. Władysław Józef Zaleski, Tadeusz Kowalski, and the latter's deputy Tadeusz Kawalec - and half Office 2 personnel: Charaszkiewicz, Ankerstein and the latter's deputy, Captain Wojciech Lipiński. Later, Lieutenant Colonel Ludwik Zych, chief of staff of Poland's Border Guard.
All data at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Charaszkiewicz.
During his career as an intelligence and covert-operations officer, Charaszkiewicz helped pioneer modern techniques of asymmetric warfare. Just before World War II, during a week's visit to London, he shared information on these with Britain's Colonel Holland, Lt. Colonel Gubbins (future leader of the Special Operations Executive), and technical specialists. In his reports about these meetings, Charaszkiewicz noted how far Poland's techniques outstripped Britain's.
"...In Bucharest, in October 1939, Charaszkiewicz received from his British colleague, Lt. Col. Colin Gubbins - soon to become the prime mover of the Special Operations Executive (S.O.E.) - a very warm letter informing him that Gubbins had been personally searching for him, and offering every possible assistance, including financial ... In Scotland he was accommodated at the Douglas officers' camp (July–August 1940), ... In exile continued operations in Promethean movement, also belonged to the League of Polish Independence exile".

At margin on
the Balfour Declaration of 1917:
Acc. to www.history.com:

"On November 2, 1917, Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour writes a letter to Britain's most illustrious Jewish citizen, Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild, expressing the British government's support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. ... The government of Prime Minister David Lloyd George - elected in December 1916 - made the decision to publicly support Zionism, a movement led in Britain by Chaim Weizmann, a Russian Jewish chemist who had settled in Manchester.
(on 02 Nov. 1917 Lenin secretly returned from Finland - the house of Bruievich - to Petrograd. 02 Nov. - to evening of 06th Nov. Lenin was in Petrograd in unknown place)
... On November 2, Balfour sent a letter to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a prominent Zionist and a friend of Chaim Weizmann, stating that:
'His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home (The phrase "national home" was intentionally used instead of "state" because of opposition to the Zionist program within the British Cabinet) for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country'
... (Nov. 5 the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks assumed Resolution of armed uprising and created the first 'Politburo'. On 5 November, the Parliament of Finland declared itself to be the possessor of supreme State power in Finland, based on Finland's Constitution; On 5 November 1917, Bolshevik Jaan Anvelt taken Tallinn; 6 Nov. were made attempts to close the writings of the Bolsheviks, but 06th Nov. evening the Bolsheviks hastily assembled meeting where it was decided the revolution - Lenin was in the Smolny - set the date 6th / 7th November for uprising; in the night November 6th/7th, the Petrograd Soviet was meeting in the Smolny Institute; in this night: the Winter Palace was guarded by Cossacks; telephone and telegraph buildings were taken over, the power stations, and bridges; also railway stations; throughout the 7th Nov. the Red Guards kept on occupying important buildings; Nov. 07th Petrograd Council has established the Military Revolutionary Committee, officially to defend the capital against the Germans - in fact, as the staff preparing the coup; by mid-afternoon of the 07th Nov., the only building not held by the Bolsheviks was the Winter Palace; at 9:40/9:45 p.m. 07 Nov. shot from the cruiser Aurora; the Palace was taken at about 2 a.m. 08 Nov.; night 07/08 Nov. in the Smolny Institute, those politicians who did not agree with what had happened and did not want the Bolsheviks in power walked out of the building; at 1 a.m. on November 8th, Lenin told in the Smolny Institute that he was forming a government of Bolsheviks; by the end of the day 8th Nov. the members of the Provisional Government were under arrest, the tsar and his family were also under house arrest.)
By the time the statement - James Balfour letter - was published in British (on 9 November 1917) and international newspapers one week later (command of publication of this letter had fallen on 08th Nov.), one of its major objectives had been rendered obsolete: Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks had gained power (night 07th/08th Nov.) in Russia, and one of their first actions was to call for an immediate armistice.
Russia was out of the war, and no amount of persuasion from Zionist Jews ... could reverse the outcome
(Both the Zionist Organization and the British government devoted efforts over the following decades, including Winston Churchill's 1922 White Paper, to denying that a state was the intention, by Wikipedia)...".

In book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' (ed. 1981), Carroll Quigley explained that the Balfour Declaration was actually drafted by Lord Alfred Milner;
William D. Rubinstein wrote that Leo Amery was the main author of the Balfour Declaration.

Parvus arrived in Switzerland in May 1915;
Parvus met Lenin in Bern in May 1915 and agreed to collaboration;
1915 - the Austrian intelligence through Parvus gave money to Russian emigre newspapers in Paris;
the British Secret Intelligence Service traced Hanecki / Ganetsky to Parvus; 1916 - Parvus went for support to the German Navy, working as their advisor; March 1917, in a plan strategized together with Parvus, the German intelligence sent Vladimir Lenin from Switzerland through Germany, under supervision of Fritz Platten, to Petersburg / Petrograd; on April 13, 1917 met Lenin in Stockholm;
November 1917 he retreated to a German island near Berlin.



We must back to Russia, to the Romanovs:

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, born 1832, served 1862 - 1882 as the Governor General of Caucasia, being seated in Tbilisi. Despot Zenovich Stanislav Ivanovich, son of Jan Despot Zenowicz / Jan Despot-Zenowicz (b. ca 1800) was born in 1833 or 1835, education in France, he settled in the Caucasus, 1856 with the rank of titular counselor, served as an officer of the Caucasus Governor, the Baku District Court, was appointed by the Caucasus Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich.

Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich had son Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich - Sandro / Sasho who was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro), b. 01 April 1866 in Tbilisi died 1933, Nice, France. Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro): Chief of the Commercial navigation and ports (1902-1905), during the First World war was in charge of the aviation in the army: paid much attention to the development of aviation industry in Russia, on his initiative, established flight schools, began preparing the first national flight training and 1914 appointed head of the organization of aviation business in the armies. Mason, and called himself Philalethes. Receiving education at home in Georgia, often went for long voyages: 1886 - 1889 made a voyage round the world on the corvette 'Rynda' and in 1890 - 91, at his own yacht 'Tamara' traveled to India, described in his journals.

Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich b. 1832, the fourth son of Tsar Nicholas I, died in Cannes on 18 December 1909; the funeral was in Russia; Field Marshal.
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene.

Children of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich:
1. Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia;
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia, b. 1859, d. 1919, the eldest son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich, and a first cousin of Alexander III; he urged the Tsar to implement reforms, and he even participated in discussions of a palace coup. Nicholas spent his childhood and youth in Georgia, a socialist, he often visited Paris, the south of France; Francophile, he offended Germany during a visit to Paris when he expressed his anti-German political views; critic of most of his male cousins, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikholaievich in particular; a pacifist and was against the war in a time of uppermost patriotism.
Above Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856 - 1929) was the eldest son to Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaevich of Russia (1831 - 1891) and Alexandra Petrovna of Oldenburg (1838 - 1900). His father was the sixth child to Nicholas I of Russia and his Empress consort Alexandra Fedorovna of Prussia (1798 - 1860).
Alexandra Fedorovna was a daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
His maternal grandfather was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Württemberg.
Grand Duke Nicholas played a main role during the Revolution of 1905, from 1905 was commander-in-chief of the St. Petersburg Military District.
1907, Nicholas married Princess Anastasia of Montenegro, who reinforced the Pan-Slavic tendencies of Nicholas.
The Grand Duke had no part in the planning and preparations for World War I. The February Revolution found Nicholas in the Caucasus, next two years in the Crimean Peninsula, 1922, Nicholas was proclaimed as the emperor of all Russia.
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich or Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov (1856 - 1929) served in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 - 1878 and was inspector general of the cavalry for ten years from 1895; was Commander in Chief of the Russian army during the first year of the First World War and, for the briefest moment, at the end of Tsar Nicholas II's reign. I said that the maternal grandfather of Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov of Russia was a son of Duke George of Oldenburg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, daughter of Paul I of Russia and Maria Fedorovna of Württemberg. Duke George of Oldenburg (1784 - 1812) was a younger son of Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg and his wife Duchess Frederica of Württemberg. He had two sons: Peter Georg Paul Alexander Georgievich of Oldenburg, and Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg (1812 - 1881). Duke Konstantin Friedrich Peter Georgievich von Holstein-Gottorp of Oldenburg was the grandfather of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. Konstantin Friedrich Peter Oldenburg or Constantine Petrovich of Oldenburg began a flirtation with Agrippina; Agrippina's husband, Prince Tariel 'Daniel' Dadiani, was one of the officers under Duke Constantine's command; Dadiani were a branch of the Bagrationi Dynasty; Agrippina was Tariel Dadiani's second wife but Agrippina in 1882 divorced Dadiani.
1882, Constantine entered into a morganatic marriage with Agrippina Japaridze; by the early 1890s, they were doing business in Odessa and Alexandrovsk (Zaporozhe). See the Armands and Konstantynowiczs in Moscow and Alexandrovsk. "...Georgian nationalist, Prince Viktor Nakachidze, was convicted in late 1885 for participating in a nihilist bomb plot to kill the Tsar. Through his Mingrelian relatives, Prince Nakachidze had connections to Agrippina Japaridze, the wife of Constantine Petrovich, and to the Dadiani family - Salome, Niko and Andria Dadiani - the Georgian royal family then living in exile at Nice ... For his role in the bomb plot, Prince Victor Nakachidze was sentenced to death and sent to Siberia. However, with the aid of his wife, Roedel, he managed to escape, travelling across the Pacific to the United States. The couple eventually resurfaced in London... Shortly after the marriage of Prince George Yurievsky to Countess Alexandra von Zarnekau at Nice in 1901, a connection between Prince Viktor Nakachidze and the Yurievsky circle in Nice became clear...".

The Saparov family:
Saparov Gerasim had children:
a. Saparov Mariam was married to Arutyunov,
b. Saparov Bagdasar / Baghdasar was married to Taliko daughter of Sarkisov with children: Saparov Ivan (d. 1912), Saparova Eugene was married to NN Karganova, Saparova Tamara;
c. Saparov Gaspar married to Catherine Yenikolopov with children:
Saparova married to George G. Ambardanov,
Saparova Maria was married to Markar'yan,
Nina married to Nikolai Shadinov,
and last Sofia married to Prince Cherkezov / Czerkasow;
d. Saparov Peter married to Yarovoy with children :
Nicholas married Melikova, Michael Mary Mirimanova, and Darius married to Vakhtang Jalalov;
e. Saparova Tatela was married to Kalabekov,
f. Saparov Pavel Gerasimov (1820 - 1878), was married to Sophia Grigorevne Paat (d. 1866) with children:
1. Anna b. before 1845,
2. Saparov Gerasim (1845 - 1869),
3. Elizabeth (ca 1854 - 1919), was married to Sergei Teimurazovich Melik-Beglarov (d. 1905),
and 4. Saparov Arkady (1854 - before 1921), was married to Varvara Maypariani with children:
Elena,
Tamara Arkadevna was married 1st to Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and
2nd marriage to Lev / Lion Emilievich Armand (Inessa Armand relatives);
Saparova Nina Arkadevna d. before 1920;
Saparov Paul;
Catherine Arkadevna d. 1916;
Saparova Maria;
5. Saparova Olga Salome / Olga Saparian / Ольга Сапарова Сапарьян (born March 25 / April 6, 1859 in Signach 100 km of Tbilisi - died in 1951; mentioned Signach that is maybe Гыццыл Сихиат / პატარა ციხიათა - close to Didi Tsikhiata / Styr Sichiat; ca 18 km north-west of Cchinwal / Chinval on way to Oni), was married to Alexander Ivanovich Florensky (30 September / October 12, 1850 - 1908), with children:
A. Pavel Florensky (9 / 21 January 1882 - December 8, 1937), was married to Anna Mikhailovna daughter of Hiacynt (1889 or 1883 - 1973) with 5 children, 12 grandchildren, 24 great-grandchildren:
Florensky Vasily Pavlovich (1911 - 1956), Cyril P. Florensky (December 27, 1915 - 1982), Michael P. Florensky (1921/22 - 1961), was married to Helena daughter of Ivan;
B. Florenskaya Julia A. (1 / 13 July 1884 - 1947), was married to Mikhail Mikhailovich Asatiani (1881 - 1938) founder of scientific school of psychiatrists in Georgia;
C. Florenskaya Elizabeth A. (7 / 19 May 1886 - 1959),
D. Florenskaya Raisa Alexandrovna (16 / 28 April, 1894 - 1932).
6. Saparova Barbara (1861-1891),
7. Saparova Ripsime / Repsimiya P. (1865 to 1930), married the 1st to Tavrizov and 2nd to Leonid G. Konovalov;
8. Saparova Sofia P. (1866-1939), was married to Nicholas Romanovich Karamyan (d. 1930).

2. Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna,
3. Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich b. 1861 and in 1891 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Countess Sophie of Merenberg (relatives of the Pushkin family / Puskin/ Alexander S. Puszkin - family was near by military counterintelligence headquarters),
4. Grand Duke George Mikhailovich,
5. Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich (Sandro) b. 1866 - freemason, and near by military intelligence headquarters,
6. Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich
7. and last Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich.
Above named Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia b. 1861 was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia; in 1862, the family moved to Tiflis, Georgia on the occasion of his father's being named Viceroy of the Caucasus; Grand Duke Michael spent his early years in the Caucasus, where his family lived for twenty years; served in the Russo-Turkish War and became a Colonel. In 1882, when Grand Duke Michael was twenty years old, he returned with his family to St. Petersburg, acc. to Wikipedia. In 1888, he had an affair with Princess Walewski; later, with Countess Catherine Nikolaevna Ignatieva daughter of Minister of Interior, Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev. In 1900, moved to Keele Hall, in Staffordshire, close to Newcastle-under-Lyme; visitor of North Berwick in Scotland, and in the south of France, Cannes where he met his sister Anastasia and in 1903 his father, also brother Alexander and his family; he moved with his family to Hampstead in 1909 and every year Grand Duke Michael would visit Edward VII at Windsor Castle, Sandringham and Buckingham Palace. 1912, Grand Duke Michael was with a visit in Russia. 1914 as an agent for Russian loans in France.
On 31 October 1916 he "...wrote to Tsar Nicholas II warning him that British secret agents in Russia were expecting a revolution".
And (by Wikipedia) "General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort, stated that Russian communist elements working against the Tsar had betrayed Kitchener's travel plans to Germany. He stated that Kitchener was killed 'because of his ability', as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover...".
Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia after November 1917 moved to Regent's Park. In 1916 his youngest daughter, Nadejda (Nada) married Prince George of Battenberg, eldest son of Prince Louis by Queen Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt. Anastasia (Zia), the eldest daughter, in 1917 married Sir Harold Wernher. Michael Mikhailovich and his wife returned to Cannes in 1923, and died in 1929.


Explanations to the 1905 revolution in Petersburg:

Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Pyotr Dmitrievich Swiatopelk Mirski took part in the Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878; he studied at the General Staff Academy to 1881, in 1887 he was the commander of staff of 3rd Grenadier division; 1895 the Governor of Penza, and in 1897 the Governor of Yekaterinoslav. 1900 Sipiagin appointed him Assistant Minister of the Interior and Commander of the Imperial Corps of Gendarmes. 1902 Governor-General of the North-Western province: Vilna, Kovno and Grodno; was credited with successful liberal reforms, stopping pogroms against the Jews. 1904 Minister of the Interior after Plehve's assassination. His appointment was seen as a victory of liberals, as a victory of the party of widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna who supported the liberal reforms; the Sviatopelk-Mirski's plan included transferring more power to the State Council of Imperial Russia.
On January 22 / January 9, 1905 occurred the massacre known as Bloody Sunday; he never had authorised the shooting of the demonstrators, but his opponents said that he not only did authorise the shooting but also in order to push his own political agenda actively encouraged the demonstration.
He was replaced (on 18 January) as Minister of the Interior by Bulygin in February 1905.
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski 1857 - 1914, married to Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska; she was from a branch of Wassili Bobrinsky, b. 1804, d. Moscow in 1874, son of Alexei Bobrinsky, b. St.Petersburg in 1752, who
married 1796 to Anna Dorotea / Anna Dorothea von Ungern-Sternberg (1769 Tallinn - St. Petersburg in 1846) daughter of the Tallinn commendant Woldemar Conrad von Ungern-Sternberg b. 1739;
Wassili Bobrinsky 1 m. 1824 to Pss Lydia Gortschakova b. 1807, 2 m. 1830 to Sofia Sokownina b. 1812, 3 m. 1869 to Alexandra Utschakova

(his brothers:
A.
Alexei Bobrinsky, 1800 - 1868, m. 1821 to Css Sophia Samojlowa b. 1799,

B. Pavel / Pawel Bobrzynski / Paul Bobrinsky b. 1801 - died in
Florence 1830 (see Oginski and Chodzko - Venture, Breguet, Sulkowski),
m. 1822 to Julia Junosza - Bielinska / Junosza Bielinski / Julia Junosha-Belinskaya b. 5.2.1804 - Paris 15.9.1899).

Julia Pawlowna Bobryńska / Julia Broel - Plater, Gołąbek - Jezierska, nee Bobrinski / Bobryńska, 1823 - 1899, married Waldemar Gołąbek-Jezierski Count, b. 1822, died 1855 in Warsaw. He was son of Jan Nepomucen Paweł Gołąbek-Jezierski Count and Karolina.
Julia 2nd time married Cezar August Broel - Plater in 1859; Cezar was born on September 8, 1810, in Wilno. They had 2 sons including Cezary Broel-Plater.
Julia 1st married Waldemar Gołąbek - Jezierski in 1851; Waldemar was born in 1822. They had one son Aleksander Gołąbek - Jezierski.
The father of mentioned above Julia was above named Paweł Aleksiejewicz Bobryński and Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska Junosza, Countess, nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska. Paweł Bobrynski / Bobrinski was born on October 27, 1801, in Saint Petersburg; Julia Sonocka Bielińska was born in 1790 or 1804.
Julia Stanisławowna Bobryńska nee Sonocka Bielińska / Bielinska, ca 1790 / 1804 - 1892; m. 1822, after death of husband she moved to Paris; her father
Stanisław Kostka Bieliński died 1812 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, served on the court of the King Stanisław August Poniatowski; Marshal of the Parliament in 1793,
m. Katarzyna nee Golicyn, b. 1775, d. 1825 in Saratów.
The family of above Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski:
a. Elżbieta Bielińska m. 1779 in Mogilany to Franciszek Wielopolski,
b. Franciszek Bieliński 1740 - 1809, 1776 Nat. Educ. Com., 1794 the Kosciuszko Uprising, owner of Kozłówka to 1799, and the Otwock palace, m. Krystyna Sanguszko.
The father of above named Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski: Michał Bieliński died 1747, the Chelmno province governor, Sztum office, 1725 the King court, 1736-42 Kozłówka palace near by Lubartow, m. 1st to Aurora Maria Rutowska daughter of
Fryderyk August II and Fatima, grand-daughter of Jan Jerzy II Saxon / Sas and Anna Zofia of Danmark, 2-v. Claude Marie de Bellegarde;
m. 2nd time to Tekla Pepłowski grand-daughter of Jadwiga Niemyski, of the Kozłówka estate.


The Chełmno province:

1. Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Czapski Hutten of the Chelmno province in Poland, married to Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł, daughter of Michał Kazimierz Radziwill nick-name Rybenko. Francis Stanislaus Kostka Hutten-Czapski, coat Leliwa, b. 1725, d. 1802 in Warsaw, Senator, the last provincial governor of Chełmno / Chelmno (June 25, 1766 - to April 9, 1802).
2. The father of Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski: Michał Bieliński / Michael Belinsky, coat Junosza, d. 1746, the provincial governor of Chelmno. Son of Casimir Louis Bielinski, a Polish diplomat and Louisa Maria Morsztyn (d. 1730), daughter of the poet Jan Andrzej Morsztyn / John Andrew Morsztyn. Brother of Franciszek / Francis Bielinski, also the governor of Chelmno and the Grand Marshal of the Crown.
Michal's 1st wife Aurora Maria Rutowska (d. 1750), illegitimate daughter of the Polish king Augustus II the Strong Saxon, divorced.
The second wife was Tekla Popłowska (d. 1774) with son Franciszek Bielinski / Francis (d. 1809), the writer of the Crown and Stanislaus Kostka (d. 1812), Marshal of the Grodno Parliament. Michal was in 1738-1746, the voivode / governor of Chelmno.
3. Above mentioned Franciszek Bielinski / Francis Belinsky, coat Junosza, b. 1683, d. 1766 in Warsaw, the Grand Marshal of the Crown 1742 to 1766, the court marshal of the Crown 1732 to 1742, the provincial governor of Chelmno 1725-1732, treasurer of Prussia 1714 -1738.

Wassili Bobrinsky / Wasyl Bobrzynski had 2 children:
I.
Alexei Bobrinsky 1831 - 1888, 1st m. 1855 to Pss Catherine Lvova b. 1834,
2nd m. 1859 Sofia Cheremeteva b. 1842.
He had 4 children:
1. Wassili Bobrinsky 1860 - 1861,
2. Ct Alexei Bobrinsky 1861 - Florence in 1937, he m. twice,
3. Ct Wladimir Bobrinsky 1862 - 1938, married to a French woman,
4. Css Catherine Bobrinsky / Ekaterina Alexeiievna 1864 - 1926 m. 1886 to Pr Peter Swiatopolk-Mirski / Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski d. 1914;
II. Css Sofia Bobrinsky 1837 - 1891 m. Viktor von Keller d. 1906.

Since early January 1905, Sviatopolk-Mirsky had no power, even though he was minister. On January 7 to the Ministry of Interior was delivered the text of Gapon petition; political demands made ​​on the officials shocking; it was a complete surprise to the Justice Minister, who wanted to meet with Gapon. He urged the Minister to go to the king and beg him to accept the petition, then Gapon asked to call the Minister of the Interior, P. D. Svyatopolk-Mirsky.
Svyatopolk-Mirsky explained his refusal to talk with Gapon that did not know him personally.
The evening of 8 January:
the Minister of Internal Affairs held a meeting to discuss the situation. The meeting was attended by Interior Minister P. D. Svyatopolk-Mirsky, the Minister of Justice, Muraviov / Н. В. Муравьёв, Finance Minister V. N. Kokovtsov, Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs K. N. Rydzewski, assistant minister of the Interior P. Durnovo, Deputy Minister of Finance V. I. Timiriazev, director of the Police Department A. A. Lopuhin, the mayor of St. Petersburg I. A. Foulon and military commander of the Guard and St. Petersburg Military District N. F. Meshetich;
Piotr Swiatopelk Mirski / Svyatopolk-Mirsky, according to some reports, suggested that workers could be at the Palace Square, on the condition that they agree to elect a deputation, however, against this vigorously made Muraviov and Kokovtsov. Muraviov spoke about his meeting with Gapon, and proposed to arrest him, supported him Kokovtsov; Fullon opposed the arrest Gapon, and it was decided to place on the outskirts of the gates the military units and avoid working in the city center; it was also decided to deploy troops on the Palace Square, in case of the workers still penetrate to the center; officials believed that armed soldiers will stop working and they go home;
late in the evening on January 8:
Sviatopolk-Mirsky and director of the Police Department A. A. Lopuhin went to Tsarskoye Selo to Nicholas II, and informed the king about the letter of Gapon and the petition; the king wrote about it in his diary; the same evening Svyatopolk-Mirsky instructed the chief of gendarmes K. N. Rydzewski to arrest Gapon and send him to the fortress.
According to the testimony of General A. A. Mosolov, Rydzewski explained that Gapon sat down in one of the houses of the working quarters;
January 8 in the evening newspaper "Our days" and also Maxim Gorky offered to send a deputation to the Minister of the Interior, to inform him about the peaceful intentions of workers; it was immediately elected a deputation of ten people, which includes:
Maxim Gorky, B. A. Myakotin, A. Peshekhonov, K. Arsenyev, V. I. Semevskii, N. Kareev, I. B. Hesse, E. I. Cedrenus and D. Vladimir Kuzin;
late in the evening a deputation arrived at the Ministry of Interior, but Svyatopolk-Mirsky had just left to Tsarskoye Selo, but they were received by the commander of the gendarmerie K. N. Rydzewski, who told do not need their advice; then the delegation went to the chairman of the Committee of Ministers S. Witte; Witte said that he can not intervene, and suggested that the deputies should once again appeal to the Minister of the Interior, which immediately contacted by telephone.
However Svyatopolk-Mirsky said that - in the reception of the deputation - it is not necessary; frustrated deputies returned to the editors.
This deputation from St. Petersburg writers ask him to overturn some military action, but he refused to accept the deputation; 9 of 10 members were arrested.

Some details:
1.
Mikolaj / Nicholas Światopełk-Mirsky acquired in 1895 the Mir castle from the descendants of Prince Dominik Radziwill and her daughter Stefania Radziwill - Wittgenstein (see Miezonka and Hutten-Czapski and Konstantynowicz).
Stefania Radziwill b. 1809 in Paris, d. 1832, in Bad Ems, heir to a huge fortune of the Radziwills; the so-called "Wittgenstein inheritance"; was the daughter Dominik Radziwill (1786-1813) of Nieśwież and on Olyka and his second wife Teofilia Moravski.

2. In Lubotina / Lyubotyn in (1899 ?) December 1905, was dead and buried here, known public figures of the Russian Empire: Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, his son Prince Peter Dmitriyevich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, as well as his grandchildren: naval officers, Alexander and Nicholas Den (Denam).

3. General of Infantry Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1824 or 1825 - 1899 or 1905 ?) began his military service in 1841 as the Caucasus cadet of Adjutant General Prince Chernyshev; fought against Hadji Murad and Shamil. At the end of the Crimean War, Svyatopolk Mirski / Mirsky returned to the Caucasus to the Kabarda regiment, which has made a campaign in 1858 in the mountainous part of Chechnya. On April 12, 1859 promoted to major general and appointed Chief of Staff of troops of the Caspian region. After the capture of Shamil and the conquest of the eastern Caucasus was the assistant commander of the Kuban region and in the campaigns on the Kuban River and Ubin.
Promoted to lieutenant general and appointed head of the Terek region, served as Governor-General of Kutaisi. On August 30, 1873 Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky received the rank of General of Infantry. In addition, Prince Svyatopolk-Mirsky was elected a member and honorary chairman of the Caucasian branch of the Russian Geographical Society. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 was the commander in chief of the Caucasian Army and took an active part in planning of the assault of Kars. In 1880 Svyatopolk-Mirsky was appointed a member of the State Council. In 1881-1882, the acting commander of the Kharkov Military District and temporary Kharkiv Governor-General.

4. Adjutant-General Prince Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857-1914) began service of the Guards Hussar His Majesty's Regiment. Participated in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-78, and then graduated from the course of the Nikolayev Academy of the General Staff. Commanded a division, was governor of Penza and Yekaterynoslav. He also served as Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire from 26 August 1904 to 18 January 1905, which was dismissed shortly after the start of the riots in January 1905.

5. Two brothers - Alexander and Nicholas were the sons of Den Vladimir Alexandrovich, Minister, Secretary of State of the Grand Duchy of Finland and Nina Dmitrievna nee Princess Svyatopolk-Mirsky. The elder brother Alexander Den - Lieutenant of the Russian Imperial Navy, of the Russian-Japanese War, died at Port Arthur in 1904. Younger brother Nikolay Vladimirovich Den, a lieutenant of the battleship Emperor Alexander III, was killed in 1905 in the naval battle of Tsushima.

Nina Dmitrievna nee Princess Svyatopolk-Mirsky: wife of Ден Владимир Александрович / Вольдемар Карл / Dan Vladimir or Woldemar Carl von Daehn / Den Vladimir Alexandrovich, Minister, Secretary of State of the Grand Duchy of Finland; he born 1838.02.20 in Sippola in the Grand Duchy of Finland, died in Rome, Testaccio on 1900.12.28;
Woldemar Carl von Daehn / von Deen, was a Finnish-Russian General and the Grand Duchy of Finland Minister of State in 1891-1898, a defender of the rights of Finland; born to a German, Russia and Finland
(his father Alexander Gustav von Daehn 1788 - 1855, son of Johan Samuel von Daehn and Katarina)
military family, who owned the estate Sippola; the Military Academy in Hamina and the Nicholas General Staff Academy in St. Petersburg, and then
served as an officer in the Caucasus; 1873, in the Caucasus under command of the Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich Romanov (the Emperor Alexander II's brother); then governor of Stavropol and since 1882 in Vyborg;
Von Daehn's Sippola was sold and he moved abroad. He died in 1900 in Rome.

Karl Woldemar Vladimir Alexandrovich von Daehn's children: Maria Daehn von; Dmitri Daehn von; Alexander Daehn von; Nikolai Daehn von and Peter de Daehn. Above his sons:
1. Peter (1882.02.06-1971.01.19) colonel, commander of the 17th Regiment of Dragoons; 2. Den Dmitry b. 1874.09.06 died 1937.09.04 in Rome; wife Sofia Vladimirovna Sheremetev, in Lagodeki in the Caucasus.
Karl Woldemar Vladimir Alexandrovich von Daehn's wife was Nina D. Svyatopolk Mirski b. 1852.01.18 in Tbilisi - d. 1926.05.14. Nina D. Svyatopolk Mirski's father was General (1864) Дмитрий / Дмитрий Харитон Рюрик Мирон / Иванович Святополк-Мирский (1825-1899), Adjutant General (since 1864), General of Infantry (1873);
Dmitry Kharitonov Rurik Miron Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky come from the Lithuanian noble family; in 1821, Tomas Bogumil / Theophil-Jan / Ivan Semenovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1788) recognized by the Senate of the Kingdom of Poland in the princely dignity, and Russia confirmed the title of prince in 1861 for him and his sons, Dmitry and Nikolai, without presenting documents this title lost during the Polish revolt in 1831.

Nina D. Svyatopolk Mirski's mother was Princess Sophia Orbeliani Yakovlevna;
sisters of above Nina: Maria (1853-1889), married Prince Orbeliani I.; Olga (1855-1898), for the colonel, Prince Baryatinsky; brother of Nina: famous
Piotr / Peter (1857-1914).
Husband of Nina: mentioned above the Vyborg Governor, Waldemar (Vladimir) Von Daehn / Dan.

6. Franciszek Ksawery ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI b. ca 1760, married to Katarzyna Badowska;
his son Tomasz Bogumił 1788, d. 1868, m. Marianna Nostitz-Jackowska;
next generation, two sons:

1. DMITRIY KHARITON RYURIK MIRON / Dymitr SVYATOPOLK MIRSKI / DMITRIY IVANOVICH / Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky b. 1824 or 1825, d. 1899 (1905 ?), Duke in 1861, m. Zofia Orbeliani / SOFIA YAKOVLEVNA ORBELIANI b. 1831, d. 1879

(son of Dymitr:

Piotr 1857 - 1914 m. Katarzyna Bobrzynski Countess / Bobrińska),

2. Mikołaj 1833 - 1898 m. 1st to Wiera Bagratyd / Pss Vera b. Tbilisi 1842 - Vladikavkaz on 4 May 1860, m. in Tbilisi on 4 May 1860 to Pr Mikolaj / Nikolay Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky / Mikolaj Swiatopelk Mirski b. Miastkow 5 Jul 1833 - d. 15 Jul 1898,
Ataman of the Don Cossacks; mentioned Princess Vera Ilyinichna, b. at Tiflis, 1842, educ. and married in Tiflis, 4th May 1860 as first wife of General Prince Nikolai Ivanovitch Sviatopolk - Mirskii (Polish, b. at Miastkow, 5th July 1833; m. second, Cleoptra Mikhailovna Khanikova / Chanikow, and d. at Mir, 15th July 1898),
Ataman of the Don Cossacks, third son of Prince Tomasz Boguslaw Jan Sviatopolk-Mirskii, and by his second wife, Princess Marcianna, nee von Nostitz-Jackowska. She d. at Vladicaucase, 1863, having only son, who d. young;
a branch of Vera / Wiera was from Erekle II, king of Kacheti 1744-62, king of united Georgia 1762-98 (born Telavi on 7 Nov 1720 and died in Telavi 11 Jan 1798);
above Mikołaj b. 1833 married 2nd to Kleopatra Chynkow

(children of Mikolaj Swiatopelk - Mirski:

1. Michał 1870 - 1938;
2. Jan 1872 - 1922 m. Nadia Engelhardt;
3. Dymitr 1874 - 1950 m. 1st Maria de Bellegarde;
4. Włodzimierz 1875 - 1906 m. Maria Gudim-Lewkowicz;
5. Symeon 1885 - 1917 m. to Ludmiła Leliawska).


7.
Michał Światopełk-Mirski 1926-1944, was son of Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski b. 1891 and Izabela Potulicka of Więcborg b. 1899; her mother: Krystyna Hutten-Czapska b. 1860;
her grandfather: Adolf Hutten-Czapski - Marshal of the Kowno government, b. 1820-1883,
he was son of Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1779-1844

(grandson of Franciszek Stanisław Kostka Hutten-Czapski 1725-1802 and Weronika Joanna Radziwiłł born 1754; great-grandson of Ignacy Hutten-Czapski 1699 or 1700-1746)

and Zofia Obuchowicz 1797-1866 -
she was grand-daughter of Katarzyna Karolina Konstancja Radziwiłł 1740-1778.
A grandfather of Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski was:
Kazimierz Ignacy Florian Światopełk-Mirski 1818-1886
(son of Tomasz Światopełk-Mirski 1788-1852 and Konstancja Światopełk-Mirska; grandson of Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski b. ca 1760;
great-grandson of Jan Stanisław ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI born ca 1720, died in 1761).

Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski b. on July 3, 1891 in Woroniec near Biala Podlaska, d. July 8, 1941 in Auschwitz-Birkenau; Polish landowner, social activist, politician, Member of Parliament of the Second Republic. Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski was son of Czesław Światopełk-Mirski and Maria Antonina; was husband of Izabela Jabłońska
(Izabela Jabłońska Potulicka also known as Światopełk-Mirska, b. 1899 in Riga, Latvia, d. 1980 in Warszawa; daughter of Mieczysław Potulicki and Krystyna; wife of Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski and Jerzy Włodzimierz Jabłoński; mother of Krzysztof Światopełk-Mirski and Michał Światopełk-Mirski; inf. by Leszek Mila; above Mieczysław Potulicki Count, 1858 in Jeziory Wielkie, d. 1910 in Obory, Poland, son of Józef Kazimierz Maciej Potulicki and Ofelia Potulicka).
Kazimierz Światopełk-Mirski was brother of Julia Rużyczka de Rosenwerth; Józef Światopełk-Mirski and Maria Ludwika Bronisława Górska.
Above Maria Antonina Światopełk-Mirska nee Fraget, 1869 - 1938, daughter of Julian Mikołaj Fraget and Antonina.
Above Czesław Światopełk-Mirski 1862 - 1920, son of Kazimierz Ignacy Florian Światopełk-Mirski and Franciszka; copyright by Leszek Mila at geni.com. Above Franciszka Światopełk-Mirska nee Jagmin, died 1867, daughter of Paweł Antoni Feliks Jagmin and Konstancja. Above mentioned Kazimierz Ignacy Florian Światopełk-Mirski 1818 - 1886; son of Tomasz Światopełk-Mirski and Konstancja; husband of Franciszka; father of Czesław Światopełk-Mirski. Named above Tomasz Światopełk-Mirski 1788 - 1852, son of Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski and Anna. Above named Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski son of Jan Stanisław Światopełk-Mirski and Joanna.

Princess Marcianna, nee von Nostitz-Jackowska. She d. at Vladicaucase, 1863 or 1853, having only son, who d. young; she had 2 children, acc. to 'nobility.pro':
1. Dmitrij / Dmitry born 1824 or 1825 - 1899,
2. Nikolai / Nikolay 1833 - 1898.

Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski (1788-1868) fought in the November Uprising in 1830 near Suwalki and exiled to Paris, where he represented the Poles; participant in the French colonization of Algiers; served the French Foreign Legion of Polish exiles from France; he received a large grant of land in Africa; converted to Orthodoxy, and return to Russia, where he remained under house arrest until his death.

Mentioned above sons: Dmitry (1824 / 1825 - 1899) and Nikolai (1833 - 1898) were educated as members of the Russian nobility;
Nikolay / Nikolai bought the historic castle of Mir in 1895; see below on Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg.
Jan Nepomucen Ksawery Nostitz-Jackowski born 1770, was son of Aleksander Nostitz-Jackowski and Marianna nee Kczewska / Marcianna Antonie Barbara Nostitz-Jackowska; Aleksander was born in 1729.
Marianna Kczewski / Marcianna Antonie Barbara Nostitz-Jackowska Kczewska, born in Straszewo, near by Aleksandrów Kujawski; she was daughter of Andrzej Kczewski and Marianna; wife of Aleksander Nostitz-Jackowski; mother of Jan Nepomucen Ksawery Nostitz-Jackowski.
Marianna was born in 1745 or 1750. Jan had one brother Hipolit Nostitz-Jackowski; Jan married Anna nee Tucholka, and they had 4 children: among others Marianna nee Nostitz-Jackowska.
Then Jan married 2nd to Petronela nee Drywa-Zakrzewska in 1804, she was born 1776 / 1780.
They had one daughter Marianna Marcjanna nee Nostitz-Jackowska married Swiatopelk-Mirski Tomasz Bogumil Jan b. 26.12.1788 - d. 1861 / 1878.
Above named Иван Семёнович Святополк-Мирский and Marianna Marcjanna had
1. Владимир Иванович Святополк-Мирский;
2. Dmitri Ivanovich Svätjopolk-Mirski;
3. Bolesława Rodys;
4. Николай Иванович Святополк-Мирский.
Acc. to www.myheritage.com, Marianna Nostitz-Jackowska had 3 other sibilings. Daniela Joanna Marciana / Marcjanna Nostitz-Jackowska born 1807 - died 27.10.1853; her brother was Aleksander Nostitz-Jackowski 1821 - 1910, with his daughter Leonarda Kielczewska; but we remember about Ludwik Ostaszewski b. 1824 + Maria Nostitz Jackowska.
Dmitrij / Dmitry 1824 or 1825 - 1899, was son of Tomasz Teofil Jan Swiatopelk Mirski (Tomasz Teofil Jan Światopełk-Mirski 1788-1868 was son of Franciszek b. ca 1760, and Katarzyna Badowska) or Tomasz Bogumil Jan Swiatopelk-Mirski 1788-1868 (the same parents), Duke in 1861, and above mentioned Daniela Joanna Marciana. Dmitrij Hariton Ruryk Miron back to Russia in 1840, 1841 served at Caucasus.
Brothers
(and sisters:
1. Bolesława Rodys 1831 - 1915, wife of Wilhelm Rodys, mother of Pelagia Joanna Findeisen
[Pelagia Joanna Findeisen 1849 Lublin - 1875 in Śmiłowice, wife of Gustaw Adolf Findeisen, and mother of Jadwiga Pawińska and Tadeusz Findeisen 1875-1948:
his children: Gustaw Findeisen; Andrzej Findeisen; Tomasz Findeisen and Krystyn Tadeusz Findeisen]
and Zofia Joanna Saturnina Śliwicka;
2. Ekaterina d. 1879):
1. Vladymir 1823 - 1861, and
2. Dmitri / Dmitry Ivanovich / Dmitrij 1824 or 1825 - 1899 (Infantry General and politician, Caucasus and Russo-Turkish wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia;
his son Pyotr Dmitrievich Svyatopolk-Mirsky (1857 - 1914), the governor of Penza and Vilna governments, Minister of Interior of Russia),
3. Mikolaj / Nicholas Ivanovitch Sviatopolk-Mirski 1833 - 1898; a godson of Tsar Nicolas II, and was "aide de camp" of the Tsar, General-Adjutant 1874 (1877-1878 war), the Caucasus wars, member of the State Council of Imperial Russia, 1881-1898 The Don Cossack chief; 1891 he bought at Princess Mary Lvovna Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst the estate of Zamir, located in the Minsk government, the Novogrudek county, after death of Adjutant-General Prince Peter L. Sayn-Wittgenstein Berleburg; 1898 Member of the State Council; he died at his estate Mir;
1st m. Princess Vera Ilyitchnina Gruzinsky / Grouzinzky in Tiflis, Georgia on 4 May 1860; 1842-1861 or 1863, daughter of Ilija Georgijevich, with son Ilija;
2nd m. in St. Petersburg in 14 April 1868 to Cleopatre Mikhailovna Khanykov, 1845-1910.
They had seven children:
1. Prince Michel Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born in Tsarkoie Selo in St. Petersburg 1870 - died in Warsaw, 1938, minister of state;
2. Prince Ivan Sviatopolk Mirsky born in St Petersburg 1872 - died Mir 1922;
3. Prince Dimitri Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born 1874 - died Sibiu, Romania 1950, member of the Parliament in Russia;
4. Prince Wladimir Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born 1875 - died Alexandria, Egypt 1906, titulary minister, marshal of the Balta nobility;
5. Prince Vassili Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky 1877 - 1879;
6. Prince Pierre Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky 1881 - 1882;
7. Prince Simon Nicolaievitch Sviatopolk Mirsky born in Novotcherkassk, Russia 1885 - died in Kharkov, Russia on 26 July 1917.

Jan Swiatopelk Mirski / Ivan Ignatiev Svyatopolk, Ignacy Alexander and Thomas Faddeev Svyatopolk-Mirski in 1815, and Thaddeus Antoni Mirski should be called Svyatopolk-Mirsky in the Congress Poland. The decree on April 18, 1861: request of Major General Dmitry Svyatopolk-Mirsky, and his brother, Colonel Nicholas and them father Thomas Boguslav Jan Svyatopolk-Mirsky on title of the Russian princes, without presenting documents for this title.
Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky was born in 1825, a General of Infantry, a member of the State Council, His Imperial Majesty's adjutant general, married Princess Sophia Yakovlevna Orbeliyani. They have children:
Prince Peter D. (b. August 18, 1857), Princess Marie (b. August 10, 1853), Princess Olga (b. May 30, 1855) and Princess Nina D. (b. January 28, 1859).
Prince Nikolai Ivanovich Svyatopolk-Mirsky, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General, the military ataman of the Don Cossacks (b. July 5, 1833), twice married.

Father of two adjutants general - Иван Семёнович / Tomasz Teofil Jan Światopełk-Mirski / Thomas Bohuslav Ivan / Tomasz Bogumił Jan Światopełk-Mirski (1788-1868), a member - Counsellor of the Delegation of the former administration of the State Council of the Kingdom of Poland and in 1821 received the right to be called Prince.
Thomas Bohuslav Ivan / Tomasz Bogumił was born on December 26, 1788 and was the son of Franciszek Ksawery ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI b. ca 1760 (Franciszek Ksawery Mirski and Katarzyna).

Different opinion!
We know about Jan Felicjan / Ivan Felitsiyan born October 29, 1754, son of Franciszek Ksawery ŚWIATOPEŁK-MIRSKI / Franz Xavier, and grandson of Ivan / Jan, who moved to the end of the 1730s at the Polish border from the province of Smolensk and taken the Polish service: the royal customs officer at the border office in Milov, near Krakow, Ivan / Jan's first marriage to Teresa NN with two sons - Joseph and Paul.
Felitsiyan in 1749 married to Catherine Cleopatra daughter of Michal Gniazdowski / Mikhail Gnyazdovsky - and Felitsiyan had a son Franz Xavier;
Felitsiyan b. 1674, died in 1759.
It is the next branch from Ivan Felitsiyan, whose father is not specified, so it is difficult to connect all others members with the names of Svyatopolk-Mirski of the Russian Empire. For example:
Jan Stanisław Światopełk-Mirski, 1690-1761, married Anna Sołtan born in 1700.
Jan married 2nd Joanna Rymsza born in 1690. They had one son Tadeusz Światopełk-Mirski. Jan married 3rd Teresa Sieklucki born in 1690. They had son Antoni Światopełk-Mirski. Jan died 1761.


The conspiracy in Russia created curtains and protected from the beginning by the modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia created by Benkendorff and Dubbelt from Estonia and Latvia - thanks to this major role in this system can be played a German families from Estonia.

They anchored (Fabian Pilar von Pilchau of Parnu) in Lithuania / Belarus and joined with families from Belarus: Piłsudski, Dzierzynski, Konstantynowicz and so on. Thanks to this connections the German Empire took over from the top of all this political system according to some theorists, and by others - the British intelligence.
This statement is not true, or not true fully. The main ally of Britain during the First World War was Russia, and the Romanov dynasty with its last tsar. This is confirmed by the organization of the Allied mission to Russia in January 1917 and earlier such a mission to Romania. Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. Ireland fought then about freedom, just like the Poles. Scotland also fight, like Estonia.

Important note on the Cork Co.:
Terence MacSwiney was born 1879. He was the son of John MacSwiney and Mary Ann Wilkinson. He married Muriel Frances Murphy, daughter of Nicholas Murphy and Mary Gertrude Purcell, in 1917. He died in 1920 at Brixton Prison; he held the office of Mayor of Cork, Member of Parliament for Cork. He was a prominent figure in the Irish Independence movement. Brothers of above Terence: Peter MacSwiney and John MacSwiney.
Kathleen Cashel born 1872, and her sister Aunt Al were great friends with the Cork republican family, the MacSwiney's, siblings Terence MacSwiney, Mary MacSwiney, Sean MacSwiney and Annie MacSwiney. Address at 66 Knockrea, Blackrock, Cork. Kathleen and Al's step-mother was Marion Mc Swiney. Mary and Annie MacSwiney founded St. Ita's School for girls, Cork, in 1917; Kathleen and Al's brother-in-law was James O'Mara; The Riordan house at 13 Myrtle Hill Terrace was one of Terence MacSwiney's safe houses when he was on the run in 1919-20 during the War of Independence.
An unofficial government policy of reprisals began in September 1919 in Fermoy, County Cork; "...on Bloody Sunday, 21 November 1920, fourteen British intelligence operatives were assassinated in Dublin, a week later, seventeen Auxiliaries were killed by the IRA in an ambush at Kilmichael in County Cork. ... The British government declared martial law in much of southern Ireland. ... The fighting was heavily concentrated in Munster (particularly County Cork)".
In late 1920, the Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney, died on hunger strike. Terence Joseph MacSwiney (1879 - 1920) was an Irish politician. He was elected as Sinn Fein Lord Mayor of Cork during the Irish War of Independence in 1920.
His father, John MacSwiney, of Cork, "had volunteered in 1868 to fight as a papal guard in Rome against Garibaldi, had been a schoolteacher in London and later opened a tobacco factory in Cork". His mother Mary MacSwiney nee Wilkinson; Mary Ann MacSwiney was English and met John MacSwiney in London in 1870. He was working as a teacher after spending some time in Rome. However, on arriving in Rome he found the fighting was already over. His sister: Mary MacSwiney and her family relocated to Cork when Mary was six years old. Once settled in she joined Inghinidhe na hEireann (Daughters of Ireland) an Irish Nationalist organization for women founded in 1900 by Maud Goone. She also joined Conradh na Gaeilge (the Gaelic League) founded in 1893. Her mother Mary Wilkinson, was an English Catholic with strong Irish nationalist opinions.
In the mid 19th century the representatives of John McSweeny held land in the county Cork parishes of Kilnaglory and St Finbarrs, barony of Cork, and John McSweeney held land in the parish of Drishane, barony of West Muskerry.
"...In the 1870s various members of the McSweeney family owned lands around Cork city and John McSweeney of Macroom owned 599 acres. The MacSwiney family originally held land at Mashanaglass near Macroom. Valentine Emanuel Patrick MacSwiney (1871-1945), son of Valentine P. MacSwiney, a banker, was born in Paris and created a Marquess by Pope Leo XIII. Copy of confirmation of arms to the descendants of Valentine MacSwiney of Macroom by Margaret Cremen, and to his grandson, Valentine Emmanuel Patrick MacSwiney of Paris, Chamberlain to his Holiness Pope Leo XIII and only son of Valentine MacSwiney by Emma Issabella Countess Konarska daughter of Alexander Count Konarski of Poland, with mention of descent from MacSwiney of Mashanaglass, Sept. 17, 1895. Genealogical Office: Ms. 110, pp. 186-7".
See at this page 1 a genealogy of MacSwiney and the Konarskis.
Muriel Frances Murphy born 1892. She was the daughter of Nicholas Murphy and Mary Gertrude Purcell. She married, firstly, Terence MacSwiney, son of John MacSwiney and Mary Wilkinson, in 1917. Child of Muriel Frances Murphy and Terence MacSwiney was Marie MacSwiney b. 1918; Rory Brugha is the son of Cathal Brugha. He married above Marie MacSwiney, daughter of Terence MacSwiney.
"...At present Sinn Fein in Cork, birthplace of iconic figures like Terence McSwiney and Tomas MacCurtain, has a proud republican tradition...". We know on Mick Nugent is the Sinn Fein councillor for the North-West Ward in Cork.
See at my websites:
Nugent in Napoli / Naples in Italy, with family Beckendorff of Estonia;
MacSwiney and Konarski;
MacSwiney and Wittgenstein, with the Radziwilles.

When Irish immigration to the New England and then to the United States of America began, the Irish Charitable Society was founded in Boston, in 1737, then as the Ancient and Most Benevolent Order of the Friendly Brothers of Saint Patrick, founded in New York, and the Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick for the Relief of Emigrants in Philadelphia in 1771.
The Irish Free State was established in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, following uprising - The Easter Rising, also known as the Easter Rebellion, in Ireland, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland. It was the most significant uprising in Ireland since the rebellion of 1798.
Remember!
In 1915 Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Thomson, a fluent French speaker, was sent to Bucharest as British military attache on Kitchener's initiative to bring Romania into the war.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. He was making his way to Russia in order to attend negotiations but the ship struck a German mine.

After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison. Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans. Frederick Joubert Duquesne, a Boer soldier and spy, claimed that he had assassinated Kitchener after an earlier attempt to kill him in Cape Town failed. Duquesne's story was that he posed as the Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky in 1916 and joined Kitchener in Scotland.
In 1883 Kitchener became a Freemason. He was initiated in Cairo.

In the spring of 1916 Herbert Asquith decided to send Lord Kitchener, his Secretary of State of War, to Russia in an attempt to rally the country in its fight against Germany. On 5th June 1916, Horatio Kitchener was drowned.
Horatio Bottomley, the editor of the John Bull magazine, promoted the idea that Kitchener had been murdered.
In July 1920, Alfred Douglas, the former boyfriend of Oscar Wilde, according to Michael Kettle, continued his campaign against Winston Churchill.
Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas b. 1870 in Powick, Worcestershire; the third son of John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, and his first wife, Sibyl nee Montgomery. Above John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig and Caroline Margaret Clayton. His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt. Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas. Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green,
Scotland - on border of England, Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.

Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas.


A plot against Rasputin in 1916:

1. Фе́ликс Фе́ликсович Юсу́пов / Felix Yusupov (1910 - 1st Russian Car Club) in 1914 married
Ирина Александровна / Irina Alexandrovna, daughter of Александр Михайлович / Alexandr Michailovich (Sandro / Сандрo, 1866 Tbilisi - 1933 France), son of Michail Nikolaievich / Михаил Николаевич.
The Oxford University Russian Society was founded in the Oxford University in 1909 by Prince Felix Yusupov, b. 1887, d. 1967, a student at the University College, Oxford. From 1909 to 1912 or 1913 he studied Fine Arts at Oxford, a member of the Bullingdon club; then his friend was Oswald Rayner, and also in St. Petersburg.

2. Дми́трий Па́влович / Dmitrij Pavlovich (1891 - 1942 Davos), son of General Pavel Alexandrovich (1860 - 1919), grandson of Александр II.

3. Влади́мир Митрофа́нович Пуришке́вич / Vladimir Purishkievich (1870 - 1920 Novorossijsk), 1917, 18 November jailed to 17 April 1918.

4. Oswald Theodore Rayner (1888 - 1961) a British MI6 agent in Russia during World War I. 1907 - 1910 Rayner studied Modern Languages at Oriel College, Oxford. 'Rasputin: The Role of Britain's Secret Service in his Torture and Murder' by Richard Cullen - claiming that Yusupov, Grand Duke Dmitri and Purishkevich, were joined in the murder of Rasputin by a British spy named Oswald Rayner. Cullen has established that the accounts published by Yusupov and Purishkevich, are a tissue of lies.
See www.blackcountrybugle.co.uk/
"...Firstly, he found no evidence of poison, and there was no evidence of his drowning either, no fluid in his lungs. ... Rasputin had been shot three times, was most definitely dead when he was dumped in the freezing river ... The shot to the head was probably fired from a British service revolver. ... Rayner in 1915 became a barrister at the Inner Temple".
Rayner was sent to the St Petersburg Secret Intelligence Service station in 1916; Rasputin had links with the Germans and was trying to arrange an end to the war on the Eastern Front.
Tsar told George Buchanan, British ambassador, that he suspected a young Englishman, one of Yusupov's Oxford university friends, played a part in the murder. Buchanan denied any British involvement.
Rayner in 1918 was sent to the British spy base in Stockholm. He returned to Russia in 1919, staying in Vladivostok, returning to Moscow in 1921.
Grand Duke Dmitri was exiled by Nicholas II to the Persian Front.
Felix Yusupov was put under house arrest; Vladimir Purishkevich in 1917 jailed, fleeing to Southern Russia with help of Felix Dzierzynsky.
See: Richard Cullen, published by Dialogue.

"...In January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson as chief military representative, and including a banker and two munitions experts - on the mission to Russia. There were 50 delegates in total including French, led by de Castelnau, and Italians. The object of the mission, stressed at the second Chantilly Conference in December 1916, was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed with a view to coordinating attacks...".
Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy.
Above Field Marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet, b. 1864, and "...Loyd George wanted Russia persuaded to make the maximum possible effort... on a British mission to Russia in January 1917 (delayed from November 1916), the object of which was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale ... The War Office briefing advised that Russia was close to revolution. Wilson met the Tsar but thought him 'as devoid of character and purpose as our own poor miserable King'. Even senior Russian officials were talking openly of assassinating the Tsar or perhaps just the Tsarina. Wilson was impressed by Generals Ruzski (Rucki) and Danilov ... Knox, who had been British military attaché since 1911. He toured Petrograd, Moscow ... and Riga ... His official report (3 March 1917) said that Russia would remain in the war and that they would solve their 'administrative chaos'. However, many other observers at the time, e.g. the young Archibald Wavell in the Caucasus, felt that the advent of democracy in Russia would reinvigorate her war effort, so Wilson's views were not entirely unusual. ... Wilson was appointed Chief of British Mission to the French Army on 17 March 1917, with a promotion to permanent lieutenant-general which Robertson had blocked in November 1916...".
Noël Edouard Marie Joseph, Vicomte de Curieres de Castelnau b. 1851, was a French general in World War I. "...After the dismissal of Joffre ... in 1916 Castelnau was retired from active service. He was sent on the Allied Mission to Russia in the early months of 1917, just prior to the Fall of the Tsar. ... Castelnau was recalled to the command of the Eastern Army Group ... in 1918...".

Today it is difficult to say who, what country, either a government, or an institution, maybe a NGO managed this complicated structure.

Those who have studied the roots of this complex structure, the most common commit certain substantive and methodological mistakes, runs the risk of retaliatory attacks and ridicule, and even fully social ostracism.

"...Lenin was preceded by a Swiss spy named Pierre Gilliard who was hired to tutor the Romanov children in French.
Charles Sydney Gibbes was their English tutor.
The Revolution was planned in London and Geneva... Both men were MI6 operatives (this is an opinion of Scrivener) and they could be relied upon to maintain strict secrecy as to the final fate of the Romanovs...", acc. to Patrick Scrivener.

The four daughters of Tsar Nicholas II spoke English with a slight Belfast accent, wrote Gareth Russell, historian. " The Emperor's four daughters had a Belfast nanny, Margaretta Eager / Margaretta Alexandra Eagar, ... along with their English tutor, a Scotsman called Mr Epps. When the Russian Imperial Family visited relatives in Britain, the girls' great-uncle, King Edward VII, was amused at the regional twangs they had picked up when they spoke English. The Tsarina quickly brought onboard another English tutor, Sydney Gibbes...".
Margaretta Alexandra Eagar, from Limerick, 1898 until 1904 a nanny at the Russian Court. Margaretta / Margaret Alexandra Eagar b. 1863, an Irishwoman, 1906 she wrote a memoir entitled 'Six Years at the Russian Court'; she was born to a Protestant couple, Francis McGillycuddy Eagar and Frances Margaret Holden; a medical nurse in Belfast, nurse to the daughters of Nicholas II in 1898.
By Sharon Slater:
"Francis McGillycuddy Eagar (1823-1902) and Frances Margaret Holden (1831-1913) were married 1855 in King County (Offaly). From 1862 to at least 1880 Francis was the governor of Limerick County Gaol, ... he was the governor of Naas Gaol. The couple retired to the West End, Kilkee, Co. Clare (west of Limerick in western Ireland). After the death of Francis McGillycuddy his wife Frances moved in with their daughter Jane and her husband Alister Macleod in Wicklow (we know on MACLEOD, Grace born ca 1862 in Scotland, married Alister Hy Macleod ca 1884, and she was in the 1911 census for Baltinglass Town, Baltinglass, County Wicklow, Ireland;
Wicklow, 45 km south of Dublin). ... In 1898 Margaretta Eagar was appointed nurse to the daughters of Tsar Nicholas II. She had been recommended to the family by Emily Loch
(Emily Loch, "...knew Alix, Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, the last Tsasrina of Russia, from her early years. Emily was associated with the family of Helena, Princess Christian, Queen Victoria's fifth child and was lady-in-waiting to Princess Christian from 1883 until the Princess death in 1923. During these years Emily kept a diary recording daily events... Emily Loch's friendship with the future Tsarina grew through visits to the Hesse family in Germany and when they visited their grandmother, Queen Victoria in England and Scotland. During the winter months of 1897 / 1898 Emily accompanied Princess Helena (Thora), Princess Christian's eldest daughter on a visit to Tsar Nicholas and the Tsarina in Russia. Her friendship with the Imperial Family is reflected in the many leters ... until early 1917..." - copyright by forum.alexanderpalace.org)
to the Tzarina Alexandra. ... She was responsible for the day to day lives of Olga (b. 1895), Tatiana (b. 1897), Maria (b. 1899) and Anastasia (b. 1901) ... It was noted by the Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna, the younger sister of Tsar Nicholas II that Margaretta had a great love of politics. ... Margaretta discussed the Dreyfus Affair with a friend. ... She exchanged letters with the grand duchesses for years after leaving Russia describing her work as a governess for other families...".
From 1905 to 1908 (1910?) Mr. Epps was the tutor. "...Janet Epps has already published her book including these documents or is in the process...".
Mr Epps was a Scottish 'English' tutor.
"...Charles Sydney Gibbes was employed to right the dreadful wrong of the imperial children speaking English with a Scottish accent observed by Edward VII. Mr Epps was possibly the culprit".
We know on John Epps (the first) who was born into a Calvinist family in Sevenoaks, Kent in 1805. George Napoleon Epps was his half-brother. In 1824 Epps moved to Edinburgh to study medicine to 1827. "...His activism brought him into contact with Joseph Hume, Lady Byron, George Wilson (president of the Anti-Corn Law League), Giuseppe Mazzini, Thomas Slingsby Duncombe, James Stansfeld, Lajos Kossuth, and Robert Owen", by Wikipedia.

Our tutor Epps had a Scottish degree, but no license. After graduating John Epps moved back to London. If John Epps was the illegitimate son of Sarah Eppps, could he have used the surname of Merikin / Merrikan etc for his marriage?
In 1880 John left England for Russia. John Bilby Merikin Epps died 29 July 1935. His wife in Russia was Lana of Russian origin, her first name may have been Svetlana. John Epps was an English tutor in 1910, who had left the Imperial children with a decidedly Scottish twang, by the Grand Duchess Olga, the daughter of Russia's last emperor, Tsar Nicholas Romanov II.
Janet Epps, an Australian descendant of John Epps, from Sydney, has been researching the family history; she had come across an article John Epps had written in an English publication in 1921 which included some pictures of the Romanovs. Mrs Epps' great-grandfather, William, had sent the documents to Maggs Bros for appraisal back in 1935, on advice from the Mitchell Library in Sydney. John Epps was the first cousin of great grandfather, William.

Emily Loch was Lady in Waiting to Princess Helena for 50 years; Princess Helena was Queen Victoria's daughter - Helena Augusta Victoria Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein b. 1846 died 1923.
Emily Loch was a personal friend of most of the European royalty. These are her diaries at court in Britain, Germany and a winter spent in St Petersburg: The Memoirs of Emily Loch, published by Librario Publishing Ltd.
Emily Loch d. 1932 or 1848 - 1931 / Emily Elizabeth Loch was daughter of George and Catharine Loch and she was sister of Anne, Alice Helen, Marion Clementina Mary, and Catherine Grace Loch.
Grandfather James Loch 1780 - 1855 was a Scottish estate commissioner and later a Member of Parliament. James Loch was an employee of George Granville Sutherland Leveson Gower 2nd Duke of Sutherland,
inf. at sueyounghistories.com;
George Loch's daughter Emily was Lady in Waiting to Queen Victoria's third daughter, copyright by Sue Young:
"Alice Loch (1840-1932) lived at The Cottage, Bishopsgate, close to the south eastern boundary of Windsor Great Park. The eldest of the five daughters of George Loch ... she studied painting in Paris in the 1860s and won an Honourable Mention for an unmounted fan leaf at the Fan Makers Exhibition in 1878. ... Between 1883 and 1923 Alice's sister, Emily (1848-1931), was Lady in Waiting to Queen Victoria's third daughter, Princess Christian, whose chief residence was Cumberland Lodge, Windsor Great Park, close to Bishopsgate. According to Princess Marie Louise (Princess Christian's daughter), during the troubled period of her marriage in the 1890s it was suggested that she should travel overseas. ... George Loch 1811 - 1887, was a British politician. He was elected as a Liberal Member of Parliament for Wick in 1868, resigning in 1872 by becoming Steward of the Manor of Northstead. ... George Loch was a participant in the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method in 1866. ... In 1866, the Treasury placed rooms at Adelphi Terrace at the disposal of John Winston Spencer Churchill the 7th Duke of Marlborough, who was the Chairman of the Association for the Trial of Preventative and Curative Treatment in the Cattle Plague by the Homeopathic Method, based on the research done in Belgium by Edward Hamilton, with John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough overseeing the work of Edward Hamilton, George Lennox Moore, James Moore and Alfred Crosby Pope. ...
George Loch was a friend of Granville Leveson Gower 1st Earl Granville, and his brother James worked for George Granville Sutherland Leveson Gower 2nd Duke of Sutherland...".
Acc. to David R. Fisher at www.historyofparliamentonline.org:
"...Loch, James b. 7 May 1780, 1st son of George Loch of Drylaw, Edinburgh and Mary, daughter of John Adam of Blair Adam, Kinross; brother of John Loch; ... Edinburgh Univ. 1797; ... m. (1) 4 Jan. 1810, Ann (d. 28 Jan. 1842), da. of Patrick Orr of Bridgeton, Kincardine, ... married (2) 2 Dec. 1847, Elizabeth Mary, da. of John Pearson of Tettenhall Wood, Staffs., wid. of Maj. George Macartney Greville... Loch's ancestors migrated in the late fifteenth century from Gloucestershire to Edinburgh, where they prospered in the Baltic trade, became prominent in municipal affairs and acquired the Drylaw estate in 1641.
His grandfather James Loch (1698-1759) was a Jacobite sympathizer who donated Ł10,000 to the Stuart cause ... His father, ... much given to art and generally accomplished', married the sister of William Adam, a rising Scottish lawyer and Whig Member of Parliament, and followed his brother-in-law's advice by selling Drylaw ... Loch was raised, after his father's death, by his mother in the family's town house in Edinburgh, which he inherited on coming of age in 1801. He also spent much time with his uncle, an improving landlord, at Blair Adam.
At Edinburgh University, where he studied law, he was one of the intellectual circle dominated by Henry Brougham, Francis Horner and Francis Jeffrey, and as a member of the Speculative Society he espoused egalitarian and anti-Trinitarian views.
... contributor to the Edinburgh Review, but an article in July 1804 caused a temporary rift with Brougham, who considered its gratuitous attack on the East India Company's monopoly to be ill-advised, especially as Adam was counsel to the Company. Brougham also chided him for his raffish conduct in canvassing for Sir Francis Burdett at the Middlesex by-election that summer. ...
Early in 1808 Adam and Tierney recommended him to Grenville, now leader of the opposition,
... Loch was taken on in 1823 as estate manager by the 5th earl of Carlisle, and he subsequently became responsible for the Bridgwater, Dudley, Egerton and Keith estates. ... he shared, that ministers had no clear Irish policy and that the fate of Catholic relief would depend on the first division in the Commons. ... 1829. He was named to the select committee on Scottish entails... He divided with government on the Russian-Dutch loan ... At the general election of 1832 Loch was returned for what had now become Wick Burghs, and he sat until his defeat in 1852. He died in June 1855 and left his freehold property and London house in Albemarle Street to his eldest son, William Adam Loch...".
James Loch of Drylaw was father of Granville Gower; Clementina Maria Marion Nicholson, Btnss; Henry Brougham Loch, 1st Baron Loch; John Charles Loch; Thomas Coutts Loch; James Patrick Loch;
William Adam; George
and Anne Marjory Loch.

Explanations:

1. Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux b. 1778 d. 1868, a British statesman who became Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. "Brougham was born and grew up in Edinburgh, the eldest son of Henry Brougham, of Brougham Hall in Westmorland, and Eleanora, daughter of Reverend James Syme. ... As a young lawyer in Scotland Brougham helped to found the Edinburgh Review in 1802 and contributed many articles to it..." at Wikipedia.

2. Francis Jeffrey Lord Jeffrey b. 1773 d. 1850, a Scottish judge, born in Edinburgh, the son of a clerk in the Court of Session; studied at the University of Glasgow to 1789, a member of the Speculative Society - close to Sir Walter Scott, Lord Brougham, Francis Horner, the Marquess of Lansdowne, Lord Kinnaird.

3. Francis Horner: b. 1778 d. 1817 was a Scottish Whig politician. He was born in Edinburgh and studied at its university; a member of the Speculative Society.

4. John Winston Spencer Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough b. 1822, Earl of Sunderland from 1822 to 1840 and Marquess of Blandford from 1840 to 1857, was a British statesman; born at Garboldisham Hall, son of George Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of Marlborough and Jane Stewart, daughter of Admiral George Stewart, 8th Earl of Galloway. He held office under Disraeli as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1876 to 1880; married to Frances Anne Emily Vane daughter of the 3rd Marquess of Londonderry.

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill b. 1874 d. 1965 was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. Above Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill b. 1849, was father of Sir Winston Churchill and John Strange Spencer-Churchill. Lord Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill was the third son of above mentioned the 7th Duke of Marlborough, and his wife, Lady Frances Vane.

5. Granville Leveson-Gower, 1st Earl Granville b. 1773, as Lord Granville Leveson-Gower from 1786 to 1815, as Viscount Granville from 1815 to 1833, and as Earl Granville from 1833; Granville served as British ambassador to Russia 1804 - 1805 and 1806 - 1807, and France 1824 - 1828, 1830 - 1841; his sons: Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, a politician; Hon. Frederick Leveson-Gower was also a politician.

But Bob Atchison wrote (© Copyright 2011):

"...Pierre Gilliard - Thirteen Years at the Russian Court ...
GILLIARD NOTE:
Ludendorff exaggerates the role of the Entente in the Russian Revolution when he writes:
'In March, 1917, a Revolution, the work of the Entente, overthrew the Tsar'.
The movement was supported by the Entente, but it was not their work.
Ludendorff shows well enough what were its immediate results for Germany. "The Revolution meant a fatal loss of military power to Russia, weakened the Entente and gave us considerable relief in our heavy task. The General Staff could at once effect important economies of troops and ammunition, and could also exchange divisions on a much greater scale."
And further on: "In April and May, 1917, it was the Russian Revolution which saved us in spite of our victory on the Aisne and in Champagne"
(Ludendorff, My War Memories, vol. II).
The Imperial train left Mohilev on the night of the 12th (March 1917), but on arriving at the station of Malaya-Vichera twenty-four hours later it was ascertained that the station of Tosno, thirty miles south of Petrograd, was in the hands of the insurgents, and that it was impossible to get to Tsarskoe - Selo. There was nothing for it but to turn back.
The Tsar decided to go to Pskov to General Russky, the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Front. He arrived there on the evening of the 14th. When the General had told him the latest developments in Petrograd the Tsar instructed him to inform M. Rodzianko by telephone that he was ready to make every concession if the Duma thought that it would tranquillize the nation. The reply came: "It is too late."
To finish her work of destruction, Germany had only to give Lenin and his disciples a plentiful supply of money and let them loose on Russia.
Lenin and his friends never dreamed of talking to the peasants about a democratic republic or a constituent assembly. They knew it would have been waste of breath. As up-to-date prophets, they came to preach the holy war and to try and draw these untutored millions by the attraction of a creed in which the finest teaching of Christ goes hand in hand with the worst sophisms ...
BOB ATCHISON NOTE:
In the previous paragraph Pierre Gilliard suggests that the Jews were responsible for the revolution.
Here he presents (Anti-Semitism) anti-semetic opinions that were widely held at the time.
While many Jews, who as a group had been disenfrancised from the Russian Empire, were active supporters of the Revolution,
those who became Bolsheviks were agnostics or non-believers who most often found themselves oppressors of their own people, religion and culture...".

This structure had a military - intelligence - political nature. This structure created for decades the leading politicians, and drove to the spectacular political internationally events. The mystery of the complicated machines - several octopuses - caused the birth of conspiracy theories, such theories and journalism as Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894.

For a 100 years such theories indicate specified states, as well as some nations or particular politicians, as drivers of the intelligence structure - this situation lasts from 1916 to today, 2014.

The answer to the above question at the moment is gone. In the history of Tsarist Russia, it is difficult to find a detail, because there is difficult to get to archives of a special services and political institutions. Below I quote the text of the book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' by Carroll Quigley ed. in 1981 (copyright by The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden. 1981, New York: Books in Focus, 354 pages, ISBN 0-916728-50-1; reprinted by Rancho Palos Verdes: GSG & Associates, date unknown, ISBN 0-945001-01-0). The author of this book reveals details of secret intelligence and political structures of the United Kingdom and the USA in the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the twentieth century.

These data obviously yet not suggest who or what was the driving force of the intelligence network and the military-political structures, which in details is discussed on this web site, and broadening data on the site designated as part two. Both of these parties were formed in the second half of 2014. So Carroll Quigley wrote in 1981:

"... in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole.
For these men were organizing a secret society that was, for more than fifty years, to be one of the most important forces in the formulation and execution of British imperial and foreign policy. ... The leader was Cecil Rhodes, fabulously wealthy empire-builder ... The second was William T. Stead, the most famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day. The third was Reginald Baliol Brett, later known as Lord Esher, friend and confidant of Queen Victoria, and later to be the most influential adviser of King Edward VII and King George V. ... the three drew up a plan of organization for their secret society and a list of original members. The plan of organization provided for an inner circle, to be known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers. Within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be exercised by the leader, and a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was to be Rhodes, and the junta was to be Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner.
In accordance with this decision, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner was added to the society by Stead ...
Rhodes had been planning for this event for more than seventeen years (around 1873).
Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890.
... in modified form, it exists to this day.
From 1891 to 1902, it was known to only a score of persons. During this period, Rhodes was leader, and Stead was the most influential member. From 1902 to 1925, Milner was leader, while Philip Kerr (Lord Lothian) and Lionel Curtis were probably the most important members. From 1925 to 1940, Kerr was leader, and since his death in 1940 this role has probably been played by Robert Henry Brand (now Lord Brand).
During this period of almost sixty years, this society has been called by various names. During the first decade or so it was called 'the secret society of Cecil Rhodes' or 'the dream of Cecil Rhodes'. In the second and third decades of its existence it was known as 'Milner's Kindergarten' (1901 - 1910) and as 'the Round Table Group' (1910 - 1920). Since 1920 it ... has been called 'The Times crowd', 'the Rhodes crowd', the 'Chatham House crowd', 'All Souls group', and the 'Cliveden set'. ...
The Milner Kindergarten and the Round Table Group, for example, were two different names for The Association of Helpers and were thus only part of the society, since the real center of the organization, The Society of the Elect, continued to exist and recruited new members from the outer circle as seemed necessary. Since 1920, this Group has been increasingly dominated by the associates of Viscount Astor. In the 1930s, the misnamed 'Cliveden set' was close to the center of the society, but it would be entirely unfair to believe that the connotations of superficiality and conspiracy popularly associated with the expression 'Cliveden set' are a just description of the Milner Group as a whole.
In fact, Viscount Astor was, relatively speaking, a late addition to the society, and the society should rather be pictured as utilizing the Astor money to further their own ideals rather than as being used for any purpose by the master of Cliveden...".

Above mentioned Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894, d. 1955, was a British Army officer who later went into politics as a Scottish Unionist Member of Parliament. Ramsay was from a Scottish aristocratic family, a descendant of the Earls of Dalhousie
(Dalhousie Castle near by Edinburgh - 16 km south-east, and Glenmark in the County of Forfar - Angus was historically a county, known officially as Forfarshire, borders Aberdeenshire, Dundee, Perth and Kinross);
in 1913 he served in France for two years, then at the War Office in London; married on 30 April 1917 Lady Ninian Crichton-Stuart, nee Ismay Preston, daughter of Viscount Gormanston; served at the British War Mission in Paris to 1920; the 1920s was a company director,
near Arbroath (25 km ENE of Dundee), and Angus (area borders Dundee and Perth);
in 1936 he pointed to links between Spanish Republicans and the Soviet Union. Ramsay and Tyler Kent, a cypher clerk at the Embassy of the United States in London, were members of the Right Club but they were arrested - Ramsay was arrested under Regulation 18B on 23 May 1940. "The New York Times" published an article on "Britain's Fifth Column" in July 1940 which claimed Ramsay had sent to the German Legation in Dublin treasonable information given to him by Tyler Kent; in 1952 Ramsay wrote "The Nameless War" as an autobiography, theory re-interpreting the whole of modern history.

Above named the Earls of Dalhousie:

George Ramsay (d. 1705), younger son of the second Earl, served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Scotland in 1702. William Ramsay was created Baron Panmure in 1831;
John Ramsay (1775 - 1842), a Lieutenant-General of the General Staff of India. John Ramsay b. 1775 in
Cockpen, Midlothian, Scotland that is Cockpen and Carrington Parish, ca 15 km south-east of Edinburgh
- d. 1842. Son of George Ramsay, 8th Earl of Dalhousie
- 16 km south-east of Edinburgh -
and married in
Edinburgh in 1800 to Mary, daughter of Philip Delisle of Calcutta, India.
John Ramsay was maj.-gen. 1830; lt.-gen. 1841. Ramsay in 1793 served in Holland, then was stationed in Ireland in 1798, and proceeded to Egypt, 1801;
John Ramsay of Ochtertyre - 32 km west of Perth, Scotland - met him in 1801.
He was put up for Aberdeen Burghs in 1806 by his brother William Maule. He was Commander-in-Chief of the 79th Highlanders, Military Secretary to the Governor-General of Canada, 1819 and 1828.
He was Military Secretary to the Viceroy of India, the 9th Earl of Dalhousie between 1829 and 1832. He gained the rank of Lieutenant-General in the service (1833 ? to 1842 ?) of the General Staff, India - 1841.
Children of Lt.-Gen. John Ramsay and Mary Delise:
1. William Ramsay (1804–1871), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
2. Admiral George Ramsay, (the twelfth Earl, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1886; his eldest son, the fourteenth Earl, was succeeded by his eldest son, the fifteenth Earl - a Deputy Lieutenant of Angus),
3. James Ramsay (1808–1868), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
4. Lt.-Col. John Ramsay, 5. Anne Finlay Anderson,
6. General Sir Henry Ramsay (1816–1893), a General in the Bengal Army, whose grandson was mentioned above politician Archibald Maule Ramsay;
7. Lt.-Col. Robert Anderson Ramsay.

See in Bengal: Latour and
Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of
Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.

Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. It used French families located in Switzerland, Ceylon, France, Russia. Scottish and Irish families combined to Naples and Marseille, Ceylon, Odessa and Japan; Russians, English and Pilsudski entered by Japan to Ceylon; parallel from Odessa the Zionist movement came out founding a base of the state of Israel. Odessa has paired their to Berezino, Ireland - Japan - Ceylon.

And the whole system took over the movement of Germans from Estonia, and underground combat movement of Pilsudski, combining the objectives of the independence of these two states: Poland / Lithuania / Belarus + Estonia / Latvia, and as I wrote above Israel. Then they created a counterintelligence and intelligence of new Bolshevik Russia and the USSR. It already was a masterpiece, but totally wrecked by Stalin in 1937 - have to say that in this case, Stalin was a genius.

At the end part of that intelligence system of Soviet Union took over the colony by building its so-called People's Polish Republic and the Ministry of Defence, through affinitized of the Konstantynowiczs: the Jaroszewicz, Spychalski, Zarako Zarakowski families and friendly Swierczewski family. Interesting in all of this is the use of Frenchmen to the creation of this system, most moved on the Konstantynowiczs - not so completely. This is the connection: Waclaw Sieroszewski a colleague of Azbelev, who was in Nagasaki - his brother is a director of the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz; so, the Nobel family with Sydney Reilly, an Irishman and a Jew from Odessa - this is the same family of Nobel, where the brother of above-mentioned was the head of the board of the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - this is short way to the Swedish Enigma! Waclaw Sieroszewski of course was mate to a brother of Jozef Pilsudski - Bronislaw, which of course anchored in Nagasaki, and then here sailed Reilly. One very interesting figure - erased from history: Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski from the Mscislaw district.

It's amazing that the October Revolution in 1917, which swept the Russian Empire, allowing the reconstruction of Poland, broke out just on the anniversary of the death of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, exactly the 100th anniversary of his death, and around Lenin appeared figures of the Polish nobility, which adopted a sense of the Kosciuszko Polish patriotism.
"Instead, after the fall of Napoleon's empire in 1815 he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I in Braunau. In return for his prospective services, Kosciuszko demanded social reforms and territorial gains for Poland, which he wished to reach as far as the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east".

On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.
Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.

The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities. This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland.

Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state.

Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed. Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.

Józef Piłsudski, Walery Sławek, Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz were 'collaborators' of military intelligence service of Austria - Hungary, with nickname "Stefan" since 1908; co-operated Aleksander Prystor, Gen. Bolesław Roja, Józef Beck, Gen. Edward Rydz-Śmigły, and Gen. Kordian Zamorski. Pilsudski in 1904 collaborated with Japan intelligence; Captain Joseph Rybak took care on Pilsudski, placing a group of agents in paramilitary organizations in Galicia, described as "The Informer R". Jozef Pilsudski was dismissed from the Austrian army in September 1916. Brigadier General Wlodzimierz Zagorski was born in 1882 in France. He grew up with his brother in Germany. In 1900 joined the Austrian army. Eleven years later, he began to work for "K-Stelle", 1914, as a captain, he was Chief of Staff Headquarters of the Legions. Formally, was the head of Jozef Pilsudski, who gave him the reports. Cooperation was not the best. When the Japanese-Russian war broke in 1904, Pilsudski decided to use the conflict for the Polish cause, get technical and material help for Polish irredentist aspirations. Japanese will give us the money to buy weapons and facilitate its reception in Hamburg, and we will collect them messages about the movements of the Russian troops sent to the East. These relations were surrounded by the biggest mystery. Only Pilsudski, Jodko, Filipowicz and Stanislaw Wojciechowski knew of them over one and a half year (April 1904 - October 1905).

Pilsudski had its plans to create in Galicia conditions for the military training of volunteers in the event of war between the aggressors and would create Polish troops fighting against Russia and would become the reborn Polish Army personnel.

In 1908 in Lviv, Cpt. Gustav Iszkowski teamed up with the Pilsudski movement. Probably by the end of 1908 Pilsudski spoke with the chief of the Intelligence Census Bureau, Maximilian Ronge. Then probably come to an agreement to organize the grid intelligence and sabotage against Russia in exchange for allowing the activities of the independence movement. In March, 1909 representatives of the Census Bureaus conferring with Pilsudski, Jodko and Slawek in Vienna. The project is called intelligence operation Informer R, directed the same Ronge - hidden it even from his own intelligence apparatus. The management of the organization called The Informer R were Jozef Pilsudski, Valery Slawek responsible for ongoing contacts with the representative of the interview, Captain Joseph Rybak; and Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz. By the end of 1912 Pilsudski organization might only auxiliary information.

Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1864 in Słuck, d. 1924 in Warsaw, nickname A. Wroński, Jowisz, diplomat; his parents: Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1834 - d. 1898 (probably son of Onufry) and Maria Sokołow - Skwarcew b. ca 1842. His father was ophthalmologist. Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz member of the Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat since 1889, and Polish Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat / as II Proletariat, or Small Proletariat established in February 1888 and operated for March 1893. From January to July 1885 he studied medicine at the University of Dorpat / Tartu, Estonia; he came to Warsaw, then in September 1885 he went to Lviv, expelled from Austria, 1886, he studied in Würzburg, and then in Paris, graduated in 1889; London next; collaborator of the Centralization Social-Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat. In 1892 co-founder of the Polish Socialist Party.
Jodko-Narkiewicz counted on the war between the aggressors and on ​​an armed uprising against Russia.
Above
Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, born on 23 Dec. 1834 in Puków in the Ihumen district,
died 1898 - Bobownia; Onufry Jodko - Narkiewicz was living in Pukow. Pukau / Pukowo / Pukow, at present: Komsomolskaja, a few km west of Sunaje and Kisiele;
north-west of Truchanowicze and Gresk, Anufrovichi and Anufri, north of Kondratowicze; south-west of Marina Gorka. In 1870, to the Минская губерния, the Игуменский уезд, in the Пуковская волость; Pukowo / Пуков is situated south-east of Tatury / now Charitonowka, and Kutschinka, east of Starica, Sloboda, Dumitshi; north-east of Kopyl. North of Sluck.
Janina Wiktoria Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1869
in Warsaw / Warszawa, was daughter of Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz from Puków.
The Polish well-off proprietors in the Ihumen (Cerven) district in the second half of 19th cent. was the Jodko family in landed properties Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo and Onufrowo / Anufri.
Gardening in estates of the Ihumen district: Kuchcice, Tolkaczewicze, Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo, Cieplen, Smilowicze and Rawanicze.
In Pukow is a church, in the 16th cent. to the Puk / Пук family; 17th cent. to Olelkovich / Олельковичь and Radzivill / Радзивилл family; at the beginning of the 18th century to the Neuburg / Нойбург family from German taken from Boguslaw Radziwill / Богуслав Радзивилл, because his daughter Людвика Каролина / Ludwika Karolina Radziwill married to Karl Filipp Neuburg / Karl III Philipp von der Pfalz / Carl Philipp, b. 1661 in Neuburg; that is he married on August 10, 1688 in Berlin to Princess
Ludwika Karolina Charlotte Radziwill of Birze, daughter of Bogusław Radziwill, from this marriage four children were born: Leopoldine Eleonore Josephine, Maria Anna, Elisabeth Auguste Sophie m. Joseph Karl von Pfalz-Sulzbach.
At Пуково / Pukowo in 1731 wielded the earth Franciszek Drucki-Lubecki / Франтишек Друцкий-Любецкий. In 1744 again to the Radziwill family, but at the beginning of the 19th cent. Dominik Radziwill / Доминик Радзивилл lost Pukowo, now Pukowo and Bobownia to the Narkiewicz - Jodko / Наркевич-Иодко;
in 1846 to Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz / Томаш Наркевич-Иодко, Catholic. 1857 new church; close to Пуково (now Komsomolskaja) is Кондратовичи and here in 1862 was the second church;
Ksawery / Ксаверий was son of above named Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, and he bought from Wojnillowicz / Войниллович the Lopuchi estate / Лопухи, 3 km of Pukowo / Пуково; a father of Edward Wojnillowicz / Эдвард Войниллович - Adam was proprietor of above Lopuchi.
Estate of "Оттоново" to Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Онуфри Наркевич-Иодко;
Jakub Jodko-Narkiewicz / Якуб Наркевич-Иодко has the Nadnieman / Наднеман estate;
Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Наркевич-Иодко has son Otton Jodko-Narkiewicz, in 1840 owner of 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm of Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina 1848.

Jodko-Narkiewicz owner of the 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina in 1848. Наднёман was property of

Jakob Jodko - Narkiewicz son of Otton Jodko - Narkiewicz, biologist, meteorologist, physicist and electrician, lived 1848–1905;

next owner Konrad Jodko - Narkiewicz, son of Jakob, in 1921 moved to Cracow;

next of kin Kristian Narkiewicz - Lein is living now in Chicago.

Наднёман is located north of Kopyl, near by Piasocznaje, south-west-south of Uzda, and north-west of Pukowo. Ханичево / Атонава / Калінаўка or Оттоново / Ханічава is located north-west of Pukowo, south of above Наднёман, near by Piasocznaje.

Above mentioned Jodko-Narkiewicz in Pukowo ca 80 km west of Osipovichi and north of Sluck. See near by:

1. Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666;

2. Michal Zbieranowski born Berezino in 1882 son of Jozef Zbieranowski and his wife Zofia nee Witkowski, after Bobrujsk, Sluck and Riga / Ryga 1899 - 1904;

3. Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Sluck! His mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749; grandfather: Florian Stanislaw Bulhak.

Aldona Kojałłowicz Bułhak nee Dzierżyńska, 1870 - 1966, had son Antoni Bułhak b. 1898.
His wife Wanda Bułhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and
Maria Juchniewicz nee Piłsudska, b. 1873.
She was daughter of Józef Wincenty Piotr Piłsudski, b. 1833; and her brother was Józef Klemens Piłsudski b. 1867.
The second son of above Aldona: Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895.
Sister of above Aldona: Jadwiga Dzierżyńska-Kuszelewska / Hedwig / Jadwiga Kuszelewski (1871 - 1949) + Konstanty Kuszelewski - Prawdzic (1857 - 1922). Her son: Jerzy Kuszelewski, 1895-1939.
Rudolf Bułhak b. 1895, his brother Antoni Bułhak born 1898;
Antoni Bulhak died after 1970, was one of the aides of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski and husband of Wanda Kadenacy, niece Marshal (mistake!?).
After the invasion of the Germans in Poland in September 1939, he was taken from Warsaw to its assets in the Suwalki region:
Pilsudski wife - Alexandra / Aleksandra Szczerbinska and her daughters, her sister and their cousin Anna.
Jozef Klemens Pilsudski + Aleksandra Szczerbinska has daughter Jadwiga Jagoda Pilsudska married to Andrzej Jaraczewski
(Andrzej Jaraczewski / Andrzej Antoni Jaraczewski, nickname Andrew, b. 1916, d. 1992, a Polish Navy lieutenant, the Zaremba coat of arms. In 1944 he married Jadwiga Piłsudska, an Air Transport Auxiliary pilot and daughter of Marshal Józef Piłsudski.
They had a son, Christopher Joseph / Krzysztof Józef, and daughter, Jane Mary / Joanna Maria, who married Janusz Onyszkiewicz);
they had daughter Joanna Jaraczewska / Jane Mary / Joanna Maria, married to Janusz Onyszkiewicz / Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz born 1937.
Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów m. 1st to NN 1933-1967, and m. 2nd Joanna Jaraczewska b. 1950.
Zofia Kadenacy nee Piłsudski, b. 1865 was sister of Józef Klemens Piłsudski; her husband Bolesław Kadenacy (1845 - 1918), her daughter
Wanda Kadenacy + Antoni Bulhak, b. 1898 (mistake!?), the aide-de-camp of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski.
We need check this genealogy!
Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas and Aldona, the house Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898;
married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of
Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska.
The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.
So, we are thinking, Antoni Jerzy Bułhak / Antoni Bulhak, the aide-de-camp of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, had wife Wanda nee Juchniewicz.
Above mentioned Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów / Lviv; a Polish mathematician and politician. 2007 until 2009, he served as the Vice-President of the Foreign Affairs Committee in the European Parliament. Minister of Defence under Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka, and again from 1997 until 2000 under Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek. 1984 - 1986 member of the Warsaw University Senat; his parents:
Stanisław Onyszkiewicz and Franciszka Cencora b. ca 1910;
he was older child;
we know on Karol Mościcki + Maria with Franciszka vel Maria Mościcka + Onyszkiewicz with children: Jerzy Onyszkiewicz d. 1939 in Zamość and Maria Onyszkiewicz + Handzel.
Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz was born Dec. 1937 in Lwów m. NN 1933-1967, and m. 2nd Joanna Jaraczewska b. 1950, with Danuta, Wanda, Witosława, Andrzej, and Stanisław Onyszkiewicz.
Above named Stanisław Onyszkiewicz, born 1910 and Franciszka Cencora had one child?
But Stanisław Onyszkiewicz, 1906 - March 1989, was born to Tomasz Onyszkiewicz and Katarzyna Mucha. Stanisław had one brother Kazimierz Onyszkiewicz. Stanisław married Franciszka Cencora in 1936, at age 30. He had 2 children: daughter married to Bogobowicz.
We know on Tadeusz Stanisław Onyszkiewicz b. 28 Apr. 1906 in Lwow, d. 21 Nov. 1989 in Zamośc, doctor, son of Stanisław Onyszkiewicz and Agata Keller. 1946 in Zamośc. He had older brother Edwarda and sister Jadwiga, He had children: Tomasz (Lublin then) and Jerzy (Warsaw then) b. 1940, and Andrzej b. 1941.

4. Zofia Bulhak daughter of Hipolit Bulhak / Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесницы / Колесничи of the Копыльски р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937.

5. The Konstantynowicz family: Вязовница that is Wiazownica / Viazovnica, west of Swislocz (see Szostak family), north - east of Osipovichi; west of Berezyna river; south-east of Grodzianka (see Marian vel Jerzy Konstantynowicz); and Фортуны - here lived (also Чайковский Петр Николаевич, Чайковская Раиса Петровна / Raisa Czajkowska and the Томкович / Tomkowicz family) parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz (grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich): Константинович Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county.

6. The Bulhak family: Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk.

7. 1867-1913 I. Bulhak (?) or Bulgak purchased (1861) from Lipovskii, villages Kamionka or Matseevich; Насыцк near by Talka, south-east of Marina Gorka, north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze, near by Kamienka / Kamionki. And above Камионки or Kamienka close to Talka, north-west of Osipovichi.

8. Hieronim Bulhak son of Stanislaw Bulhak / Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and ca 26 km west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937.

9. Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи - 15 km west of Bobruisk; south-east of Osipovichi (I check my mistake), close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo; killed 1933.

10. Bulhak family in 1870 in the Minsk government, Sluck district, the Lanska area - Kosmowicze; Kosmowicze / Kosmowiczi - close to Pukielevshcina, Bychovshcina, Tshanovici, north of Kleck, south of Niezviz / Nieswiez, near by Osmolowo, Lan, Leonowiczi.

11. Konstantynowicz, Wiesielowo / Veselovo village in the Osipovichi district, Mogilev region;

12. Konstantynowicz in 1894, Spustik village, the Igumen County; Byelorussian, individual farmer, lived in the Osipovichi district, Yasenovka / Jasieniowka;

13. Szymon Bułhak b. ca 1660 / 1680?; 1686 Nowogrodek, owner of Ostrówka close to Mir, Janowszczyzna near by Iwieniec, Nowodwórek, Osipowszczyzna, Nacz, Puszcza Moszukowska, Domatkanowicze close to Kleck, Połoneczka by Dzwieja. Mikołaj Bułhak b. circa 1670 / 1695?, son of Benedykt Bułhak and Eufemia, husband of Katarzyna and Marianna, father of Florian Stanisław Bułhak ca 1695 - 1745?

14. Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski (of Bulhak in 1867-1913); the estate Bluza (Bluza close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family) from hands of Sophia Prosor / Zofia Prozor - Swietorzecka / Sventorzhetski, owned in those places. The Prozor family was near by to Malkiewicz - Horodecka Izabela.

And now we look at the text below written in January 2014. Bogdan Konstantynowicz, the author of this website believes that we can already, after a quarter-century of research on my genealogy, give to my readers to analyse and rethink, a few comments on the role of our family Konstantynowicz and the Polish-French family Armand from Moscow, in the deep structures of political intelligence of Tsarist Russia and in the strategic network of Russia's technology military intelligence and then even of the Soviet Union.

This is the text for further discussion.

Approximately one hundred years infiltrating of the military intelligence of Tsarist Russia by Polish agents in the years around 1814 - about 1922, brought unprecedented positive effect - Polish independence in 1918. But the Polish country was destroyed completely after the events of 1939, and above all after the creation of the Soviet protectorate in 1944/1945.

Jozef Pilsudski served for the military Austro - Hungarian intelligence, rose to the rank of brigadier general there / Brigadier. So he took advantage from the Germans and Austrians structure worked out into Tsarist Russia, which created artificial figures in the revolutionary socialist movement: Trubeckoj Nestor, Peter Kropotkin, Lenin Ulyanov, as well as in Russian networks of the military and industrial structures of the second half of the 19th century: electricity, telegraph, ciphers, decryption, generators, radio lamps, lighting lamps, aircraft, aircraft engines and vehicles, magneto for engines, new types of steel, electrical cables, airships, cars, radio, then television and soviet nuclear industry.
At the same time, the French military intelligence expanded in Russia, by the old French families, and others: English, Polish and Georgian in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
The network intelligence gone back to the Napoleonic times and the Italian Legions. Through these Cracow networks have developed for a family Trubeckoj, Kalinowski, Oginski, Konstantynowicz, Paszkowski, Armand, Demontet, Duflon, Rey, Diserens.
Russian military intelligence and counterintelligence created by Baltic German families from Latvia and Estonia, went back as far to families: Schilling, Benkendorf, Dubbelt, Rosenberg, Gernet, Rehbinder, Rosen, and next a military intelligence network reached Georgia and Svaneti - Racha: Japaridze, Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Maipariani - full this system took over the Pilsudski movement from the top, among others by family Konstantynowicz from Miezonka, Moscow, Tallinn and Viljandi.

The great importance in this system of underground operation had Armand family from Moscow, next of kin with the Wild, Demontet, a Georgian families, Konstantynowicz and Paszkowski.
Therefore they were relatives of Trubecki, Siedych, Rosenberg, Armand, Manfred, and had a Georgians family: Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Japaridze and Maipariani.
The Russian counterintelligence climb on this system. Now appeared Spychalski family, Jaroszewicz, Zarako Zarakowski, Swierczewski, Żymierski.
On the margin remained Malkiewicz and Horodecki, Szostak and Zbieranowski and Andrzejak of Lodz and many others from Estonia, Latvia, Georgia, Belarus and Russia, and Finland, and of course in Sweden: Nobel, Damm, Hagelin, Hakker.
With the intelligence system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and of the Tsarist Russia fully used by the Jozef Pilsudski,
in order to rebuild Polish state.
Took over the structure in Lodz, Krakow, St. Petersburg, in Belarus and Moscow.
Inesse Armand and Anna Konstantynowicz were planted to Lenin, not counting other Armands.

Pilsudski always spoke he has got a few or a dozen years to build and re-build the independent Polish state, because then Russia raise with knees.
It was surely Stalin who idolized the Russian imperial state. However, it succeeded smash Russia in the 1917 - 1922 and rebuild Poland in 1918.


The eldest Pole among above military figures was general Jan Jacyna.

Jan (John) Jacyna born 15 December 1864, died on 10, December 1930 in Warsaw. He was the son of Alexander and Natalia nee Hejnarowicz. "In 1878, he graduated from high school in St. Petersburg, and the College of Engineering at Kronstadt and the St. Petersburg Military Academy of Artillery". Major-General in 1911. 1917 was an vice-president of the Association of Military Poles and president and treasurer of the Supreme Polish Military Committee in St. Petersburg. 1921 - 1922 adjutant general of the Head of State. Jacyna was married to Wiktoria Ossowiecki, with whom he had a son, Alexander b. 1894.

He served in a
"
Main technical committee"
of the Navy Ministry in St Petersburg since 1891;
at a later date he acted, 
1901 - 1917

as member on "
the board of directors of government armouries" of the Navy Ministry (next War and Navy  Ministry) in Petersburg.
Since then he was near to problems of war industry in Russia, especially during  -
1914 / 1917 - the First world war; then (since 1915)

he co-operated with "
Military - industrial committee" composite of war industry's representatives and he ran up against suggestions of aeroplanes deliveries and aerial inventions
(
confer Jan Jacyna memoirs, vol. 1, p. 71);

he was the most known general in all Polish environments of St Petersburg at the beginning of the 20th  cent., amidst military and industrial activists
, social workers after the Bolshevik revolution, and also among the Polish active politicians in Russian parliament  since 1905/06; he was near to the imperial Russian court; general Jan Jacyna evaluated figure of Wladymir Boncz Brujewicz wholy negative when paid a  call on Lenin at the end of January 1918;  

(general Jan Jacyna kept in touch with  e.g.

Michal Szydlowski and Karol Jaroszynski = Karol Yaroshinsky, who managed with a big loans especially  during  the First world war. On Jaroszynski see
Shay McNeal, "The Plots to Rescue the Tsar", ed. London 2001  

[Karol Yaroshinsky / Karol Jaroszynski "(...) died in near poverty in 1928. His last years were spent in pain as a result of a poison needle having been jabbed into him at the opera in Paris at almost the same time as Sidney Reilly disappeared in the Soviet Union
(
in the 1920s). (...) Before the Revolution, he had fallen in love with one of the Tsar's daughters (...). Near to Krivoshein - the man who brought Yaroshinsky into the Allied banking scheme. (...) Yaroshinsky was the financial benefactor to the Romanov family during the last days of their captivity in Tobolsk and Ekaterinburg in 1918. The man was involved with Henry Armitstead and Jonas Lied, who had been paid through the British Secret Service for activities in Northern Russia
(
1918)."]
).

The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company co-operated with the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank.

According to V. S. Solomko at http://www.encspb.ru/ this St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank was a joint-stock commercial bank, opened in 1869, cooperating especially closely with the

St. Petersburg International Bank

by taking part "in the military industrial group to build submarines for the Baltic Navy. The group included Lessner's Plant and Nobel's Plant in St. Petersburg, which played a leading role in the group, as well as Fenix, Atlas, and Gatchinsky Ironworks".

Guchkov Alexander Ivanovich b. 1862, political and public figure, banker and businessman, was Director of Moscow Discount Bank. In 1907 and 1915, he was elected Member of State Assembly representing Industry and Trade, heading a Defence Commission 1907-10.
In St Petersburg, he was a member of St Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank's board.
From 1915, he was Chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee and a member of the Special Meeting for defence.
At the end of 1916, he designed plans for dynastic coup, acc. to A. G. Kalmykov and http://www.encspb.ru.

The 'Duflon...' Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8: Evgeny / Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, Nikolai Danilovich Liesienko who 1906 - 1914 represented the interests of the company in St. Petersburg, L. F. Duflon who lived since 1908 in Switzerland, Alexander E. Armand, Sergei Gernet son of Pavel and Emil I. Ramseyer - Swiss citizen, the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, chairman of the Board of the 'Atlas' Society in St. Petersburg; his brother Ramseyer Y. I., Swiss citizen was also the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank and Director of the Company 'Sormovo'.
On the Рамзай surname:
we are looking for who is Riemsnyder / Reimsnyder / Reemsnyder / Reamsnyder or Ramseyer / Рамзай К. А. / Ramsay K. A. - a family from Estonia and St. Petersburg
.

Lenin's funds in Russia and the German military intelligence service - part 2: Alexander = Helphand vel Parvus (from Berezyna / Berezino) and also Hanecki and Mecheslav Yulevich Kozlovsky (Mieczyslaw Kozlowski son of Julian, a Bolshevik attorney, died in 1927, was described as the chief recipient of the German money that was transferred from Berlin through the Diskonto-Gesellschaft to the Stockholm Nya Banken and thence to the Siberian Bank in Petrograd) had been working for Parvus, Sklarz in Berlin, Karinsky, Bonch-Bruyevich, Lenin, Radek, and Vorovsky; Eugenia Mavrikievna Sumenson (Eugenia daughter of Maurycy, a woman relative of Hanecki), Svenson vel Hans Steinwachs, Alexinsky.


Curiously enough:

New Russian military intelligence under different names operated from October 21, 1918. At this time the Red Army was already a huge and powerful body but after October, 1917, Bolsheviks faced with many difficulties, including the collapse of the army. Therefore, reorganizing the old army, they left in the War Department that is the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs - General Directorate of the General Staff (GUGSH) and this body consisted the 2nd Division of the General Quartermaster in December 1917, which was the central organ of intelligence and counterintelligence services of the armed forces of Russia. So by the end of 1918, Soviet military intelligence in full was as the legal successor of the pre-revolutionary military intelligence. GUGSH headed General V. V. Marushevsky (Polish?) who refused to cooperate with the new government. 

Then Quartermaster-General Nikolai Mikhailovich Potapov was new chief of the military intelligence (in 1915-1917, Potapov was the Main Director of the General Staff at the office of General Quartermaster. However, according to some reports, he - from July 1917 - collaborated with the military organization of the Petersburg bolshevik Committee. In November, 1917 to May 1918, Potapov served as Chief of Staff, and acting as assistant manager of the Military Department; in June 1918, he became a member of the Supreme Military Council, and from July 1919 Chairman of the Military Legislative Council). 

Colonel Yudin was the bolshevik Commissar and Peter F. Ryabikov, after the coup, was had remained in the office because the Bolsheviks did not touch the military intelligence, as opposed to counter-military intelligence, which they immediately dispersed, as it was involved in the campaign of charges the Bolsheviks was spying for Germany in the summer of 1917. Crisis of foreign intelligence commenced with the end of December 1917: colonel Andrey Stanislavsky (Polish?) entered the service for the French intelligence, and intelligence reports from the allies - the French military mission in Moscow - came to the end in July 1918. In February 1918, the country faced with bloody civil war, and in March 1918 the Soviet government established the Supreme Military Council for the organization of the armed forces of Red Army with a military leader, former tsarist general M. D. Bonch-Bruevich and two political commissars Shutko and P. Proshyan. On March 17, 1918, the Supreme Military Council included: a military leader, his assistant, Quartermaster-General with several assistants, and intelligence chiefs, a field inspector of artillery, and others; on March 19, 1918: Chairman - People's Commissar for Military Affairs Leon Trotsky, the Council members and above named General N. Potapov. In June, 1918 the Supreme Military Council was reorganized and included: a military leader Bonch - Bruevich, chief of staff and staff occupied by former officers, the deputy of the military leader appointed a former Major General of General Staff Alexander Alexandrovich Samoylo, an assistant Chief of Operations of the Supreme Military Council was Colonel Alexander Kovalevsky (Polish? April - May 1918). Kovalevsky, soon will move to the South, where he headed the mobilization management of the North Caucasus Military District; here he with General Nosovich (Polish?) were arrested by Stalin, but after Nosovich was fleeing to the 'white', Kovalevsky was again arrested and shoted.

Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich / В. Д. Бонч-Бруевич was publisher and one of Lenin's closet associates. Curiosity! Lenin signed certificate for V. Bonch-Bruevich on July 7, 1920 because of a month's holiday and travels to Kulgaevka / Kulgajewka village in the Klimovichi county, Moghilev / Mogilev province, when the Red Army went on the general offensive - begun on July 4, 1920 - against Poland. Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich had got a cabin in autonomous Finland and Lenin had hiding place there in period July - October 10th, 1917 [Old Style] i.e. to 23rd October; Vladimir Bruevich was administration manager at the Council of People's Commissars from November 1917; cf. F. Antoni Ossendowski, "Shadow of the bleak East", edition of 1919 and 1921, p. 57 - 58: he was known to sphere of Petersburg high society, Polish "old nobleman", secret chieftain of  socialists; he concealed of Trocki - Bronstein in Petersburg A.D. 1905 and also directed Chrustalow - Nosar or Chrustalov - Nosari in 1905.

The second brother, older - general Michail (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich either Bonch - Bruyevich Mikhail Dmitriyevich or Michal Bonc - Bruevic, see - if you read Russian - here:  http://history.tuad.nsk.ru/index.html (b. 1870 - died 1956; son of Dmitry who stayed in Moscow) who was tsarist general. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich from 1892 to 1895 served as an officer with the Lithuanian Guards Regiment at Warsaw. He was in command of the 176th Perevolochensky Regiment, based at Chernigov in 1914 and had known Russian aviator Pyotr Nesterov. The chief of staff and deputy commander of the Russian Northern Front and commander of the Northern Front from 29 August 1917 to 9 September 1917. September 1917 (?) a chief of the Russian military counterintelligence.
Above inf. acc. to http://www.x-libri.ru/elib/ by Arsen Martirosyan Benikovich, 'Conspiracy marshals. British intelligence against the Soviet Union'.
'Germane-norden' and 'Balticum' were extremely influential in Germany, and in Russia - representatives of the ancient aristocratic families of the number pro-German Ostsee (Baltic) Barons played a crucial role in large-scale after February and October 1917 Revolutions in Russia, close to the head of the Russian military counterintelligence Gen. M. Bonch-Bruevich (brother of Lenin's closest aide). Different source: On September 9, 1917, Бонч-Бруевич / Bonch-Bruevich was replaced as commander by Gen. V. A. Cheremisov / В. А. Черемисов and appointed to the Supreme Commander. Arriving at the General Headquarters in Mogilev, Bonch-Bruevich established contact with the Mogilev Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies and 27 September 1917 was co-opted into its executive committee in Mogilev by Dnieper river. In early October 1917, Bonch-Bruevich rejected the appointment of Governor-General of the Southwestern Region in Kiev and Omsk and took over as head of the Mogilev garrison.
But acc. to Soviet Security and Intelligence Organizations, 1917-1990: A Biographical..., by Michael Parrish, we read that M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was a General in Tsarist Counterintelligence.
Next M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was chief of staff of the Supreme Commander after November 1917
. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the military director of the Supreme Military Council and chief of general field staff of the Red Army (field staff of the Revolutionary Military Council) in 1918 - 1919.

Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the specialist in take a pictures from airplanes and organized the first technical office of aerial photograph in 1925; he wrote "The aerial photograph" in 1931 and similar book in 1934 (and  Grigorij - his son Mikolaj (2nd) b. 1896 was general of the Soviet air force).


The family von Pilar Pilchau from Pärnu and south-western foreland of Tallinn, played a major role in the political activities of Estonia in the nineteenth century, combining both stories Polish struggle for independence with history of Estonia.


Among relatives and next of kins of our Konstantynowicz 'Mscislau' branch appeared the Zarako Zarakowski family in the second half of 19th cent. and in the 20th cent.; 

the Spychalski family from Lodz was related to kinsmen of our lineage at the turn of the 20th century and in the middle of the 20th cent.; 

the Jaroszewicz family had connection to our line in the middle of the 20th cent. (the Jaroszewicz house derived from the Vicebsk province and had Prus the 1st arms, they possessed here the Ostupiszcze estate from Gruzewski family since 1710 to the end of the 18th cent.; Jerzy Piotr Jaroszewicz with Kwaczynski nickname was an officer here in 1713 - 1714 and somebody here in 1716; related to Kownacki, Rymaczewski and Kopakowski according to Jan Ciechanowicz, vol. 3; among others several of the Jaroszewiczs died in Old Bychow in 1655; priest Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666, Roman Jaroszewicz in Mahileu in 1682, and Jan Jaroszewicz in Vilna 1720 - 1722, another Jan Jaroszewicz and also his son Jan lived in Szaule near by Mejszagola in 1753, Ludwik Jaroszewicz lived in the Mscislau province in 1764; the Jaroszewiczs were related to Jankowski, Olszewski and Chodasiewicz families in the Dzisna district and also they served Radzivill family in the Minsk government at the turn of the 20th cent.; Dmitrij Jaroszewicz son of Konstantin, Russian admiral)

Constantinovich / Konstantinovitz / Constantinowitz family in Russia, 18th and 19th cent. to the November Revolution 1917

the Swierczewski family was near socially associated with us, for instance in the sixtieth of the 20th century. 

Some Generals, Prime Minister, the Head of State and one marshal of the communistic Poland - creators of the Soviet   transitory administration 1943 / 1990 - derived from these families. Relatives of our Konstantynowicz branch kept in touch  with  Jozef  Pilsudski, Michal Zymierski and Wladyslaw Sikorski at the moment in the first half of the 20th century - marshals  and  General with different political views. 

It wonder that three Marshals and General - military prosecutor died with natural death but three remaining Generals died with tragic death.

The Jaroszewicz marriage was murdered by former Secret Service and the Soviet KGB officers, acc. to http://nowahistoria.interia.pl/historia-na-fotografii/. Jaroszewicz was supposed to suggest that Charles / Karol Swierczewski 'Walter' betrayed him in 1947, the secret disclosed by the Soviet General, concerning the replacement of the Polish communist leaders by Soviet agents-look-alikes.

About a backstage of murder of the Jaroszewicz couple writes in book 'Famous couples PRL', Sławomir Koper, ed. by 'Red and Black', at website http://wiadomosci.wp.pl/ on 11 February 2014. "...Jaroszewicz apparently had financial problems, but saved a sell-numismatists, which Peter has accumulated during his long career. ... journalist Bohdan Roliński published two interviews with former Prime Minister. ... indicated that Jaroszewicz spoke with Karol Świerczewski, who told him that the Russians used the 'method of matrioszka', of substituting Polish communist by Soviet agents - look-alikes. Jaroszewicz and Świerczewski have identified several 'matrioszka', including Jozef Swiatlo and Boleslaw Bierut. Jaroszewicz suggested that the death of Świerczewski could be related to this knowledge. ... Even more sensational hypothesis has a journalist of the weekly Angora, Leszek Szymowski, who stated that the reason for the murder was the Jaroszewicz archive, which contained a copy of the documents incriminating Wojciech Jaruzelski, Czeslaw Kiszczak and other politicians 80s. This crime was part of a broader plan to eliminate all that could stopped the conduct of political transformation, directed by generals Kiszczak and Jaruzelski. Weekly Wprost published information suggesting that the death of Jaroszewicz has connected with the secret wartime archives of the Reich Security Office, which at the end of World War II went to the baroque palace in Radomierzyce near Zgorzelec. ... among others Gestapo informers lists, documents relating to French collaboration with the Third Reich ... In 1945, Colonel Piotr Jaroszewicz and several other officers had some explosive packages of securities before the archives were transferred to the USSR. ... Tadeusz Steć was killed in his own home at the hands of unknown assailants just a few months after Peter. Before his death, he was tortured... Jerzy Fonkowicz was assassinated in 1997. In 2007, the theory that the murder was related to the Jaroszewicz Nazi archive has placed the Criminal Intelligence Bureau of the Police Headquarters (in Poland). ... ignored the testimony of the witness (who said he saw one woman and two men the morning on September 1 came out of the house). At the end of 2005, analysts Archive X (section dealing with the explanation of complex criminal cases) found that from the register of the murder of Jaroszewicz lost key evidence, that is, the three bags with traces of unidentified fingerprints. The prints were found at the glasses of Jaroszewicz and cabinet doors located in his office... Biography of Jaroszewicz overgrown in many myths. The future prime minister was born in 1909 in Nieśwież ... ... In August 1943 he was still Private, but after several months already a colonel, and after a further eight (after the war) general! Even Napoleon Bonaparte promoted from lieutenant to general took a little more time...".

Generals of communistic People Polish Army: Karol Swierczewski, Piotr Jaroszewicz and Marian Spychalski (later on the Marshal) in the fourties of the 20th century were deputies of Michal Zymierski - Marshal and communistic Minister of Defense. The genealogy of my Mscislau "inlet" of the Konstantynowicz ancestry point out long and strong connections with the Imperial Russian Army and Russian military intelligence since the seventies of the nineteenth century  and after  when they served in tsarist Georgia / Sakartvelo 
but especial at the turn of the 20th century. It was the tsarist military technology intelligence at the beginning of the 20th century.  

This connections fade away probably at the end of the 20th century?


The historical and genealogical details.


Polish conspirators 1793 / 1819 / 1821 / 1833:

Jan Mikolaj Oskierka born Dec. 1735, died in exile in 1796 - Tobolsk and here he was buried.

The son of
Rafal Alojzy Oskierka 1708-1767 and Stanislawa Teresa OGINSKA.

Stanislawa Teresa Oskierka Oginska, 1724 - 1744, the daughter of Martian Michal Oginsky, b. 1672 in Witebsk.
Named Marcjan (Marcin) Michal Oginski 1672 - 1750, the Witebsk governor in 1730, Vitebsk castellan 1703-1730, marshal of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1712, 1718, 1723, prince.
Son of Szymon Karol Oginski and Teodora.
Husband of Tekla Ana / Anna Larska; Teresa Tyzenhauz; Teresa Oginska; and Krystyna Oginska.
Father of Stanislawa Teresa OSKIERKA / Oskierko

[with a daughter Marianna Straszewicz b. ca 1740.
Mother of Teresa; Aleksandra; and Alojzy Rokicki b. 1760;
and grandson Michal ROKICKI b. 1790 + KORNELA PROZOR;
great-grandson Ludwik Rokicki b. 1820/1830.
Maybe from ALOJZY was a daughter TEKLA ROKICKA married PROZOR, died 1860 with the son Mieczyslaw PROZOR b. 1830 + Zofia Oskierka 1830-1878,
and with granddaughter Stanislawa Prozor b. 1862, m. Jan Olizar-Wolczkiewicz 1855-1913.
The mother of named JAN OLIZAR WOLCZKIEWICZ was Wiktoria Modzelewska 1828-1903 born Szymanowska!];

Marianna;
Barbara Pac;
Ignacy Oginski Duke; Stanislaw Jerzy Oginski.
Brother of Boguslaw Kazimierz Oginski; Krystyna Tyszkiewicz; Eleonora Oginska and JERZY Oginski.
Half brother of Zofia Oginska and Aleksander Oginski.

Jan Mikolaj Oskierka / Ivan Oskirka, statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
He was the son of Rafal Aloizy.
Together with his brother Antoni Joachim Oskierka studied in Warsaw. Participated in the seven-year war of 1756-1763.
In 1764 he took Czartoryski's side and of King Stanislaw Poniatowski. He was the confederary Mozyr judge; was a deputy from the Mozyr County. In 1781, he was elected to the Tribunal of Lithuania. In August 1784, he was invited by Karol Radziwil to Nesvizh in connection with the King's visit planned there.
In August 1786, he signed a petition to the king asking for the border regiment. In 1788, together with Konstantin JELENSKI, he was a deputy to the Polish-Lithuanian Parliament from the Mozyr County.
In 1790, he gave up his son Rafal Oskierka to the top post in Lithuania.
The Constitution of May 3, 1791 greeted with his great enthusiasm. He was the richest owner in Lithuania, heir to a huge fortune (7 million zl). He owned Narovlei / NAROWLA (in the HOMEL county and close to KONOTOP - with the villages of Antonovo, Mukhoyedy, Ugly, Golovchitsy), Karpovichi in the Mozyr County; Barbarovo and Konotopy in Rechytsky / RZECZYCA COUNTY.
In early August 1793, together with his son Rafal Michal Oskierka

[born after 1761 - d. 1818; official in MOZYRZ, in 1791 served at the Royal Court, CONSPIRATOR in 1793 ! He married to Maria Oskierka b. ca 1790, the daughter of ANTONI OSKIERKA b. ca 1740. RAFAL's son - Jan Oskierka b. 1819 + Julia Oskierka the daughter of Pawel Oskierka official in RZECZYCA and granddaughter of Leopold Oskierka],

took part in the conspirative congress of the nobility in the estate of Karol Prozor in Khoyniki, whose goal was to prepare an armed attack against the Russian Army and for the revival of the Constitution on May 3, 1791.

Karol Prozor and Captain Hamilcar Kasinsky / KOSINSKI left the Khoyniki on April 20, 1794 in JUREWICZE / Yurovichi.
However, Jan Mikolaj Oskerko, through his envoy, warned that Russian soldiers were waiting for them in Jurewicze.
Thus he saved friends, but he himself was arrested on the first day of Easter in 1794.
After the Smolensk investigation, by decree of Catherine II of June 20, 1795, ranked among the first category of convicts; Oskerka was exiled to "the most remote Siberian cities." His property was confiscated and was distributed to Russian nobles, in particular, in 1793 his estate Barbarovo was transferred to the real secret adviser Sivers.
From Irkutsk, Oskerka was moved to Zhigansk in the Yakutsk region of Irkutsk province, where he brought 122 silver rubles.
Released under the amnesty of Paul I in 1796 but he was died of apoplexy in Tobolsk in 1796, where he was buried with honors by the son Dominik Oskierka, accompanying his father on his way back to his homeland.

Jan Mikolaj Oskierka born Dec. 1735, died in exile in 1796 - Tobolsk had 3 children:

1.
Rafal Michal Oskierka 1761-1818 + Maria Oskierka

[with 1. Jan Oskierka b. 1820 + Julia Oskierka;
2. Emilia Oskierka + Hubert Artemiusz Swiatopelk;
3. Teresa Oskierka + Romuald Jelenski];
2.
Dominik Oskierka b. ca 1770 + Salomea Gizycka

[with 1. Maria Oskierka b. ca 1790 + Jan Gizycki and
2. Kajetan Oskierka b. 1821 + Pss Stefania Julia Radziwill - the owner of MIEZONKA !];
3.
Aniela Oskierka 1770-1804 + Ignacy Kajetan Prozor

[with 1. Kornela Prozor 1800-1835 + Michal Rokicki
2. Henryk Prozor b. ca 1800;
3. Maurycy Prozor h. wl. 1801-1886
+ Anna Chlopicka - see more details at my domain !].

After the death of Oskierka, the Russians to return only a small part of the property (Konotopy). The memory of the loss of the huge estates of Oskerka was preserved in the Belarusian proverb: "It disappeared, like Oskierka assets. [above inf. under copyright by the Russian Wikipedia]"


Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) married Katarzyna MYCIELSKA GORZYCKA MIELZYNSKA

MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki.
MACIEJ's children:
1. Elzbieta, m. Franciszek Wessel, official in Zakroczym;
2.
Urszula MIELZYNSKA + Antoni Walknowski

{

[BRYGIDA BARDZKA was the daughter of Wojciech Marek Bardzki d. 1770]

- see Jakub KIEDRZYNSKI junior}.

On above junior, Jakub Kiedrzynski:

Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798]. Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.

Her father Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770, mother Helena Teresa Kozminska, 1706-1792.
Her brothers:
Augustyn Bardzki of Wrzesnia, died in 1793, and Rafal Tadeusz Jan Bardzki, 1739-1758.
Her children:
Franciszek Wierusz Walknowski b. 1769 or before, and Teresa Wierusz Walknowska;
and with JAKUB Kiedrzynski:
Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska ARNOLD, b. 1770
{in Sobotka, 1798, Jan Arnold 1751-1840, the owner of Pecherzow, married Juljanna Kiedrzynski [2nd], b. ca 1770 / or in 1772-1811; he was 1st married Ruszkowska, widowed, the owner of Wierzchoslaw. Witness Maciej Bogdanski, official in KALISZ},
and Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.
Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski [compare the Pradzynskis and the Kiedrzynskis of WOLA WIAZOWA ! - the family of the author to this domain].

3. Marianna Krystyna;

4. and son Krzysztof Ignacy Mielzynski b. 1670, d. in Pawlowice in 1721, in 1693 official in KCYNIA; 1717 governor of Przemet.


Maciej married in 1667 to Elzbieta Baranowska - she died in 1682.
Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI married in 1682 to Anna Goszycka / Gorzycka - she died in 1733, the daughter of Andrzej Goszycki / GORZYCKI and KATARZYNA MYCIELSKA, d. 1712.

MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska Gorzycka, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki or Andrzej Gorzycki.

Krzysztof had the son Andrzej Walenty Mielzynski, 1698-1771; born in 1698 - Goscieszyn close to - Wolsztyn (Wollstein); 9 km south-east to WOLSZTYN, 8 km north-east to WRONIAWY; north-west to PRZEMET; 18 km north-west to WILKOWO POLSKIE of Kiedrzyski-Zamoyski family. See Pradzynski-Kiedrzynski line. Compare Wola Wiazowa.
Andrzej Mielzynski d. 1771 in Pawlowice. Married in 1734 to Anna Petronella Bninska, b. before 1720 in GLOGOW - d. 1770, the daughter of Stanislaw Bninski + JOANNA Krzycka.
Andrzej's son -
Maksymilian Antoni Mielzynski, 1738-1799, born in Laszczyn - Cieladz [close to RAWA MAZOWIECKA]; d. in Pawlowice. Married in 1771 in Mierzeszyn (Meisterswalde) close to Trabki Wielkie, the Gdansk Pomeranie, to Konstancja Czapska, 1749-1813.
Her daughter:
Katarzyna Regina Barbara Cecylia Mielzynski, b. in 1775 in Rabin (Rombin), close to Koscian; d. 1817 in the Chobienice - Siedlec estate near Wolsztyn, and the PRUSSIAN border. Married in 1793 in Pawlowice (Pawlowitz) to Prokop Rufin Jozef Mielzynski, 1763-1800, the son of Hipolit Maciej Jozef Mielzynski 1733-1797 + Seweryna Lipska d. 1801,
with daughter
Gabriela Maria Konstancja Józefa Mielzynski POTULICKA OGINSKA, b. 1798 in Kotowo - Granowo, close to Grodzisk Wielkopolski and south-west to Poznan; d. 1822 in Nice, France.

Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki
[compare above mentioned MIELZYNSKI of PAWLOWICE and the WOLSZTYN district].


Let us remember, however, that in 1819 Garyel Kiedrzynski made a testamentary record in the event of his possible death
[if he belonged to LECHICI ? - an organization formed in 1819]
and in January 1833 he changed his name
[compare Wola Wiazowa - Kreski, Bleszynski, Arcichowski, Psarski, Walewski, Madalinski, Kalinowski {+ Trubecki, Konstantynowicz - Estonia, Orsha, Cracow, St Petersburg}, Oginski {+ Soltan, Piottuch-Kublicki, Konstantynowicz (+ Armand and Japaridze - Oldenburg - Saparov) and Szumski (see: Baron Bouvier)}].

After all, Jakub Kiedrzynski
[born 1738, and lived near ERAZM MYCIELSKI and TEODOR BILLEWICZ + Kozuchowski - read about the village of KARSY. Teodor Billewicz - Chamberlain of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski from 1765; the member of the Bar Confederation of the Duchy of Samogitia.
Andrzej Bardzki Colonel, 1730-1819 was the friend of ERAZM MYCIELSKI.
Jakuba's family has family ties with Pradzynski, Madalinski, Psarski - and then Pradzynski and Uminski combines family ties with Kiedrzynski in the Kujawy, and also to MIEROSLAWSKI],
Izydor Kiedrzynski
[maybe as Izydor Jan Kiedrzynski, after about 1776 staying in JEDLNO; his family joins family ties with Bleszynski],
and Kasper Kiedrzynski
[his son is Bedziechow - then the estate owns SOKOLOWSKI from Brzesc Kujawski {there are Uminski, Madalinski, Mielzynski families}].


The Permanent Council - the highest authority of administration of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, established in 1775:

The Permanent Council consisted of a king (with 2 voices), 18 senators and 18 representatives of nobles (deputies); divided into 5 departments (foreign interests, army, police, treasury and justice). The Permanent Council managed the administration, prepared a parliamentary acts, controlled the law and gave its interpretation; to limit the king's power and resist reforms. The Council was liquidated in 1789 by the Four-Year Parliament - reactivated in 1793 by the Grodno Parliament.

A counselors of the Permanent Council in 1775/1776 - 1788/1789 and 1793-1795:
1.
Anastazy Walewski,

KAZIMIERZ Tyzenhauz / Kazimieras Tyzenhauzas [see above] b. ca 1740 - son of Benedykt Tyzenhauz SENIOR - was the husband of above Barbara Gielgud, and father of ZOFIA Tyzenhauziene. Kazimierz Tyzenhauz was the brother of Barbara Wawrzecka; Benedykta Niezabitowska; Aleksandra Anna Morykoni; Teresa Tyzenhauz, and Magdalena Maria Ewa Walewska.
Named above Magdalena Maria Ewa Tyzenhauz-Walewska, was the wife of Anastazy Walewski / Colonna-Walewski, b. ca 1730, died in 1815 in Walewice [or Atanazy Colonna-Walewski 1733-1815], close to Lowicz.
Atanazy Colonna-Walewski was the son of Józef Kazimierz Walewski and Ludwika;
husband of
Magdalena Maria Ewa Tyzenhauz
and Joanna PULASKI daughter of Jozef PULASKI;

ATANAZY was the ex-husband of Marie d'Ornano

[above Maria Countess Walewska nee Laczynska, 1786 - 1817, a mistress of Emperor Napoleon I. In 1805 she married Atanazy / Anastazy Walewski / Athenasius Colonna-Walewski of Warka district b. ca 1733, d. 1815 or 1814, and a chamberlain to the last Polish king, Stanislaw August Poniatowski. She 2nd married count Filip Antoni d'Ornano / Philippe Antoine d'Ornano, an Napoleonic officer from Ajaccio. Maria was born in Kiernozia; she known Nicholas Chopin, Frederic Chopin's father];

father of Ksawery Walewski, Teresa Walewska, Józefa Witkowska and Antoni Bazyli Rudolf Walewski; brother of Teodora Walewska.

Maria partnered Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon was born in 1769, in above Ajaccio. They had one son Aleksander Florian Józef Walewski.

Named above Anna nee Pulaska / Joanna Pulaska, b. 1742 in Grabowo, was the daughter of Józef Pulaski; she was the sister of KAZIMIERZ PULASKI / Casimir Pulaski, US Revolutionary Hero, the Polish conspirator.
2.
Ksawery Walewski,

Kunegunda Ewa Anna Maslowska b. 1743 in Ruda; m. 1759-64, to Franciszek Ksawery Walewski owner of Wola Wiazowa, son of Franciszek Walewski and Teodora Walewska.

In 1781 named above owner of Wola Wiazowa, Franciszek Walewski / Franciszek Ksawery Walewski, 1739 - 1796, an official in Ostrzeszow in 1765, 1772, 1775, 1778 - 1796,
m. in 1784, in the Kobyla Góra parish, in MYSLNIEW, 4 km to Silesia, to Konstancja Psarska b. before 1770, daughter of Fryderyk Jakub Psarski 1730-1805 and his wife Ksawera Franciszka Bardzinska, 1753-1814.

Franciszek Ksawery Walewski, 1739 - 1796, was married three times: TERESA NIEMOJOWSKA-PSARSKA, b. ca 1730 - a marriage in 1760; unknown - marriage ca 1778 [or to Kunegunda Ewa Anna Maslowska b. 1743 in Ruda, marriage in 1759-64]; and in 1779 or in 1784, in Myslniew, west to Ostrzeszow, to Konstancja Psarska a daughter of Fryderyk Jakub Psarski.

Franciszek Ksawery Walewski owner of Wola Wiazowa, was the son of Franciszek Walewski with his 3rd wife [a marriage in STRONSKO]. Franciszek senior was born ca 1675 / 1690 / 1710 - died in 1745 in Rusiec; Franciszek's the 3rd wife was Teodora Walewska.

PSARSKI ALEKSANDER MAREK died ca 1726, m. Marianna
with:
A. MIKOLAJ Psarski died 1762 (branch of Tomasz Psarski married Kiedrzynska) m. Teresa Skrzynska [see below];

B. FRANCISZEK KSAWERY 1691 - 1772, owner of Cieszanowice, Poradzew, Gawlowice, part of Biala, Unikow, Myslniew, Szklarka and m. Teresa Silnicka / Sielnicka in 1726. Teresa Sielnicka b. 1700.

Above FRANCISZEK KSAWERY Psarski b. 1691, had children:
1. Marianna b. ca 1740, m. Jan Nepomucen Kosma Damian Adam Olszowski b. 1733 in Baranow;
2. Wojciech Stefan Psarski owner of Szklarka, m. Marianna / Magdalena Walewska;
3. Jadwiga 1740-1808 m. Ludwik Bylina, son of Anna nee Madalinski;
4. Jan Kanty Psarski owner of Wielgie and DYMKI, m. Teodora / Honorata Pstrokonska b. 1730,
with a. Tomasz m. Jablkowska;
b. Honorata Psarska 1770-1831 m. Jakub Madalinski 1775-1833;
5. Jakub Fryderyk PSARSKI, born ca 1730, d. 1805, owner of Myslniew close to Ostrzeszow;
6. Konstancja Psarska m. in 1784, to Franciszek Ksawery Walewski d. ca 1805, owner of Wola Wiazowa !!! - son of Franciszek.

Above TOMASZ Psarski (born - ? - ca 1730-1807), was son of above named Mikolaj Psarski owner of Zielonczyn and Teresa Skrzynska, in 1786 owner of Wola Dzierlinska.
Tomasz married to Dorota Kiedrzynska daughter of Andrzej Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowski, she was 1 voto Wawrzyniec Grabinski;
Tomasz Psarski was 2nd voto Franciszka Rupniewska died 1826.
Dorota m. 3rd to Kajetan Madalinski 1740-1784, with son Józef MADALINSKI, b. 1774, died after 1809, Captain in 1809.
Tomasz Psarski had daughter Marianna Psarski owner of Wola Dzierlinska, m. Mikolaj Sulimierski son of Michal Sulimierski and Jadwiga Jaroszewska.
3.
Romuald Walewski,

Mentioned Romuald Walewski b. ca 1738, died on June 14, 1812, was Major General, Adjutant General of Stanislaw August Poniatowski, the King of Poland, a captain of cavalry in 1789, Crown Court judge, six-time Member of Parliament. In Cracow from 1773 to 1775 joined the confederation Adam Poninski; member of Parliament in 1778 of the Cracow province; member of Parliament in 1786; member of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Military Commission in 1788; in 1792 he was awarded the Order of the White Eagle, in 1781 received the Order of St. Stanislaus.
Romuald Walewski, 1738 - 1812, m. 1st to Zuzanna Polchowska b. ca 1730 with:
Felicjanna Walewska 1760-1846, and
Magdalena Helena Walewska b. 1762 (Helena Walewska married probably IZYDOR KIEDRZYNSKI of Jedlno - Wola Wiazowa) in Stradom, Cracow;
Romuald m. 2nd Teresa Dunin-Karwicka b. ca 1760.
4.
Hieronim Wielopolski,
5.
Jozef Wilczewski,
6.
Antoni Wollowicz,

Mentioned above Antoni Wollowicz {Count in 1798 of Prussia}, 1750-1822 was son of Józef Wollowicz b. ca 1720 and Magdalena Ludwika Marianna Michniewicz; husband of Józefata Piasecka and Teofila Matuszewicz;
father of Joachim Józef Wollowicz and Eustachy Wollowicz; brother of Michal; Balbina Jelenska; Benedykt Wollowicz; Kazimiera, and Katarzyna.

Above Józef Wollowicz b. ca 1720, d. 1779, was the son of Jerzy Wollowicz [b. ca 1690, died 1724, who was son of Krzysztof Wollowicz] and Barbara Adamkowicz.

The WOLLOWICZ clan:

Teresa RONIKIER, 1845-1900 [the sister of ROMAN RONIKIER] m. Michal Wollowicz 1812-1882: he was the grandson of Count Antoni Wollowicz, 1750-1822 + Teofila Matuszewicz.
Antoni Wollowicz, Count in 1798 of Prussia, 1750-1822 was son of
Józef Wollowicz b. ca 1720 and Magdalena Ludwika Marianna Michniewicz [see below on SWIACK];
husband of Józefata Piasecka and Teofila Matuszewicz;
father of Joachim Józef Wollowicz and Eustachy Wollowicz;
brother of Michal Wollowicz; Balbina Jelenska; Benedykt Wollowicz; Kazimiera, and Katarzyna.

Above Józef Wollowicz b. ca 1720, d. 1779, was the son of Jerzy Wollowicz [b. ca 1690, died 1724, who was son of Krzysztof Wollowicz / Krzysztof Kazimierz Wollowicz b. ca 1670 / 1675] and Barbara Adamkowicz.

Now about Wollowicz in the Grodno district:

Swiack - in the Hrodna / Grodno district, ex-Augustow county; close to Wollowiczowce; in the 18th - 19th centuries in the Troki province - belonged to the Wollowiczs; a palace built the Grodno marshal - Józef Wollowicz (d. 1779)

{Józef Wollowicz b. ca 1720 and married Magdalena Ludwika Marianna Michniewicz. Above Józef Wollowicz b. ca 1720, d. 1779, was the son of Jerzy Wollowicz [b. ca 1690, died 1724, who was son of Krzysztof Wollowicz] and Barbara Adamkowicz}.

The palace finished his son Antoni Wollowicz, the official in Merecz, senator in the Congress Poland; Antoni Wollowicz d. 1822, and the estate took
his oldest son Joachim Józef Wollowicz (1783-1842) married Css Maria Starzenska.
Then all SWIACK belonged to Michal Wollowicz (1812-1882), m. Teresa Ronikier.
Michal's daughter Jadwiga Maria Wollowicz married Count Józef Miaczynski - they were owners of SWIACK.
Above JOZEF WOLLOWICZ:
Józef Wollowicz b. ca 1720, d. 1779; m. Magdalena Ludwika Marianna Michniewicz. Son of Jerzy Wollowicz and Barbara Adamkowicz - see above. Husband of Magdalena Ludwika Marianna Michniewicz. Father of Antoni Wollowicz; Michal Wollowicz; Balbina Jelenska; Benedykt Wollowicz; Kazimiera Wollowicz. Half brother of Joanna Alexandra Wollowicz.

We back to the OGINSKIS:

Witold Zygmunt Joachim Wollowicz 1825-1875, married to Amelia Oginska [with son OLGIERD / Olgierd Michal Wollowicz 1869-1900], daughter of
Tadeusz Antoni Oginski b. 1798, d. 1844, and Marianna Tekla von Rönne (Borewicz, Oginska).

Amelia Oginska Wollowicz was granddaughter of Michal Kleofas Oginski 1765-1833
[Kleofas was father of Franciszek Ksawery Oginski; above Tadeusz Antoni
{Tadeusz was father of above Gabriele Marija Rene; Natalia Gawronska and named above Amelia Wollowicz / Amelija Wollowicz};
Amelia Zaluska; Ireneusz; Emma Wysocka; and Ida]
and Felix von Rönne 1770-1827.

Witold Wollowicz was grandson of
Antoni Wollowicz Count, [in 1798 of Prussia] 1750-1822 and
Stanislaw Kajetan Krystian Breza 1752-1847,
Teofila Matuszewicz, and
Antonina Maria Radolinska 1771-1845.

Above Antonina Maria Radolinska 1771-1845 was granddaughter of Józef Stefan Radolinski of Wschowa, 1680-1740 and Leon Raczynski 1698- 1755, and Wirydianna / Wirydiana Bninska 1718-1797.

Above Wirydianna BNINSKA was daughter of Wojciech Bninski 1710-1755.
7.
Maksymilian Woroniecki,

married in Kojdanow in 1762 to ANGELIKA or Aniela Miaczynska b. 1731 ? - d. 1790; her 2nd husband, with a daughter Konstancja Woroniecka b. 1744.
Her 1st marriage to Hieronim Florian Radziwill, 1715-1760. She was married also to Hieronim Hadziewicz.

Angelika Woroniecki (born Miaczynska) was born in 1731, to Piotr Miaczynski and Antonina Rzewuska; Angelika had brother Adam Miaczynski. Angelika married Maksymilian Woroniecki. Angelika married Hieronim Radziwill in 1755.

Note:
6 km to the south of the BRZEZIE was the palace in Wieniec founded in the early nineteenth century by the family of Miaczynski; in 1868 the property bought a Warsaw banker of Jewish origin and a great Polish patriot - Leopold Kronenberg. After the owner's death in 1878, his sons managed the property; to 1887 by Stanislaw Kronenberg, then until 1937 by Leopold Julian Kronenberg.
WIENIEC - in the first half of the nineteenth century the owners were Dambski and Miaczynski (Stanislaw Miaczynski was adjutant of Prince Jozef Poniatowski). Then to above Leopold Kronenberg (1812-1878), a Warsaw banker, investor, one of the richest men in ex-Poland in the second half of the nineteenth century.

Named above Stanislaw Adam Miaczynski 1780-1845, was the son of Kajetan MIACZYNSKI;
Stanislaw's grandparents:
Antoni Miaczynski 1691-1774 [next of kin to Józef Mikolaj Radziwill of Nieswiez, 1784-1788, the Minsk governor (1773-1784), 1736- 1813] and
Dorota Teresa Regina Woroniecka of Zbaraz, 1712-1785 - see Zbigniew Brzezinski.

Dorota Teresa Regina Woroniecka of Zbaraz, 1712-1785
- the daughter of MIKOLAJ WORONIECKI 1680 - 1748 [died on November 1, 1748 in Dziembowo, Kaczory close to Pila], and Teresa Rydzynska.
Granddaughter of WLADYSLAW Woroniecki b. ca 1650, d. 1719 [and DOROTA],
who was the son of WALERIAN, and
grandson of Duke MICHAL and Konstancja Stempkowski;
they come from NASTAZJA and Mateusz Maciej Woroniecki b. ca 1570 ?.

Above Antoni MIACZYNSKI come from Atanazy Walenty Miaczynski (1639 - 1723), the treasurer of the Crown court, the province governor of Volyn and colonel, was friend of Jan III Sobieski.
His children:
Piotr Michal Miaczynski, Antoni Miaczynski, Kazimierz Miaczynski, Katarzyna Ossolinska; Elzbieta Miaczynska - Sierakowska, Józef Miaczynski.
Brzezie - west of WLOCLAWEK, close to Radziejow and Brzesc Kujawski / Brzesc Kujawski, then it was the land of Miaczynski, next the property to the Kronenbergs [with Wieniec, Dubielewo, Aleksandrowo, Maryanki, Leopoldowo]. 1873 - new palace; Leopold Kronenberg died in 1878 and Brzezie taken his children: Stanislaw Leopold Kronenberg (to 1887), then Leopold Julian Kronenberg (to 1937); 1889 - here was living Walerian Kronenberg; the last owner was Leopold Jan Kronenberg.

Atanazy Walenty Miaczynski -
Atanazy Walenty Miaczynski b. 1639 - d. 1723 in Zawieprzyce in the Lublin prov.;
the Volhynia governor in 1713. The son of Piotr Miaczynski SENIOR, and Regina Cieklinska.
ATANAZY's children:
1. above Antoni Miaczynski (1691-1774), MP, the Podlasie governor; m. Pss Dorota Woroniecka,
with sons
Józef Miaczynski (1743-1793) the French General; and
Aleksander Kajetan Miaczynski (1751-1801) - General inspector.

2. below - Piotr Michal Miaczynski (1695-1776), junior, the Chelm governor in 1724, the Czernihow governor in 1737. Married Antonina Anna Beydo-Rzewuska.

3. Kazimierz Miaczynski - Colonel;

4. Katarzyna Miaczynska (d. 1729) + Franciszek Maksymilian Ossolinski;

5. Elzbieta Miaczynska (d. 1737) m. Józef Sierakowski;

6. Józef Miaczynski (d. ca 1723), in Warsaw.

ANIELA MIACZYNSKA married (1) Hieronim Florian Radziwill on January 1, 1755 and (2) Maksymilian Dionizy Woroniecki on April 13, 1762 in Kojdanów.
The daughter of Piotr Michal Miaczynski 1695 - 1776, the granddaughter of Atanazy Miaczynski + Helena Luszkowski.
Antonina Rzewuska + Piotr Miaczynski had children:
Adam; Józef; Aniela; Petronela; Anna Konstancja:
Adam Miaczynski - the Maciejow estate owner; official in Ostrzeszow and in Krzepice; General major;
Józef Miaczynski - the owner of Zawieprzyce, official in Leczyca; General major.
Petronela Miaczynska + Onufry Splawski.

Above Maksymilian Dionizy Woroniecki d. 1797, an advisor, counselor, member of the executive of the Confederation in 1776. Maybe Maksymilian Woroniecki was the owner of Swieczna, ca 1770.
Maksymilian Dionizy Woroniecki of ZBARAZ, Duke, acted with official FELIKS SOLTYK; Mp in 1773-1775; born ca 1710/1720; married Aniela Miaczynska the daughter of Piotr b. 1695; granddaughter of ATANAZY b. 1639; great-granddaughter of Piotr Miaczynski and REGINA CIESLINSKA.
Hieronim Florian Radziwill was married: Teresa Sapieha on September 9, 1740;
Magdalena Czapska in October 1745 in Warsaw;
and Aniela Miaczynska on January 1, 1755.

See: Antoni Piotr Woroniecki b. ca 1760 - d. 1835, the son Bazyli Woroniecki and Helena.
Above BAZYLI: 1745 - 1782, the son of Franciszek Michal Woroniecki and Joanna.
Mentioned Franciszek Michal Woroniecki b. 1714, the son of Wladyslaw Woroniecki and Dorota;
see above on the Miaczynski - Woroniecki branch.
Acc. to my search: Wladyslaw Woroniecki born ca 1650, had the sons:
1.
Mikolaj Wojciech Woroniecki, Duke [MIKOLAJ WORONIECKI b. 1680 - died on November 1, 1748 in Dziembowo, Kaczory close to Pila + and Teresa Rydzynska]. Mikolaj Wojciech Woroniecki - the estate: Dziembowo 6 km south-west to KACZORY; and named Kaczory, at half way from PILA to CHODZIEZ - see Kiedrzynski - Arcichowski branch in MARGONIN!
2.
Jan Woroniecki, Duke, and
3.
above Franciszek Mikolaj Woroniecki, b. 1700/1714;
4.
probably Maksymilian Dionizy Woroniecki b. ca 1710/1720, Duke.
5.
and ? Wojciech Woroniecki b. ca 1710 with a son ANDRZEJ Woroniecki - b. 1750 in LWOW, d. 1819; and the grandson KALIKST b. 1795.

Named above Wladyslaw Woroniecki b. ca 1650, d. 1719, the son of Walerian Woroniecki [Walerian he had brothers STANISLAW and MARCIN], Duke, and Zofia. Husband of Dorota Woroniecka older
[Dorota Teresa Regina Woroniecka of Zbaraz, younger, 1712-1785 - the daughter of MIKOLAJ WORONIECKI 1680 - 1748 [d. on November 1, 1748 Dziembowo, Kaczory / Pila, Wielkopolskie], and Teresa Rydzynska. Granddaughter of WLADYSLAW Woroniecki b. ca 1650, d. 1719 [and DOROTA older], the son of WALERIAN, and grandson of Duke MICHAL and Konstancja Stempkowski; they come from NASTAZJA and Mateusz Maciej Woroniecki b. ca 1570].

Franciszek Michal Woroniecki b. ca 1700/1714
had a daughter Konstancja Szydlowska b. 1744 in Babruysk / BOBRUJSK, the Mogilev Province, Belarus, d. 1816, m. Szymon Kazimierz Szydlowski.

Note to CHODZIEZ:

Arciechowski Józef Wojciech, b. in Milicz in 1785, Captain of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, landowner of Dziewoklucz in 1815, owned Margonin in 1817, m. in 1813 to Dominika Gembicka.
Jakub Kiedrzynski was born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798. His two wives: Brygida Bardzka [in 1767]; and Julianna nee Bogdanska [ca 1788].
JAKUB'S brother was Kasper Kiedrzynski and IZYDOR Kiedrzynski!

MICHAL Arcichowski or Arciechowski Michal, b. ca 1717, inf. 1748, died in Chodziez [northern Grand Poland and close to ex-Prussian border !], in 1771. Before 1747 he was married to Antonine (Agnieszka ?) Golinska, d. before 1779, with son Anastazy, and daughters:
Marianna in 1779 m. to Kasper Kiedrzynski / KACPER KIEDRZYNSKI [see family of Izydor Kiedrzynski !];
Nepomucena in 1778 m. Zygmunt Grudzinski;
Michalina;
Karolina in 1779 was unmarried.

Arciechowski Józef Wojciech, b. in Milicz in 1785, Captain of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, landowner of Dziewoklucz in 1815, owned Margonin in 1817, m. in 1813 to Dominika Gembicka, daughter of Ignacy and Cecylia Kurdwanowska, divorced as Jaworowicz, b. ca 1784, with son Jan, b. in Margonin in 1821,
and with daughter Monika, b. ca 1814, married in 1838 to Apolinary Kiedrzynski;
Eufemia, b. ca 1818 and died in 1820 in Margonin.
Margonin - 14 km east of above CHODZIEZ.

Stanislaw Mielzynski on 24 November 1806 was appointed colonel of the Napoleonic army and began to organize 3rd infantry regiment in the division of the General Jan Henryk Dabrowski. The commanders of the other regiments in the division were also Prince Anthony Sulkowski from Rydzyna (1 Regiment), Lacki (2 regiment) and Poninski (4 Regiment). With Mielzynski co-operated the commander of the battalion Major Stanislaw Fisher / Fiszer (then the Army Chief of General Staff). On January 3, 1807 created division of gen. J. H. Dabrowski, with the 3rd Infantry Regiment, of Colonel Stanislav Mielzynski stationed in Pawlowice. Other regiments in Leszno, Zduny and Rawicz (see Sulkowski).
General Mielzynski was appointed commander of the infantry brigade in the 16th infantry division of General Zajaczek. With him commanders of the brigades in the division were: General Franciszek Paszkowski (II infantry brigade) and General Tyszkiewicz (cavalry brigade).
On September 8, 1815 Mielzynski was released from military service and began acted in secret societies, among others, in the Poznan branch of the National Freemasonry, the 'Association of Kosynier', he was a member of Freemasonry in the seventh degree and also belonged to several other Masonic lodges: "Knights of the Star", "The Brothers of the Union", was a master of the lodge "Humanity". Stanislaw Mielzynski died in Pawlowice in June 1826 and was buried here; left 17-year-old son Leo, who got Pawlowice and Kakolewo; Stanislaw; Elizabeth (1822 married Louis Mycielski, who in 1831 died) got Poniec; Filipina (wife of Ignatius Szczaniecki - Miedzychód, a colonel during the uprising of 1848) had Laszczyn, while youngest
Eleonora Laura (m. in 1834 to Karol Czarniecki of Volhynia, divorced, 2nd m. in 1850 to General Józef Napoleon Hutten- Czapski) taken Golancz.
Golancz is situated at northern Great Poland, close to Chodziez [see Kiedrzynski !].
The widow Prowidencja lived later in Poznan by 11 years. She died in Poznan, on October 11, 1837 and was buried in Pawlowice.
Golancz - 28 km east of Chodziez [Smogulec is north of Golancz]. See - Margonin - 14 km east of CHODZIEZ, and Chodziez close to ex- Prussian border - Arcichowski and Kiedrzynski. Margonin is situated 18 km west of named GOLANCZ !! Smogulec - north-east of Margonin.

An advisors, counselors, members of the executive of the Confederation in 1776:

Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski,
Ignacy Kurzeniecki,
August Fryderyk Moszynski,
Hieronim Janusz Sanguszko, and
Maksymilian Woroniecki.

Above Stanislaw Kostka Felicyan / Stanislaw Kostka Bielinski b. ca 1740 - died in 1812 in Witebsk, the Marshal of the Court since 1793, Marshal of the Parliament in 1793, the Garwolin clerk, son of Michal Bielinski of Chelmno and Tekla Peplowski; 1761 the Court top officer, 1765 chamberlain of the King, in 1776 Andrzej Mokronowski's party.
He married to unknown Golicyn / Golitsyn, died 1827, mother of Julia Stanislavovna Belinskaya and Victoria Stanislavovna Volkova; inf. by Peter Trefilov at geni.com.
Above Julia Junosza-Bielinska / Yulia Stanislavovna Belinskaya, 1804 - 1892 in Paris, wife of Peter Alexandrovich Sobakin
and Pawel Bobrzynski / Count Paul Bobrinsky;
mother of Alexei Bobrinsky; Julia Countess Bobrinskaya; Count Alexei Bobrinsky and Pavel Pavlovich Bobrinsky.
Above Pavel Pavlovich Bobrinsky 1829 - 1860, husband of Lyudmila Stepanovna / Kolpashnikov Ludmila,
father of Helene Pavlovna Bobrinski and Lyudmila Pavlovna Bobrinskaya.
Above Helene Pavlovna Bobrinski / Helena Bobrzynska / Elena Pavlovna Bobrinskaya, b. 1857 in Florence, died in?.
Wife 3rd time to Alfred Carl Nikolaus Alexander Eckbrecht von Dürckheim-Montmartin, 1st to Mikail Meyendorff von Uexküll and 2nd m. Arthur von Staden; inf. by Timo Antero Westerlund in 2015.
Above named Mikail Meyendorff von Uexküll b. 1861, son of Fredrik Adeldagus Felix Meyendorff and Olga; husband 2nd Nadiezda Kosakov / Nadesjda Kasakov, but 1st to Helene Pavlovna Bobrinski; he was brother of Alexander Felixovich Meyendorff.
Mentioned above Alexander Felixovich Meyendorff 1869 - 1964, was husband of Varvara Shervashidze 1859 - 1946 daughter of Hamud- Bey Chachba / Mikhail Georgievich Shervashidze Duke, 1806 in Abkhazia, Georgia - died 1866 - son of Safir Bey George Shervashidze and Tamara Katsievna.

8.
Franciszek Woyna,
and others.


The newspaper in Munich, 1827, on the Polish conspiratorial underground movement:

General Uminski, was trying to increase the number of members of the secret movement, he had established in Warsaw, meanwhile went to see former Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Oborski, whom he had been contacted by Dobrogoyski.
Aleksander Antoni Oborski, the son of Józef Oborski and Petronela Ossowski Oborska. Aleksander was born in 1778 / March 1779 in Warsaw, d. 1841 in Lublin.
In 1785 - 1792 he studied at the Knight's School; he participated in the war of 1792 and the Kosciuszko Uprising in 1794; he joined the Polish Legions in 1798 in Italy; in 1801 he returned to Poland [compare Oginski and Nagorski]. In 1812, he served Duke Józef Poniatowski. For these campaigne he obtained the Order of Both Sicily awarded by MARSCHAL Murat [compare - General Franciszek Paszkowski]. 1815-1831: he took up painting and CONSPIRACY. On January 8, 1831, he was a commander of volunteers near Augustów.

Józef Oborski b. ca 1670, had son Baltazar Oborski, 1700-1768 + Teresa Szydlowska;
grandson - Józef Oborski, 1737-1797 + Petronela Ossowska ca 1750-1862; the great-granddaughter
Teresa Oborska, b. ca 1774-1862 + Marceli Marian Potocki, 1781-1851;
Teresa had a sons - Adam Potocki, 1804-1890 + Filipina Dittmayer von Rusfelden; Edmund Kajetan Potocki, b. 1805 + Anna Katarzyna Soltynska; and daughter Klementyna Potocka, 1811-1878 + Mateusz Miaczynski

{note:
Ignacy Miaczynski b. 1760, Count in 1803, the son of
Józef Bonawentura Miaczynski, b. 1731, Count, an official 1749, 1766, 1776, 1783, General major, the owner of Zawieprzyce. Józefa Ronikier Miaczynska b. 1758, the daughter of Józef Bonawentura Antoni Miaczynski and Katarzyna Miaczynska. Wife of Michal Aleksander Ronikier and mother of Kazimierz Józef Anastazy Ronikier, Count.
Jozef Bonawentura was the son of Piotr Michal Miaczynski 1691-1776; grandson of Atanazy Miaczynski 1639-1723.

In ca 1775, Jozef Walewski was heir of JEDLNO, Borki and Jankowice close to Jedlno, and also of Kalinowa close to Zdunska Wola. But 6 km to the south of the BRZEZIE was the palace in Wieniec founded in the early nineteenth century by the family of Miaczynski; in 1868 the property bought a Warsaw banker of Jewish origin and a great Polish patriot - Leopold Kronenberg. After the owner's death in 1878, his sons managed the property; to 1887 by Stanislaw Kronenberg, then until 1937 by Leopold Julian Kronenberg. WIENIEC - in the first half of the nineteenth century the owners were Dambski and Miaczynski (Stanislaw Miaczynski was adjutant of Prince Jozef Poniatowski). Then to above Leopold Kronenberg (1812-1878), a Warsaw banker, investor, one of the richest men in ex-Poland in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Named above Stanislaw Adam Miaczynski 1780-1845, son of Kajetan;
Stanislaw's grandparents:
Antoni Miaczynski 1691-1774 [next of kin to Józef Mikolaj Radziwill of Nieswiez, 1784-1788, the Minsk governor (1773- 1784), 1736-1813] and Dorota Teresa Regina Woroniecka of Zbaraz, 1712-1785 - see Zbigniew Brzezinski.
MIACZYNSKI come from Atanazy Walenty Miaczynski (1639 - 1723), the treasurer of the Crown court, the province governor of Volyn and colonel, was friend of Jan III Sobieski. His children: Piotr Michal Miaczynski, Antoni Miaczynski, Kazimierz Miaczynski, Katarzyna Ossolinska; Elzbieta Miaczynska - Sierakowska, Józef Miaczynski.
Brzezie - west of WLOCLAWEK, close to Radziejow and Brzesc Kujawski / Brzesc Kujawski, then it was the land of Miaczynski, next the property to the Kronenbergs.

Adam Albert Wojciech Mecinski m. Aniela Stadnicka with
1. Ewa Lanckoronska (born Mecinska) born in 1789 / 1790, to Aniela Mecinska (born Stadnicka). Ewa married Antoni Lanckoronski, born in 1777 [see SZYMANOWSKI and BRZEZINSKI], with 6 children: Tekla Celestyna Eleonora Radolinska (born Lanckoronska), Julianna Nepomucena Fryderyka Rejswicz (born Lanckoronska) and 4 other children;
2. Magdalena Miaczynska (born Mecinska),
3. Anna Magdalena Teresa Miaczynska (born Mecinska),
4. Franciszka Bobrowska, Szafraniec - Bystrzanowska, born Mecinska in 1775, the daughter of Adam Albert Wojciech Mecinski and Aniela Mecinska (born Stadnicka).
She m. Franciszek Ksawery Szafraniec - Bystrzanowski in 1809; Franciszek was born in 1767. Franciszka married Joachim Bobrowski in 1810, with one daughter: Aleksandra Klara Stadnicka (born Bobrowska).
5. Jan Nepomucen Mecinski.
6. Wojciech Mecinski, 1760 - 1839 in Cracow}.

IGNACY's son:
Mateusz Miaczynski (1799 - 1863) married mentioned above Klementyna Potocki.

Onufry Oborski, b. ca 1760, the LIW Marshal, + Marianna Golabek-Jezierska; had son Antoni Walenty Teodor Oborski, b. ca 1780 + Marcjanna Jawornicka;
grandson - Maksymilian Oborski, b. 1809 Proszew, close to Siedlce; a painter, and the insurgent in 1831; the owner of Staszów, Sieniawa, he was exiled 1863 in Siberia; and granddaughter - Maria Oborska, b. ca 1810 + Ignacy Kokoszka Michalowski, Baron.

The former Colonel Alexander Oborski was determined by Uminski, to take part in the underground movement.

Lord John Russel Brougham in 1831 gives the names of conspirators. The names of the individuals involved in the investigation are:

Adolph Cichowski,

Dobrogoyski,

Nikolaus Dobrzycki,
Jordan,
Bruno Kicinski,
Joseph Koszutki / Jozef Koszutski,
Kozakowski,
Lagowski,
Lukasinski,
Machnicki,
Theodor Morawski,
Alexander Oborski,
Pawlikowski,
Prondzynski / General Pradzynski,
Wierzbolowicz;
Szreder / Schroder.

General Jan Nepomucen Uminski co-operated with

Jozef Krzyzanowski, b. 1793, died in 1856

{In secret academic organizations ("Brotherhoods" and others), acted Majewski, Wolowski; and Henryk Mackrott, the freemason, the most distinguished secret police agent; Hieronim Szymanowski; Pazdzierska; Joel Birnbaum; Ludwik Grünberg and others. Mackrott' detailed wrote a reports from August 1819, to Duke Konstanty. He spied on the relationship of "Scythemen", where the deputy head of the Province of Poznan was named Józef Krzyzanowski from Pakoslaw, born 1793 [his wife Aniela Kolaczkowska], about which S. Askenazy wrote that "it was a man who was not very specific...".

We know about
Michal Krzyzanowski, b. 1734-died in 1810, Castellan of Miedzyrzecz, built a beautiful classical palace in Pakoslaw, which was started in 1791. In 1764-1791 to Ignacy Wyskoty-Zakrzewski, the President of Warsaw. From 1791, the Pakoslaw estate belonged to the Krzyzanowski family. The first of them was Michal Krzyzanowski, b. 1734, the founder of the palace, who bought Pakoslaw for 166 thousand thalers. Michal Krzyzanowski was the marshal of the Crown Tribunal.
In 1831 the son of named Michal b. 1734, ie. Józef Krzyzanowski, born 1793, sold Pakoslaw to Duke Acerenza-Pignatelli.
Michal's grandson:
Michal Józef Stanislaw Krzyzanowski b. 1828 in PAKOSLAW - d. 1903 in GORA close to SIERADZ.
Named Józef Filip Jakub Krzyzanowski 1793-1856
[Mikolaj Krzyzanowski was exiled to Tobolsk, and the enemy of Russia, was a Decembrist, died in Tobolsk - born ca 1795/1800. Compare - Andrzej Krzyzanowski born ca 1790/1795. Come from LUKASZ ?]
was the son of Michal Krzyzanowski official in Miedzyrzecz, 1734/ca 1740-1810 + Alojza Anna Gajewska 1757/1760-1815;
and grandson of
Lukasz Krzyzanowski official in Poznan, 1700-1741.

ALOJZA GAJEWSKA was the daughter of
Rafal Tadeusz Gajewski 1714-1775 and Katarzyna Tworzyanska 1737-1798.
RAFAL GAJEWSKI the 1st maried
in 1747 to Józefa Mielzynska 1729-1752, the daughter of Franciszek Walenty Mielzynski 1682-1738 + Krystyna Skalawska 1690-1762.
The 2nd before 1776, Katarzyna Tworzyanska
with the daughter
Alojza Anna Gajewska 1757-1815 + Michal Krzyzanowski
and grandson
Józef Filip Jakub Krzyzanowski 1793-1856, CONSPIRATOR;
and great-grandchildren:
Michal Józef Stanislaw Krzyzanowski 1828-1903; Maria Florentyna Józefa Krzyzanowska 1831-1916; Józefa Aniela Krzyzanowska 1834-1917.
ALOJZA had daughter
Melania Emilia Katarzyna Krzyzanowska 1795/1798-1849 + Wiktor Tomasz Antoni Szoldrski Count, 1775/1779 in ROGALIN - died in 1830 in Berlin; the owner of
Czacz, Przysieka Polska, Karszanice, Ksieginki,
Wilkowo POLSKIE - see KIEDRZYNSKA + PRADZYNSKI and WOLA WIAZOWA,
Siekowo, Siekówko, Kluczewo, Saczkowo, Borek, Ziemin, Czempin, Borówko, Piechanin, Tarnowo, Grzybno.

A mansion in Pakoslaw was commissioned by Emilia Sczaniecka; a parish school in Pakoslaw was established in 1840 - 41, whose initiator was Count Józef Krzyzanowski, heir to Pakoslav.

SEWERYN KRZYZANOWSKI:

Captain Franciszek Majewski, of which Askenazy writes ("Lukasinski", vol. II, 89), "was a dark person...", was authorized to set up a new lodge by the Edinburgh Chapter of TEMPLARS from which he became acquainted during his stay in England. The newly lodge worked hard until the outbreak of the November Uprising in Kiev and Berdyczów.
Many of the Templars were at the same time members of the Patriotic Society. To their number belonged the Lieutenant-Colonel Seweryn Krzyzanowski.
SEWERYN KRZYZANOWSKI died on 4 July 1839 in Tobolsk or in northern village Iszym.
Seweryn Krzyzanowski b. 1787 in Ukraine. Maybe the brother of Mikolaj Krzyzanowski exiled to Tobolsk, and the enemy of Russia, was a Decembrist, died in Tobolsk - born ca 1800, and of Andrzej Krzyzanowski born ca 1795.
Seweryn Krzyzanowski acted in underground National Patriotic Society, a secret organization founded and headed by Walerian Lukasinski, also an officer. From the autumn of 1822, that is, from the moment Lukasinski was arrested by the Russians (as a result of the trial he was detained until his death in 1868), Seweryn Krzyzanowski was actually the leader of the National Patriotic Society. He was a moderate activist, so together with prince Antoni Jablonowski he co-operated with Russian democrats from the South Union (Society) / decembrists. After the Decembrists' uprising in 1825, the Tsarist police attacked Polish conspirators, so Antoni Jablonowski, arrested in Kiev in February 1826, made extensive statements in which he revealed many names of Polish conspirators, including Seweryn Krzyzanowski. Seweryn Krzyzanowski and 127 other Polish independence activists stood in front of the court in 1827, but the case of Seweryn Krzyzanowski himself and seven of his closest collaborators were qualified as high treason.
Tsar Mikolaj I remembered, after the fall of the November Uprising in 1831, when his sentence was finished, and was given the personal command of Seweryn Krzyzanowski - he was arrested again and imprisoned.
The sentence was absolute: new exile to the Siberian forest.
Krzyzanowski settled in Berezowo in the basin of the Irtysh River; already after a few years of staying in Berezów he fell ill.

Trocki: Summer 1879, David Bronstein, with wife Anneta Zivotovski / Anna nee Zywotowska and children: Aleksandr b. 1870, and Elizavieta b. 1875, (David Bronstein was living the first close to Poltava) moved to Janovka in the Elisavietgrad county, Cherson government (now here is village Breslavka); the estate bought from wife of Janovski; Lejb Bronstein / Lev was born in 1879 October, in Janovka, and in 1883 Olga was born here. David Bronstein had bussiness in Cherson, Odessa and Nikolaiev / Nikolajev; 1910 or 1912 died Anneta Zivotovski. David Bronstein died in 1922.
Lejba / Lev studied in Odessa, in 1888 - 1895; moved to Nikolaiev / Nikolajev in 1895 or 1896; 1898 jailed in Odessa, and he was sent in Siberie; escaped in Summer of 1902: taken false surname from somebody of Odessa - Trocki, next to
Samara, to G. M. Kzyzanovsky / Gleb Krzyzanowski; then Trocki moved to Charkiv, Poltava and Kiev; and abroad to Viena, Zurich, Paris, in Oct. (?) 1902 to London, to the Lenin home, after a letter from Samara, from G. M. Kzyzanovsky / Gleb Krzyzanowski;
1905 - 1907 Petersburg; 1914-1916 West Europe; jailed in Spain 1916; 1916 / 1917 in USA; 1926 - 1927 fought with Stalin, 1928 Alma- Ata, 1929 Turkiye. His wife Aleksandra Sokolowska, m. in 1899 in Moscow. His brother Aleksandr was owner of factory in Bobrinca; Olga was living in Elisavietgrad. Brother of his mother: D. L. Zivotovski/ Zywotowski.

Krzyzanowski, Gleb Maksimilianovich / Gleb Maximilianowitsch Krschischanowski that is Gleb Krzyzanowski, b. 12 January or 24 Jan. 1872 in Samara, d. 31 March 1959 in Moscow; Krzhizhanovsky came from a noble family, the Soviet statesman,
his father Maximilian Nikolaevich Krzyzanowski / Maksymilian Krzyzanowski was of Polish origin, his mother was Elvira Ernestovna Rosenberg / Elvira Rosenberg, a German;
he studied at the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, from which he graduated in 1894 with success as an engineer; he was interested in revolutionary movements in 1891 at one of the first Marxist circles in the former Russian Empire; 1893, he temporarily was the leadership of the Marxist struggle for the liberation of the German working class in St. Petersburg, there in 1893 he met the young Vladimir Ulyanov Lenin; at that time had begun his revolutionary activities; December 1895, arrested and exiled to Eastern Siberia in February 1897; Krzhizhanovsky participated in all Russian revolutions since 1905; 1904 he was a member of the Central Committee of the RSDLP, which he compared with the Mensheviks left; 1902 he initiated in Samara, an office of the Social Democratic revolutionary newspaper Iskra; 1903 to 1905 he lived in Kiev, where he was employed at a railway station;
his wife from 1899 - Zinaida Nevzorov (1869 - 1948);
his mother Elvira Ernestovna Rosenberg, from German,
his father Maximilian Nikolajewicz Krzyzanowski was living in Samara, born ca 1840/1850;
his grandfather Mikolaj Krzyzanowski was exiled to Tobolsk, and the enemy of Russia, was a Decembrist, died in Tobolsk - born ca 1800.
Compare - Andrzej Krzyzanowski born ca 1795.

Now about Jan Krzyzanowski 1869 - died 1910 in Lódz; husband of Maria Andrusow; father of Olga Hersztanski and Anna Budryn.
Above Anna Budryn nee Krzyzanowska, wife of Dymitr Budryn, and mother of Wlodzimierz Budryn / Wlodzimier Budryn.
Above Jan Krzyzanowski was son of JAN, senior - Jan Krzyzanowski / Ivan, b. on May 8, 1834, died on September 3, 1889 in Warszawa, Poland; Colonel of the Ekaterinburskij Regiment, the Crimea War, Sevastopol 1853-1855.
Anna Krzyzanowska, daughter of Jan Krzyzanowski and Maria Andrusow; mother of Wlodzimierz Budryn.
And some on the Krzyzanowskis:

a. General-lieutenant Mikolaj Krzyzanowski junior, 1818 - 1888, wars on Caucasus, the Crimea War, the Warsaw war governor, the Orenburg general-governor;
b. his brother was Pawel Krzyzanowski b. 1831 - son of Andrzej Krzyzanowski born ca 1795.
Nikolaj / Mikolaj, b. 1818, acted in Turiestan, Orenburg, Buchara / Bukhara.

Severin / Seweryn Krzyzanowski b. 1787 in Parchamówka in the Skwir county / Skwira (see Ascher Ginsberg!), Ukraine, d. 1839 in Tobolsk, colonel to 1826 of the Polish Army, exiled in 1830 to Tobolsk; he was a poor invalid, both his feet are paralyzed, and he never quits his chamber; his company, M. Onufry Pietraszkiewicz, his nurse, a German.
Curiosity!
In March 1874 Nikolai Sudzilovsky came from St. Petersburg to Saratov. It is possible that a student has been selected Pokrovsk. He was born in Mogilev in 1850. Nicholas Sudzilovsky had relatives in Pokrovsk, the Novouzensk county, the Samara province. Father was once a wealthy nobleman; the origin of the surname associated with the name Sudzily: Sudzilovskaya village that is Fastow in the Mstislavsky district, Mogilev province. Nikolai Sudzilovsky moved in 1874 to London, 1875 in Geneve, 1876 Bulgaria, 1877 Romania, 1887 San Francisco, next Hawaii.
POKROVSK = Engels, at present; east suburb of SARATOW; see Hleb Krzyzanowski / Gleb Krzyzanovsky},

Maciej MIELZYNSKI

{Maciej Józef Franciszek Mielzynski b. 1799 in Winna Góra, d. 1870;
the Polish political and social activist, landowner in Winna Gora - see SCZANICKI.
He was the son of Józef and Franciszka Niemojowski. He studied at home under a tutor Jan Baptiste Motty, then in Berlin. In youth, he was imprisoned for participation in the "Kosynierzy Union"; he took part in the November Uprising under the command of Dezydery Chlapowski. He was in exile; on his return he was sent to the Prussian prison for nine months, and he received a very fine.

The son of
Józef Mielzynski 1765-1824 + Franciszka Niemojowska 1781-1863,
and grandson of

Maciej Mielzynski official in Radziejów, 1733-1793; Seweryna Lipska; Ignacy Niemojowski official in Wielun, 1750-1786;
Katarzyna Wierusz-Walknowska
[the daughter of Franciszek Wierusz-Walknowski b. ca 1710; the granddaughter of
Antoni + Urszula Mielzynska. Urszula - see Jakub Kiedrzynski !],
1750-1787;
and great-grandson of
Franciszek Walenty Mielzynski 1682-1738.

At margin: Brygida Sczaniecka [the daughter of Sylwester Sczaniecki], 1775-1859 married
Mikolaj Gorgoni Mielzynski, 1780-1842, the son of
Maksymilian Antoni Jan Mielzynski 1738-1799 + Konstancja Hutten-Czapska 1749-1813,
and grandson of
Andrzej Mielzynski official in Kcynia, 1698-1771; Anna Petronela Bninska 1720-1771; Jakub Hutten-Czapski; Rozalia Ewa Hutten-Czapska 1715-1769;
and great-grandson of
Krzysztof Mielzynski 1670 - 1721, official in Kcynia 1693, and in Przemet in 1717 - 1719;
and great-great-grandson of
Maciej Mielzynski 1636 - 1697, official in Kcynia 1659 - 1660, in Srem 1683.

Named Maciej born in 1636, with 2nd wife had son named KRZYSZTOF Mielzynski, died in 1721; and
with 3rd wife had
1. Urszula Mielzynska (1689-1743) m. Antoni Walknowski - see the JAKUB KIEDRZYNSKI family - Pradzynski - Wola Wiazowa!,
and

Ludwig SCZANIECKI / Ludwik Sczaniecki

{Ludwik Pawel Sczaniecki b. 1789 in Boguszyn, d. 1854 in Paris, the November insurrection, landowner, conspirator; in 1807, he worked in the office of the director of internal affairs in Warsaw - Stanislaw Breza.
Stanislaw Breza / Stanislaw Kajetan Krystian Breza b. 1752, died 1847, MP in 1784, and in 1790.
Ludwik Sczaniecki was born 1789 in Boguszyn north-west to Jarocin [close to Nowe Miast by the Warta river; north-west to PLESZEW], his father Józef Sczaniecki (1756-1815) and mother Jadwiga Wygan Sczaniecka.
After 1815, he maintained constant with Dabrowski, and Sczaniecki visited him in Winna Gora until the death of the general in 1818; he was also the guardian of the children of Dabrowski.
In 1819, during his stay in Warsaw, he met Walerian Lukasinski, who introduced him to the National Freemasonry and ordered to develop organizational structures in the Grand Duchy of Poznan.
In 1820, Sczaniecki introduced Ignacy Pradzynski to the Poznan lodge; at the initiative of Pradzynski, the Poznan organization changed its name to the "Kosynierzy Union" / SCYTHEMEN; after the destruction of the Patriotic Society he could not appear for several years in the property of Konstancja's wife in the Kingdom of Poland.
Back to Poland in October 1830.

Józef Filip Nereusz Sczaniecki b. 1756 - Godurowo, d. 1815 - Miedzychod;
the son of Michal Sczaniecki 1702-1787}.


CONSPIRATORS in Poland under Russia:

Stanislaw Tyszkowski,

Ludwig Sobanski,

Marcin Tarnowski,
Feliks Ciszewski,
Antoni Czarkowski,

JAN CHODZKO

{Alexandre Chodzko / Aleksander Borejko Chodzko, born 1804 in Krzywicze / Krivitchi, the Vilna Governorate, Russian Empire (now Kryvitchi, Minsk Region); he died 1891 in Noisy-le-Sec; an Orientalist, the Polish writer and poet, was Russian consul in Persia.
He was son of the writer Jan Chodzko and Klara Korsak;
the brother of Michal Chodzko and Józef Chodzko
[above Joseph Chodzko / Józef Boreyko Chodzko or Khodzko, born 1800 in Krzywicze, ex-the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, died in 1881 in Tiflis / Tbilisi, a General-topographer and Polish geographer. He stayed in Paris in 1843, where he met Adam Mickiewicz and his three brothers: Alexandre, Michel and Stanislas, and his cousin Leonard - all Polish nationalists].
ALEKSANDER CHODZKO, in 1841 to 1842, he stayed in Greece, in Italy and the United Kingdom.
In 1847 he married in Lausanne to Helena Dunin-Jundzill (1822 - 1886), daughter of Earl Wiktor / Victor Jundzill Dunin, General who emigrated from Poland;
she was the granddaughter of Mikolaj Michal Cichocki, son of Stanislas Poniatowski King of Poland, and Marianna Iwanska (Magdalena Agnieszka Lubomirska ?).
Named above Michal Mikolaj Cichocki / Michael Nicholas Cichocki (b. 1770 in Warsaw, died 1828 in Warsaw), Brigadier General of the Duchy of Warsaw; graduated from the Corps of Cadets, the captain, took part in the 1792 war with Russia. He died suddenly. He was a member of the Masonic lodge 'Slavic Unity'.

Jan CHODZKO 1776-1851 (see below), the son of Józef CHODZKO b. 1723, and Konstancyia Bujnicki, married to Clara Korsak - Jan was the President of the Civil Minsk Chamber, and the School Inspektor of the Province of Vilnius and Minsk; died in 1851, buried in Zaslaw.
Mentioned above Jan Borejko Chodzko born 1776 in Wilno was the Chairman of Minsk Supreme Court; Chairman of the University of Wilno; awarded the Order of St. Vladimir; chamberlain of the Wilno district. He prevented the Russians burning of MINSK, before evacuating of the town.
Considering Napoleon as the liberator of Poland, as a good patriot, he slept Russian vigilance and introduced the Marshal Davoust in stores of food and ammunition - Napoleon heard the news; after the retreat of the French, he had to flee Poland but he returned thanks to the amnesty of the Emperor Alexander.
He was the founder of two Masonic lodges, one in Vilnius and one in Minsk. He was the top member of a patriotic secret society before the uprising of 29 November 1830,
and he was arrested and taken to St. Petersburg where he met in prison his son Alexander who was also arrested, it was the last time that they saw themselves. Jan was sentenced to 5 years in prison and deported to Russia. His eldest son Alexandre Chodzko / Aleksander Borejko Chodzko was deported also in Siberia. Jan could not return to his homeland but died in 1851 in Minsk.

Stanislaw II August Poniatowski, King of Poland was brother of Michal Jerzy Ludwik Poniatowski b. 1736 in Gdansk, d. 1794 in Warsaw;

Michal Jerzy Ludwik Poniatowski was father of Piotr Pawel Jan Maleszewski 1767 - 1828 who married 2nd time to Jeanne Garran de Coulon, but 1st time married to J. Venture de Paradis or Victoire Françoise Venture de Paradise (see Sulkowski, Venture and Breguet, Duflon, Konstantynowicz at my domain: part 1, 2, 3 - the links below).
First marriage of Maleszewski with a beautiful Victoire Françoise Venture de Paradise, called "Egyptian", the representative of the then "Merveilleuses", gave him a number of concerns. They had a daughter born in Paris in 1794 - Victoire Clementine, later married Alfred de Laqueuille. In addition, his name wore two daughters of his wife,
Adela Mortier and Olimpia Chodzko Leonardowa;
after the death of his wife in 1813 he married in 1816 to Jeanne, daughter of an old friend Jean Philippe Garran de Coulon.

Branch from Jean VENTURE d. 1660, Consul de Marseille in 1637; his son Charles de VENTURE sieur de PARADIS; grandson Jean Michel de VENTURE b. 1701 in Marseille; great-grandsons Jean Joseph de VENTURE and Jean Michel de VENTURE de PARADIS born 1739 Marseille - his children:
1. Unknown by name de VENTURE de PARADIS married to Jozef Sulkowski / Joseph SULKOWSKI born in 1770 in the Poznan province in Poland - died in 1798 in Cairo / Kair / Caire, Egypt: the friend and aide de camp to Bonaparte, friend with Muiron, Vivant Denon, Carnot, Augereau, and Bourienne.
and 2. Jeanne VENTURE de PARADIS 1774 - 1813 married to
a. Ludwik / Louis MALESZEWSKI / Piotr Maleszewski with children
Klementyna nee Maleszewska / Clementine MALESZEWSKI married to de LAQUEILLE, and
Olimpia Maleszewska / Olympe MALESZEWSKI married to Leonard CHODZKO b. 1800 - died in 1871;
b. m. 2nd in 1810, Paris to Antoine Louis BREGUET 1776 - 1858 with children:
A. Louis François Clément BREGUET 1804 - 1883 married to Charlotte Eugénie Caroline LASSIEUR 1815 - 1889 with children:
Louise BREGUET 1847-1930,
Antoine BREGUET 1851-1882,
Madeleine BREGUET 1853-1877;
B. Louise Charlotte Clémentine BREGUET 1810 - 1887 married to Dr LIONNET.

Jan's son, Aleksander Chodzko was arrested in 1830/1831 and taken to St. Petersburg where he met the father, then above Alexandre Chodzko / Aleksander Borejko Chodzko was deported also in Siberia. Next he was the Russian consul in Persia, then professor of Slavic literature at the College de France, well-known author who married to Helena Jundzill, daughter of Victor, with her sons, Victor Chodzko m. Mary Baldassari, with children: Edward, Victor junior, Helena and Aleksander junior - the English naval captain, and the last son was Adam, an engineer residing in San Francisco.

Stanislaw / Stanislas Chodzko, chemist - son of above Jan Chodzko;
Stanislaw was the brother of above named Alexander.
Józef Chodzko, was the third brother, General.

Jozef / Joseph CHODZKO 1723-1782, and Konstancja BUJNICKA had children:

1. Ludwik Tadeusz Chodzko / Louis Thadee CHODZKO, 1769-1843, married to Waleria DEDERKO with son
Leonard CHODZKO, 1800-1871 who married to Olympe MALESZEWSKI / Olimpia Maleszewska;
see below - Sulkowski and on the Venture of Paradise, the Breguet family and Duflon - Konstantynowicz Company!

2. above Jan CHODZKO 1776-1851 m. Klara KORSAK, d. 1852, with son
Alexandre CHODZKO 1802-1891.

Leonard Chodzko, was son of Ludwik Chodzko, Marshal of the Zawilejski region and Waleryia Dederko; he was grandson of Jozef / Joseph CHODZKO 1723-1782, and Konstancja BUJNICKA;
Leonard was born in 1800, residing in Paris, author of many historical works, his brother
Aleksander Chodzko 2nd, died, 1877},

Stanislaw Joteyko,

Wiktor Ossolinski,

Wincenty Karwicki,

Jozef Gruszecki,

Tomasz Czarkowski,

MICHAL ROMER

{Michal Józef Römer / Romer or Roemer; b. 1778 - d. 1853, was a politician, writer, Freemason. Römer was born in WILNO / Vilna, where he spent most of his life. He owned manors in Kriaunos, Antanase, Bagdoniskis, Daugirdiskiai, Granapolis, Dembine. During the French invasion of Russia, he served as the mayor of Vilna from July to September 1812.
1817 and 1820 he served as a Marshal of the Vilna Governorate. He also served as a head of the regional branch of the National Patriotic Society and the "Towarzystwo Szubrawców" - literary society

(along with Michal Balinski, Leon Borowski, Ignacy Chodzko, Antoni Gorecki, Kazimierz Kontrym, Józef Sekowski, Jedrzej Sniadecki and Tomasz Zan).

MICHAL ROMER was master of Masonic Lodge Diligent Lithuanian and chairman of the Great Lodge Perfect Unity.
In 1826 he was imprisoned in Warsaw and the Peter and Paul Fortress. Later he was exiled to Voronezh. After the return in 1832, he retired from public life.
Michal Józef Romer was born in 1778, to Stefan Dominik Romer and Anna Romer (born Pac). Stefan was born in 1721. Anna was born in 1749. Michal married Rachela de Raes.
They had son Seweryn Justus Justyn Romer m. in 1850 to Aniela Burba with:
Kazimierz Ignacy + Kazimiera Bronislawa Skirmunt
with son and daughters:
1. Antoni Kazimierz Seweryn Römer 1889-1973 + Anna Soltan 1895-1974;
2. Irena Aniela Helena Römer + Edward Plater-Zyberk;
3. Jolanta Römer 1892-1987 + Witold Klemens Wankowicz 1888-1948;
4. Maria Konstancja Karolina Römer + Zygmunt Lubienski;
5. Kazimiera Römer 1899-1989 + Karol Tadeusz Wankowicz 1894-1990 -
the son of Waclaw Stanislaw Adam Wankowicz 1860-1936 who was the
great-grandson of
Melchior Wankowicz b. ca 1770 and Scholastyka Gorecka b. ca 1790.

MELCHIOR's son:
Karol 1805-1854 + Rozalia Wankowicz 1800-1891;
and grandson -
Melchior Roman Julian Wankowicz 1842-1892 + Maria Szwojnicka;
and great-grandchildren:
Czeslaw Wankowicz 1876-1912;
Witold Wankowicz [the conspiracy in the IHUMEN county and the BEREZYNA parish - a person friendly with my family] 1882- 1944;
Regina Wankowicz 1883-1963;
Melchior Wankowicz 1892-1974.
See more on ROMER:
Marie / Misia, 1869 - Gries 1902, m. Bronislas ROMER, b. in Lithuanie 1856, d. San Remo 1899, with children:
a. Mathias / Maciej, 1890, d. Warsaw 1955 m. Marie KORYBUT - DASZKIEWICZ, 1889 - 1953.
b. Bronislas / Broneck, 1891 in Powience, Russie,
c. Tadeusz Romer / Thaddee ROMER, b. in Antonosz near Kaunas in 1894, died in Montreal 1978, and acc. to Wikipedia: a secretary to Roman Dmowski in 1919, the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ambassador to Italy, Portugal, Japan (1937-1941) and the Soviet Union (1942-1943). Then he was the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Polish Government in Exile (1943-1944);
m. Zofia Wankowicz / Sophie WANKOWICZ, b. ex-Poland in 1897, d. Montreal 1981.
Tadeusz Romer has the 'Medaille de Juste parmi les Nations decernee par le Memorial Yad Vashem' (1984).

Zofia Wankowicz m. Tadeusz Ludwik Römer b. 1894 in Antonosz, d. 1978 in Montreal; Zofia Wankowicz b. 1907 in Zaswiatów, died Sept. 1981; her parents:
Stefan Kolumb Wankowicz 1859-1923 and Helena Boguszewska 1868-1928.
Above Stefan Kolumb Wankowicz was father of Jadwiga Rostworowska and Zofia Römer.
Above named Zofia Römer b. 1907 or Zofia Wankowicz born on 17 Feb. 1897 in Zaswiatow by Swislocz river, died in Montreal in Sept. 1981, daughter of Stefan Kolumb Wankowicz 1859 - 1923, and Helena Boguszewski 1868-1928;
Helena nee Boguszewski had 2 daughters: Jadwiga Rostworowski and above Zofia Romer; Zofia m. two times: 1st to Tadeusz Ludwik Romer 1894 - 1978, with 3 children; 2nd to Konstanty Maria Józef / Konstanty Maria Drucki-Lubecki, 1893-1939, since 1918},

Mikolaj WORCELL,

Stanislaw Karwicki,

Anselm Iwaszkiewicz,

Piotr MOSZYNSKI,

Anastazy GRODECKI,

Antoni Jablonowski.


CONSPIRATORS in Lithuania:

Barankiewicz,

Biallozor,

JOZEF BILLEWICZ,

Buczynski,

Bykowski,

Aleksander CHODKIEWICZ,

Franciszek Czarkowski,

Downarowicz,

Karol Dziekonski,

Stanislaw Gruzewski,

Jozef Gruzewski,

Michal Hoffmann,

Karpinski,

Korbut;

Kulczycki;

Labanowski;

Piotr LAGOWSKI,

Lipski;

LUKASZEWICZ,

Stanislaw Mackiewicz;
Stefan Mackiewicz;
Stanislaw Mikulicz;

Teofil Mikulicz;

Konstantyn Nowowieyski,
IGNACY PLATER or Kazimierz Ignacy Broel Plater

{Michal Plater-Zyberk b. in 1777, died in 1862 in Schloßberg, Saksonia.
Son of Count Kazimierz Konstanty Plater [see WRONIAWY] and Izabela Ludwika Plater / Izabella Borch / IZABELA BORCH PLATER ZYBERK [see below]. Husband of Izabella Helena.
Brother of Ludwik August Plater [see below, b. 1775];
Jan Ferdynand Plater;
Stanislaw Broel-Plater Sr. born 1784 [see below];
Kazimierz Ignacy Broel-Plater / IGNACY BROEL PLATER;
Viktoria Augustina.

Stanislaw Plater Senior, b. 1784 in Dowgieliszki / Dawgieliszki, d. 1851 in Wroniawy or Wolsztyn / Wollstein, the Provinz of Posen, had brother Ludwik Plater [see below - born in 1775]. STANISLAW b. in Daugieliszki in 1784; Polish geographer, geologist, historian, the author of numerous publications. Stanislaw Plater, Senior, was an officer in 1806 to 1815, then lived in Posen and Paris for a long time. He was known as historian and antiquarian.
Keblowo, the church was built by owners of Wroniawy: Stanislaw Plater and his son Stanislaw junior.

Stanislaw Plater, junior, was the son of named Stanislaw Broel-Plater and Antonina Gajewski of Blociszew, he was born in 1822 in Paryz / PARIS. Plater (Broel-Plater) Stanislaw (1822-1890), junior, was the landowner, political activist, in 1850 was member of the Polish League; 1858 to 1863 he was a member of the Prussian parliament, from the district of Leszno, then in the Poznan-Oborniki.
Married (1848) KATARZYNA MIELZYNSKA / Catherine Mielzynski (1828-1899), daughter of MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI.
Above Katarzyna Broel-Plater b. 1828 in above Chobienice, the Wolsztyn County, Greater Poland; d. 1899 in Warsaw, daughter of Count Maciej Mielzynski
[Maciej Mielzynski 1799 - 1870, son of hrabia Józef Mielzynski and Franciszka NIEMOJOWSKA]
and Konstancja Mielzynska daughter of PROKOP MIELZYNSKI [see MERKEL].

Katarzyna was the wife of Stanislaw Broel-Plater Jr.; sister of Karol Ignacy Mielzynski and Gabriela Koncza.

Above Ludwik / Ludwig Plater (1775 in Kraslaw, Livonia / Polish Inflanty, d. 1846 in Posen / POZNAN) was a Polish patriot. Count Plater came from the German baltic noble family; MASON; in 1794 he took part as a volunteer in the Kosciuszko uprising and became adjutant of General Karol Sierakowski. In 1815 he joined the Polish State Council, in 1830 he co-operated with Karol Kniaziewicz in Paris, his estates were confiscated; he stayed first in Paris, where he became Vice- President of the Literary Society, and moved to POZNAN / Posen in 1840, where he died in 1846.
Named above Kraslava / Kreslau / Kraslaw, at half way from DYNEBURG to Wierchniedzwinsk - DRYSSA - see SWOLNA};

POCIEJ;

Jan Poniatowski 1760/1770 - d. after 1823

{Kulczyny in 1753, Antoni Lubomirski took; then his son Marcin. Before 1775 Kulczyny belonged to Ignacy Poniatowski, General Adjutant (1776), m. Anna Malachowska.
Ignacy Poniatowski / Ignacy Józef, 1707 / 1730 - 1796, in 1788 official in Lublin; the brother of Stanislaw, SENIOR; the son of NIKODEM Poniatowski / Nikodem Tadeusz Poniatowski, the official in MSCISLAW, b. ca 1690, m. Franciszka Skórkowska;
Ignacy Poniatowski, moved home from Poniatowo to Volhynia, m. Anna Jaksa Malachowska / Anna de Malachowo Malachowska, the daughter of Lukasz. Ignacy Poniatowski, had two sons:
Jan Poniatowski, CONSPIRATOR;
and Józef Poniatowski, 1762 - 1845 + Julia Grocholska the daughter of Franciszek Ksawery GROCHOLSKI.
Jozef's daughter: Matylda Poniatowska b. ca 1800 in Tahancza, d. 1887 in Geneva + Józef Szymanowski

[his 2nd marriage; b. 1778/1779 in KASKI - see The TEMPLARS].

Filipina Szymanowska that is Filipina Brzezinska-Szymanowska (1800 - 1886) was a Polish pianist and composer, daughter of Franciszek Szymanowski / Franco Francis Szymanowski {b. ca 1770/1780} and Agatha / AGATA Wolowska. FILIPINA was sister-in-law of the composer Maria Szymanowska ("szwagierka" or "bratowa" = sister-in-law).
Named above Maria Szymanowska born Marianna Agata Wolowska in Warsaw, 1789, died in 1831, St. Petersburg, Russia; was a Polish composer and one of the first professional virtuoso pianists of the 19th century.
Marianna Agata Wolowska was daughter of Franciszek Wolowski, a landlord and a brewer. Her mother [1st wife of Franciszek WOLOWSKI ?] - Barbara LANCKORONSKA, 1780 - 1849 / 1850? Barbara was the daughter of unknown Lanckoronski [Barbara maybe was the daughter of Jan Lanckoronski of Brzezie, officer of Nur, 1746-1791, and Maria Anna Januszkiewicz b. 1755; Barbara was sister of: Antoni Józef Lanckoronski 1777-1850 m. Ewa Mecinska, and Julia Barbara Lanckoronska 1779-1846 m. Jakub Jerzy Antoni Dunin- Borkowski].
Marianna Agata Wolowska m. 1810 in Warsaw to Józef Szymanowski, with whom she had three children while living in Poland: Helena (1811–61), who married a man named Malewski, and twins: Celina (1812–55), who married Adam Mickiewicz, and Romuald (1812–40), who became an engineer; children remained with Maria after
her separation from Szymanowski in 1820. The marriage ended in divorce.
Józef Szymanowski died in 1832. Józef Szymanowski was born ca 1778/1779.

Franciszek Szymanowski / Franco Francis Szymanowski b. ca 1770/1780, Michal Szymanowski b. ca 1770/1780, and named here Józef Szymanowski was born in 1778 / 1779 in KASKI, were brothers - acc. to me.

Józef Poniatowski (1762-1845), Colonel, m. JULIA Grocholska.
His brother Jan Poniatowski b. ca 1770 - died after 1823, Colonel, m. Honorata Jastrzebska, jailed for activities of the Patriotic Society. After the death of Ignacy Poniatowski - Kulczyny / Kulczyna was given to Jan Poniatowski, and after his death, the estate passed onto the only daughter Otylda, married to Adolf Grocholski, and later divorced.
Otylda Grocholska died after 1860. Kulczyn was returned to her family as a legacy of Cezary Poniatowski (born in 1803 - died after 1864), one of the five sons of Józef; Cezary married to Olga Swiejkowska.
Cezary and Olga Poniatowski sold Kulczyna to Wolkonski};

Przeciszewski;

KAROL PROZOR;

Kazimierz PULAWSKI

{Konstanty Tyzenhauz born in 1786, in Zoludek, Count, landowner, painter, was the son of Ignacy TYZENHAUZ and Anna / Marianna Bieganska. Waleria Tyzenhauz, born Wankowicz, in 1800 / 1805 - 1841 / 1843, was the daughter of Antoni Wankowicz and Anna Soltan b. 1780. Waleria married Konstanty Tyzenhauz in 1822.
IGNACY b. 1760 - d. 1822, the brother of
Tadeusz Tyzenhauz;
half brother of Kasper Tyzenhauz;
Teresa Oskierka;
Benedykt Tyzenhauz junior;
Antoni Tyzenhauz;
Teresa.
IGNACY was the son of Michal Ludwik Tyzenhauz.

Barbara Gielgud Tyzenhauz nee Judycka, ca 1740 [not in 1720 !] - 1784, was the wife of Antoni Onufry Gielgud and KAZIMIERZ TYZENHAUZ / Kazimieras Tyzenhauzas, and the mother of
MIKOLAJ GIELGUD
[Mikolaj Gielgud / Mykolas Gelgaudas, born in 1768 in Warsaw, died 1813, was the son of Antoni Onufry Gielgud and Barbara Tyzenhauz],
Antonina von Rönne
[Antonina von Rönne nee Gielgud, born ca 1770, daughter of above named Antoni Onufry Gielgud and Barbara Gielgud Tyzenhauz; she was the wife of Felix von Rönne and mother of Antoni von Rönne; Maria Tekla Oginska; Ludwika von Rönne; Feliks Filip von Rönne and Teodora Oginska]
and ZOFIA TYZENHAUZ / Sofija Tyzenhauziene - Zofia Tyzenhauz
[?? - born ca 1790; acc. to me ca 1780] m. ca 1810 to Oktawiusz Antoine / Oktaw de Choiseul-Gouffier, 1773-1840, with son Aleksander Ignacy Choiseul-Gouffier m. Zofia Hutten-Czapska.
ZOFIA TYZENHAUZ m. 2nd to Antoni Tyzenhauz (1756-1816), General, in 1792 was the president of Wilno, MP in 1790, member of the 1794 Uprising.

KAZIMIERZ Tyzenhauz / Kazimieras Tyzenhauzas [see above] b. ca 1740 - son of Benedykt Tyzenhauz SENIOR - was the husband of above Barbara Gielgud, and father of ZOFIA Tyzenhauziene. Kazimierz Tyzenhauz was the brother of Barbara Wawrzecka; Benedykta Niezabitowska; Aleksandra Anna Morykoni; Teresa Tyzenhauz, and Magdalena Maria Ewa Walewska.
Named above Magdalena Maria Ewa Tyzenhauz-Walewska, was the wife of Anastazy Walewski / Colonna-Walewski, b. ca 1730, died in 1815 in Walewice [or Atanazy Colonna-Walewski 1733-1815], close to Lowicz.
Atanazy Colonna-Walewski was the son of Józef Kazimierz Walewski and Ludwika;
husband of Magdalena Maria Ewa Tyzenhauz
and Joanna PULASKI daughter of Jozef PULASKI;
ex-husband of Marie d'Ornano; father of Ksawery Walewski, Teresa Walewska, Józefa Witkowska and Antoni Bazyli Rudolf Walewski; brother of Teodora Walewska.

Named above Anna nee Pulaska / Joanna Pulaska, b. 1742 in Grabowo, was the daughter of Józef Pulaski; she was the sister of KAZIMIERZ PULASKI / Casimir Pulaski, US Revolutionary Hero, the Polish conspirator.

Teodora Ludwika Walewska, Marianna Radolinska and Józef Kazimierz Colonna Walewski b. ca 1710, d. 1763 (he had son Atanazy Colonna-Walewski 1733-1815 and daughter Jadwiga Walewska who married in 1762 in Bielawy to Michal / Michael Walewski 1735 / 1740 - 1806) were children of Kazimierz Walewski and Zofia.
FRANCISZEK Walewski born ca 1675 / 1690, died 1745, owner of Rusiec, Wieruszów (before him to the Mecinski family), Dabrówka, Jastrzebice, Broszecin, Wola Wiazowa, Lesniaki (Franciszek Walewski had son Aleksander), married 3rd in 1737 to above Teodora Ludwika Walewska (b. ca 1710), daughter of above Kazimierz Walewski and Zofia Radolinska 1677 - 1723}

Konstantyn Radziwill;

Skibicki;

Stanislaw Soltan;

ADAM SOLTAN;

Jozef STRUMILLO;

Karol Wagner;

Woynillowicz;

Zagorski;

Jozef Kaleski;

Tomasz ZAN,

Zapolski

{Ewa Cydzik was 1st married to Jan Konstantynowicz b. ca 1832/1833 - d. ca 1874 / 1877, the son of Jan Konstantynowicz senior (1804-1806) of TOLOCZKI, and Maryanna Zapolski, the daughter of SIEMION ZAPOLSKI.

And we back now again to De Mohrenschildt who was born
Jerzy Sergius von Mohrenschildt in MOZYRZ / Mozyr (see Bulhak family and Ipohorski) in Belarus, in 1911. He had an older brother, Dimitri / Dymitr. His father was Sergey Alexandrovich von Mohrenschildt; his mother,
Alexandra / Aleksandra Zopalsky / ALEKSANDRA ZAPOLSKA, of Polish descent.
Sergey von Mohrenschildt was a Marshal of Nobility of the Minsk Province 1913 - 1917 (see Karol Hutten - Czapski and Duflon & Konstantynowicz in Minsk), and an Actual Civil Councilor; 1920, Sergy von Mohrenschildt was arrested by the Bolsheviks; while awaiting transport to Veliky Ustyug, Sergey became ill. The Soviet government released Sergey, his wife and De Mohrenschildt then fled to Poland; De Mohrenschildt's older brother Dimitri was awaiting execution but was later released in a prisoner exchange in Poland; Alexandra died ca 1922 in Poland.
Alexandra Gapolski / Zapolska born 13.5.1879 / 25.5.1879; Aleksandra's husband - occupation: the County marshal in Mozyrz / Mozir in 1911; County marshal in Minsk in 1914 - 1915 or 1913 to 1917; description: Minsk office in 1911};

IGNACY ZAWISZA.


Conspirator, Ignacy Zawisza of Kowno in all probability is Ignacy Zawisza-Dowgiallo, b. 1774, died in 1833; the son of Teresa Zawisza-Dowgiallo
(Teresa Burzynska b. ca 1740, the daughter of Stanislaw Antoni Burzynski b. 1701, died in 1775. The graddaughter of ELZBIETA BUTLER, BURZYNSKA),
and Stanislaw Zawisza b. ca 1740,
the grandson of - ? - Ignacy Zawisza senior b. ca 1720.
Ignacy Zawisza Dowgiallo, senior, d. 1798, a land judge of Kaunas in 1765-1782, an official in 1754-1765; inf. 1764 in the Kowno county;
Ignacy Zawisza, was the owner of Czewkowce / Ciolkowce in Podolia, the Kamieniec Podolski area, in 1774.

Named Ignacy Zawisza-Dowgiallo, junior, 1774 - 1833, had the daughter:
Leokadia Zawisza, b. ca 1800 - d. in 1829 + Stanislaw Gieysztor 1800-1834 [see below the genealogy]; and they had a son
Jakub Konstanty Wilhelm Gieysztor 1827-1897

[JAKUB Gieysztor was the son of Stanislaw GIEYSZTOR, a member of the insurgent Kaunas committee in 1831 and Leokadia Zawisza-Dowgiallo Gieysztor. Jakub in 1844 was graduated with the Noble Institute in Vilnius and began studies at the St. Petersburg University, where he came into contact with Zygmunt Sierakowski. In 1848, he returned to Lithuania, to stop insurgents, including the so-called conspiracy of the Dalewski brothers. He settled in Ignacogród.
In 1863, Jakub became the president of the Provinces of Lithuania. On July 31, 1863, he was arrested due to the denunciation of the Vilnius province governor Alexander Domeyko.
In 1865, sentenced to 12 years of hard work in Usol, in 1868 he was transferred to Irkutsk; in 1872 he returned to the country
and settled in Suwalki, then in Warsaw].

Jakub was twice married: 1st to Tekla ZAWISZA in 1851, with 5 sons [Tekla was the late daughter of named above Ignacy Zawisza-Dowgiallo 1774-1833; Tekla was born ca 1825]; 2nd to Helena Eysmont in 1877 with two sons.


Named Stanislaw Gieysztor 1800-1834, had parents: Jakub Gieysztor SENIOR, 1764-1804 + Anna Gasecka 1770-1837; the grandparents:
Stanislaw Gieysztor b. ca 1730 + Marianna Zaleska [the daughter of Stanislaw ZALESKI and unknown Maslowska];
the great-grandparents:
Antoni Gieysztor 1700-1744; Stanislaw Zaleski; and Anna Maslowska [the wife of ANTONI GIEYSZTOR d. 1744] born 1698 -
note:
Maslowski Andrzej with Katarzyna Chmielinska had daughter
Anna Zofia Maslowska / Anna Maslowska, b. 1698, owner of Lubojnia [LUBOJNA - 8 km east to KAMYK of Kiedrzynski ! and 9 km west to KOSCIELEC of Madalinski].

We back to
Jan Myszkowski, 1695 - 1730, owner of Galewice, m. before 1718 to Katarzyna Barbara Maslowska 1695 - before 1788, she was 2 voto to Antoni Ignacy Szeliski who died before 1788; she was daughter of Andrzej Maslowski born ca 1665 / 1670, officer in Wielun,
son of Adam Maslowski (died after 1692), and Urszula Bielska.
Above JAN Myszkowski had son Karol Myszkowski b. in 1723 in Galewice, bpt. in Cieszecin - died in 1779 / 1784 [godfather was Jan Maslowski, and his wife Jadwiga nee Myszkowska].

KAROL Myszkowski was the owner of Galewice, Tokary, Gozdów
[TOKARY 5 km nort-west to Gluchow; and GOZDOW west to GLUCHOW, at way to BEDZIECHOW and to Zdzary - see Kiedrzynski, Konopnicki, Pstrokonski],
Police,
but was living in Galewice in 1757 - 60, Captain in 1761.
KAROL Myszkowski m. Justyna Niwska died after 1802, owner of Gostyczyna; Justyna Niwska-Myszkowska sold Gostyczyna in 1801; Justyna was the daughter of Piotr Niwski d. 1763, owner of Gostyczyna (in 1751; 10 km south to KALISZ), Milejów [2 km north- east to TOKARY], and Tokary

[Jan Myszkowski, 1695 - 1730, owner of Galewice, m. before 1718 to Katarzyna Barbara Maslowska 1695 - before 1788, she was 2 voto to Antoni Ignacy Szeliski who died before 1788; she was daughter of Andrzej Maslowski born ca 1665 / 1670, officer in Wielun, son of Adam Maslowski (died after 1692), and Urszula Bielska. Above JAN Myszkowski had son Karol Myszkowski b. in 1723 in Galewice, bpt. in Cieszecin - died in 1779 / 1784].

HIERONIM Myszkowski b. ca 1550, died after 1577 [he was the son of Hieronim senior b. ca 1500, and grandson of Marcin Myszkowski b. ca 1448, and Zuzanna LASKI; Marcin was born 1448, son of Piotr Myszkowski and Agnieszka KOBYLANSKA];
had son
Waclaw Myszkowski b. ca 1600 - died in 1663/1666 + Zofia Podczaszanka Mirzowska;
and grandson
Mikolaj Myszkowski (1640, bpt in Kozieglówki, 3 km south-east to Kozieglowy, south of Czestochowa - d. 1713) owner of Dabrowa, and Galewice (from hands of wife Aleksadra Grodzicki), married also to unknown Anna,
with the son
Jan Myszkowski (ca 1695 - d. 1730, Galewice), owner of Galewice.


WOLA WIAZOWA and the "Kiedrzynskis" - Maslowski - Pradzynski - Walewski:

Andrzej Maslowski born ca 1665 / 1670, officer in Wielun, died after 1692, married Urszula Bielska.

Below on Wodziczna / Wodzicze - 3 km south to Pomiany; 4 km south-east to TRZCINICA; 5 km north-east to the ex-Silesian-Austrian border:

Jadwiga Myszkowska [b. ca 1675] m. 1st to Stefan Golygowski / Golyglowski, Goligowski, owner of Pomiany and Wodzicze / WODZICZNA; in 1689 - 1692, Stefan Golychowski / Golyglowski lease village Kurow in the Wielun county [7 km north to MOKRSKO; 4 km north-west to TUROW; west of WIELUN; also see KIEDRZYNSKI], next of kin to Franciszka Antonina Trzcinska, b. 1693, in Trzcinica; in 1692 named Kurow lease Michal Myszkowski of Dabrowa.

Named Andrzej Maslowski 1660 / 1665 / 1670 - d. 1720 / 1742, was the owner of Ruda close to Wielun [south-east to Wielun, 5 km], Mierzyce, Toporów, Przewóz; he lived in Pomiany close to Trzcinica

[POMIANY, 2 km to east of Trzcinica - 18 km south to KEPNO in Poland to 1793, in the Wielun county; Trzcinica was owned to 1812 by the Trzcinski family; then to German family. Is situated 12 km south to GREBANIN - see Kreski and Kiedrzynski, in the Ostrzeszow county, in 1793 to Prussia. 1807 to the Duchy of Warsaw. But Wieruszow in 1815 to Russia. BRALIN was in Silesia; but TRZCINICA was 10 km east to the Silesia ex-border],

1st wife of Andrzej Maslowski in 1695 was Katarzyna Chmielinska, daughter of Piotr CHMIELINSKI.
Maslowski Andrzej with Katarzyna Chmielinska had children:

1. Anna Zofia Maslowska, b. 1698, owner of Lubojnia [LUBOJNA - 8 km east to KAMYK of Kiedrzynski ! and 9 km west to KOSCIELEC of Madalinski], married Antoni Gieysztor 1700-1744.

2. Krystyna m. an owner of Strzyzew / Strzyzewo,

3. Jadwiga Aleksandra b. 1699 m. Pawel Fundament Karsnicki,
4. Katarzyna Barbara,
5. Róza,
6. Jan Chryzostom owner of Rudniki, and Malyszyn [7 km north-east to WIELUN - see KUROW; north to Ruda],
7. Karol Boromeusz MASLOWSKI - owner of Stronsk / STRONSKO, d. 1795, officer in Ostrzeszow, m. Jadwiga Karsnicka = GERTRUDA KARSNICKA,
with
A. Kunegunda Ewa Anna Maslowska b. 1743 in Ruda m. 1759-1764, to Franciszek Ksawery Walewski the owner of Wola Wiazowa, son of Franciszek Walewski and Teodora Walewska.
B.
In the Rudlice parish, in 1746, in Ostrówek, Ksawery August Józef Maslowski was born - the son of Karol Maslowski official in WIELUN + Gertruda Karsnicki Maslowski; godparents: Pawel Karsnicki official in Ostrzeszow and Teresa Wieloglowski married Bleszynska.

Franciszek Walewski / Franciszek Ksawery Walewski, 1739 - 1796, an official in Ostrzeszow in 1765, 1772, 1775, 1778 - 1796; in 1781 the owner of Wola Wiazowa;
he m. in 1784, in the Kobyla Góra parish, in MYSLNIEW, 4 km to Silesia, to Konstancja Psarska b. before 1770, daughter of Fryderyk Jakub Psarski 1730-1805 and his wife Ksawera Franciszka Bardzinska, 1753-1814.

Franciszek Ksawery Walewski, 1739 - 1796, was married three times:
1.
TERESA NIEMOJOWSKA-PSARSKA, b. ca 1730 - a marriage in 1760;
2.
unknown - marriage ca 1778 [that is the marriage in 1759-64, to Kunegunda Ewa Anna Maslowska b. 1743 in Ruda];
3.
and in 1779 or in 1784, in Myslniew, west to Ostrzeszow, to Konstancja Psarska a daughter of Fryderyk Jakub Psarski.

Franciszek Ksawery Walewski owner of Wola Wiazowa, was the son of Franciszek Walewski with his 3rd wife [a marriage in STRONSKO]. Franciszek senior was born ca 1675 / 1690 / 1710 - died in 1745 in Rusiec; the 3rd wife was Teodora Walewska.

Franciszek Walewski from the 1st marriage had also a son Aleksander Walewski, official in Piotrków (1778), in Rozprza (1748), in Cracow in 1740, married Elzbieta Mecinska of Wieruszow and JEDLNO [see Izydor Kiedrzynski]!

We back to
Jan Myszkowski, 1695 - 1730, owner of Galewice, m. before 1718 to Katarzyna Barbara Maslowska 1695 - before 1788, she was 2 voto to Antoni Ignacy Szeliski who died before 1788;
she was daughter of Andrzej Maslowski born ca 1665 / 1670, officer in Wielun,
son of Adam Maslowski (died after 1692), and Urszula Bielska.

Above JAN Myszkowski had son Karol Myszkowski b. in 1723 in Galewice, bpt. in Cieszecin - died in 1779 / 1784 [godfather was Jan Maslowski, and his wife Jadwiga nee Myszkowska].

KAROL Myszkowski was the owner of Galewice, Tokary, Gozdów

[TOKARY 5 km nort-west to Gluchow; and GOZDOW west to GLUCHOW, at way to BEDZIECHOW and to Zdzary - see Kiedrzynski, Konopnicki, Pstrokonski],
Police,
but was living in Galewice in 1757 - 60, Captain in 1761.
KAROL Myszkowski m. Justyna Niwska died after 1802, owner of Gostyczyna; Justyna Niwska-Myszkowska sold Gostyczyna in 1801; Justyna was the daughter of Piotr Niwski d. 1763, owner of Gostyczyna (in 1751; 10 km south to KALISZ), Milejów [2 km north- east to TOKARY], and Tokary
[Jan Myszkowski, 1695 - 1730, owner of Galewice, m. before 1718 to Katarzyna Barbara Maslowska 1695 - before 1788, she was 2 voto to Antoni Ignacy Szeliski who died before 1788; she was daughter of Andrzej Maslowski born ca 1665 / 1670, officer in Wielun, son of Adam Maslowski (died after 1692), and Urszula Bielska. Above JAN Myszkowski had son Karol Myszkowski b. in 1723 in Galewice, bpt. in Cieszecin - died in 1779 / 1784].

HIERONIM Myszkowski b. ca 1550, died after 1577 [he was the son of Hieronim senior b. ca 1500, and grandson of Marcin Myszkowski b. ca 1448, and Zuzanna LASKI; Marcin was born 1448, son of Piotr Myszkowski and Agnieszka KOBYLANSKA];
with son
Waclaw Myszkowski b. ca 1600 - died in 1663/1666 + Zofia Podczaszanka Mirzowska;
and grandson
Mikolaj Myszkowski (1640, bpt in Kozieglówki, 3 km south-east to Kozieglowy, south of Czestochowa - d. 1713) owner of Dabrowa, and Galewice (from hands of wife Aleksadra Grodzicki), married also to unknown Anna,
with the son
Jan Myszkowski (ca 1695 - d. 1730, Galewice), owner of Galewice.

See:
Ludwik Bartlomiej Szaniawski (b. 1816 in Gronów, 9 km east to ZLOCZEW and 18 km west to Widawa), owner of Kroczyce [17 km south to LELOW; close to Lgota Murowana], and Malowana Wola;
was the son of Jan Kanty Szaniawski (ca 1764 - d. 1839), owner of Ochle [at half way from Widawa to Wola Wiazowa; 9 km west to RESTARZEW], Gromadzice in the Wielun county [6 km north-west to Maslowice; 11 km north to WIELUN]; and Agnieszka Psarska b. ca 1770 - d. after 1844, in 1803 she was single and she was living in Radoszowice close to Osjaków [RADOSZEWICE - 9 km south-east to OSJAKOW or Radoszowice], daughter of Wladyslaw Psarski, granddaughter of Franciszek Ksawery PSARSKI.

We back to MYSZKOWSKI:

Mikolaj Myszkowski (1640 - d. 1713), the owner of Dabrowa and Galewice; m. Anna; they had son
Jan Myszkowski (b. ca 1695 - d. 1730 in Galewice), official in Wenden, the owner of Galewice;
JAN married Katarzyna Barbara Maslowska b. ca 1695 - d. after 1754, daughter of Andrzej Maslowski b. ca 1670 - d. before 1742, official in Wielun; ANDRZEJ Maslowski was the son of Adam Maslowski and Urszula Bielska. the wife of named ANDRZEJ was Katarzyna Chmielinska / Chmielewska.

Above JAN had son
Karol Myszkowski b. in 1723 in Galewice, bpt. in Cieszecin - died in 1779 / 1784,
godfather was Jan Maslowski, and his wife Jadwiga nee Myszkowska;
KAROL MYSZKOWSKI was the owner of Galewice, Tokary, Gozdów
[TOKARY 5 km nort-west to Gluchow; and GOZDOW west to GLUCHOW, at way to BEDZIECHOW and to Zdzary - see Kiedrzynski, Konopnicki, Pstrokonski],
Police, but was living in Galewice in 1757 - 60, Captain in 1761. KAROL Myszkowski m. Justyna Niwska died after 1802, owner of Gostyczyna; Justyna Niwska-Myszkowska sold Gostyczyna in 1801;
Justyna was the daughter of Piotr Niwski d. 1763, owner of Gostyczyna (in 1751; 10 km south to KALISZ), Milejów [2 km north- east to TOKARY], and Tokary.

Son of named KAROL Myszkowski:

Cyprian Justyn Franciszek Myszkowski b. 1763, in Galewice, bpt. in Cieszecin - d. in above Tokary - close to GLUCHOW;
and grandson of KAROL MYSZKOWSKI:
Adam Ignacy Ananiasz Myszkowski, b. 1804, Tokary - d. 1864, Warszawa, owner of Kustrzyce, Przymilów and mentioned Milejów; in 1833 owner of Rojków.

Compare - Andrzej Milkowski b. ca 1770 - d. after 1831/1849, official in Wschowa; the owner of Macew [17 km north-west to KALISZ], and Milejów.

Compare:
Swiato Jeziory / Swietojeziory / Šventežeris - in the Sejny district, a region of Lozdzieje, located about 9 km east to LOZDZIEJE. In the 18th century, belonged to Dominik Radziwill. Then, Swietojeziory / Šventežeris to Mikolaj Myszkowski until 1863.
Then the estate broke up on a few parts. The farm passed to Mendel Burak.
That is Mikolaj Myszkowski (b. in 1806, in the Doruchów parish, 13 km east to OSTRZESZOW ! - in Przytocznica 4 km north-west to Doruchów. See SUWALKI !).
He was the son of Hipolit Ignacy Karol Myszkowski (1760 in Komorniki close to Poznan - d. 1828, Zapolice, 3 km east to STRONSKO; in the Stronsko parish - 9 km south-west to Zdunska Wola);
the grandson of WOJCIECH who had 4 wives;
named Wojciech Stanislaw Myszkowski (b. 1727, Galewice, bpt in Cieszecin - d. 1795, Galewice) was the brother of Karol Myszkowski b. 1723, Galewice {godfather was Jan Maslowski + Jadwiga Maslowska-Myszkowska};
the great-grandson of Jan Myszkowski b. 1695 - d. 1730, Galewice, official in Wenden, the owner of Galewice, north-east to Wieruszow and CHOBANIN;
who was the son of
Mikolaj Myszkowski (1640 - 1713), the owner of Dabrowa / Dabrowka [4 km east to Galewice] and Galewice; m. Anna.

Mentioned above Mikolaj Myszkowski, 1640-1713, owner of Ruda close to Wielun [5 km south-east to WIELUN; east to MOKRSKO ! - see Jan Paszkowski], and Galewice [13 km north-east to WIERUSZOW], m. Aleksandra Grodzicka, 1640 - 1668, with:

1. Chryzostom Mikolaj Myszkowski, born ca 1675 or b. 1665-1709 m. Jadwiga Karsnicka of Wielun,

2. Jadwiga Myszkowska, died in 1725 m. Stefan Golygowski owner of Kurow (see Kiedrzynski) [8 km west to WIELUN],

3. Elzbieta Myszkowska m. before 1692 to Adam Kiedrzynski.

Elzbieta Myszkowska b. ca 1675, d. before 1724, m. Adam Kiedrzynski b. ca 1660 / 1670, but in 1724 Eleonora Rozdrazewska was widow after death of Adam Kiedrzynski; Eleonora was then wife of Jan Relo.

The brother of named JADWIGA and ELZBIETA was [previously mistaken] Mikolaj / Chryzostom Mikolaj Myszkowski b. ca 1675 - d. 1709, the owner of Galewice [13 km north-east to WIERUSZOW], married in 1702 in Kruszyna north-east to Czestochowa [east to Cykarzew; 13 km north-east to KOSCIELEC of MADALINSKI].

Karol Maslowski, official in Wielun, m. Gertruda Karsnicki Maslowski.

They had bpt. in Rudlice in 1743, the daughter Kunegunda Ewa Anna. Kunegunda Ewa Anna Maslowska b. 1743 in Ruda
[RUDA was the estate of MASLOWSKI: Piotr Maslowski the owner of Maslowice, Mierzyce and Ruda in the Wielun county; Piotr was the official in WIELUN, 1527-1561],
baptis. in Rudlice [19 km north to WIELUN], m. Franciszek Ksawery Walewski b. ca 1740, owner of Wola Wiazowa, son of Franciszek Walewski and Teodora Walewska. Above Franciszek Walewski officer in Rozprza, 1710-1745, wife Teodora Walewska b. 1710. His son Ksawery Franciszek Walewski officer in Ostrzeszów, 1739 / 1740-1796.

WOLA WIAZOWA owned by the Walewskis in the 18th cent.,
they founded in 1781 a church. In 1885 estate included Wola Wiazowa, Wincentów, Stanislawów, Deby, and owned by Pradzynski:
1.
Stanislaw Kostka Pradzynski / Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [born in Pacholewo, died in Poznan; owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and his wife BRONIKOWSKA;
2.
then named Wola Wiazowa was taken by his son Wincenty Pradzynski
[that is Wincenty Józef Pradzynski], died 1858 in Warszawa

(Wincenty's brother: Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski {b. 1792 in Sanniki; General}.
Wincenty was born on April 5, 1795, in Iwno / IWNIE close to Kostrzyn. His wife Salomea was born on November 19, 1790, in Wasosz)

and his wife Salomea Mierzynska b. 1799

[the sons of named Wincenty Jozef Pradzynski, 1795-1858:
A. Stanislaw Wincenty Pradzynski / Stanislaw Pradzynski, 1828-1855 in WOLA WIAZOWA;
B. Wincenty Boleslaw Pradzynski born in 1839, d. 1895;
C. Edward Emilian Julian Pradzynski b. 1838 in Leznica Wielka - died in 1895 in WOLA WIAZOWA + Maria Skorzewska

{a case of excise duty on spirits, which was supposed to be exported abroad (to Prussia ?) in Piotrkow in 1875 and in 1892; the owner of the distillery in Wola Wiazowna's estate, Edward Pradzynski, for the purpose of securing the excise tax due to him for export abroad spirits, presented a deposit in the general amount of 17,000 rs. In 1875 Pradzynski demanded from the excise manager in the Kalisz to return to him the deposit on the principle that the corresponding amount of spirits was supposedly from his distillery exported abroad.
A court case in 1893 - Maria Pradzynska vs. Edward Pradzynski
(compare the life of A. MATEUSZ "KIEDRZYNSKI" of Wola Wiazowa - a trade in alcohol, snuff, cigars, lubricants to Prussia. B. And Gabriel Kiedrzynski / Gabryel Kiedrzynski of Jedlno and Wola Wiazowa - 1831/1832 to April 1832 abroad ?; C. and Jan "Kiedrzynski" of Wola Wiazowa and Wola Pszczolecka, come from named Gabryel)};

D. Boleslaw Jan Pradzynski, 1842-1855, and

E. Wladyslaw Pradzynski 1837-1898 lived in LEZNICA WIELKA close to Leczyca + Anna Skrzynska].

3.
Stanislaw Pradzynski 1828-1855, a single, son of Wincenty and Salomea born Mierzynska; Stanislaw died in Wola Wiazowa in 1855.

In 1858, Wincenty Pradzynski died, the owner of Kobierzycko [at half way from BLASZKI to Sieradz; the Wróblew parish, 3 km to KOBIERZYCKO] and of Wola Wiazowa / Wola Wiezowa; Wincenty-Józef-Grzymala Pradzynski, was the Actual Counselor of State; died in Warsaw on 19 November 1858.

In 1863 in the Wola Wiazowa manor was secret printing house of Feliks Kicki.

4.
1892 - Wola Wiazowa belonged to Pradzynski [see above on Edward Emilian Julian Pradzynski b. 1838 in Leznica Wielka - died in 1895 in WOLA WIAZOWA + Maria Skorzewska].

BIEGANIN - 21 south-east-south to ORPISZEWEK; 18 south-east to DOBRZYCA.


The BARDZKI / Bardski family and MIELESZYN

[Antoni Szaniawski married 1st to Konkordia Lipinska in the Mieleszyn parish; in named Mieleszyn in July 1776, Antoni Szaniawski married second to Joanna nee Szczepkowski, 1 voto Tymieniecka. The Parish of St Mary Magdalene in Mieleszyn - the Roman Catholic parish belonging to the Boleslawiec deanery of the diocese of Kalisz. Mieleszyn - near to Wieruszow, is situated close to CHOBOT; 9 km south-east to Wieruszow; south to CHOBANIN; east to MROCZEN and OPATOW.
Jan Kanty Szaniawski was born in 1764 or 1760, to Józef Tomasz Szaniawski and Zofia Podczaska. Józef Szaniawski was born in 1734, in Galewice near Wieruszow. Jan Kanty Szaniawski, 1764 - 1835 / 1836 or died in 1839, married Agnieszka Psarski, born in 1780. They had son Teofil Kazimierz Szaniawski. Jan Kanty Szaniawski (1764-1836) was the Attorney in Wielun.
Named Józef SZANIAWSKI was born on March 6, 1734, in Galewice. GALEWICE 18 km north-east-north to MIELESZYN ! Close to CHOBANIN. Above Józef Szaniawski was born in 1734, in Galewice, was the brother {?} of above ANTONI SZANIAWSKI, b. ca 1730, who married close to WIERUSZOW - Mieleszyn, close to CHOBOT; 9 km south-east to Wieruszow. South to CHOBANIN; east to MROCZEN and OPATOW. Died in 1792. JOZEF Szaniawski was the son of Kazimierz Szaniawski and Marianna]:

A. Pawel BARDZKI, 1690-1739, married in 1732, Anna Skorzewska, 1700-1744, the daughter of Andrzej and Dorota Choinski, with children:

[remember:
BRYGIDA BARDZKA was the daughter of Wojciech Marek Bardzki d. 1770 and she was 2nd married to Jakub Kiedrzynski. Wojciech Marek BARDZKI had parents:
Jan Bardzki died in 1724 + mother Helena Milaczewska d. 1724]:

1. Franciszek BARDZKI b. 1732 in Mieleszyn;
2. Katarzyna Elzbieta Dorota b. 1735 in JAGNIEWICE / Igniewice, north-west to GNIEZNO, and married to Józef Dobrolecki;
3. Ignacy Jan BARDZKI b. in Mieleszyn;
4. Józef Jan Nepomucen BARDZKI born in 1738, the Royal official, m. Anna Pawlowska,
with children:
a) Aleksandra;
b) Ludwika Franciszka m. Tadeusz Krzyzanowski, 2nd she married Antoni Feliks Lewinski the owner of Paprotna / Paprotnia;
c) Mateusz Bardzki - Colonel, b. ca 1783,
d) Marianna m. Ludwik Dembinski, owner of Liszkówka;

5. Andrzej BARDZKI b. in 1730 or ca 1738/1739
- not in 1743;
Colonel [note about Erazm Mycielski], owner of Kobierzycko [at half way from Sieradz to BLASZKI; close to TUBADZIN], bought from hands of Antoni Siemiatkowski,
m. Marianna Krzyzanowska, lived in Osmolin close to Zdunska Wola {or near Kiernozia ?}; children:
a) Michal Bardzki b. ca 1793, in Glinno [25 km north to SIERADZ, close to Warta],
b) Ludwika b. ca 1799, m. Józef Stanislawski,
c) Nepomucena m. Kalikst Byszewski,
d) Ignacy Wojciech Pawel BARDZKI, b. 1797 in Iwanowice, lived in Wróblew, the owner of Rojkow, m. in Stronsko, to Faustyna Sulimierska, b. in 1799 in Stronsko
[by the Warta river; 18 km north-west to WIDAWA; 13 km west to MARZENIN],
the daughter of Ludwik Sulimierski and Marianna Kempista Sulimierska;
with children:
1. Romana Dobrochna Tekla, b. 1835 in Janowice [7 km south to Mikolajewice] near to Mikolajewice [4 km south-west to Lutomiersk],
2. Kandyd Brunon Franciszek BARDZKI - served the Russian Army in 1863,
3. Kamila Seweryna Ignacja,
4. August Ludwik Bardzki, b. 1827 in Rojków close to Marzenin [Marzenin - 19 km north-east to WIDAWA; Rojkow - 17 km north to Widawa],
5. Anna Balbina.

Mentioned above
Faustyna Sulimierska born ca 1799, in Stronsko, m. Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki, the owner of Janowice, close to SZADEK, inf. 1840, born 1797 - Iwanowice.
Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki -
his parents:
Andrzej Bardzki COLONEL, 1730-1819 and Marianna Marcjanna Krzyzanowska b. ca 1750;
the grandparents:
Pawel Bardzki 1690-1739; Anna Skórzewska 1700-1745; Stanislaw Krzyzanowski b. ca 1720; Dorota Bystram.

B.
Andrzej Bardzki, died in 1726, senior

[Above named Pawel Bardzki 1690-1739 + in 1732 to Anna Skórzewska 1700-1745, with the son Colonel ANDRZEJ BARDZKI, 1730-1819 {note - Erasmus Mycielski !} + Marianna Marcjanna Krzyzanowska with son Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki b. 1797 + Faustyna Sulimierska, with children: Józef Bardzki b. 1824; Kamilla Seweria Ignacja Bardzka; Kandyd Brunon Franciszek Bardzki; Romana Bardzka; Maksymilian Edward Bardzki];

C.
Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770;
Stanislaw Bardzki born 1697;
Marianna Bardzka, 1707-1729;
elder brother Maciej Bardzki b. 1685;
Pawel Bardzki b. 1690 - d. 1739;
Antoni Bardzki d. 1738;
Kazimierz Bardzki d. 1738;
Katarzyna Bardzka died in 1742.

Brygida Bardzka married 1st to Owidiusz Wierusz Walknowski, before 1761, 2nd to Jakub Kiedrzynski junior, in 1767. Her father Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770, mother Helena Teresa Kozminska, 1706-1792.
Brygida Bardzka Walknowska + JAKUB Kiedrzynski had two daughters:

1. Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska ARNOLD, b. 1770 / 1772-1811;

2. and Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.
Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski [compare the Pradzynskis and the Kiedrzynskis of WOLA WIAZOWA ! - the family of the author to this domain].

Wojciech Marek BARDZKI had parents:
Jan Bardzki died in 1724 + mother Helena Milaczewska d. 1724.


The Bardzki family - Sulimierski - Kiedrzynski {Wilczkow, Orpiszewek, Wilkowo Polskie, Jedlno, Wola Wiazowa, Wola Pszczolecka, and also about Mariowka in the Opoczno county} - Mielzynski - Oginski / Kalinowski + Wolowski - Arnold - Kiedzynski lines + the Pradzynskis:

Acc. to Nejman:
Wojciech Sulimierski owner in 1728 of Losieniec, married to Dorota Trzebnicka, with son:
Józef Sulimierski d. 1787, m. Antonina Przeradzka; with children:
1. Jan died 1809,
2. Salomea;
3. Agnieszka m. Jan Kossobudzki;
4. Ludwik Sulimierski born ca 1758, died ca 1826, owner of Stronsko, m. to Marianna Julianna Kempista, daughter of Maciej Kempista and Joanna Szeliska, with children:
a) Faustyna born ca 1799, Stronsko, m. Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki;
b) Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski of Wesola and Tyczyn, m. Nepomucena Pradzynska;
with daughter Ewa Józefa born 1836 in Zielecice;
c) Feliks Bonawentura Sulimierski married in 1829 to Petronela SZANIAWSKA - she was b. 1810 in Gromadzice, daughter of Jan Kanty SZANIAWSKI b. ca 1764, owner of above Gromadzice, and Ochle, and Agnieszka Psarska [see below].

Jan Kanty Szaniawski (ca 1764 - 1839) had sons:
1. Józef Gabriel Szaniawski (born in 1805 in Gromadzice close to Wielun - d. 1879) married in 1841 to Aniela Zbijewska (b. 1816);
2. Jan Chryzostom Ignacy Szaniawski (born 1813, Gromadzice), owner of Chodaki in the Szadek county, and also owner of Kraszyn, and Zwiasty;
3. Ludwik Bartlomiej Szaniawski (b. 1816 in Gronów, the Sieradz county), owner of Kroczyce in the Lelów county and Malowana Wola (see above on Ignacy KIEDRZYNSKI)
and married in 1844 in Redziny to Aniela Rotkiewicz from Kroczyce (b. in 1824, Kroczyce - died 1860, Piotrków) daughter of Marianna Dobinska (Dabinska, Drabinska).


Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720; JAKUB was the owner of Orpiszewek [Jakub was born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798].
Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.
Józef MADALINSKI, b. 1774, died after 1809, Captain in 1809, m. Julianna nee Bogdanska, 1st voto JAKUB Kiedrzynski; she d. in Orpiszew / Orpiszewko / ORPISZEWEK in 1809 (Orpiszewko was owned by the Kiedrzynskis);
with daughter Kunegunda Madalinska born before 1809 in Orpiszewek, m. in 1835 in Restarzew, to Grzegorz Chrzanowski b. ca 1784, son of Zofia Tymienicki Chrzanowska.

Jozef Madalinski was son of Kajetan Madalinski, 1740-1784 and Dorota Kiedrzynska 1740 or 1750 - 1784.

Jakub Kiedrzynski was born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798. His two wives: Brygida Bardzka [in 1767]; and Julianna nee Bogdanska [ca 1788].

JAKUB'S brother was Kasper Kiedrzynski and IZYDOR Kiedrzynski!

MICHAL Arcichowski or Arciechowski Michal, b. ca 1717, inf. 1748, died in Chodziez [northern Grand Poland and close to ex-Prussian border !], in 1771. Before 1747 he was married to Antonine (Agnieszka ?) Golinska, d. before 1779, with son Anastazy, and daughters:
Marianna in 1779 m. to Kasper Kiedrzynski / KACPER KIEDRZYNSKI [see family of Izydor Kiedrzynski !];
Nepomucena in 1778 m. Zygmunt Grudzinski;
Michalina;
Karolina in 1779 was unmarried.

Arciechowski Józef Wojciech, b. in Milicz in 1785, Captain of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, landowner of Dziewoklucz in 1815, owned Margonin in 1817, m. in 1813 to Dominika Gembicka, daughter of Ignacy and Cecylia Kurdwanowska, divorced as Jaworowicz, b. ca 1784,
with son Jan, b. in Margonin in 1821,
and with daughter Monika, b. ca 1814, married in 1838 to Apolinary Kiedrzynski;
Eufemia, b. ca 1818 and died in 1820 in Margonin.

Margonin - 14 km east of above CHODZIEZ.

They were relatives of Marcin Kiedrzynski, b. ca 1715/1720, and they come from Jakob / Jakub Kiedrzynski senior b. ca 1675 - owner of Dymki in the Lututow parish since 1698, inf. 1709 Wielun. Dymki and Lututow - Dymki estate of the Kiedrzynskis is situated 5 km east of Lututow, in the Wieruszow county.

Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) and Katarzyna MYCIELSKA GORZYCKA MIELZYNSKA

{MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki}

had children:
1. Elzbieta, m. Franciszek Wessel, official in Zakroczym;
2.
Urszula MIELZYNSKA + Antoni Walknowski

{Urszula Wierusz-Walknowska MIELZYNSKA, died in 1743;
URSZULA Walknowska Mielzynska was the half-sister of ANNA GORZYCKA.
Urszula was the mother of Owidiusz Wierusz-Walknowski - the husband of BRYGIDA BARDZKA
[BRYGIDA BARDZKA was the daughter of Wojciech Marek Bardzki d. 1770]
- see Jakub KIEDRZYNSKI junior}.

On above junior, Jakub Kiedrzynski:
Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798].
Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.

Brygida Bardzka married 1st to Owidiusz Wierusz Walknowski, before 1761, 2nd to Jakub Kiedrzynski junior, in 1767.
Her father
Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770, mother Helena Teresa Kozminska, 1706-1792.
Her brothers:
Augustyn Bardzki of Wrzesnia, died in 1793, and
Rafal Tadeusz Jan Bardzki, 1739-1758.
Her children:
Franciszek Wierusz Walknowski b. 1769 or before, and
Teresa Wierusz Walknowska;
and with JAKUB Kiedrzynski:
1. Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska ARNOLD, b. 1770

{in Sobotka, 1798, Jan Arnold 1751-1840, the owner of Pecherzow, married Juljanna Kiedrzynski [2nd], b. ca 1770 / or in 1772-1811; he was 1st married Ruszkowska, widowed, the owner of Wierzchoslaw. Witness in 1798 was Maciej Bogdanski, official in KALISZ},

and 2.
Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.
Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski [compare the Pradzynskis and the Kiedrzynskis of WOLA WIAZOWA ! - the family of the author to this domain].

3. Marianna Krystyna;
4.
and son Krzysztof Ignacy Mielzynski b. 1670, d. in Pawlowice in 1721, in 1693 official in KCYNIA; 1717 governor of Przemet.


MYCIELSKI - BARDZKI:

Andrzej Bardzki Colonel, 1730-1819 was the friend of ERAZM MYCIELSKI, acc. to my research.

On February 19, 1796, Erazm Mycielski went with Dabrowski from Warsaw to Berlin to discuss with French representatives, A. B. Caillard, and with P. Parandier, the project of establishing Polish military formations with the help of France. In Berlin, Erazm also was the representative of the Central Assembly of Warsaw.
After the arrest of members in April 1796, Mycielski destroyed the papers; then
he played a major role in the creation of a new secret organization - instructions were sent from Paris;
a proclamation of General Franciszek Rymkiewicz was calling for the unification of patriotic efforts.

Erazm Mycielski set up the secret congress in Warsaw in September / Oct. 1796. He also contacted General Karol Kniaziewicz. The Society was preparing in 1797-1799 and an armed uprising in the country based on France;
Erazm Mycielski visited the Great Poland, Kujawy, Leczyca, and Sieradz to expand the network of secret relationships, and organized an interviews. In February 1799 "he had more than two hundred people in the Great Poland".
He wrote about it to his friend Bardzki on 14 October 1799, that "... silence seem to dominate and that all hopes have gone up in smoke."
Erazm Mycielski died on February 28, 1800 in Kalisz.
Erazm left his wife Ludwika Bardzka [born ca 1760/1770; maybe the daughter of ANDRZEJ BARDZKI], perhaps of Mieleszyn - Kobierzyck origin, whom he married after the dispensation of the archbishop.
The widow remarried to Hilary Radzik in KALISZ.

Above HILARY RADZIK:

In Kuchary in 1811, Kazimiera Konstancja was born, daughter of Andrzej Milkowski and Marcjanna Pruski; with figures: Jakub Bilski + Konstancja Ryjska of Radzikow; assesor Hilary Radzik; Juljanna Milkowska the sister of Józef Milkowski; Prowidencja Radzikówna.

In Kuchary in 1812: Jakub Bielski the owner of Sliwnik and Juljanna Milkowska, the daughter of the owners of Macewo.

Kotlów in 1795:
Lazarz Adam Teofil, b. 1794, son of Stanislaw Wiesiolowski and Honorata Kielczewski; godparents: Adam Czernik of the Odolanow county, and Józefata Czernik Pracka.

Hilary Radzik the owner of Kaliszkowice Kaliskie, m. 1st to
Józefa Szelinska Karsznicka the owner of Chlewo.

There was a Franciscan monastery in Kalisz;
The monastery was owned by the Commission of Religious Affairs of the Kingdom of Poland. Others post-monastery buildings went through various fates after 1805. We also know that the property was bought by an city councilman Hilary Radzik from the commission and he continues to trade on them.

Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski

{see on
Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, close to OBORNIKI and MUROWANA GOSLINA. Died in 1817; the son of Antoni Pradzynski and Marianna Czaplicka / Marianna Bardzka.
Nepomucena Pradzynska had a sister and brother:
famous hero Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski,
Sylwia Pradzynska 1791-1862 m. Jakub Jan Krasicki insurgent of 1831, Colonel, 1785-1848;
and Wincenty Józef PRADZYNSKI, 1795-1858 [the landowner of WOLA WIAZOWA], m. Salomea Mierzynska.

Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
above Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847
[note: Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association].

PETRONELA Kiedrzynska m. in 1791 to MELCHIOR Pradzynski who was born in Mrowino, the Greater Poland Province in 1753 and died in 1797.

Melchior Pradzynski was the son of Antoni Pradzynski b. 1710, and Marianna Czaplicka.
Melchior's brother was named Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, who was the father of famous Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - commander-in-chief of the Polish Army.

Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. 1797/1798, of Wesola / WIESIOLKA, and Tyczyn, official in SZADEK, m. mentioned Nepomucena Pradzynska b. ca 1790 - it was her second marriage ca 1825}

with the son Andrzej Pradzynski 1794-1872
{born in KOWALEW / Kowalewo close to Pleszew, and 5 km east to ORPISZEWEK; close to Lutynia, Fabianow and KOTLIN. Died in 1872 in Zerkowo / ZERKOW close to Nowe Miasto by the WARTA river, and north to Jarocin, north-west to PLESZEW}.


BORZECKI:

Jan Borzecki, died before 1686, + Zofia Roznowski, d. before 1718, had sons:
Wladyslaw;
Jakub;
and daughter Regina m. in Gebice in 1715 to Jan Gintowt.
Above Wladyslaw in 1686 an official in Policko; m. Zofia Jablkowski, the daughter of Mikolaj and Elzbieta Radecki.
Wladyslaw bought in 1721 Debnie until 1736.
Above Jakub BORZECKI, son of named Jan, in 1702 married to Marianna Bardzka, the daughter of Piotr BARDZKI and Urszula Mlodziejowski, widoved after 1st husband Eliasz Birszynski.
Jakub had in 1705 Wegierki, from hands of Andrzej Roznowski.
In 1711-14 he took Dzierzazna (near Gebice).
Marianna Borzecka nee Bardzka was living before 1737 - close to Konin.
Jakub d. before 1740. His daughter Zofia in 1737 was a wife of Józef Jablkowski.
Jakub's sons:
Wojciech Józef;
and Jan Augustyn Borzecki,
Józef Jan, b. 1705 in Gozdowo.
Inf. about Wojciech Józef and Jan Augustyn in 1737 in Gebice; inf. in 1739. Wojciech Józef, the owner of Grotowy Wielkie and Male; Kleparz; Grzybowo; Stawie, inherited from BARDZKI;
he sold above estates in 1774 to General Pawel Józef Malachowski. He lived before 1777.

Faustyna Sulimierska born ca 1799, in Stronsko, m. Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki, the owner of Janowice, close to SZADEK, inf. 1840, born 1797 - Iwanowice.
Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki -
his parents:
Andrzej Bardzki COLONEL, 1730-1819 and Marianna Marcjanna Krzyzanowska b. ca 1750;
the grandparents:
Pawel Bardzki 1690-1739 {see below !}; Anna Skórzewska 1700-1745; Stanislaw Krzyzanowski b. ca 1720; Dorota Bystram.

Note to [see WOLA WIAZOWA and Kiedrzynski] Marianna Bardzka:

Antoni Pradzynski married Marianna Czaplicka / Marianna Bardzka.

Józef Czaplicki b. ca 1690, d. before 1768, m. in 1761 in Komorniki, to named Marianna Bardzka, d. after 1768, 1 voto Antoni Pradzynski; the daughter of
Kazimierz BARDZKI and Teresa Bogucki;
Marianna's son: Witalis Czaplicki.

In POZNAN:
1783, an agreement after Stanislaw Bardzki death, written in Poznan in 1783, between Marianna Bardzka [the daughter of Kazimierz Bardzki and Teresa Bardzki Bogucki], a formerly married sister; and Wojciech Goliszewski, married close relatives of his father and mother;
Jan and Stanislaw Kostek; Antonina; Maurycy Bialkowski, of the Kalisz family; and sisters of the Pradzynskis of the deceased Marianna (sic!) nee Bardzki; mentioned Stanislaw Bardzki;
above MARIANNA - Antoni Pradzynski in the first marriage, and in the second, Józef Czaplicki's wife - in the first marriage were sons and daughters.
Vitalis Czaplicki also signed the contract. Marianna Bardzki and Józef Czaplicki from the second marriage; son Pradzynski; Antonina Bialkowska; Maurycy Bialkowski and Ludwika Pradzynska, under the care of Marcin Pradzynski; Maurycy Bialkowski as a plenipotentiary.

Stanislaw Bardzki left the estate under his wife, Jadwiga Skoroszewska Bardzka.
She was the second wife of Józef Krzyzanowski, and then the estate was occupied by Jan PRADZYNSKI and Stanislaw Pradzynski.
Stanislaw Bardzki share the estate. On the other hand, Mrs. Goliszewska, took everything from Bardzki's fortune.
She blesses Pradzynski nephews, who were obliged to pay in 1784 10,000 zlotys to Goliszewski's husbands.
The rest of the fortune after Stanislaw Bardzki' death, was taken by Krzyzanowski, and it divided into equal parts between Jan Pradzynski and Stanislaw Pradzynski, and Antonina Pradzynski Bialkowska, Ludwika Pradzynska, Miss; and Witalis Czaplicki.
We learn that Stanislaw Bardzki had two sisters: 1. Marianna Bardzki, 1st to Jakub Wyrzykowski, 2nd to Wojciech Targowski, 3rd to Wojciech Goliszewski;
and 2. Marianna (sic!) 1st to Antoni Pradzynski and the second wife of Józef Czaplicki.
The successors of these two sisters to divide the estate of Stanislaw Bardzki, with JADWIGA Skoroszewska BARDZKA, 1st married Stanislaw Bardzki; 2nd to Józef Krzyzanowski, wife.

Brygida Bardzka married 1st to Owidiusz Wierusz Walknowski, before 1761, 2nd to Jakub Kiedrzynski junior, in 1767.
Her father Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770, mother Helena Teresa Kozminska, 1706-1792.

Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770 was the brother to Stanislaw Bardzki born 1697;
his sister Marianna Bardzka, 1707-1729;
elder brother Maciej Bardzki b. 1685;
next brothers and sister:
Andrzej Bardzki, died in 1726;
Pawel Bardzki d. 1739 {see below};
Antoni Bardzki d. 1738;
Kazimierz Bardzki d. 1738;
Katarzyna Bardzka died in 1742.

Wojciech Marek BARDZKI had parents:
Jan Bardzki died in 1724 + mother Helena Milaczewska d. 1724.

Above named
Pawel Bardzki 1690-1739 + in 1732 to Anna Skórzewska 1700-1745,
with the son
Colonel ANDRZEJ BARDZKI, 1730-1819 {note - Erasmus Mycielski !} + Marianna Marcjanna Krzyzanowska
with son
Ignacy Wojciech Pawel Bardzki b. 1797 + Faustyna Sulimierska,
with children:
Józef Bardzki b. 1824; Kamilla Seweria Ignacja Bardzka; Kandyd Brunon Franciszek Bardzki; Romana Bardzka; Maksymilian Edward Bardzki.

Brygida Bardzka Walknowska + JAKUB Kiedrzynski had two daughters:
1.
Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska ARNOLD, b. 1770 / 1772-1811 or
Julianna Kiedrzynska

{she was married in Sobotka - south-west to KROSNIEWICE, in 1798, to Jan Arnold b. 1751 - died in 1840 in Pietrzykowo [north to Szczecinek - the Arnolds had a home in PLOCK in 1824];
the owner of Pecherzow, married Juljanna Kiedrzynski [2nd], b. ca 1770 / or in 1772-1811;
he was 1st married Ruszkowska, widowed, the owner of Wierzchoslaw [north to GOLENIOW]; he was 3rd married in 1813 in LISKOW

(17 km west to WILCZKOW - see the place of birth to named above Kiedrzynski Jakub - south to MADALIN, 8 km south-west to BEDZIECHOW of Kiedrzynski; 17 west-south-west to GLUCHOW ! and north-west to WRONIAWY),

with a son ARNOLD, 1814-1885,
and a granddaughter 1845-1935 married in 1867 in OSZCZEKLIN to WOLOWSKI

(to Marian Józef Edward Wolowski 1838 - 1909
the son of Ksawery WOLOWSKI

[b. Dec. 1792 - Warsaw, d. 1867 - Oszczeklin; studied in Warsaw, married Agnieszka Basinska. see: Mikolaj Basinski, inf. in 1844 in Kalisz and in 1839 in SZADEK.
Mentioned OSZCZEKLIN:
ca 1790, it bought Stanislaw Potocki. In 1854 Oszczeklin was owned by Ksawery Wolowski [with new village Ksawerow]. 1866 the estate took his son Marian Wolowski b. 1838, with ca 1875 Marianowo and Agnieszkowo. Marian Wolowski in 1863 was the insurgent. In 1909 died Stanislaw the son of named Marian;
Marian Wolowski died also in 1909, buried in Rajsk.
Oszczeklin belonged to Maria, the daughter of Marian Wolowski. Maria married Wincenty Górski who bought the estate in 1899 from hands of Konrad Arnold. Oszczeklin belonged to ARNOLD in 1895. Wincenty Górski died in 1931.
Compare:
1. Adam Wolowski (1855 to August 1865) and then Stanislaw Pusch were the directors of the Warsaw mint; that is Adam Ernest Wolowski, b. ca 1798, died 1868 - Warszawa. He married ca 1820 to Barbara Maryewska, 1796-1863.
Mentioned Adam Ernest Wolowski born ca 1798 was the son of Adam Zachariasz Wolowski, 1770 - before 1833, who was married in 1795, Warszawa, to Teresa Zalewska, 1777 - 1855; they had daughter Emilia Teofila Zalewska (born Wolowska), and the son Adam Ernest WOLOWSKI, 1798-1868 + Barbara Maryewska 1796-1863.
2. Adam Alfons Wolowski, 1799 - 1861 - Warszawa,
parents: Ludwik WOLOWSKI, b. ca 1764 - died in 1832 in Warsaw, and Elzbieta Lanckoronska, b. ca 1771 - d. 1837 - Warszawa.
Elzbieta Lanckoronska, b. 1770/1771, was the daughter of Józef LANCKORONSKI and Klara.
LUDWIK WOLOWSKI m. in 1786, Warszawa.
3.
In 1824 - 1827, Jan Toczyski [heir of property] filed a lawsuit against Jozef Wolowski and Israel Wassertzug [tenants] about income tax and about payment for Russian military. Named Jan Toczyski b. ca 1760, died in 1837, was the son of Kazimierz TOCZYSKI and Domicela Bielska. Jan died in Rokitno, close to BLONIE, 14 km north-west of OTREBUSY, and 28 km east to GUZOW of OGINSKI ! Jan Toczyski married in ca 1780 to Anna Krystyna Szymanowska 1765-1845, daughter of Dyzma Szymanowski 1719-1784. Relatives of Stefania Helena Nepomucena Toczyska from Oltarzew in 1800. His father: Kazimierz Toczyski, b. ca 1740.
4.
In 1771, Kaski belongs to Maciej Szymanowski, since 1773-1775 the Commonwealth gave Kaski to him in 50 years possession. After the partitions of Poland, Kaski was in the Prussian partition and the Kaski was transferred to the Prussian general - Brul. After the Napoleonic wars, the land became a part of the Duchy of Warsaw;
At that time, the Napoleonic officer was in charge - Blociszewski.
After the fall of the Duchy of Warsaw, these lands came under Russian rule. Emperor Alexander I gave it to Franciszek Wolowski, inf. also in 1828.
Filipina Szymanowska that is Filipina Brzezinska-Szymanowska (1800 - 1886) was a Polish pianist and composer, daughter of Franciszek Szymanowski / Franco Francis Szymanowski {b. ca 1770/1780} and Agatha / AGATA Wolowska. FILIPINA was sister-in-law of the composer Maria Szymanowska ("szwagierka" or "bratowa" = sister-in-law). Named above Maria Szymanowska born Marianna Agata Wolowska in Warsaw, 1789, died in 1831, St. Petersburg, Russia; was a Polish composer and one of the first professional virtuoso pianists of the 19th century. Marianna Agata Wolowska was daughter of Franciszek Wolowski, a landlord and a brewer. Her mother [1st wife of Franciszek WOLOWSKI ?] - Barbara LANCKORONSKA, 1780 - 1849 / 1850? Barbara was the daughter of unknown Lanckoronski [Barbara maybe was the daughter of Jan Lanckoronski of Brzezie, officer of Nur, 1746-1791, and Maria Anna Januszkiewicz b. 1755; Barbara was sister of: Antoni Józef Lanckoronski 1777-1850 m. Ewa Mecinska, and Julia Barbara Lanckoronska 1779-1846 m. Jakub Jerzy Antoni Dunin-Borkowski].
Marianna Agata Wolowska m. 1810 in Warsaw to Józef Szymanowski, with whom she had three children while living in Poland: Helena (1811–61), who married a man named Malewski, and twins: Celina (1812–55), who married Adam Mickiewicz, and Romuald (1812–40), who became an engineer; children remained with Maria after her separation from Szymanowski in 1820. The marriage ended in divorce. Józef Szymanowski died in 1832. Józef Szymanowski was born ca 1770/1780.

Franciszek Szymanowski / Franco Francis Szymanowski b. ca 1770/1780, Michal Szymanowski b. ca 1770/1780, and named here Józef Szymanowski was born in 1779 in KASKI, were brothers - acc. to me.
5.
Ksawery Jan Teodor KRYSINSKI (born 1825), who married Amelia Maria Wolowska (1832-?), daughter of Franciszek Wolowski and Justyna Julianna Niesiolowska [2nd wife of named above FRANCISZEK WOLOWSKI ?]; KSAWERY'S daughter was poet Maria Anastazja Wincentyna Krysinska (1857 in Warsaw - died in PARIS, 1908) / Marie Anastasie, in Paris studied harmony and composition at the Conservatoire Music, became the active member of the literary circles of the Hydropaths, the Zutists, the "Hirsutes" and the "Jemenfoutistes"]

and Agnieszka Basinska Wolowski b. 1809 in LASK, died in OSZCZEKLIN in 1897, south-west to WRONIAWY and LISKOW),

with two great-granddaughters:
Seweryna Józefa Maria Wolowska 1869-1949 (m. Walenty Hieronim Julian Kamocki in ca 1885), and
Wanda Edwardina Wolowska b. 1870 (m. Wincenty Jacenty Beniamin Górski).

Julianna Kiedrzynska, was married in Sobotka - south-west to KROSNIEWICE, in 1798, to Jan Arnold b. 1751 - died in 1840 in Pietrzykowo. Witness in 1798, Maciej Bogdanski, official in KALISZ [relatives to the Kiedrzynskis]. Her son Mateusz Arnold was studied in Warsaw in 1823, b. 1804, m. Józefa Ilowiecka with grandson Julian Pius Ludwik Arnold b. 1840.

2.
and Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.
Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski [compare the Pradzynskis and the Kiedrzynskis of WOLA WIAZOWA ! - the family of the author to this domain].

Note:
Rozalia Marianna Józefa Trzcinska b. 1786 in Trzcinica - godmother was Marjanna Trzcinski Szembek of Inflanty - m. Mikolaj Pradzynski, b. ca 1785,
with a daughter
Emilia Pradzynska (b. ca 1810), married in 1839 in Blizanów north to Kalisz - 18 km east to PLESZEW, to Wladyslaw Górski - his 2nd wife was Scholastyka Elsner b. 1836 in Jeziórko, 9 km north-east to TUREK.

In POZNAN:

1783, Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski;

in 1674 Stanislaw Pradzynski, the son of Stanislaw Pradzynski senior, save the amount of money to Anna Chlapowski, the daughter of Wladyslaw Chlapowski + Jadwiga Zadorska.

In 1710 in Poznan Wladyslaw Pradzynski died - son of Stanislaw Pradzynski;

in 1759 Antoni Pradzynski agreeing on financial matters with Franciszka Szoldrska, of Inowroclaw; and with Anna Dzialynska, of KALISZ;
it concerns Wroniawy
[see also on Arnold and Kiedrzynski], Marianna Bronikowski and Wladyslaw Pradzynski.

In 1779 in Pyzdry, Stanislaw Kostka Grzymala Pradzynski the son of Antoni Pradzynski + Marianna Bardzka; named Kostka save the amount of money to his uncle - Stanislaw Bardzki of Wrzesnia -
on the Niepruszewo estate, 30 km west to Poznan.


The Kiedrzynski - Pradzynski line:

This is the Kiedzynski family line from Wola Wiazowa in the 19th cent. [in the 2nd half of the 20th cent. it's the author's family], affinity with the Pradzynski home, also in Wilkowo Polskie under the Prussian border in the 18th-19th centuries, and near to KALISZ in the 18th century, close to OPOCZNO in the 20th century, and in Wola Pszczolecka [compare: Sulimierski from LUBIEC {guerrilla of 1833}, Soltyk {note on 1831 November Uprising}, Walewski from Jedlno and Wieruszow, Kalinowski-Oginski- Ronne-Trubecki branch + Mielzynski-Bninski-Fiszer line of CHOBIENICE-KROTOSZYN-Gorzdy/Gargzdai].

Strong political ties connected them with {Freemasonry and the fight for independent Poland - Kosciuszko-Fiszer-General Franciszek Paszkowski + Armand-Konstantynowicz-Japaridze in Moscow + Duflon-Breguet} the independence conspiracy linked to Erasmus Mycielski / ERAZM Mycielski, Ignacy Pradzynski, Kalasanty Szaniawski, and thus indirectly with General Fraciszek Paszkowski [+ Horodyski, Maleszewski, Venture, Breguet, Neyman and the TEMPLARS], General Tadeusz Kosciuszko [see Jefferson and Illuminati movement], and through the family of BREZA to General Stanislaw Fiszer and his wife Fiszer - Kwilecka.


The MYCIELSKI family and the Polish secret independence organizations:

Stanislaw Mycielski born on November 9, 1767 in Nowa Wies near Wronki, died on February 3, 1813 in Poznan;
Polish independence activist, colonel of the Napoleonic army.
Mycielski Stanislaw was the younger son of Józef, official in Inowroclaw, and Franciszka Kozminska;
He took his initial studies in Gostyn, then he studied in Paris.
During the Kosciuszko Uprising in 1794 STANISLA MYCIELSKI was a member of the administrative commission of the Poznan province, but the Prussian authorities after the fall of the insurrection found him innocent. He continued the struggle for independence after the Third Partition in 1795, and maintained contact with General Stanislaw Fiszer [compare: General Tadeusz Kosciuszko; Jefferson; General Franciszek Paszkowski; Wirydianna Fiszer].
In November 1806, General Jan Henryk Dabrowski sent a special letter to STANISLAW Mycielski, calling for him to undertake a propaganda campaign in Poznan for Napoleon and France.
Stanislaw Mycielski died during the smallpox epidemic; due to his medical education, he tried to help his peasants using the Jenner vaccination. Edward Jenner (born on May 17, 1749 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, died on January 26, 1823) - English physician, discoverer of smallpox immunization. See BECU in Scotland!
STANISLAW's MYCIELSKI wife, Anna Mielzynski (died on March 1, 1840), previously divorced Bonawentura Gajewski b. ca 1760

[BONAWENTURA's father - Rafal Tadeusz Gajewski b. 1714, d. 1775 + Tworzyanska.
RAFAL's GAJEWSKI 2nd wife was JOZEFA MIELZYNSKA (see below on Jozefa MIELZYNSKI)],

also participated in the pro-Polish and pro-Napoleonic activities

[1767-1840;
the daughter of
Maciej Mielzynski 1733-ca 1793 and Seweryna LIPSKA

{MACIEJ's son - Prokop Mielzynski 1763-1800 + Css Katarzyna Mielzynska 1775-1817

[[KATARZYNA's parents:
Count Maksymilian Antoni Jan Mielzynski 1738-1799 + Konstancja Hutten-Czapska 1749-1813.
KATARZYNA's grandparents:
Andrzej Mielzynski official in Kcynia, 1698-1771; Anna Petronela Bninska 1720-1771; Jakub Hutten-Czapski; Rozalia Ewa Hutten-Czapska, 1715-1769.

KATARZYNA's daughter -
Konstancja Mielzynska 1799-1844 + Count Maciej Mielzynski - insurgent in 1831]]};

the granddaughter of
Franciszek Walenty Mielzynski 1682-1738 + Krystyna Skalawska 1690-1762;
the great-granddaughter of
Maciej Mielzynski (1636-1697) - official in Srem.

Mielzynski Maciej (1636-1697), of SREM; the son of Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI and Elzbieta Niegolewski.
MACIEJ was born in Niegolewo, MP in 1659; in 1660 official in KCYNIA].

Stanislaw and Anna Mielzynski Gajewska, had 6 children:
Franciszek, Michal, Ludwik and Józef;
daughters Konstancja Wiktoria (wife of Józef Breza) and Seweryna (wife of Józef Sokolnicki).


Note to Jozefa Mielzynska GAJEWSKA:

STANISLAW's MYCIELSKI wife, Anna Mielzynski (died on March 1, 1840), previously divorced Bonawentura Gajewski b. ca 1760.
BONAWENTURA's father - Rafal Tadeusz Gajewski b. 1714, d. 1775 + Tworzyanska.
RAFAL's GAJEWSKI 2nd wife was JOZEFA MIELZYNSKA.


Note to MIELZYNSKI:
Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) and TERESA had sons:

1. Krzysztof Mielzynski,

[governor of Przemet (1717-1721), the official in Kcynia (1693), 1670-1721, with son Andrzej Mielzynski, 1698-1771, m. Anna Petronela Bninska 1720-1771, and grandson Maksymilian Antoni Jan Mielzynski, b. 1738 - Laszczyn, died in 1799 - Pawlowice, the owner of PAWLOWICE, m. in 1771, Mierzyszyn, to Konstancja Hutten-Czapska, 1749-1813; with daughter Css Katarzyna Mielzynska 1775-1817, m. Prokop Mielzynski, lieutenant (1793), 1763-1800];
2.
Franciszek Mielzynski

[Franciszek Walenty Mielzynski, 1682-1738, the owner of CHOBIENICE; with children:

1. daughter
Józefa Mielzynska, ca 1729-1752, m. Rafal Tadeusz Gajewski,
and granddaughter Wiktoria Jakobina Gajewska b. in 1749, m. Jan Józef Kwilecki 1729-1789.
2.
Józef Klemens Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI, the owner of CHOBIENICE, governor of Kalisz (1758-1763), Poznan (1763-1782), Kalisz (1782-1786), Poznan (1786-1792), 1729-1792; m. Wirydianna / Wirydiana Bninska, 1718-1797
{Leon Raczynski, 1698 - died 1750, son of Michal Kazimierz Raczynski, was also the husband of Wirydiana Mielzynska- BNINSKA}.
Compare:
Wiridianna / Wiridiana Radolinska - her grandparents:
Józef Stefan Radolinski of Wschowa, 1680-1740; Teresa Swinarska 1700-1771; Leon Raczynski 1698-1755; Wirydianna / Wirydiana Bninska 1718-1797 {she was married twice};
her parents: Józef Stanislaw Radolinski of Wschowa 1730-1781; Katarzyna Raczynska 1744-1792.

Wiridianna Radolinska, 1761-1826, m. 1st in ca 1780 to Antoni Maciej Konstanty Kwilecki, chamberlein of the King, b. 1764 son of Franciszek Antoni Kwilecki 1725-1794 and Teresa Agnieszka Sczaniecka 1740-1807; Wiridianna Radolinska 1761-1826 m. 2nd in 1806 to General Stanislaw Fiszer 1759-1812, son of Karol Ludwik Fiszer, General Major, 1730-1783 + Joanna Luiza Elzbieta von Luck 1738-1788.

Wirydianna Fiszerowa / Fiszer / Wirydianna Radolinska, Kwilecka b. in Wyszyny, d. in Dzialyn in 1826 (Dzialyn - a village in the administrative district of Klecko, in west-central Poland, at way from Klecko to Gniezno); she known Frederick II of Prussia, Izabela Czartoryska, Stanislaw August Poniatowski, Józef Poniatowski, Jan Henryk Dabrowski, and Tadeusz Kosciuszko; her sisters: Katarzyna b. 1762, and Antonina b. 1770.
Chobienice appear for the first time in the diaries of Wirydianna due to the changes in the live of her family after the Prussian annexation. The parents decided to move from Lobzenica to Winnogóra, but the kids were send to grandmother. Later, along with her mother and sister, Wirydianna a lot of time spent in Chobienice's mansion; Chobienice belonged at that time to the second husband of grandmother - the governor Joseph / JOZEF Mielzynski
[Józef Klemens Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI, the owner of CHOBIENICE, governor of Kalisz (1758-1763), Poznan (1763-1782), Kalisz (1782-1786), Poznan (1786-1792), 1729-1792; m. Wirydianna / Wirydiana Bninska-Mielzynska-Raczynska, 1718-1797].
His father Franciszek Mielzynski / Francis [Franciszek Walenty Mielzynski, 1682-1738, the owner of CHOBIENICE] in the 30s and 40s of the eighteenth century built a new residence by Adam Stier.
When Wirydianna Radolinska-Kwilecka, already the wife of Anthony / Antoni Kwilecki, spent time in Winnogóra, her mother moved to Chobienice.
The construction of classicist palace of Catherine Radolinska [Katarzyna Raczynska-RADOLINSKA, 1744-1792; Katarzyna born Raczynska in 1744, to Leon Raczynski b. in 1698, and Wirydianna Raczynska-Mielzynska-Bninska b. in 1718. Katarzyna had sister Estera; Katarzyna married Józef Radolinski] began in 1786-1788, by Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer, under the direction of Antoni Höhne.
In 1793, Wirydianna Radolinska-Kwilecka moved to Chobienice, with independence from her husband; after her divorce from first husband Wirydianna left with two children and settled in Warsaw. It was there that she met General Stanislaw Fiszer, to whom she married in 1806.

PETRONELA Radolinska (b. ca 1764?-1821), was a daughter of Jan Radolinski 1726-1796 and Brygida or Maria Brygida Galecki / Brygida Malecka; Petronela nee Radolinska was granddaughter of Józef Stefan Radolinski of Wschowa b. 1680 - died in 1740.
Józef Stefan Radolinski lived at the court of Polish King, Jan III Sobieski; clerk in Wschowa (see Sulkowski). Józef Stefan had 7 children: youngest son Jan Radolinski 1726-1796 was owner of Jarocin, but his brother
Józef Stanislaw was officer in Wschowa and in 1757 Józef Stanislaw married to Katarzyna Raczynska (see Kiedrzynski).

Józef Stanislaw Radolinski born 1730 - died in 1781 in Winnogóra, the Szamotuly County, was father of Antonina Maria Breza and Wiridianna / Wirydianna Fiszer-Kwilecka (see General Stanislaw Fiszer, Radolinski of Wola Pszczolecka, General Franciszek Paszkowski, Armand + Konstantynowicz, Lenin + Inessa Armand, Tadeusz Kosciuszko).

Józef Stefan Radolinski of Wschowa b. 1680 - died in 1740 was brother of Zofia Walewska 1677 - 1723 who married Kazimierz Walewski. Kazimierz Walewski was son of Stanislaw Walewski and Katarzyna Lanckoronska.

Teodora Ludwika Walewska, Marianna Radolinska and Józef Kazimierz Colonna Walewski b. ca 1710, d. 1763 (he had son Atanazy Colonna-Walewski 1733-1815 and daughter Jadwiga Walewska who married in 1762 in Bielawy to Michal / Michael Walewski 1735 / 1740 - 1806) were children of Kazimierz Walewski and Zofia.

3.
MACIEJ Mielzynski, 1733 - 1793, the owner of CHOBIENICE],

and daughters of Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) and TERESA:
Zofia Anna m. Adam Kozminski, official in Kalisz;
Ludwika MIELZYNSKA, 1st married Rafal Tworzyjanski, official in Wschowa, 2nd to Adam Poninski;
Franciszka, m. Andrzej Zakrzewski.

Maciej Mielzynski (1636 or born 1638-1697) and Katarzyna MYCIELSKA GORZYCKA MIELZYNSKA

{MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki}

had children:
1.
Elzbieta, m. Franciszek Wessel, official in Zakroczym;
2.
Urszula MIELZYNSKA + Antoni Walknowski

{Urszula Wierusz-Walknowska MIELZYNSKA, died in 1743;
URSZULA Walknowska Mielzynska was the half-sister of ANNA GORZYCKA.
Urszula was the mother of Owidiusz Wierusz-Walknowski - the husband of BRYGIDA BARDZKA

[BRYGIDA BARDZKA was the daughter of Wojciech Marek Bardzki d. 1770]

- see Jakub KIEDRZYNSKI junior}.
On above junior, Jakub Kiedrzynski:
Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798].
Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.
Brygida Bardzka married 1st to Owidiusz Wierusz Walknowski, before 1761, 2nd to Jakub Kiedrzynski junior, in 1767.
Her father
Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770, mother Helena Teresa Kozminska, 1706-1792.
Her brothers:
Augustyn Bardzki of Wrzesnia, died in 1793, and
Rafal Tadeusz Jan Bardzki, 1739-1758.
Her children:
Franciszek Wierusz Walknowski b. 1769 or before, and
Teresa Wierusz Walknowska;
and with JAKUB Kiedrzynski:
Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska ARNOLD, b. 1770 {in Sobotka, 1798, Jan Arnold 1751-1840, the owner of Pecherzow, married Juljanna Kiedrzynski [2nd], b. ca 1770 / or in 1772-1811; he was 1st married Ruszkowska, widowed, the owner of Wierzchoslaw. Witness Maciej Bogdanski, official in KALISZ},
and Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.
Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski [compare the Pradzynskis and the Kiedrzynskis of WOLA WIAZOWA! - the family of the author to this domain].
3.
Marianna Krystyna;
4.
and son Krzysztof Ignacy Mielzynski b. 1670, d. in Pawlowice in 1721, in 1693 official in KCYNIA; 1717 governor of Przemet.

Krzysztof Ignacy Mielzynski born before 1670 in Dabrowa (Kaisersfelde), close to Mogilno - west to RADZIEJOW. He was the son of
Maciej Mielzynski, born in 1636 in Niegolewo west to Poznan, close to Opalenica; d. 1697 in Goscieszyn near Wolsztyn (Wollstein).
Married in 1667 to Elzbieta Baranowska - she died in 1682.
Krzysztof MIELZYNSKI married in 1682 to Anna Goszycka / Gorzycka - she died in 1733, the daughter of Andrzej Goszycki / GORZYCKI and KATARZYNA MYCIELSKA, d. 1712.
MACIEJ MIELZYNSKI m. 3rd in Pawlowice in 1684 to Katarzyna Mycielska Gorzycka, daughter of Krzysztof MYCIELSKI and Teresa Grodziecka; KATARZYNA was the widow after Adam Gorzycki or Andrzej Gorzycki.
Krzysztof had the son Andrzej Walenty Mielzynski, 1698-1771; born in 1698 - Goscieszyn close to - Wolsztyn (Wollstein); 9 km south-east to WOLSZTYN,
8 km north-east to WRONIAWY; north-west to PRZEMET; 18 km north-west to WILKOWO POLSKIE of Kiedrzyski-Zamoyski family. See Pradzynski-Kiedrzynski line. Compare Wola Wiazowa.
Andrzej Mielzynski d. 1771 in Pawlowice. Married in 1734 to Anna Petronella Bninska, b. before 1720 in GLOGOW - d. 1770, the daughter of Stanislaw Bninski + JOANNA Krzycka.
Andrzej's son -
Maksymilian Antoni Mielzynski, 1738-1799,
born in Laszczyn - Cieladz [close to RAWA MAZOWIECKA]; d. in Pawlowice. Married in 1771 in Mierzeszyn (Meisterswalde) close to Trabki Wielkie, the Gdansk Pomeranie, to Konstancja Czapska, 1749-1813. Her daughter:
Katarzyna Regina Barbara Cecylia Mielzynski, b. in 1775 in Rabin (Rombin), close to Koscian; d. 1817 in the Chobienice - Siedlec estate near Wolsztyn, and the PRUSSIAN border.
Married in 1793 in Pawlowice (Pawlowitz) to Prokop Rufin Jozef Mielzynski, 1763-1800, the son of Hipolit Maciej Jozef Mielzynski 1733-1797 + Seweryna Lipska d. 1801, with daughter
Gabriela Maria Konstancja Józefa Mielzynski POTULICKA OGINSKA, b. 1798 in Kotowo - Granowo, close to Grodzisk Wielkopolski and south-west to Poznan; d. 1822 in Nice, France.

Olga Kalinowska born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus, in 1844, and her son Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849.
She was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with a princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 who married to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki
[compare above mentioned MIELZYNSKI of PAWLOWICE and WOLSZTYN].


We back to MYCIELSKI:

Stanislaw's MYCIELSKI father - JOZEF MYCIELSKI, 1733-1789, born in Leszno, d. in Breslau / Wroclaw,
General lieutenant in 1761, commander of the 1st Lithuanian Division, general-adjutant in 1755, official in Inowroclaw in 1784-1789, in Konin in 1756.

Jozef was the son of Maciej Mycielski and Weronika Konarzewski, d. 1762.
Jozef Mycielski was the deputy of the Starodub county to Parliament in 1754, of Kalisz in 1761. On May 7, 1764, in Poznan, he signed a manifesto recognizing the presence of Russian troops as illegal during king's election.

JOZEF's father - Maciej Mycielski b. 1690, died 1747 in Szubin, official in Poznan in 1737-1747, in KALISZ in 1732-1737; the son of
Adam Jan Mycielski born in 1663,
and
grandson of MIKOLAJ Mycielski d. 1686.

MIKOLAJ MYCIELSKI was the brother of Katarzyna Radolinska (wife of ANDRZEJ RADOLINSKI) and Krzysztof Mycielski

(Krzysztof was the father of Andrzej Mycielski ca 1650-1707, official in KALISZ

[Andrzej Mycielski was the father of Józef Mycielski; Teresa Skoroszewska; Krzysztof Maksymilian Mycielski; Stanislaw Adam Mycielski; Jan Ignacy Mycielski b. after 1690 / in 1696 - died in 1790

(Jan MYCIELSKI, a lieutenant of the royal army and Domicella Horodynski had the son
Aleksander Mycielski 1723 - 1818, the Crown Army lieutenant general, envoy;
and grandson, Erazm Mycielski b. 1769 in Kamieniec Podolski, died 1800 Kalisz, Colonel in 1794)];

and Krzysztof was the father of Katarzyna Mielzynska and Zofia Miaskowska).

MACIEJ Mycielski b. ca 1690
was the brother of Zofia Mycielska and Katarzyna Lacka
{compare: Jan MYCIELSKI / John Mycielski, a lieutenant of the royal army, m. Domicella Horodynski. Jan was the grandfather of famous mason and conspirator ERAZM - Erasmus Mycielski}.
MACIEJ Mycielski ca 1715 married Weronika Konarzewska (1699-1762), from Konin. In 1715 he secured her dowry and wrote down a mutual life sentence with her. As the last of her family, she brought great possessions to her husband and brother. Maciej owned Szamotuly and Gostyn in the Poznan province, Szubin south-west to Bydgoszcz, and Tuliszków north-west to TUREK, in the Kalisz province; Hrynki in the Nowogródek prov. and Kulikowicze in Volhynia / Wolyn. He died in Szubin, he was buried in Gostyn.

The conspiracy created in May 1793 reached the roots to the Freemasonry organization and of the club of the "Society of Friends of the Constitution of May 3". A part of the Masons stood in a moderate, liberal position - the preservation of the monarchy with King Stanislaw August and the implementation of the Constitution of May 3. Among the moderate activists of the conspiracy found themselves:
Ignacy Dzialynski, Andrzej Kapostas, Michal Kochanowski, Alexander Linowski, Stanislaw Woyczynski, Ludwik Gutakowski, Antoni Bazyli Dzieduszycki, Kazimierz Nestor Sapiecha.
To the second group belonged radical activists of conspiracy, among whom we find Freemasons as:
Eliasz Aloe, Piotr Grosmani, Joachim Muszynski,
Erazm Mycielski,
Józef Herman Pawlikowski, Stanislaw Wegrzecki i Wojciech Boguslawski.
The Warsaw leftists, the activists of the conspiracy founded on April 21, 1794, the Jacobin club.
On January 1, 1808, the "Brothers of the United France and Poles" camp was established in Poznan.
The lodge in 1814 had 233 brothers. The master was Gen. Wincenty Axamitowski, and also, for some time, Prince Józef Poniatowski.
Axamitowski was a military commander of Poznan. Among the brothers were:
Col. Stanislaw Mycielski,
prefect of the department Józef Poninski,
president of Poznan Bernard Rose,
count Kacper Skarbek,
general Jan Henryk Dabrowski,
general Kazimierz Turno,
general Antoni "Amilkar" Kosinski,
count Aleksander Bninski,
count Melchior Lacki and others.


General Stanislaw Fiszer:
General Tadeusz Kosciuszko showed to him Wirydianna Kwilecka, nee Radolinska; then he traveled to Italy, England, Holland and Germany, where in the local libraries studied the works of the military. The summer of 1802 - visited Warsaw and met Jozef Poniatowski.
Stanislaw FISZER settled then in the Great Poland, where Mycielski gave him the property.
Fiszer lived in Koninko in 1803 - 17 km south-east to POZNAN.
In 1775 in the Koninko estate, divided a land, after the death in 1774 of Gorecki; witnesses: General Jan Zakrzewski and Teresa Gorecki - the spouses; Teresa was widowed after 1st husband General Józef Gorecki; General Jan Zakrzewski and Teresa Gorecki Zakrzewska were the heirs of the deceased already Wojciech Dzierzbinski.

The Society of Polish Republicans was the Polish secret organization, in Warsaw on October 1, 1798 to mid-1801; with contact to the Deputation in Paris, and General Tadeusz Kosciuszko in Paris.
The main activists were:
Jan Orchowski / John Aloysius Orchowski,
Raymond Rembielinski [see Wiktor Rembielinski],
Andrzej HORODYSKI / Andrew Horodyski and
Erazm Mycielski / Erasmus Mycielski.

The Polish-French lodge "Les Freres Francais et Polonais reunis", at first was presided over by Stanislaw Mycielski, then by Gen. Wincenty Axamitowski.

In October 1810 in Poznan, a female lodge "Eden Garden" was created; The Grand Master was the wife of General Jan Henryk Dabrowski - Barbara Chlapowska DABROWSKA.

Les Freres Anglais et Français Réunis was founded in 1807 in Poznan, subsidiaries of the French Grand Orient, and consisted of numerous military and civilian dignitaries and prominent citizens; the champion for a long time was general Wincenty Axamitowski.
On January 1, 1808, the "Brothers of the United France and Poles" camp was established in Poznan.
Members:
Colonel Stanislaw Mycielski,
Józef Poninski, Aleksander Zychlinski, Augustyn Zaborowski, Bernard Rose, Count Kacper Skarbek,
Wiktor Szoldrski,
General Henryk Dabrowski,
General Amilkar Kosinski,
Count Aleksander Bninski,
Kazimierz Turno, Count Melchior Lacki.
In 1812 Faustyn Zakrzewski a master; and Jozef Poniatowski;
others members of the Freemasonry:
Barbara Dabrowska, Julianna Poninska, Karolina Palombini, Jaraczewska, Wincentyna Axamitowska, Eufemia Kwasniewska, Sulkowska, and Augustyna Zablocka;
Lasocki in Lomza,
General Kretkowski in Leczyca,
Plichta in Plock,
Franciszek Mickiewicz,
General Stanislaw Mielzynski,
Maximilian and Adam Moszczenski.


ANDRZEJ HORODYSKI in 1802,
became a shareholder of the Trzycieski, Horodyski et comp. - commercial house, which was also opened in Odessa, to which they also received:
P. Maleszewski
[see Venture de Paradise / Sulkowski / Napoleon, and Breguet - Duflon in Russia + Konstantynowicz, Nobel, Armand],
J. K. Szaniawski
[he come from area of Wieruszow and J. K. Szaniawski was the family of Erazm Mycielski. General Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski approached Gen. Dabrowski's opponents - he became friend with Józef Kalasanty Szaniawski and Andrzej Horodyski, with whom he was later considered, at the time of the Duchy of Warsaw, as one of the leaders of "Polish Jacobins"]
and J. Drzewiecki
[see DUFLON in St. Petersburg co-operated with DRZEWIECKI - his family. Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company financed Lenin's activities through a wife of Apollon Konstantynowicz, ie. Anna Konstantynowicz nee ARMAND - she come from Maria Paszkowska, the daughter of General Franciszek Paszkowski. Anna was the best friend of Inessa Armand, the lover of Lenin].


ERAZM MYCIELSKI:

Jan MYCIELSKI, a lieutenant of the royal army and Domicella Horodynski with the son
Aleksander Mycielski 1723 - 1818, the Crown Army lieutenant general, envoy;
and grandson, Erazm Mycielski b. 1769 in Kamieniec Podolski, died 1800 Kalisz, Colonel in 1794.

Above JAN = Jan Ignacy Mycielski b. after 1690 / in 1696-1790, the son of
Andrzej Mycielski ca 1650-1707 official in KALISZ;
grandson of Krzysztof Mycielski.

Erazm Mycielski b. 1769 in Kamieniec Podolski, died 1800 Kalisz, Colonel in 1794, son of Aleksander Mycielski General; 1775 served the Regiment of Poninski. Captain 1788. Campaigns in 1792 in Lithuania.
The Kosciuszko Uprising 1794. He was a member of the conspiracy, preparing the uprising of Kosciuszko; promoted by Tadeusz Kosciuszko.
He was one of the founders of the Polish Society (1798). He was involved in the conspiracy in the Great Poland.

Above Aleksander Mycielski 1723 - 1818, the Crown Army lieutenant general, envoy. Aleksander Mycielski 1723 - 1818,
was son of Jan MYCIELSKI / John Mycielski, a lieutenant of the royal army and Domicella Horodynski.
JAN was a friend of Joseph Alexander Sulkowski.

Above Aleksander Józef Sulkowski, 1695 - 1762,
in 1733-1738 the Saxon Electorate prime minister, Count and Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, chamberlain of Augustus III, 1734 Saxon Infantry Major General, grew up at the royal court, was the closest adviser the King and Elector Augustus III. Prince Alexander Joseph died in Leszno in 1762, had a four sons from his first marriage.

Mycielski Erazm alias ERASMUS (1769-1800) - after the fall of the uprising in 1794, Erazm found support in his father's Wyszki estate close to Pleszew, and in neighboring Magnuszewice / Magnuszowice, close to the sister Ludwika Mycielski married to Idzi Moskorzewski.
Erazm Mycielski did not abandon underground work [the winter 1794/1795] and already in the early spring of 1795 he managed the Greater Poland organization, which developed among others relationship in Kalisz [see the Kiedrzynskis].
Erazm Mycielski was a supporter of the Deputation, he was under influence of Dionizy Mniewski, Franciszek Ksawery Dmochowski and Józef Kalasanty Szaniawski, but he did not share their stand to Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Jan Henryk Dabrowski.
Erazm in the Great Poland was in contact with the military conspiracy of J. H. Dabrowski in Warsaw; he was at first one of DABROWSKI's courier.
On February 19, 1796, Erazm Mycielski went with Dabrowski from Warsaw to Berlin to discuss with French representatives, A. B. Caillard, and with P. Parandier, the project of establishing Polish military formations with the help of France. In Berlin, Erazm also was the representative of the Central Assembly in Warsaw.
After the arrest of members in April 1796, Mycielski destroyed the papers; then he played a major role in the creation of a new secret organization - instructions were sent from Paris; a proclamation of General Franciszek Rymkiewicz was calling for the unification of patriotic efforts.
Erazm Mycielski set up the secret congress in Warsaw in September / Oct. 1796. He also contacted General Karol Kniaziewicz.
The Society was preparing in 1797-1799 an armed uprising in the country based on France; Erazm Mycielski visited the Great Poland, Kujawy, Leczyca, and Sieradz to expand the network of secret relationships, and organized an interviews. In February 1799 "he had more than two hundred people in the Great Poland".
He wrote about it to his friend Bardzki on 14 October 1799, that "... silence seem to dominate and that all hopes have gone up in smoke."
Erazm Mycielski died on February 28, 1800 in Kalisz.
Erazm left his wife Ludwika Bardzka [born ca 1760/1770], perhaps of Mieleszyn - Kobierzyck origin, whom he married after the dispensation of the archbishop.
The widow remarried to Hilary Radzik in KALISZ.

Erazm's Mycielski sister in Magnuszewice / Magnuszowice, Ludwika Mycielski married to Idzi Moskorzewski. After the divorce with Idzi Moskorzewski, named Ludwika Moskorzewska Mycielska was married Józef Kalasanty Szaniawski.

The RADZIWILL - Mycielski branch:

Anna Luiza Mycielska born in 1729, was the daughter of
Weronika KONARZEWSKA MYCIELSKA and her husband
Maciej Mycielski b. 1690 - d. 1747;
granddaughter of
Adam Jan Mycielski b. 1663, and Anna Tuczynska;
great-granddaughter of
MIKOLAJ Mycielski d. 1686.

Named MIKOLAJ MYCIELSKI was the brother of Katarzyna Radolinska (wife of ANDRZEJ RADOLINSKI) and Krzysztof Mycielski.

Named Krzysztof was the father of Andrzej Mycielski ca 1650-1707, official in KALISZ.

Mentioned Anna Luiza Mycielska born 1729 - Lwów, d. 1771 - Drezno, buried in Nieswiez, m. in 1744, Lwów, to Leon Michal Radziwill, 1722-1751; 2nd married in 1754, Lwów, to Michal Kazimierz Radziwill 1702-1762.
Her son with the first husband was Maciej Radziwill, MP, official in Wilno (1790-1795) , + Elzbieta Chodkiewicz.
And her grandson was the conspirator -
Konstanty Mikolaj Radziwill 1793-1869,
m. 1st Maria Aleksandra Grabowska 1788-1826; 2nd to Celestyna Celina Sulistrowska 1805-1836; 3rd to Adela Siestrzanek-Karnicka.


Duke Antoni Jablonowski was the Polish conspirator - 1821.

but remember:
Józefa Mycielska b. ca 1720 m. Dymitr Hipolit Aleksander Jablonowski

{the son of Jan Stanislaw Aleksander Jablonowski 1669-1731 - who had also a son
Stanislaw Wincenty Jablonowski 1694-1754
and the grandson ANTONI BARNABA Jablonowski, 1732-1799;
and great-grandson General major Stanislaw Pawel 1762-1822;
the great-great-grandson was Antoni Michal Jablonowski, 1793-1855 + Paulina Wandalin-Mniszech 1798-1863}

and named Dymitr was the official in Swiecie, KOLO, and in Kowel; Dymitr was living in 1706-1788.
Dymitr had the son KAROL 1768-1841, and the daughter Joanna Jablonowska b. 1753.


Named
Antoni Michal Jablonowski - CONSPIRATOR,
the prince in Ostrog, Maryampol and Podkamien; born 1793 in Warsaw - died 1855 in Annopol; member of the Council of State of the Kingdom of Poland, chamberlain of the emperor of the Russian Empire, prince of the Congress Kingdom in 1820; a Polish conspiracy activist to 1826.

Stanislaw Pawel Jablonowski and Teodora Walewska were the parents of Antoni.

Teodora Potocka - Walewska - Jablonowska, died in 1826; the daughter of Michal Walewski

{Michal Walewski 1740 - 1806; the son of Marcin Walewski
(Marcin Walewski 1700 - 1761 was son of Franciszek Walewski from Sieradz, 1670-1733)
and Magdalena Antonina SZEMBEK
[Marek Szembek b. circa 1700, d. 1744, son of Antoni Felicjan Szembek and Ewa Apolonia; husband of Jadwiga; father of Paulina / Paula Oginska; brother of Józef Eustachy Szembek, and Magdalena Antonina Walewska].
Michal Walewski 1735 or 1740 - 1806, Voivode of Sieradz 1785-1792.
Michal Walewski m. 2nd to Ksawera Marianna Jadwiga Turno, with children:
Teresa Walewska 1776 - 1856 m. Adam Bierzynski,
Karolina Teresa Walewska 1778 - 1846 m. 1st Aleksander Franciszek Chodkiewicz 1776 - 1838, m. 2nd to Aleksander Golicyn 1789 - 1858;
Józef Walewski 1780 - 1813;
Hieronim Jerzy Walewski b. ca 1780 m. Cecylia Potocka 1783 - 1861.
Above named Michal 1735 / 1740 - 1806 m. 3rd to Szczesna Feliksa Kokoszka-Michalowska 1770-1844.
Michal Walewski in 1788-1792 put forward the project of expansion of the Polish army to 100 000 soldiers; the Speaker of the Bar Confederation of Cracow province in 1771. A member of the Andrzej Mokronowski confederation, with Stanislaw August Poniatowski;
he was the son of Marcin Walewski / Martin (d. 1761) who married 1st to Antonina Magdalene Szembek b. circa 1710, d. 1744, daughter of Antoni Felicjan Szembek.
Marcin Walewski married 2nd to Marcjanna Romer (d. 1761).
Jozefina or Józefa Walewska nee Lubomirska married to Brigadier Adam Walewski, brother of Michal Walewski, the Voivode / governor of Sieradz}

and Jadwiga

{above Jadwiga Colonna-Walewska / Walewski, born 1740 / 1744 to Józef Colonna-Walewski and Ludwika Colonna-Walewska. Józef was born in 1700 / 1710, in Walewice. Jadwiga had brother Anastazy Colonna-Walewski. Jadwiga married Michal Walewski. Michal was born in 1735/1740/1750, officer in Sieradz}.

Teodora Potocka - Walewska - Jablonowska, died in 1826, the daughter of Michal Walewski, the wife of Stanislaw Potocki and Stanislaw Pawel Jablonowski. Mother of Antoni Jablonowski and Stanislaw Potocki - Jablonowski.
Half sister to Teresa Bierzynska; Karolina Teresa Chodkiewicz; Józef Walewski; Hieronim Jerzy Walewski and Wojciech Walewski.

Antoni Jablonowski was the caretaker of the Masonic lodge Bouclier du Nord in 1818; a member of the Patriotic Society of Walerian Lukasinski; In 1825, Antoni Jablonowski negotiated with the Decembrists. After the fall of the Decembrists' uprising, he was arrested in 1826.
About 1810 Antoni Jablonowski married Paulina Wandalin-Mniszech, the daughter of Michal Jerzy Wandalin-Mniszch. Their daughter Dorota Jablonowska married Stanislaw Kostka Korwin-Krasinski, an officer of the November Uprising.


Raymond REMBIELINSKI:

Rajmund Hiacynt Rembielinski, in 1820, the Sejm Marshal in the Kingdom of Poland (September 1774-12, February 1841).

Rajmund Rembielinski (1774/1775-1841) was a Polish political activist, and landowner. Rajmund Rembielinski born in Warsaw, d. in Lomza, president of the Department of Bialystok in Lomza in 1808, in Plock, president of the Masovia Province and MP, the owner among others of Jedwabne and Krosniewice; freemason.
In December 1813 in Plock, in Rembielinski home was staying Aleksander Ist, and again in May 1825.
Jedwabne - city in the Podlasie province, in the Lomza county, in 1736, the owner of the village was Antoni Rostkowski. In 1777, Stanislaw Rembielinski, the cabinet secretary of King Stanislaw August, became the new owner of Jedwabne. At the end of the 18th century, cloth factories were established in Jedwabne. 1795, the city was under Prussian rule, then in 1807 it was the Warsaw Duchy, which in 1815 was transformed into the Kingdom of Poland.
Rajmund Hiacynt Rembielinski the owner of Krosniewice, Jedwabne and Mezenin, was married in 1797 to Agnieszka Helena Opacka. Marriage after twenty years ended with a divorce.
On 8 September 1816 Rembielinski was appointed chairman of the Masovia Province. As a result of the divorce contract, Rembielinski received in the dowry Krosniewice and Mezenin. In 1819 he married Antonina Weltz. She died in 1868 - Poznan, buried in Kazimierz close to Szamotuly.
Antonina Rembielinska nee Weltz, born ca 1800, had 2 sons of the 1st marriage: Eugeniusz Rembielinski and Aleksander. She moved home to the Great Poland in 1841, and married Wincenty Skarzynski. She died in Poznan.
Aleksander - the owner of Krosniewice, and Eugeniusz - was staying in Augsburg.

Named Kazmierz near to Szamotuly, is situated close to Radzyny and Komorowo, Bytyn, Mrowino.

In the summer of 1820, Rajmund Rembielinski was presented to the Administrative Board, his economic plan; in 1821, the Government Commission on Internal Affairs and the Police entrusted Rembielinski with creating cloth settlements in Zgierz, Przedecz close to IZBICA KUJAWSKA, Lodz, Dabie, Gostynin, Leczyca, Gabin, Rawa, Brda and Skierniewice. In 1818 he was a deputy to the Parliament of the Biebrza county,
in 1820 - Marshal of the Parliament and state councilor.

The fate of OPACKI family [see above about Agnieszka Helena Opacka] after the partitions is unknown.
Gabriel Rafal Chryzanty Opacki in 1771 received from his father: Mezenin, Rutki (located in 1760), parts of the villages of Ozar and Ozarka in the Lomza county, Gielczyn south to LOMZA, parts of the villages of Brzostowo-Siestrzanka and Rutkowskie; mansion in Praga; Krosniewice in the province of Leczyca.

MEZENIN:
Gabriel Rafal Chryzanty Opacki the great-great-grandson of Wojciech Opacki, the only son of Stanislaw - patriot, social activist, manager and entrepreneur; Opacki Gabriel Rafal Chryzanty (1741 or 1742-1806), official of Wiski, general major in 1794. Born in Mezinin in a parish of Rutki (close to Lomza), the son of Stanislaw (died 1784), a deputy to the Parlaiment, and his first wife, Konstancja Pelkowska / Pelka ?
In 1759 under the protection of Jan Klemens Branicki, served captain in the army; close to Izabela Poniatowski, sister of King Stanislaw August; 1769 he became a royal chamberlain; managed Bialystok estate;
he had one daughter Agnieszka Helena Konstancja, a well-educated woman who married Rajmund Rembielinski and the estate passed into the hands of the Rembielinski family.
Then it was sold by Eugeniusz Rembielinski to the Jewish hands.

Mezenin - a village in the Zambrow county, close to Rutki.

Krosniewice - a city in the Kutno county, 15 km west of Kutno; 1775 the owner Karol Saryusz Gomolinski receives from King Stanislaw August Poniatowski a privilege for Krosniewice;
1793, the city was occupied by Prussia, later in the Congress Kingdom. Here is the Rembielinski palace and park, and a monument to Prince Józef Poniatowski in 1814; 39 km south-east is IZBICA KUJAWSKA.
Karol Sariusz Gomolinski, 1696-1784 was the son of
Jan GOMOLINSKI and Bielicka.
Karol Sariusz Gomolinski d. 1784 in Krosniewice, a Polish judge, a chamberlain; married ca 1730, Helena Pokrzywnicka, with children:
1. Józefata Gomolinska 1738-1823 + Wladyslaw Skarbek, 2nd to Szymon Dzierzbicki;
2. Franciszka Kunegunda Gertruda Gomolinska;
3. Ignacy Gomolinski, MP, official in Rzeczyca , 1740-1793;
4. Marianna Saryusz-Gomolinska b. ca 1740 - died in 1800, m. Count Chryzanty Gabriel Rafal Opacki MP, Count in 1797, 1741-1806,
with daughter Agnieszka Helena Opacka 1777-1863, m. Rajmund Hiacynt Rembielinski 1775-1841, 2nd to Józef Bechon.
5. Katarzyna Barbara Sariusz-Gomolinska b. 1742.

Compare - GOSTYCZYNA:

Gostyczyna - close to Nowe Skalmierzyce, 3 km to the Prosna river; 10/13 km south of KALISZ and ca 30 km north of BOBROWNIKI by the Prosna river.
Ksawery Pstrokonski / Pstrokonski Franciszek Ksawery 1715 - ca 1783 [his mother Konstancja ZAREMBA died in 1753], m. Agnieszka Nieniewska d. 1776, with 2 daughters: Marianna Pstrokonska, and Wiktoria PSTROKONSKA married Marcin Kiedrzynski, son of Jakub Kiedrzynski and Ewa Gomolinska or Anna Gomolinska [born ca 1680/1700 ?].

Kiedrzynski, Jakub junior, died on 4 Feb. 1798, buried in KALISZ.

Jakub Kiedrzynski - Ostoja, SENIOR, b. 1668, died in 1729.

Interesting reading:
GOMOLINSKI / Gomulinski, JERZY b. ca 1620 ?; m. Anna Lis Starzenska, the daughter of Wojciech, with sons:
1. Marcin Gomolinski, b. ca 1640/1650, inf. 1670 owner of Lubca, Kuznica Lubiecka and part of Wola Pszczólecka; and

2. Mikolaj Gomolinski, died ca 1699, owner of Krzeslów, Kurów, Wypychów, m. Zofia Drozdowska, the daughter of Andrzej Stefan; with Stefan, Marcin, Katarzyna Jelowiecki.

Maybe Ewa Kiedrzynska b. ca 1700, was the daughter of named above Marcin or Mikolaj Gomolinski.

The GLUCHÓW parish and Kiedrzynski:
close to TUREK, to TOKARY and MILEJOW; south-west to DOBRA.

1658 - the godparents: Jan Kazimierz Czynski Colonel, and Teofila Gomolinska.

Jan. 1736 in Wilczków, Antoni Pawel Sebastian Pstrokonski was born, the son of Maciej Pstrokonski and Konstancja Zareba; godparents: Franciszek Potocki of Mikulice, and Bona Zareba of Przespolew.

1738, May in Wilczków, Jan Antoni Maciej Kiedrzynski was born, the son of Marcin Kiedrzynski and Wiktoria Pstrokonska; godparents: Maciej Pstrokonski of Wilczkow, and Bona Zareba of Przespolew.

1738, July, Gluchów, here was born Jakub Wawrzyniec Michal Kiedrzynski
[acc. to me JAKUB Kiedrzynski, junior, then official in KALISZ, was the brother of IZYDOR KIEDRZYNSKI of JEDLNO]
son of Andrzej Kiedrzenski / Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowska, with godparents: Marcin Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Kiedrzynska-Jackowska, of Wilczkow.

1740, January in Gluchow, was born Kacper Maciej son of named above Andrzej Kiedrzenski [Kasper Kiedrzynski son of Andrzej Kiedrzynski] and Franciszka Jackowski; godparents: Tomasz Galczynski the owner of Gluchow, and Konstancja Pstrokonska of Wilczkow.

1741 in Wilczków, Dorota Apolonia Papieski was born; godparents: Andrzej Kiedrzenski of Gluchow, and Katarzyna Papieska of Wilczkow.

In Gluchów, 1741, Marianna, the daughter of named Andrzej Kiedrzynski and Franciszka Jackowskich; godparents: Stanislaw Papieski of Wilczkow and young Jackowska of Gluchow.

1742 in Wilczków, Stanislaw Papieski junior was born.

1743, bpt. of Dorota Apolonia Kiedrzynska, the daughter of above Andrzej Kiedrzenski and Franciszka Kiedrzynska; the godparents: Mikolaj Napruszewski and his wife Anna.

1747 in Wilczków, godfather Walenty Galczynski and Franciszka Skrzetuska of Wilczkow.

In KALISZ, buried in Church of St. Family:
Gomolinski, Józef, in 1788.
Gorzenski, Jan, in 1692.
Kiedrzynska, Brygilla, on 16 Jan. 1786.
Kiedrzynski, Jakub, junior, died on 4 Feb. 1798.
Kierski, Józef, in 1737.
Kierzynska, Anna, 1728.
Kierzynska, Kostancya in 1744.
Kierzynski, Jan, 1744.

On above junior, Jakub Kiedrzynski:

Jakub Kiedrzynski from Kalisz, born in WILCZKOW, was the son of mentioned above Andrzej Kiedrzynski born ca 1715/1720, was the owner of Orpiszewek [born in 1738 in WILCZKOW in the GLUCHOW parish; died in 1798].
Above JAKUB Kiedrzynski, and Antoni Psarski in 1792 [Antoni PSARSKI m. Lucja Czekulin] were next of kin to the Madalinski family.

Brygida Bardzka married 1st to Owidiusz Wierusz Walknowski, before 1761, 2nd to Jakub Kiedrzynski junior, in 1767.
Her father
Wojciech Marek Bardzki, 1699-1770, mother Helena Teresa Kozminska, 1706-1792.
Her brothers:
Augustyn z Wrzesni Bardzki died in 1793, and Rafal Tadeusz Jan Bardzki, 1739-1758.
Her children:
Franciszek Wierusz Walknowski b. 1769 or before, and Teresa Wierusz Walknowska;
and with JAKUB Kiedrzynski:
Juliana Konstancja Kiedrzynska b. 1770,
and Petronela Kiedrzynska - more on 'ZWIAZEK LECHITOW'.

Above PETRONELA KIEDRZYNSKA married to Melchior Jan Pradzynski

{see on Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, close to OBORNIKI and MUROWANA GOSLINA. Died in 1817; the son of Antoni Pradzynski and Marianna Czaplicka / Marianna Bardzka.
Nepomucena Pradzynska had a sister and brother:
famous hero Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski,
Sylwia Pradzynska 1791-1862 m. Jakub Jan Krasicki insurgent of 1831, Colonel, 1785-1848;
and Wincenty Józef PRADZYNSKI, 1795-1858 [the landowner of WOLA WIAZOWA], m. Salomea Mierzynska.
Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
above Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA] and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847

[note: Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association].

PETRONELA Kiedrzynska m. in 1791 to MELCHIOR Pradzynski who was born in Mrowino, the Greater Poland Province in 1753 and died in 1797.

Melchior Pradzynski was the son of Antoni Pradzynski b. 1710, and Marianna Czaplicka.
Melchior's brother was named Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, who was the father of famous Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski, from August 16 to August 19, 1831 - commander-in-chief of the Polish Army.

Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. 1797/1798, of Wesola / WIESIOLKA, and Tyczyn, official in SZADEK, m. mentioned Nepomucena Pradzynska b. ca 1790 - it was her second marriage ca 1825}

with the son Andrzej Pradzynski 1794-1872
{born in KOWALEW / Kowalewo close to Pleszew, and 5 km east to ORPISZEWEK; close to Lutynia, Fabianow and KOTLIN. Died in 1872 in Zerkowo / ZERKOW close to Nowe Miasto by the WARTA river, and north to Jarocin, north-west to PLESZEW}.

ANDRZEJ Pradzynski married 1st Apolonia Szulc
{with son Józef Antoni Pradzynski b. 1832, married to Maria Barbara Leokadia Drzenska in 1867 / 1868 in Szemborowo close to Wrzesnia}
and 2nd with unknown, with son Maksymilian Pradzynski.

Above Józef Antoni Pradzynski b. 1832 in Lubochnia close to Tomaszow Mazowiecki, had children:
1. Jan + Maria Bochynska;
2. Waclaw + Kornelia Preibisz 1870-1918;
3. Stefan;
4. Jadwiga Pradzynska;
5. Andrzej 1872-1938 + Józefa Jaraczewska.
6. Aleksander.


And now on SULIMIERSKI - PRADZYNSKI branch:

Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski b. 1797/1798, of Wesola / WIESIOLKA, and Tyczyn, official in SZADEK, m. Nepomucena Pradzynska b. ca 1790 - it was her second marriage ca 1825.
W. Maciej Sulimierski / Maciej Wincenty Sulimierski, the owner of the Wiesiolka village and the owner of ZIELENCICE, where he lived and the future godfather of Filip SULIMIERSKI [December 22, 1843 / Jan. 1844], was pardoned in the Russian court after 1834 although he was arrested for the guerrilla.
Nepomucena Pradzynska had a sister and brother:
famous hero Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski,
Sylwia Pradzynska 1791-1862 m. Jakub Jan Krasicki insurgent of 1831, Colonel, 1785-1848;
and Wincenty Józef PRADZYNSKI, 1795-1858 [the landowner of WOLA WIAZOWA], m. Salomea Mierzynska.

Nepomucena Pradzynska 1790-1858 - her parents:
Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski, 1761-1817 [the owner of WOLA WIAZOWA]
and Marcjanna Marianna Bronikowska, 1770-1847 [note: Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association].

Nepomucena Pradzynska married 1st to Antoni Moszczenski, ca 1810 to ca 1825, son of Aleksander Ezechiel Moszczenski official in Brzesc Kujawski [!], 1759-1846, and Marianna Radziminska.
Nepomucena's children:
Teodor 1812-1831; Ignacy 1813-1880; Aleksander 1819-1829; Antoni Stefan Tadeusz 1822-1829.

Mentioned above Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, close to OBORNIKI and MUROWANA GOSLINA. Died in 1817; the son of Antoni Pradzynski and Marianna Czaplicka / Marianna Bardzka !
Husband of Marcjanna Marianna BRONIKOWSKA;
father of
Nepomucena Moszczenska Sulimierska;

Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski

[see 'ZWIAZEK KOSYNIEROW' and
Free Poles Association / Free Lechytes - a secret patriotic organization in 1819-1823 in the Kingdom of Poland;
founded in November 1819 in Warsaw by Tadeusz Krepowiecki, Wiktor Heltman and Ludwik Piatkiewicz; among the members were Ignacy Pradzynski, Seweryn Goszczynski, Maurycy Mochnacki, Stanislaw Jachowicz, Józef Kozlowski and Ksawery Bronikowski - all about 40 members.
They fought on full unification of the Polish lands and the independence of the state; called for fight with the Russian invaders, prepare papers and readings. Bronikowski Ksawery (1796-1852), Polish political activist, participated in the work of the Free Poles Association. He was member of the Patriotic Society. When Alexander I went to the congress of the Holy Alliance to Opava (in early 1821 moved to Ljubljana), he to sign an agreement to intervene in the event of a revolution.
Arrived from Warsaw in 1821, Ignacy Pradzynski put forward the project of independence of the Great Poland's branch of the National Freemasonry. They were renamed the Union of Scytheman, 1820-1826.
In 1819, the Association of Free Poles with Wiktor Heltman was created. See below on IGNACY Pradzynski];

Wincenty Józef Pradzynski
[see on WOLA WIAZOWA]
and
Sylwia Zuzanna Krasicka.

Stanislaw Kostka Józef Pradzynski b. 1761 in Pacholewo, was the brother of Józefina Gertruda Pradzynska; Melchior Jan Pradzynski !; Antonina Joanna Malgorzata; and Ludwika Klara Róza Modliborska; inf. by Leszek Mila.


Note on Ignacy Pantaleon Pradzynski:

He was born on July 20, 1792 in Sanniki, died on August 4, 1850 on the island of Heligoland / Helgoland; division general of the Army of the Kingdom of Poland, commander-in-chief of the November Uprising. 1793, the village Sanniki was in the Prussian partition. From 1807 Sanniki belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw, and from 1815 to the Kingdom of Poland in the Russian Partition.
Maybe he was born on July 18 in Poznan - as Pradzynski himself stated in his files;
He grew up in a very patriotic atmosphere - his father fought in 1794 in a partisan unit commanded by Jan Henryk Dabrowski.
Ignacy Pradzynski was sent to Dresden;
returned to his homeland in November 1807, volunteered for the 11th Infantry Regiment of the Warsaw Duchy, was stationed in Poznan in 1806

{Count Stanislaw Mielzynski on 24 Nov. 1806, was appointed colonel of the Napoleonic army and began to organize the 3rd Infantry Regiment; Col. Stanislaw Mielzynski was stationed in Pawlowice; in August 1807 in Poznan under Colonel Mielzynski. The 3rd Infantry Regiment / the Legia of Poznan received the number 11th and was part of the 3rd Infantry Division, of General J. H. Dabrowski.
Stanislaw Kostka Andrzej Jakub Mielzynski born in 1778, Rabin, died 1826, Pawlowice, Count, Freemason, Brigadier General of the Polish Army.
Stanislaw was the son of Maksymilian Antoni (1738-1799), and Konstancja Czapska;
Stanislaw Mielzynski in 1810 - General;
in 1815, he moved to his estates in Pawlowice [see the Merkel family], Kakolewo, Poniec, Smogulec, Golancz, under the Prussian partition.
There he was very active as a freemason, especially in lodges supporting the conspiratorial struggle for independence and the unification of Poland, such as the Poznan lodge - the Scytheman Union / Scythemen, which Mielzynski was leading, or in a secret Masonic organization created by Valerian Lukasinski.
In 1800, Mielzynski married the Honorata Zaremba and he had son Leon and three daughters:
Laura (Eleonora) married Józef Napoleon Czapski with the son famous
Bogdan Hutten-Czapski
- compare the Polish independence conspiracy in Belarus};

Gdansk until 1809; in 1814 in LOMZA.

Named above Sanniki in the Gostyn county, here in 1828 was Fryderyk Chopin [compare his visit in Scotland], at half way from Plock to Sochaczew, 13 km west to ILOW.
On April 20, 1815, Ignacy Pradzynski in Warsaw was promoted to the rank of lieutenant and assigned to quartermaster services.
In 1819, Ignacy Pradzynski associated himself with the Polish independence conspiracy -
first in the Union of True Poles / 'LECHICI' in 1819,
then in the Union of SCYTHEMAN / Scythemen / 'Kosynierzy' in 1820,
and finally with the Polish Patriotic Society.

In 1826, when officers belonging to the conspiracy were arrested, Pradzynski was also taken prisoner. He was married in 1825 and was living in Augustów [?] - Emilia Rutkowska of Chelmica [Chelmica Duza 13 km north to WLOCLAWEK] and Miedzechów b. 1808,
had Helena (1826-1854), painter, m. Stanislaw Herniczek, and Sylwia (1831-1862), writer.


In April 1821 in Warsaw, Polish conspirators conducted talks in which participate:

Lukasinski - 1819 National Freemasonry,
Colonel Kozakowski - acted in LWOW,
Colonel Pradzynski [in June 1820 in Poznan with General Uminski],
Szczaniecki of the Great Poland 1819-1820,
General Uminski from the Poznan Duchy, National Freemasonry, Kosciuszko supporter,
Wierzbolowicz,
Colonel Dobrogojski,
Cichowski - the Tax official,
Sobanski from VOLHYNIA,
Teodor Morawski - magazine publisher of 'Orzel Bialy',
Aleksander Oborski

[Colonel, acted in Wilno together with
Jozef Gruzewski and Stanislaw GRUZEWSKI,
Romer,
Biallozor,
Stanislaw SOLTAN

{Eliasz Piottuch-Kublicki was son of Jerzy Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicze, officer in Livland, b. 1710 + Rozalia Korsak-Udzielska 1735- 1789. Eliasz Piottuch-Kublicki of Livland / Inflanty, born ca 1730, married in ca 1775 to Augusta Soltan b. ca 1750 or 1760
[daughter of Stanislaw Soltan 1698 - 1758, and Helena Römer; the granddaughter of Samuel Soltan 1654 - 1735; and great-granddaughter of Hieronim Wladyslaw Soltan],
with:
1. Elzbieta Piottuch-Kublicka b. 1780, m. Benedykt Wawrzecki of Braslaw, b. ca 1760, 2nd to Krütz;
2. Józef Piottuch-Kublicki of Zawilie, m. Karolina Soltan.

Half sister of above named Stanislaw Soltan 1698 - 1758 was Teodora Soltan 1700 - 1774 + Jerzy Stanislaw Sapieha, with daughter Krystyna Róza Massalska b. 1724.

Brother of above Augusta Soltan / Soltan / Piottuch-Kublicka b. ca 1750 or 1760, was Stanislaw Soltan / Stanislovas Soltanas, born in 1756 in Berdyczów, died 1836 in Jelgava, now Latvia; CONSPIRATOR, he was son of Stanislaw Soltan and Helena Römer;
husband of Franciszka Teofila Radziwill b. 1751 and 2nd to Konstancija Taplockyte / Konstancja Toplicka.

Stanislaw Soltan / Stanislovas Soltanas, b. 1756, was father of
Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan, CONSPIRATOR;
Karolina Piottuch-Kublicka (Karolina b. ca 1790, wife of Józef Piottuch-Kublicki);
Helena Soltan;
Anna Soltan;
Stanislaw Soltan junior; and
Helena Eysmont.

Stanislaw Soltan / Stanislovas Soltanas, b. 1756, was half brother of Juozas Weyssenhoff; Ksawery Weyssenhoff; Mykolas Jonas Veisenhofas and Jan Weyssenhoff, acc. to geni.com.
Above Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, husband of Idalia b. 1801, daughter of Aleksander Michal Pociej, CONSPIRATOR},

Stanislaw Mikulicz,
Teofil Mikulicz,
Stefan Mackiewicz,
Stanislaw Mackiewicz,

KAROL PROZOR

[Karol Prozor b. 1759, died in 1841 in Chojniki, west to DNIEPR, and MOZYRZ; in the 18th century in the Owrucz county, the Kiev province.
Chojniki - the manor of Józef PROZOR and Karol Prozor.
Prozor Józef (1723-1788), MP, voivode of Vitebsk. Born in Bobcin in Zmudz / Samaites, a son of Stanislaw PROZOR (died around 1756), official in Kaunas, and his first wife, Róza Siruc. JOZEF was married three times. The first wife was Felicjanna Szczyt (died after 1764), daughter of Józef SZCZYTT, official in Mscislaw; the second - Aleksandra Zaranek (died in Dudzicze in 1771), the wedding on September 7, 1767; third Maria Chalecka 1st voto Adam Szujski (c. 1751-1826). JOZEF from the first marriage had two daughters: Petronela Karenga, and Maria (died 1833), the wife of Ignacy Bykowski, the royal chamberlain;
and three sons:
Karol PROZOR;
Antoni PROZOR and
Ignacy PROZOR / Ignacy Kajetan Prozor + ANIELA OSKIERKA.
From the second marriage JOZEF had daughters: Róza (died on June 22, 1834), married in 1785 to Stanislaw Jelski;
and Barbara PROZOR, married to Franciszek Bukaty and 2nd to Ksawery Lipski.
JOZEF PROZOR studied in Królewiec, 1734-6 (Stanislaw Leszczynski was then residing there), and 1737 he was educated at the Knight's Academy in Lunéville, which he left in 1741.

Franciszek Bukaty (born in August 1747, died on June 15, 1797) - Polish diplomat, royal chamberlain, freemason; chargé d'affaires of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1775 -1777 and 1788-1789, envoy-minister of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1777, Minister Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Poland in the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1787 and in 1793-1795. Married to Barbara Prozor, and she had Sierhiejewicze in a dowry.

Aniela Oskierka, 1770-1804, married Ignacy Kajetan Prozor b. ca 1770 [see OSWIEJA and Malkiewicz. Ignacy Kajetan Prozor was General major of the Kowno county],
with:
Kornela Prozor Rokicka, 1800-1835;
Henryk Prozor;
Maurycy Prozor 1st senior 1801-1886 + Anna Chlopicka b. ca 1810. Maurycy Prozor senior was born in Rothley-Temple, Leicestershire, died in 1886. PROZOR Maurycy was the commander of the Kowno Uprising.

ANIELA's had brothers Dominik Oskierka b. ca 1770 + Salomea Gizycka; and Rafal Michal Oskierka, 1761-1818.
They were children of Jan Mikolaj Oskierka 1735-1796 - see the plot of KOSCIUSZKO and PROZOR - married in 1761 to Barbara Rokicka.

Named Rothley Temple / Rothley Preceptory / Rowth-Ley, was a preceptory in the village of Rothley, Leicestershire, England, associated with both the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller. The chapel was constructed by the Knights Templar],

Count Aleksander POCIEJ

[Adam Leon Ludwik Soltan b. 1792 in Vilnius, died 1863 in Poznan, married Idalia Pociej b. 1801
{Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839},
the daughter of named above Aleksander Michal Pociej.
Leonard Pociej 1727 - 1774 - who was son of Aleksander Pociej senior {more below} and Teresa Brzostowska - was the brother of Anna Tyszkiewicz; Karolina Radziwill and Ludwik Pociej.
Leonard had son - Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846). Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was the husband of Anna Korzeniowska; he was the father of Teodor Pociej and named Idalia Pociej 1790 - 1839 married Soltan.
Above Aleksander Michal Pociej (1774-1846) was son of Maria Aleksandra Radziwill POCIEJ, b. 1753; his grandfather was Wojciech Albrycht Radziwill 1717-1762.
Aleksander Pociej senior, 1698 - 1770, was son of Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej. Above Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej 1666 - 1728, was son of Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina.
Kazimierz Aleksander Pociej was brother of Ludwik Konstanty Pociej.

Above Ludwik Konstanty Pociej b. 1664, d. 30 January 1730, in 1709 commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian army, his parents: Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina Oginska.
Ludwik Konstanty was father of Ludwika Marianna Pociej (b. ca 1715) who married to Franciszek Borzecki (ca 1693 - 1739) with daughter
Justyna KALINOWSKA Borzecka (m. Ignacy Kalinowski born ca 1720 died 1782).
Her son was count Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.
Justyna nee Borzecka b. ca 1735 (1710 it's error). Above named Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski was born 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760 with children:

1. Jozef Kalinowski / Osip Kalinowski, the general of Polish Army, b. after 1780, died 1825 - his wife Emilia Potocka born 1790
{Marianna Elzbieta Uvarova nee Lubomirska, ca 1766 - d. 1810, was daughter of Kasper Lubomirski and Barbara Poninska; she was the wife of Protazy Antoni Potocki; Count Valerian Zubov, and Uvarov; she was the mother of above Emilia Kalinowska},
2. Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 and
3. Justyna Kalinowska married Russocka b. 1790 d. 1876.
Above Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 had son Wladyslaw Kalinowski.